Decree of the Senate Granting Honours for Germanicus

Senatus Consultum de Honoribus Germanici Decernendis (‘Tabula Siarensis’)

Fragment 1:

[…]n[… for the purpose of preserving the memory of Germanicus Caesar who] ought never [to have died … the Senate decided that a decree of the Senate should be passed concerning the d]eserved [honours of] Germanicus Caesar [… and moreover, it pleased the Senate that it should act concerning] this matter with the advice of Tiberius Caesar Augustus [our] prin[ceps] and that a copy [of the opinions that had been written down] should be given to him and that he, with his accustomed [moderation] should choose [from amongst all those] honours, that the Senate thought should be passed, [and whatever ones he wishes and] Augusta his mother, Drusus Caesar, and the mother of Germanicus Ca[esar and, if possible] bringing [his wife] into their deliberation, think are appropriate. [It was decreed concerning this matter:] that it pleased the Senate a marble arch be erected in the circus Flaminius [with public money, and pl]aced in the place where the statues to the Divine Augustus and the Augustan house [have already be]en erected by Caius Norbanus Flaccus, with representations of conquered nations and with an [inscription in golden] letters on the front of this arch saying that the Roman Senate and people dedicated this [marble] monum[ent] to the memory of Germanicus Caesar, since he, having conquered the Germans in war [and then] removed them from Gaul and recovered the military standards, avenged the treacher[ous massacre] of the army of the Roman people, and set Gaul in order, was sent as proconsul into the transmarine pro[vinces] to set the kingdoms of that region in order according to the instructions of Tiberius C⟨a⟩esar Au[gustus, imposing a ki]ng upon Armenia, and not ceasing from his labor before an [ovation] was [granted to him], died on behalf of the Res Publica. On top of this arch a statue [of] Ger[manicus Caesar] should be placed in a triumphal chariot, and around its sides statues [of] D[rusus Germanicus his father], the natural brother of Tiberius Caesar Augustus and of Antonia [his] mother [and of his wife Agrippina and] of [Li]via his sister and of Tiberius Germanicus his brother and of his sons and da[ughters].

Another arch should be placed on the slope of Mount Amanus, which is in [the province of Syria, or in wherever, if some] other spot should [seem] better to Tiberius Caesar Augustus our princeps [in those regions of which] the care and government came to Germanicus Caesar upon the authority [of Tiberius Caesar Augustus and of this order]. A statue should be placed upon it and an inscription appropriate [to the deeds of Germanicus Caesar] should be carved upon it. A third arch should be erected either at [the winter camp of the army of the Roman people or next to the tumulus] which [the mourning army began] for Drusus, the brother of Tiberius Caesar Augustus [our princeps], and then [completed] with the permission of the divine Augustus, [and on top of that arch a statue of Germanicus Caes]ar should be placed, receiving [the standards recovered from the Germans, and the Ga]uls and Germans who [live] on this side of the Rhine, [the same states who were instructed by the Divine] Augustus [to make] sacrifice at the tumulus [of Drusus should be ordered to make a similar] sacrifice [at public expense in the same place] to the gods of the underworld [every year on the day that Germanicus Caesar died] and when [an army of the Roman people] should be in that region [it should offer sacrifice on that day, or on the birthday] of Germanicus Caesar [and it should march through the arch that is erected in accordance with this decree of the Senate]. It is pleasing to the Senate that a marble [sepulchre should be build in memory of Germanicus Caesar] in the forum of [Antiocheia where the body of Germanicus Caesar was cremated … and at Epidaphnae where Germanicus Caesar died, a tribunal should be erected].

Fragment 2, Column a:

[that every year, six days before the Ides of October at that altar] which is [before the tumulus of Germanicus Caesar public sacrifices should be made in his memory] to the gods of the underworld for his Manes [by the magistrate of the Augustan [brotherhood] wearing dark togas, as it is [right and proper for them to have] togas of that color on that day, and to sacrifice according to that rite by which [public sacrifices are made to the gods of the Underworld] on behalf of the Manes of Caius and Lucius Caesar, and a bronze boundary marker should similarly be inscribed next to that [tumulus of Germanicus Caesar] so that the decrees of the Senate that [pertain to his honours] should be inscribed upon it. And furthermore that it should not [be permitted for magistrates or those who administer justice in] a municipality or colony of Roman citizens or Latins to conduct any serious business in public, nor [may public banquets be given on that day ever afterwards] nor may weddings or engagements of Roman citizens take place nor [may someone] borrow or lend [money] nor should games take place [or be watched or anything be exhibited at games]. It pleases the Senate the theatrical Augustan games [which] are ordinarily held [six days before the Ides of October in memory of the Divine Augustus] should be postponed to five days before the Kalends of November, so that by this [delay of two nundinae after] that day upon which Germanicus Caesar died, the day of the theatrical games [will not be saddened by the funeral rite].

Fragment 2, Column b:

[six lines are too badly damaged for translation] [It is pleasing to the Senate that the urban plebs erect statues] of [Germa]nicus Caesar in triumph[al] dress [at public expense in those temples and on] those public altars on which the Divine Augus]tus and Augusta] placed [them for Drusus Caesar his father] with an inscription [of the thirty-five tribes] of the urban plebs. [Also that the p]oem that Tiberius Caesar Augustus delivered to that body [about the dead Germanicus], be inscribed on bronze in a public place [that] pleases [his father]. Furthermore, the Senate thinks that it would be even more just, because the intimate [communication of Tiberius] Caesar Augustus does not contain greater praise of his son Germanicus Caesar than was true testimony about the order of his life and virtue, and he himself said, in this same intimate communication that he did not dissimulate his desire to hand it on to eternal memory and he judged that it would be useful to the children of our children and posterity. Also, so that the piety of Drusus Caesar should be better known, it pleases the Senate that the communication, which he recited in the next meeting of the Senate, should be inscribed on bronze and erected in the place that seems fitting to himself and his father. Also that this decree of the Senate should be inscribed on bronze with that decree of the Senate that was passed seventeen days before the Kalends of January, and that the bronze tablet be set up in the portico of the temple of Apollo on the Palatinus, where the meeting of the Senate was held. Also, the Senate wishes, and thinks that it is reasonable, so that the piety of all orders towards the Augustan house and the consensus of all citizens about honouring Germanicus Caesar should be plain, that the consuls should post this decree of the Senate with their own edict, and order the magistrates and ambassadors of the colonies and municipalities to send a copy to the municipalities and colonies in Italy and to those colonies that are in the provinces, and that those who govern the provinces will be acting correctly and properly if they take care that this decree of the Senate is displayed in as prominent a place as possible. Also that when Marcus Messalla and Marcus Antonius Cotta Maximus, the consuls designate, take office, they should, on the first possible occasion that the auspicies permit, without a delay of two or three nundinae, bring the law concerning honours for the deceased Germanicus to a vote by the people.

It was so voted.

There were 285 senators present when this decree of the Senate was made one by a second vote.

Fragment 2, Column c:

And [it is pleasing to the Senate] that on the Palatinus [in the portico by the Temple of Apollo, in which the Senate] is accustomed to meet, [among the images of men of illustrious character shall be placed those of Germanicus Caesar] and Drusus Ger[manicus his natural father and brother of Tiberius Caesar Augustus,] who was also himself (i.e. Drusus Germanicus) [a fecund genius, (the images shall be placed) on the capitals] of the columns [of that pediment by which the statue of Apollo is protected.] And [it is pleasing to the Senate] that the Salii [shall place] in their hymns [the name of Germanicus Caesar to honour] his memory, [which honour was also granted to Caius and Lucius Caesar, brothers of Tiberius] Caesar Augus[tus, and that to the ten centuries of the Caesars, which are accustomed to cast their vote for the desinatio] of consuls and praetors, [shall be added five centuries named in honour of Germanicus Caesar…]

Translated by David S. Potter.

Fragment 1

  1.  [—]minio[— Germanici Caesaris qui] | [mortem obire nu]nquam debuit v [— de] | [honoribus m]eritis Germanici Caesar[is —] |

  4.  [deque] ea re consilio Ti(beri) Caesaris Aug(usti) prin[cipis nostriuti] | copia sententiarum ipsi fieret atque is adsueta sibi [— ex omnibus iis] | honoribus quos habendos esse censebat senatus leger⟨e⟩t eo[s quoscumque ipse et Iulia] | Augusta mater eius et Drusus Caesar materque Germanici Ca[esaris, uxore eius, si posset,] |

  8.  adhibita ab eis e⟨i⟩ deliberationi, satis apte posse haberi existu[marent, d(e) e(a) r(e) i(ta) c(ensuere):] | placere uti ianus marmoreus extrueretur in circo Flaminio pe[cunia publica posi-] | tus ad eum locum, in quo statuae diuo Augusto domuique Augus[tae statutae es-] | sent ab C(aio)Norbano Flacco, cum signis deuictarum gentium ins[culpereturque] |

12.  in fronte eius iani, senatum populumque Romanum id monum[entumdedi-] | casse memoriae Germanici Caesaris, cum iis, Germanis bello superatis v [et —] | a Gallia summotis receptisque signis militaribus et uindicata frau[dulenta clade] | exercitus p(opuli) R(omani), ordinato statu Galliarum pro co(n)s(ule) missus in transmarinas pro[uincias atque] |

16.  in conformandis iis regnisque eiusdem tractus ex mandatis Ti(berii) C⟨a⟩esaris Au[g(usti), dato etiam re-] | g⟨e⟩ Armeniae, non parcens labori suo priusquam decreto senatus [ouans urbem ingre-] | deretur ob rem p(ublicam) mortem obisset; supraque eum ianum statua Ger[manici Caesaris po] | neretur in curru triumphali et circa latera eius statuae D[rusi Germanici partris ei] |

20.  us naturalis, fratris Ti(berii) Caesaris Aug(usti), et Antoniae matris ei[us et Agrippinae uxoris et Li-] | uiae sororis et Ti(berii) Germanici fratris eius et filiorum etfi[liarum eius; vacat] | alter ianus fieret in montis Amani iugo quod est in [Syriasiue quis] |alius aptior locus Ti(berio)Caesari Aug(usto) principi nostr [o uideretur in iis regionibus quarum] |

24.  curam et tutelam Germanico Caesari ex auctori[tate senatus ipse mandasset;] | item statua eius poneretur et titulus conue[niens rebus gestis Germanici Caesaris in-] | sculperetur; vvvvv tertius ianus uel ad[strueretur uel iuxta eum tumulum fieret,] | quem Druso fratri Ti(beri) Caesaris Aug(usti) p[rimo sua sponte excitare coepisset exerci-] |

28.  tus, deinde permissu diui Aug(usti) per[fecissetGermanici Cae] | saris constitueretur recipienti[s signa militaria ab Germanis; et praeciperetur Gal-] | lis Germanisque qui citra Rhen[um incolunt, quorum ciuitates iussae sunt ab diuo] | Aug(usto) rem diuinam ad tumulu[m Drusi facere, —] |

32.  le sacrificium, parentant[es quotannis eo die quo Germanicus Caesar defunctus esset; vacat] | et cum esset in ea regio[ne qua tumulus Drusi estdie nata-] | li Germanici Caesar[isex hoc s(enatus) c(onsulto) factus;] | [ite]m placere uti m [onumentumAnti-] |

36.  [ochi]ae in foro [ubi corpus Germanici Caesaris crematum esset —] | [item]qu[e epi Daphne ubi Germanicus Caesar expirasset tribunal constitueretur —]

Fragment 1

[— uxo-] | re| eiusFla-] | mi[niogen-] | tium [— supe-] | ratis et [—] | p⟨ro⟩ co(n)s(ule) mis[sus—] | non parce⟨n⟩s[—] | Caesaris pone[retur—] | Antoniae mat[ris —] | alter ianus fieret [—] | regionibus qu[arum —] | conueniens re[bus —] | tertius ianus ue[lexer-] | citus deinde per[missuGer-] | manis et praec[ipuetumu-] | lum Drusi facer[e —] | et cum esset in e[a —] | ex hoc s(enatus) c(onsulto) factus [—] | Caesaris cremat[umexpi-] | rasset trib[unal —]

Fragment 2, Col. a:

  1.  [— utique a(nte) d(iem) (sextum) id(us) Oct(obres) quotannis apud eam aram] quae es[t] | [ante tumulumin memoriam eius publice i]nferiae manibus | [eius mitterentur per magistros sodaliu]m Augustalium p[ullis] amictos togis, quibus eo- |

  4.  [rumius fasque erit habere] eo die sui coloris togam, eodem ritu sacrifici quo | [publice inferiae mittuntur] manibus C(ai) et L(uci) Caesarum; cippusque aeneus prope eum | [tumulum poneretur inque eo hoc s(enatus)] c(onsultum) similiter incideretur ut ea s(enatus) c(onsulta) incisa essent quae | [in C(ai) et L(uci) Caesarum honorem facta] essent; neue quid eo die rei seriae publice agere |

  8.  [liceret mag(istratibus) p(opuli) R(omani) iisque qui i(ure) d(icundo) p(raerunt) in] municipio aut colonia c(iuium) R(omanorum) aut Latinorum neue eo | [die qua conuiuia publica posth]ac neue quae nuptiae c(iuium) R(omanorum) fierent aut sponsalia ne-| [ue quis pecuniam creditam ab alio] sumeret aliue daret neue ludi fierent aut | [spectacula neueau]diretur; vvv utique ludi Augustales sca⟨e⟩nici,

12.  [qui a(nte) d(iem) (sextum) id(us) Oct(obres) antehac commit]ti solerent, ut a(nte) d(iem) (quintum) no⟨n⟩(as) committerentur, qua | [—] eum diem quo Germanicus Caesar extinctus | [esset —] dies ludorum scaenicorum. vacat

Fragment 2

[—p]erque domestica [sacra —] | [— T]i(berius) Caesar Aug(ustus) [—] | []mare se[] | [—]u[—]

Fragment 2, Column b:

  1.  []m | [—p]rinci- | []r quod dies etiam | []ori et adlocutioni- | [busstudi] umque eius probare | [— uti ad]essent tribus urbanae et | [rusticaeuidere]tur pollicita esset; itaque place |

  8.  [re uti statuaeGerma]nici Caesaris cum ueste triumpha- | [li sumptu plebis urbanae ponerentur] i[n] eis ar⟨e⟩is publicis, in quibus diuus Aug- | [ustus etstatuas Drusi G]er(manici) posuissent, cum inscriptione plebis urbanae | [—; itemque uolu]men, quod Ti(berius) Caesar Aug(ustus) in eo ordine a(nte) d(iem) (septimum decimum) k(alendas) Ian(uarias) |

12.  [recitasset et sub edicto |suo proposuisset, in aere incisum figeretur loco publico | [quo —] placeret; idque eo iustius futurum arbitrari senatum, quod | [animus Ti(beri)] Caesaris Aug(usti) intumus et Germanici Caesaris f(ili) eius non magis laudatio | nem quam uitae totius ordinem et uirtut⟨is⟩ eius uerum testimonium contineret |

16.  aeternae tradi memoriae, et ipse se uelle non dissimulare eodem libello testatus | esset et esse utile iuuentuti liberorum posteriorumque nostrorum iudicaret; | item quo testatior esset Drusi Caesaris pietas placere uti libellus quem is proxu | mo senatu recitasset in aere incideretur eoque loco figeretur quo patri eius ipsique placuisset; |

20.  itemque hoc s(enatus) c(onsultum) in aere incideretur cum eo s(enatus) c(onsulto) quod factum est a(nte) d(iem) (septimum decimum) kal(endas) Ian(uarias) idque aes in Palatio in | porticu quae est ad Apollinis in templo quo senatus haberetur figeretur; vvv item senatum uel- | le atque aequom censere, quo facilius pietas omnium ordinum erga domum Augustam et consen- | su⟨s⟩ uniuersorum ciuium memoria honoranda Germanici Caesaris appareret, uti co(n)s(ules) hoc |

24.  s(enatus) c(onsultum) sub edicto suo proponerent iuberentque mag(istratus) et legates municipiorum et coloniar | um descriptum mittere in municipia et colonias Italiae et in eas colonias quae essent in | ⟨p⟩rouinciis; eos quoque qui in prouinci⟨i⟩s praessent recte atque ordine facturos si hoc s(enatus) c(onsultum) de- | disse⟨n⟩t operam ut quam celeberrumo loco figeretur; vv utique M(arcus) Messalla M(arcus) Aurelius |

28.  Cotta Maximus co(n)s(ules) designati cum magistratum inissent primo quoque tempore cum per | auspicia liceret sine binum trinumue nundinum prodictione legem ad populum de | honoribus Germanici Caesaris ferendam cur⟨ar⟩ent. cens (uere) i(n)s(enatu) f(uerunt) (ducenti octoginta quinque). h(oc) s(enatus) c(onsultum) per relatio- | nem secundam factum est unum. vacat

Fragment 2, Column c:

[— a]rbitrar[i senatum —] | [—]+ aliquam [—] | [—t]ur in Palatio| —] | [—] in eodem libro [—] | [— Germ[anicum arbitra[ri —] | [—] senatui placere, uti| —] | [— im]agines ponerentur supr[a —] | [— e]aquae ex s(enatus) c(onsulto) honorandi c[ausa —] | [—]m, qui inter alia eodem uol[umine —] | [— trans]mar(inarum) prouinciarum Asia[e —] | [— gr]atias agere et adgnosc[ere —] | [— u]ocarentur fieren[t —] | [—]ris, cum honore[s —] | [— C]aesarum, qu[ae —] | [— desti]narent [—]/[—]un[—]

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