CHRONOLOGY

                            B.C.  

 

753  

Romulus founds Rome (legendary)  

509  

Monarchy overthrown; Roman Republic founded  

264–241  

First war with Carthage  

239–169  

Ennius, epic poet  

234–149  

Cato the Censor  

218–201  

Second war with Carthage  

185–129  

Scipio Aemilianus  

160–91  

Caecilius Metellus Numidicus  

146  

Carthage destroyed  

62  

Pompey the Great returns from the east  

49  

Julius Caesar launches civil war  

44  

Julius Caesar assassinated  

31  

Octavian wins battle of Actium; end of civil wars  

27  

Octavian, now Augustus, establishes the imperial system  

A.D.

 

14  

Augustus dies; succeeded by Tiberius  

37  

Tiberius dies; succeeded by Gaius (Caligula)  

41  

Gaius assassinated; succeeded by Claudius  

c. 46  

Birth of Publius Aelius Hadrianus (Hadrian’s father)  

53 September 18  

Birth of Marcus Ulpius Traianus (Trajan)  

54  

Claudius poisoned; succeeded by Nero  

c. 60  

Marcus Ulpius Traianus pater proconsul of Baetica  

66  

Jewish revolt  

c. 67  

Marcus Ulpius Traianus pater legatus legio X Fretensis in Syria;   under Vespasian’s command for the Jewish war  

 

68 June 9  

Nero commits suicide  

 

69  

“Year of the Four Emperors”  

 

early July  

Eastern legions declare for Vespasian  

 

70 June  

Vespasian enters Rome  

 

September 8  

Titus captures Jerusalem Defeat of Batavian revolt  

 

71 spring  

Titus returns from the east  

 

June  

Jewish Triumph  

 

71–75  

Banishment from Rome of astrologi and philosophi  

 

72  

Annexation of Commagene Armenia Minor added to Cappadocia  

 

73 or 74  

Fall of Masada  

 

74  

Grant of Latin rights to Spain  

 

c. 75  

Trajan tribunus laticlavius with legion in Syria Birth of Domitia Paulina, Hadrian’s sister  

 

75  

Banishment of Helvidius Priscus  

 

76 January 24  

Birth of Publius Aelius Hadrianus Afer (Hadrian)  

 

c. 77–84  

Agricola governor of Britain  

 

c. 77  

Trajan transferred as tribunus laticlavius with legion in  

 

Germany  

   

c. 78  

Trajan marries Pompeia Plotina  

 

78  

Death of Gaius Saloninus Matidius Patruinus, the husband of Trajan’s sister Marciana; she goes to live with Trajan and Plotina  

 

79 June 24  

Death of Vespasian Accession of Titus  

 

August 24  

Eruption of Vesuvius; destruction of Pompeii and Herculaneum Fire at Rome  

 

80  

Dedication of Colosseum Destruction of temple of Capitoline Jupiter by fire Dedication of Arch of Titus  

 

81 September 13  

Death of Titus Accession of Domitian  

 

82 December 7  

Dedication of restored temple of Jupiter on the Capitol  

 

83  

Domitian’s triumph over the Chatti  

 

83–84  

Increase of legionary pay  

 

85  

Domitian censor perpetuus  

 

85 or 86  

Hadrian’s father dies; Trajan and P. Acilius Attianus are appointed guardians  

 

85–88  

Dacian war  

 

86  

Inauguration of Capitoline games Trajan praetor  

 

c. 87  

Trajan legatus legionis VII Geminae  

 

89  

Rebellion of L. Antonius Saturninus  

 

90 January  

Trajan takes the VII Geminae to Moguntiacum against Saturninus  

 

90  

Edict against astrologi and philosophi Hadrian comes of age, and visits his Spanish estates  

 

91  

Trajan consul ordinarius  

 

93  

Pliny praetor Trials of Baebius Massa, Herennius Senecio, Helvidius Priscus, Arnulenus Rusticus  

 

93–120  

Vindolanda tablets written  

 

94  

Hadrian enters public life: decemvir stlitibus iudicandis, sevir   turmae equitum Romanorum, and praefectus urbi feriarum Latinarum  

 

95  

Philosophers expelled from Italy Flavius Clemens put to death Hadrian trib. militum legionis II Adiutrix Pia Fidelis in Pannonia  

 

96 September 18  

Domitian assassinated Accession of Nerva Trajan defeats the Suebi  

 

October 25  

Adoption of Trajan Hadrian trib. militum legionis V Macedonica in Lower Moesia  

 

98  

Trajan consul (2) ordinarius with Nerva  

 

99 January 28  

Death of Nerva  

 

February  

Hadrian brings news of Nerva’s death to Trajan at Colonia Agrippinensis Accession of Trajan  

 

spring  

Trajan inspects Danube frontier Hadrian trib. militum legionis XXII Primigeniae Piae Fidelis in Upper Germania Tacitus, Agricola and Germania  

 

99autumn  

Trajan enters Rome  

 

100  

Trajan consul (3) ordinarius Alimenta schemes initiated  

 

September  

Pliny the Younger, Panegyricus  

 

c. 100  

Hadrian marries Vibia Sabina  

 

101  

Trajan consul (4) Hadrian quaestor Matidia joins imperial household  

 

101March 25  

Trajan leaves for first Dacian war  

 

102  

Hadrian tribunus plebis  

 

102December  

Trajan returns to Rome; voted Dacicus Trajan holds Dacian Triumph  

 

103  

Trajan consul (5) Reconstruction of Circus Maximus  

 

c. 104  

Withdrawal from Scotland  

 

105  

Hadrian praetor  

 

105June 4  

Trajan leaves for second Dacian war Creation of province of Dacia  

 

after 105  

Marciana, Trajan’s sister, appointed Augusta  

 

106  

Legatus of the legion I Minervia Pia Fidelis in Lower Germania  

 

early July  

Reduction of Sarmizegetusa  

 

September/October  

Death of Decebalus  

 

106–11  

Creation of province of Arabia  

 

107  

Hadrian praetor Hadrian organizes first games celebrating Dacian victory Hadrian legatus Augusti pro praetore Pannoniae inferioris  

 

107–8  

Dedication to Mars Ultor of monument at Adamklissi  

 

108  

Hadrian consul (1) suffectus  

 

c. 108  

Tacitus, Histories  

 

c. 109–12  

Pliny governor of Bithynia-Pontus  

 

c. 110  

Death of Licinius Sura  

 

112 January  

Trajan consul (6); dedication of Forum Traiani  

 

112–13  

Hadrian archon at Athens  

 

113  

Death of Marciana, Trajan’s elder sister; deified  

 

October 27  

Trajan sets off from Rome for Parthian war Trajan’s Column completed  

 

114 January 7  

Trajan enters Antioch  

 

summer  

Trajan deposes Parthamasiris Title Optimus, the Best, added to Trajan’s names Annexation of Armenia, Mesopotamia, and Assyria  

 

115  

Capture of Ctesiphon  

 

December 13  

Trajan almost killed in Antioch earthquake  

 

115–17  

Revolt of Jewish diaspora  

 

116  

General revolt against Rome in the east  

 

117  

Hadrian legatus of Syria  

 

July  

Trajan sails for Rome  

 

by August 9  

Death of Trajan  

 

August 11  

Accession of Hadrian  

 

118  

Hadrian consul (2) Execution of four consuls  

 

July 9  

Hadrian enters Rome Trajan’s new provinces, except Armenia, given up  

 

c. 118–28  

Rebuilding of Pantheon  

 

119  

Hadrian consul (3) Matidia dies Hadrian tours Campania  

 

120  

Antoninus consul  

 

c. 120  

Tacitus, Annales  

 

121–25  

Hadrian’s first provincial tour  

 

121  

Hadrian visits Gallia, Germania superior, Raetia, Noricum,   Germania superior  

 

121–22  

Plotina dies  

 

122  

Hadrian visits Lower Germania, Britannia (where he commissioned the wall that bears his name), Gallia, Hispania (Tarraco) Second Moorish revolt  

 

123  

Hadrian visits Mauretania (?), Africa (?), Libya, Cyrene, Crete, Syria, the Euphrates (Melitene), Pontus, Bithynia Probably meets Antinous Visits Asia  

 

124  

Hadrian visits Thrace, Asia, Athens and Eleusis, Achaea  

 

125  

Hadrian visits Achaea, Sicily, Rome  

 

c. 126  

Death of Plutarch  

 

c. 127  

Four regions in Italy established, governed by consular legates  

 

128  

Hadrian visits Africa, Rome, Athens  

 

129  

Hadrian visits Asia, Pamphylia, Phrygia, Pisidia, Cilicia, Syria, Commagene (Samosata), Cappadocia, Pontus, Syria (Antioch)  

 

130  

Hadrian visits Judaea (founding of Aelia Capitolina, to replace Jerusalem), Arabia, Egypt (Nile trip; drowning of Antinous; Alexandria)  

 

October 30  

Antinoopolis founded  

 

131  

Hadrian visits Syria, Asia, Athens  

 

131–32  

Inauguration of Panhellenion Temple of Olympian Zeus in Athens completed  

 

131–33  

Jewish revolt, led by Bar Kokhba  

 

131–37  

Arrian governor of Cappadocia  

 

132  

Hadrian in Rome  

 

134  

Hadrian visits Syria, Judaea, Egypt (?), Syria (Antioch) Hadrian in Rome  

 

135  

Dedication of temple of Venus and Rome  

 

136  

Hadrian adopts L. Ceionius Commodus Deaths of Lucius Julius Servianus and Pedanius Fuscus  

 

136 or early 137  

Death of Sabina  

 

138 February 25  

Hadrian adopts T. Aurelius Fulvus Antoninus, who acts as joint emperor  

 

July 10  

Death of Hadrian  

 

139  

Dedication of Hadrian’s mausoleum  

 

140  

First consulship of Marcus Aurelius  

 

161  

Death of Antoninus Accession of Marcus Aurelius  

 

180  

Death of Marcus Aurelius; accession of his son Commodus  

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