Germanicus’ Age

17 BCE

May 31–

Celebration of the Ludi Saeculares.


June 3    

Augustus adopts sons of M. Vipsanius Agrippa, Caius and Lucius.



(Germanicus conceived.)


M. Lollius defeated by an alliance of Tencteri, Sugambri and Usipetes, led by warlord Maelo, which invades Belgica and takes the eagle standard of Legio V Alaudae.


16 BCE


Tiberius praetor, appointed legatus Augusti pro praetore of Gallia Comata and Belgica.


May 24

Drusus’ son Nero Claudius Drusus (Germanicus) born in Rome.


Drusus and Tiberius organize ludi for Augustus.


Augustus and Tiberius travel to Gallia Comata, stay in Lugdunum.


Agrippa in Syria.


15 BCE


Procurator Licinius affair (?). Augustus reorganizes the provinces of the Tres Galliae (?).




Bellum Alpinum, Drusus leads campaign against the Raeti via the Reschen Pass. For defeating the Raeti, Drusus made praetor.


Raeti continue attacks in Tres Galliae. Drusus joined by Tiberius with forces from Lugdunum.



Bellum Noricum, Romans defeat the Raeti and Vindelici and annex


Kingdom of Noricum. Alpine nations provide auxiliary troops to Rome.


14 BCE


Augustus in Gallia Comata.



Drusus appointed legatus Augusti pro praetore of Tres Galliae. Drusus relocates his family to Lugdunum.


Drusus subdues the Comati (?), Alpes Maritimae subjugated, made a prefecture.


Drusus befriends the Batavi, begins preparations for the German War. Establishes military camps along the Rhine. Work begins on excavating a canal (fossa Drusiana).


Uprising of the ‘Pannonians’.


October 7

Tiberius’ son Nero Claudius Drusus (Drusus the Younger) born in Rome.


13 BCE


Tiberius consul (1).



Augustus returns to Rome.


July 13

Senate votes to erect Ara Pacis Augustae in Rome.


Agrippa suppresses rebellion in Pannonia.


Drusus’ daughter Claudia Livia Iulia (Livilla) born in Lugdunum (?).


Census in Tres Galliae (?).


12 BCE


Tiberius betrothed to Iulia.




Agrippa dies in Campania.


M. Aemilius Lepidus dies: Augustus succeeds him as pontifex maximus.


Bellum Pannonicum, phase 1: Tiberius goes to Illyricum. Campaign of Tiberius and M. Vinicius against the alliance of the Breuci.


Drusus foils a rebellion in Tres Galliae. Consecration of Altar of Roma et Augustus at Condate, Lugdunum.


Bellum Germanicum, phase 1: Drusus launches an attack from Batavodurum against the Sugambri, Tencteri and Usipetes. Takes fleet across Lacus Flevo. Negotiates treaties with the Cananefates, Chauci and Frisii. Navigates the Ems River and defeats the Bructeri in a river battle. On the return journey fleet is marooned on the Dutch coast, but rescued by the Frisii.


Drusus returns to Lugdunum, spends winter in Rome.


Drusus praetor urbanus.


11 BCE


Drusus and Tiberius receive proconsular imperium maius.



Bellum Pannonicum, phase 2: Tiberius campaigns against the alliances of Daesitates, Mezaei in the Dinaric Alps.


Bellum Germanicum, phase 2: Drusus returns to Tres Galliae. Drusus launches campaign from Vetera along the Lippe River. Drusus engages the Cherusci, Marsi and Usipetes. Reaches the Weser River. Narrowly avoids defeat at Battle of Arbalo at hands of Cherusci. Drusus acclaimed Imperator by his troops (assumed by Augustus). Drusus returns to Lugdunum, spends the winter in Rome. Drusus granted an ovatio with triumphal insignia.


Tiberius divorces Vipsania, marries Iulia.


10 BCE


Drusus returns to Lugdunum.



Bellum Pannonicum, phase 3: final conquest by Tiberius.


Bellum Germanicum, phase 3: Launches new phase of campaign from Mogontiacum. Defeats the Chatti and Marcomanni.


Drusus returns to Lugdunum.


Augustus and Tiberius return to Lugdunum.


August 1

Birth of Drusus’ son, Ti. Claudius Nero (future emperor Claudius) in Lugdunum. Dedication of Altar of Roma et Augustus in Lugdunum before an assembly of the Gallic tribal leaders.


Drusus returns to Rome, probably with Augustus and Tiberius.


Drusus granted limited triumphal honours.


9 BCE–6 CE

Germanicus in Rome.



January 1

Drusus elected consul with T. Quinctius Crispinus.



January 30

Dedication of Ara Pacis Augustae in Rome.


Drusus dedicates a Temple of Augustus at Langres.


Tiberius in Illyricum. Bellum Germanicum, phase 4: Drusus launches second campaign from Mogontiacum.



Drusus reaches the Elbe River. Spooked by dream of a Germanic ghoul. Erects an altar on the banks of the Elbe River, turns back to the Rhine. Troops witness the Pleides.


Drusus falls from his horse in an accident.



Tiberius rides 200 miles in twenty-four hours by vehicle from Ticinum to join Drusus. Thirty days after the accident, Drusus dies. Drusus’ body carried to Ticinum, met by Augustus and Livia, and on to Rome for state funeral. Body is buried in Augustus’ Mausoleum.


Senate votes Drusus and his male descendants the agnomen ‘Germanicus’, erects statues and a triumphal arch over the Via Appia.


Rhine legions erect the Tumulus (Cenotaph) honouring Drusus (‘Eichelstein’) in Mogontiacum.




Bellum Germanicum, phase 5: Tiberius in Germania Magna, negotiates a peace settlement with all Germanic tribes. Maelo surrenders, Sugambri relocate to region around Vetera, renamed Cugerni, supplying auxiliary cavalry to Rome.




Tiberius consul (2).



Tropaeum Alpium (La Turbie) erected marking the complete subjugation of the Alps.


Tiberius celebrates his ovatio in Rome for his victory in Germania Magna.




Tiberius granted tribunicia potestas for five years; retires to Rhodes.



Armenian revolt.




Augustus consul (12).



C. Caesar comes of age, made princeps iuventutis.




Death of Herodes (Herod the Great) in Jericho.




Birth of L. Annaeus Seneca (Seneca the Younger) in Cordoba.




Augustus consul (13).



Iulia arrested for adultery and treason, exiled to Pandateria. Tiberius divorces Iulia.



March 17 or April 24

Germanicus comes of age, assumes the toga virilis.



C. Caesar’ mission to the East with imperium.


1 CE


C. Caesar consul.



L. Domitius Ahenobarbus legatus Augusti pro praetore of Germania, suppresses revolt, crosses the Elbe, engages Hermunduri and negotiates settlement with Marboduus and the Marcomanni. Establishes an imperial cult altar and his headquarters at Ara Ubiorum.


2 CE


Tiberius returns to Rome.



August 20

Death of L. Caesar at Massalia.


3 CE


Iulia permitted to relocate to Rhegium.


4 CE


Germanicus appointed frater arvalis.



February 21/22

Death of C. Caesar.


Germanicus begins work on translating Aratos’ Phainomaina into Latin (Phaenomena) (?).


June 27/28

Augustus adopts Tiberius (henceforth Tiberius Iulius Caesar) and Agrippa Postumus (Agrippa Iulius Caesar).


Tiberius adopts Germanicus, changes name to Germanicus Iulius Caesar.


Tiberius in Germania Magna. C. Sentius Saturninus appointed legatus Augusti pro praetore of Germania.


5 CE


Germanicus marries Vipsania Agrippina.



Tiberius in Germania Magna, reaches the Elbe River.


Earthquake strikes Rome. Tiber floods.


Famine in Rome.


6 CE


Famine continues in Rome; fire destroys parts of the city.



Germanicus appointed augur.


Germanicus and his brother Claudius sponsor games in honour of their father.


Birth of Nero Iulius Caesar (Germanicus’ first son).


Augustus establishes the aerarium militare and reforms the army’s terms of service.


Tiberius and Saturninus launch invasion of Bohaemium, but abort it when forces have to be redeployed to suppress a major revolt in Illyricum (Dalmatia and Pannonia). Bellum Batonianum, phase 1 begins.



Agrippa Postumus is abdicated by Augustus and banished to Surrentum.


7–9 CE

Germanicus in Illyricum.


7 CE


Germanicus quaestor.



Birth of Drusus Iulius Caesar (Germanicus’ second son).


Bellum Batonianum, phase 2: Tiberius and Germanicus with reserves in Illyricum. Ambush at Mons Claudius. Battle at Volcaean Marshes.


Germanicus defeats Mazaei.


Agrippa Postumus banished to Planasia.



Tiberius in Siscia.


8 CE


Bellum Batonianum, phase 3: Tiberius and Germanicus in Illyricum.



Germanicus sacks Raetinium and Splonum.


August 3

Bato of the Breuci surrenders at Bathinus River, later captured and murdered by Bato of the Daesitates.


Famine in Italy.


9 CE


Germanicus praetor.



Bellum Batonianum, phase 4: Tiberius and Germanicus in Illyricum. Battles at Andetrium and Arduba. Bato of the Daesitates surrenders, revolt squashed. Germanicus acclaimedImperator, granted triumphal ornaments.



Varus and Legiones XVII, XIIX and XIX annihilated in Teutoburg Forest by Germanic forces led by Arminius.


Germanicus appointed to command Rhine frontier.


Tiberius takes conscripts from Rome to Rhine forts.


10–12 CE

Germanicus in Rome.


10 CE


Tiberius in Germania Magna.



Birth and death of T. Iulius Caesar (Germanicus’ third son).


11 CE


Germanicus with Tiberius in Germania Magna on military exercises. Birth and death of C. Iulius Caesar (Germanicus’ fourth son).


12 CE

January 1

Germanicus consul (1) with C. Fonteius Capito.



August 31

Birth of C. Iulius Caesar (Caligula, Germanicus’ fifth son) in Antium.


October 23

Tiberius celebrates his full triumph in Rome for victories in Illyricum.


13–16 CE

Germanicus in Tres Galliae and Germania Magna.


13 CE


Tiberius’ imperium maius made equal with Augustus’.



Germanicus made legatus Augusti pro praetore in Tres Galliae, Germania Magna.


Germanicus puts down an insurrection in Tres Galliae (?), acclaimed Imperator (?).


Birth and death of unnamed daughter (Germanicus’ sixth child) at Ambitarvium.


14 CE


Census of Rome (4,190,117 recorded citizens).



August 19

Death of Augustus at Nola.


September 17

Tiberius assumes role of princeps, aged 56.


Agrippa Postumus executed. Germanicus granted proconsular imperium maius, and appointed one of the first Sodales Augustales.


Rhine legions mutiny. Germanicus and Drusus the Younger negotiate a settlement with the legions. Leads men on punitive expedition against the Marsi and Bructeri. Fleet shipwrecked off the Frisian coast.


Germanicus’ family relocate to the Rhineland (Vetera?/Ara Ubiorum?).


Death of Iulia (Tiberius’ wife).


15 CE


Germanicus leads new expedition across the Rhine. Attacks on Marsi, Bructeri, Cherusci and Chatti. Aquila of Legio XIX recovered. Monument erected and bones buried at Teutoburg battle site. Rescues Segestes, takes Arminius’ wife Thusnelda hostage; son Thumelicus born in captivity. Fleet shipwrecked off the Frisian coast, army stranded. Germanicus acclaimedImperator (2).



November 7

Birth of Iulia Agrippina Minor (Germanicus’ eighth child) in Ara Ubiorum. L. Aelius Seianus becomes sole praefectus praetorii.


16 CE


Germanicus appointed to Flamines Divorum Augustalis.



Germanicus leads amphibious military expedition via the fossa Drusiana. Sails down Ems River. Engages the Cherusci at battles of Weser River, Idistaviso and Angrivarian Wall – Arminius flees the field. Roman army scattered at sea.


Tiberius rejects request for troop surge to complete conquest of Germania.


September 16

Birth of Iulia Drusilla in Abitarvium.


Arch dedicated beside Temple of Saturn in Rome for the two signa recovered from Germania.


17–19 CE

Germanicus tours Eastern Provinces.


17 CE


Germanicus appointed pontifex.



May 26

Germanicus celebrates full triumph in Rome, displays Thusnelda and Thumelicus as trophies.


Birth of Iulia Livilla (Germanicus’ ninth child).


Germanicus granted imperium maius and appointed Orienti praepositus responsible for the eastern half of the Empire.


Earthquakes destroy twelve cities in Asia Minor.


Exile of Reskuporis.


Revolt of Tacfarinas in Africa.


Germanicus sets off with his entourage.


Sojourns with Drusus the Younger and Livia Drusilla in Dalmatia.


Germanicus visits battle site at Actium; receives conformation of consulship for 18 CE in Nikopolis.


18 CE


Germanicus competes in a chariot race at Olympia and wins; enters Athens.




Germanicus consul (2) with Tiberius.


Cn. Calpurnius Piso appointed proconsul of Syria.


Birth of Livilla at Lesbos.


Germanicus visits Byzantium, Black Sea, Illium, Assos, Colophon (receives omens fortelling his death at Claros) and Rhodes.


Germanicus crowns Zenon-Artaxias III, King of Armenia, at Artaxata and assigns governors to the new provinces of Cappadocia and Commagene. Senate grants Germanicus anovatio.


Marboduus of the Marcomanni ousted, seeks and is granted asylum with the Romans.


Germanicus, Agrippina and Caligula winter in Epidaphnae near Antiocheia on the Orontes.


19 CE


Altercations between Piso and Germanicus.




Germanicus in Alexandria. Visits Temple of Aesculapius, Memphis, receives omens fortelling his death. Visits the Colossi of Memnon at Thebes. Travels as far as Elephantine and Syene.


Germanicus returns to Syria; discovers Piso has been overturning his directives and instructions. Germanicus formally revokes friendship with Piso. Piso quits Syria.


October 10

Germanicus dies in Epidaphnae; body transferred to Antiocheia and cremated in the forum.


Agrippina departs for Rome with Germanicus’ ashes.


December 16

Senate votes posthumous honours for Germanicus. Riots in Rome.


20 CE


Agrippina reaches Brundisium, goes in procession to Rome. Germanicus’ ashes interred in the Mausoleum of Augustus.


Riots in Rome continue until March/April.


Triumphal arches surmounted by statues of Germanicus erected in Rome, Mogontiacum and Antiocheia. Tumulus erected in Antiocheia.


Death of Vipsania Agrippina.


Arminius assassinated (?).


December 10

Senate delivers its verdict in the trial of Piso for treason and the alleged murder of Germanicus.

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