NOTES

Introduction

1 M. Booth, The Doctor, the Detective and Arthur Conan Doyle (1997) p.204.

I Caesar’s World

1 Velleius Paterculus, History of Rome 2. 1. 1 (Loeb translation by F. Shipley (1924), pp. 47-49).

2 Suetonius, Caesar 77.

3 Polybius, 6. 11. 1-18. 8, 43. 1-57. 9 for his description and analysis of the Roman Republic, with F. Walbank, A Historical Commentary on Polybius, 1 (1970), pp. 663-746. A detailed recent discussion of the topic can be found in A. Lintott, The Constitution of the Roman Republic (1999).

4 For a description of these campaigns see A. Goldsworthy, In the Name of Rome (2003), pp. 126-136.

5 For Saturninus and Glaucia see Appian, BC 1. 28-33, Plutarch, Marius 28-30.

6 Suetonius, Caesar 77.

7 Valerius Maximus 3. 7. 8.

8 On population and the problems of calculating it with precision see N. Purcell, ‘The City of Rome and the Plebs Urbana in the Late Republic’, in CAH2 IX, pp. 644-688, esp. 648-656, and also K. Hopkins, Conquerors and Slaves (1978), pp. 96-98. On the importance of the Forum as the physical setting for Roman public life see F. Millar, The Crowd in Rome in the Late Republic (1998), esp. pp. 13-48.

9 Some of the most influential discussions of Roman imperialism include E. Badian, Roman Imperialism in the Late Republic (1968), W. Harris, War and Imperialism in Republican Rome, 327-70 BC (1979), and Hopkins (1978), esp. 1-98.

10 See E. Badian, Publicans and Sinners (1972).

11 See in particular Hopkins (1978), passim.

12 For the careers of the Gracchi see D. Stockton, The Gracchi (1979). The principal sources are Plutarch, Tiberius Gracchus and Caius Gracchus, and Appian, BC 1. 8-27; for the story of Caius’ head see Plutarch, Caius Gracchus 17.

13 For a detailed account of Marius’ career see R. Evans, Gaius Marius: A Political Biography (1994).

II Caesar’s childhood

1 Velleius Paterculus 2. 41. 1.

2 Suetonius, Caesar 1. 3.

3 For a general survey of the significance of Roman names see B. Salway, ‘What’s in a Name? A Survey of Roman Onomastic Practice from 700 BC - AD 700’, JRS 84 (1994), pp. 124-145, esp. 124-131.

4 For stories about the origin of the name see Historia Augusta, Aelius Verus 2; for a discussion of Caesar’s family see M. Gelzer, Caesar (1968), p. 19, C. Meier, Caesar (1996), pp. 51-55, and E. Gruen, The Last Generation of the Roman Republic (1974), pp. 75-76.

5 Suetonius Caesar 6. 1; for uncertainty over Aeneas and his son see Livy 1. 3.

6 Plutarch, Tiberius Gracchus 1.

7 Historia Augusta, Aelius Verus 2.

8 B. Rawson, Children and Childhood in Roman Italy (2003), esp. pp. 99-113; on the ancients’ knowledge of Caesarean section see p. 99 with references. See also the collection of papers in B. Rawson (ed.), Marriage, Divorce and Children in Ancient Rome (1991).

9 Plutarch, Cato the Elder 20. 3. For a more detailed discussion of this topic see K. Bradley, ‘Wet-nursing at Rome: A Study in Social Relations’, in B. Rawson, The Family in Ancient Rome (1986), pp. 201-229.

10 Tacitus, Dialogues 28. 6 (Loeb translation by Sir W. Peterson, revised M. Winterbottom (1970), p. 307).

11 Plutarch, Coriolanus 33-36, Livy 2. 40.

12 See H. Marrou, A History of Education in Antiquity (1956), pp. 229-291, A. Gwynn, Roman Education: From Cicero to Guintilian (1926), esp. 1-32; Cicero, de Re Publica 4. 3.

13 Cicero, Orator 120.

14 There is a useful discussion of the client system in R. Saller, Personal Patronage in the Early Empire (1982); for boys accompanying fathers as they went about their business see Gellius, NA 1. 23. 4, Pliny, Epistulae 8. 14. 4-5, and on importance of father’s influence from the age of seven see Quintilian 2. 2. 4, and comments in Marrou (1956), pp. 231-233.

15 Rawson (2003), pp. 153-157; Suetonius, Grammaticis et rhetoribus 7 for Gnipho; Suetonius Caesar 56. 7 for Caesar’s early works.

16 Cicero, Brutus 305, Suetonius, Caesar 55. 2.

17 Plutarch, Caesar 17, Suetonius, Caesar 57, 61.

18 Plutarch, Marius 30, 32.

19 On the question of the allies see E. Gabba, The Roman Republic, the Army and the Allies (trans. P. Cuff) (1976), P. Brunt, Social Conflicts in the Roman Republic (1971), pp. 101-104, A. Sherwin-White, The Roman Citizenship (1973), pp. 119-149.

20 The fullest ancient account of the war is Appian, BC 1. 34-53, but see also Velleius Paterculus 2. 13. 117. 3; for a modern survey see E. Gabba, ‘Rome and Italy: The Social War’, in CAH2 (1994), pp. 104-128.

21 Appian, BC 1. 4046, Plutarch, Marius 33, Sulla 6.

22 For Sulla’s career see A. Keaveney, Sulla: The Last Republican (1982), 1-63.

23 Plutarch, Marius 34-35, Sulla 7-8, Appian BC 1. 55-57, and Keaveney (1982), pp. 56-77.

24 Plutarch, Sulla 9-10, Marius 35-40, Appian, BC 1. 57-59.

25 Appian, BC 1. 63-75; Plutarch, Marius 41-46, Sulla 22, Pompey 3, Velleius Paterculus 2. 20. 1-23.3, and also R. Seager, Pompey (2002), pp. 25-29.

III The First Dictator

1 Plutarch, Sulla 31 (translation by R. Waterfield in Plutarch: Roman Lives (1999), p. 210).

2 For the importance of the Liberalia festival see Ovid, Fasti 3. 771-788; on the sacrifice to Iuventus see Dionysius of Halicarnassus 4. 15. 5; on the ceremonies associated with adopting the toga virilis in general see B. Rawson, Children and Childhood in Roman Italy (2003), pp. 142-144.

3 Suetonius, Caesar 1.1; for the sudden death of Caesar’s father see Pliny, Natural History 7. 181; on assuming the toga virilis see H. Marrou, A History of Education in Antiquity (1956), p. 233, A. Gwynn, Roman Education: From Cicero to Quintilian (1926), 16, and B. Rawson, ‘The Roman Family’, in B. Rawson (ed.), The Family in Ancient Rome (1986), pp. 1-57, 41.

4 For restrictions on the Flamen Dialis see Gellius, NA 10. 15.

5 Velleius Paterculus, 2. 22. 2, Appian, BC 1. 74. On Merula and Caesar’s nomination for the flaminate see L. Ross Taylor, ‘Caesar’s Early Career’, in Classical Philology 36 (1941), pp. 113-132, esp. pp. 114-116.

6 For confarreatio see S. Treggiari, Roman Marriage: Iusti Coniuges from the Time of Cicero to the Time of Ulpian (1991), 21-24; on the name and connection with far see Gaius 1. 112, Pliny, NH 18. 10, Festus 78L; for the rituals see Servius, Ad G. 1. 31.

7 Velleius Paterculus 2. 22. 2 claims that Caesar was made Flamen Dialis, but Suetonius explicitly says that he was only ‘nominated’ (destinatus), Suetonius, Caesar 1. 1. See M. Gelzer, Caesar (1968), pp. 19-21, and Taylor (1941), pp. 115-116. Tacitus, Annals 3. 58 and Dio 54. 36. 1 both state expressly that Merula was the last Flamen Dialis.

8 For a useful discussion of these years see CAH2 IX (1994), pp. 173-187; on the behaviour of Cicero and his mentors during these years see T. Mitchell, Cicero: The Ascending Years (1979), pp. 81-92.

9 Appian, BC 1. 76-77.

10 Plutarch, Sulla 2 for his appearance, failure to win the praetorship 5, and for the epitaph 38; in general see A. Keaveney, Sulla: The Last Republican (1982). For the single testicle see Arrius Menander Bk. 1 On Military Affairs. Keaveney (1982), p. 11 argues that the story was probably derived from a bawdy song invented by his soldiers.

11 On Sulla’s good fortune see Keaveney (1982), pp. 40-41.

12 Appian, BC 1. 78-80, Plutarch, Pompey 5.

13 For the Civil War see Keaveney (1982), pp. 129-147.

14 Plutarch, Sulla 27-32, Appian, BC 1. 81-96.

15 Plutarch, Sulla 31.

16 On the proscriptions see Keaveney (1982), pp. 148-168, Appian, BC 1. 95, Velleius Paterculus 2. 28. 3-4, and Plutarch, Sulla 31, which includes the anecdote about the Alban estate.

17 Keaveney (1982), pp. 160-203. For the execution of Ofella see Plutarch, Sulla 33.

18 Taylor (1941), p. 116.

19 See Suetonius, Caesar 1. 1-3, Plutarch, Caesar 1, and also L. Ross Taylor, ‘The Rise of Julius Caesar’, Greece and Rome 4 (1957), pp. 10-18, esp. 11-12, and Taylor (1941), p. 116.

20 Suetonius, Caesar 74.

21 Suetonius, Caesar 1.

22 Plutarch, Sulla 1. 104, Suetonius, Caesar 77.

23 Keaveney (1982), pp. 204-213.

IV The Young Caesar

1 Cicero, Brutus 290 (Loeb translation by G. Hendrickson (1939), p. 253).

2 For Suetonius’ description of Caesar see Caesar 45. 1; Plutarch’s comments are in Caesar 17; Caesar’s peculiar dress and Sulla’s comments are in Suetonius, Caesar 45. 3.

3 Suetonius, Caesar 45. 2.

4 For Cicero’s house see Velleius Paterculus 2. 14, and E. Rawson, ‘The Ciceronian Aristocracy and its properties’, in M. I. Finley (ed.), Studies in Roman Property (1976), pp. 85-102, esp. 86; for the synagogue in the Subura, see Corpus Inscriptionum Judaicarum 2. 380.

5 Velleius Paterculus 2. 14. 3.

6 Suetonius, Caesar 46-47.

7 Suetonius, Caesar 2.

8 See L. Ross Taylor, ‘The rise of Julius Caesar’, Greece and Rome 4 (1957), pp. 10-18, and M. Gelzer, Caesar (1968), p. 22. On the corona civica see Gellius, NA 5. 6. 13-14, Pliny, NH 16. 12-13, and discussion in V. Maxfield, The Military Decorations of the Roman Army (1981), pp.70-74, 119-120.

9 Suetonius, Caesar 2 and 49. 1-4, 52. 3.

10 Plutarch, Marius 13-14, Polybius 6. 37; on Cato as censor see Plutarch, Cato the Elder 17.

11 Suetonius, Caesar 22 and 49. 1-4.

12 For Caesar’s public oath see Dio 43. 20. 4; Catullus 54, cf. Suetonius, Caesar 73.

13 For Cato see Plutarch, Cato the Elder 24; Plutarch, Crassus 5; for the Germans see Caesar, BG 6. 21. For a survey of Roman attitudes see P. Grimal, Love in Ancient Rome (trans. A. Train) (1986).

14 Suetonius, Caesar 3.

15 Catullus 10; Cicero, Verr. 1. 40.

16 Cicero, Brutus 317.

17 See Suetonius, Caesar 4. 1, 55, Velleius Paterculus 2. 93. 3, and Gelzer (1968), pp. 22-3; on provincial administration in general see A. Lintott’s Imperium Romanum: Politics and Administration (1993); for Caesar’s high-pitched delivery see Suetonius, Caesar 55. 2.

18 Plutarch, Caesar 4.

19 Cicero, Brutus 316.

20 For the pirate problem see Appian, Mithridatic Wars 91-93, Plutarch, Pompey 24-5; on Caesar’s captivity see Suetonius, Caesar 4. 2, Plutarch, Caesar 2.

21 Plutarch, Caesar 2 (Loeb translation by B. Perrin (1919), p. 445, slightly amended).

22 For the pirates’ throats being cut see Suetonius, Caesar 74.

23 Suetonius, Caesar 4. 2.

24 L. Ross Taylor, ‘Caesar’s Early Career’, Classical Philology 36 (1941), pp. 113-132, esp. p.117-118.

25 For the journey back to Rome see Velleius Paterculus 2. 93. 2; for the trial see E. Gruen, The Last Generation of the Roman Republic (1974), p. 528; for Cicero’s comment see Suetonius, Caesar 49. 3.

26 Taylor (1941), pp. 120-122; for the Slave War see Plutarch, Crassus 8-11, Appian, BC 1. 116-121.

27 For Crassus and Sulla see Plutarch, Crassus 6.

28 Suetonius, Caesar 5.

V Candidate

1 Plutarch, Caesar 5.

2 For the birth of Julia see M. Gelzer, Caesar (1968), p. 21, C. Meier, Caesar (1996), p. 105, and P. Grimal, Love in Ancient Rome (1986), p. 222.

3 Grimal (1986), pp. 112-115.

4 For the story of Praecia and Lucullus see Plutarch, Lucullus 6. 2-4; on Cethegus’ influence see Cicero, Brutus 178; for the story of Pompey, Geminius and Flora see Plutarch, Pompey 2.

5 For Cytheris see Cicero, ad Fam. 9. 26; Cicero ad Att. 10. 10; Servius, on E10; de vir. Ill. 82. 2. Cicero’s distaste became public in the Philippics 2. 58, 69, 77.

6 Suetonius, Caesar 47, 50. 1-52.

7 Suetonius, Caesar 50. 2, Plutarch, Caesar 46, 62, Brutus 5, Cicero, ad Att. 15. 11; see also R. Syme, The Roman Revolution (1939), pp. 23-24, 116; on Lucullus’ divorce of Servilia’s sister Servilia see Plutarch, Lucullus 38.

8 Grimal (1986), pp. 226-237, S. Treggiari, Roman Marriage (1991), esp. pp. 105-106, 232-238, 253-261, 264, 270-275, and 299-319.

9 Sallust, Bell Cat. 25.

10 Plutarch, Pompey 55 (translation by R. Waterfield in Plutarch: Roman Lives (1999), p. 273).

11 For a survey of Sertorius’ career see A. Goldsworthy, In the Name of Rome (2003), pp. 137-151.

12 For Sulla’s legislation see A. Keaveney, Sulla: The Last Republican (1982), pp.169-189.

13 For the ‘young executioner’ see Valerius Maximus 6. 2. 8; for the killing of Brutus’ father see Plutarch, Brutus 4; for Pompey’s early career see R. Seager, Pompey the Great (2002), pp. 20-39.

14 On the impact of military failure on a man’s career see N. Rosenstein, Imperatores Victi (1993), passim.

15 For Pompey and the censors see Plutarch, Pompey 22; for Crassus’ feasting see Plutarch, Crassus 2. 2, 12. 3; Comp. Nic. Crassus 1. 4; A. Ward, Marcus Crassus and the Late Roman Republic (1977), pp. 101-2.

16 Suetonius, Caesar 5, Gellius, NA 13. 3. 5; on suggestions that he played a wider role in the events of 70 BC see the discussion in Ward (1977), pp. 105-111.

17 For discussions of elections see L. Ross Taylor, Party Politics in the Age of Caesar (1949), esp. pp. 50-75, and Roman Voting Assemblies: From the Hannibalic War to the Dictatorship of Caesar (1966), esp. pp. 78-106, A. Lintott, ‘Electoral Bribery in the Roman Republic’, JRS 80 (1990), pp. 1-16, F. Millar, The Crowd in Rome in the Late Republic (1998), H. Mouritsen, Plebs and Politics in the Late Roman Republic (2001), esp. pp. 63-89, A. Yakobson, ‘Petitio et Largitio: Popular Participation in the Centuriate Assembly of the Late Republic’, JRS 82 (1992), pp. 32-52; inscriptions on tombs, see ILS 8205-8207.

18 See Taylor (1966), pp. 78-83, A. Lintott, The Constitution of the Roman Republic (1999), pp. 43-49.

19 On the quaestorship see Lintott (1999), pp. 133-137; for the suggestion that winners of the corona civica were enrolled in the Senate see L. Ross Taylor, ‘The Rise of Caesar’, Greece and Rome 4 (1957), pp. 10-18, esp. 12-13.

20 Polybius, 6. 54. 1-2.

21 Suetonius, Caesar 6. 1, Plutarch, Caesar 5; for Cicero’s public and private attitude to Marius see the discussion in T. Mitchell, Cicero: The Ascending Years (1979), pp. 45-51.

22 Spanish War 42, Suetonius, Caesar 7. 1-2, Velleius Paterculus 2. 43. 4, and comments in Gelzer (1968), p. 32; for his reaction to bust of Alexander and his disturbing dream see Plutarch, Caesar 11, Suetonius, Caesar 7. 1-2, and Dio 37. 52. 2; for Cicero’s arrival back from his own quaestorship see pro Planco 64-66.

23 Suetonius, Caesar 8.

24 Suetonius, Caesar 6. 2, Plutarch, Caesar 5; for discussion of marriage ceremony see S. Treggiari, Roman Marriage (1991), pp. 161-180.

25 Dio 36. 20. 1-36, Plutarch, Pompey 25-26; for a detailed discussion of the introduction of the Lex Gabinia see P Greenhalgh, Pompey: The Roman Alexander (1980), pp. 72-90.

26 On Caesar’s support for the Lex Gabinia see Plutarch, Pompey 25, and also T. Rice Holmes, The Roman Republic, 1 (1928), pp. 170-173; for the campaign against the pirates see Appian, Mithridatic Wars 91-93, Plutarch, Pompey 26-28.

27 For Lucullus’ career see A. Keaveney, Lucullus:A Life (1992), esp. 75-128 for his campaigns in the east; on his replacement see Plutarch, Pompey 30-31, Lucullus 36.

28 Dio 36. 43. 2-3 for Caesar’s support; pro Lege Manilia, Cicero’s speech in favour of the Lex Manilia has survived.

29 Plutarch, Caesar 5-6, Suetonius, Caesar 10-11, Velleius Paterculus 2. 43. 4; on the aedileship see Lintott (1999), pp. 129-133; on Caesar’s career see Gelzer (1968), pp. 37-39, L. Ross Taylor, ‘Caesar’s Early Career’, Classical Philology 36 (1941), pp. 113-132, esp. 125- 131, and (1957), pp. 14-15.

30 Suetonius, Caesar 10. 1.

31 Dio 37. 8. 1-2, Pliny, NH 33. 53.

32 Plutarch, Caesar 5.

33 Plutarch, Caesar 6, Suetonius, Caesar 11, Velleius Paterculus 2. 43. 3-4, and see also R. Evans, Gaius Marius: A Political Biography (1994), p. 4, who suggests that the monuments are unlikely to have been the originals but copies.

VI Conspiracy

1 Sallust, Bell. Cat. 12. 1-2.

2 Dio 36. 44. 3-5, Cicero, pro Sulla 14-17, Sallust, Bell. Cat. 18.

3 See Suetonius, Caesar 9, Sallust, Bell. Cat. 17-19. For discussions of the ‘First Catilinarian conspiracy’ see E. Salmon, ‘Catiline, Crassus, and Caesar’, American Journal of Philology 56 (1935), pp. 302-316, esp. 302-306; E. Hardy, The Catilinarian Conspiracy in its Context: A Re-study of the Evidence (1924), pp. 12-20; T. Rice Holmes, The Roman Republic, 1 (1928), pp. 234-235; D. Stockton, Cicero (1971), pp. 77-78; and M. Gelzer, Caesar (1968), pp. 38-39.

4 On the struggle between Crassus and Pompey see A. Ward, Marcus Crassus and the Late Roman Republic (1977), pp. 128-168; Rice Holmes (1928), pp. 221-283, esp. 242-249. For imperial views of Pompey’s return see Velleius Paterculus 2. 40. 2-3, Plutarch, Pompey 43, Dio 37. 20. 5-6

5 See Plutarch, Crassus 2-3, and Ward (1977), pp. 46-57; for the Licinia incident see Plutarch, Crassus 1, with sceptical comments in Ward (1977), 74-75.

6 Cicero, Brutus 233.

7 Plutarch, Crassus 3, Cicero, de Officiis 1. 25, Sallust, Bell. Cat.48.5-7. For ‘Straw on his horns’ and possible pun see Ward (1977), pp. 78.

8 Plutarch, Crassus 13, Suetonius, Caesar 11, Dio 37. 9. 3-4; Ward (1977), pp. 128-135, Gelzer (1968), pp. 39-41.

9 Plutarch, Cato the Younger 16-18, Suetonius, Caesar 11, Dio 37. 10. 1-3.

10 Suetonius, Caesar 74. On Catiline see Asconius 84C; on Ofella see Plutarch, Sulla 33.

11 Sallust, Bell. Cat.5, 14-17, Plutarch, Cicero 10, Ward (1977), p. 136, 145, Rice Holmes (1928), p. 241, Stockton (1971), p. 79-81, 97, 100.

12 For Cato the Elder see Plutarch, Cato the Elder, and A. Astin, Cato the Censor (1978). On Cato see Plutarch, Cato the Younger, esp. 1, 5-7, 9, 24-25.

13 See Stockton (1971), esp. 71-81, E. Rawson, Cicero (1975), T. Mitchell, Cicero: The Ascending Years (1979), esp. p. 93 ff. The inscription that mentions a Lucius Sergius, normally identified as Catiline, on Pompeius Strabo’s staff is ILS 8888HLLRP 515.

14 For an excellent survey of these years see T. Wiseman, ‘The Senate and the Populares, 69-60 BC’, in CAH2 IX (1994), pp. 327-367; on the Rullan land bill see Gelzer (1968), pp. 42-45, Stockton (1971), pp. 84-91, Rice Holmes (1928), pp. 242-249, Ward (1977), pp. 152-162.

15 For Piso see Sallust, Bell. Cat. 49. 2, Cicero, pro Flacco 98; for Juba see Suetonius, Caesar 71.

16 For Honours to Pompey see Dio 37. 21. 4. For a discussion of Labienus’ origins see R. Syme, ‘The Allegiance of Labienus’, JRS 28 (1938), pp. 424-440.

17 For The perduellio see trial Dio 37. 26. 1-28. 4, Suetonius, Caesar 12, Cicero, Pro Rabirio perduellionis, with W. Tyrrell, A Legal and Historical Commentary to Cicero’s Oratio Pro Rabirio Perduellionis (1978); the anonymous, de viribus illustribus contains the claim that Rabirius paraded Saturninus’ head.

18 See L. Ross Taylor, Roman Voting Assemblies: From the Hannibalic War to the Dictatorship of Caesar (1966), p. 16.

19 For the election to Pontifex Maximus see Suetonius, Caesar 13, Plutarch, Caesar 7, Dio 37. 37. 1-3, Velleius Paterculus 2. 43. 3.

20 For a useful discussion of the Regia and its history see T. Cornell, The Beginnings of Rome (1995), pp. 239-241.

21 Sallust, Bell. Cat. 23-24, Cicero, pro Murena 51-58, Dio 37. 29. 1-30. 1, Plutarch, Cato the Younger 21. 2-6.

22 Sallust, Bell. Cat. 22. 1-4, 26. 1-31. 3.

23 Sallust, Bell. Cat. 31. 4-48. 2, Rice Holmes (1928), pp. 259-272, Stockton (1971), pp. 84-109.

VII Scandal

1 Cicero, In Catilinam 3. 1-2 (Loeb translation by C. MacDonald (1977), p. 101).

2 Quote on canvassing with Catiline, Cicero, ad Att. 1. 2.

3 Cicero, In Catilinam 2. 22 (Loeb translation by C. MacDonald (1977), p. 91).

4 Plutarch, Caesar 4. 4 (Loeb translation by B. Perrin (1919), p. 451).

5 Sallust, Bell. Cat. 48. 5.

6 Sallust, Bell. Cat. 48. 9; Plutarch, Crassus 13.

7 Cicero, pro Murena, and Plutarch, Cato the Younger 21. 3-6.

8 Sallust, Bell. Cat. 49. 1-4, Plutarch, Crassus 13, and Cicero 20. See also D. Stockton, Cicero (1971), pp. 18-19.

9 Sallust, Bell. Cat. 44-47, Plutarch, Cicero 19, Dio 37. 34. 1-4, Appian, BC 2. 4-5.

10 On the debate in general see Sallust, Bell. Cat. 50. 3-53. 1; For Catiline’s last appearance in the Senate see Cicero, Cat. 1. 16.

11 For Appius Claudius Caecus see Cicero, de Sen. 16, Brutus 61.

12 Sallust, Bell. Cat. 51. 1-3.

13 Sallust, Bell. Cat. 51. 33.

14 Sallust, Bell. Cat. 51. 20.

15 For Caesar’s speech see Sallust, Bell. Cat. 51.

16 For discussion of Caesar’s view see Gelzer (1968), pp. 50-52, and C. Meier, Caesar (1996), pp. 170-172.

17 See Plutarch, Cicero 20-21, Caesar 7-8, Suetonius, Caesar 14, and Appian, BC 2. 5.

18 Cicero, Cat. 4. 3 (Loeb translation by C. MacDonald (1977), p. 137).

19 On Caesar see Cicero, Cat. 4. 9-10, for Crassus, 4. 10, for scenes of horror, 4. 12.

20 Sallust, Bell. Cat. 52. 12.

21 Sallust, Bell. Cat. 52. 17-18, 24-25.

22 Plutarch, Brutus 5 and Cato the Younger 24. 1-2; For Cicero’s reaction to Brutus’ version of the debate see Cicero, ad Att. 12. 21. 1.

23 Sallust, Bell. Cat. 55. 1-6, Plutarch, Cicero 22 and Caesar 8, Dio 37. 36. 1-4, Ampelius, lib. mem. 31; Sallust placed the threat to Caesar earlier see Bell. Cat. 49. 4.

24 Cicero, ad Fam. 5. 2. 7-8.

25 Suetonius, Caesar 15, Dio 37. 44. 1-3.

26 Dio 37. 43. 1-4, Plutarch, Cato the Younger 26. 1-29. 2.

27 Suetonius, Caesar 16.

28 On Catiline’s death see Sallust, Bell. Cat. 60. 7, 61. 4; on the informers see Suetonius, Caesar 17.

29 Plutarch, Caesar 9-10.

30 Cicero, ad Att. 1. 12. 3, 1. 13. 3, Suetonius, Caesar 74. 2, Plutarch, Caesar 10. For divorce in general see S. Treggiari, Roman Marriage (1991), pp. 435-482 and ‘Divorce Roman Style: How Easy and Frequent Was It?’ in B. Rawson (ed.), Marriage, Divorce and Children in Ancient Rome (1991), pp. 131-146.

31 See Cicero, ad Att. 1. 13. 3, and Catulus in Cicero, ad Att. 1. 16, Dio 37. 50. 3-4.

32 Plutarch, Caesar 11, Suetonius, Caesar 18, Cicero, Pro Balbo 28.

33 See Suetonius, Caesar 18, Appian, Bell. Hisp. 102, Plutarch, Caesar 12, Dio 37. 52. 1-53. 4. For a discussion of the situation in Spain and Caesar’s operations see S. Dyson, The Creation of the Roman Frontier (1985), pp. 235-236.

34 Spanish War 42. 2-3, Cicero, pro Balbo 19, 23, 28, 63 and 43; for the hint at human sacrifice see Strabo, Geog. 3. 5. 3 and Rice Holmes The Roman Republic, 1 (1928), pp. 302-8.

35 Plutarch, Caesar 11.

VIII Consul

1 Sallust, Bell. Cat. 54. 4.

2 Cicero, ad Att. 2. 5.

3 Pliny, NH 7. 97, Plutarch, Pompey 45, Dio 37. 21. 1-4, Appian, Mithridatic Wars, 116-117.

4 For the eastern wars see P. Greenhalgh, Pompey:The Roman Alexander (1980), and A. Goldsworthy, In the Name of Rome (2003), ch. 7, esp. pp. 164-179.

5 Plutarch, Pompey 42-46, Cato the Younger 30, Velleius Paterculus 2. 40. 3; R. Seager, Pompey the Great (2002), pp. 75-76; on Crassus see Plutarch, Pompey 43, and A. Ward, Marcus Crassus and the Late Roman Republic (1977), pp. 193-199.

6 Cicero, ad Att. 1. 13; see also ad Att. 1. 14 on Crassus.

7 Cicero, ad Att. 1. 13, 12; Seager (2002), pp. 77-79.

8 Cicero, ad Att. 1. 12, Plutarch, Pompey 42, Cato the Younger 30. 1-5, Suetonius, Caesar 50. 1; for Cicero’s efforts to placate Metellus Celer in 62 BC see Cicero, ad Fam. 5. 1, 2.

9 Dio 37. 49. 1-4, Plutarch, Pompey 44, Cato the Younger 30. 5, Cicero, ad Att. 1. 18, 19.

10 Cicero, ad Att. 2. 1.

11 Horace, Odes 2. 1. 1; for a perceptive overview of these years see P. Wiseman, ‘The Senate and the Populares, 69-60 BC’, in CAH1 IX (1994), pp. 327-367, esp. pp. 358-367.

12 Cicero, ad Att. 2. 1, and 1. 17 for December 61 talk of alliance between Caesar and Lucceius. See M. Gelzer, Caesar (1968), p. 60, fn. 1, plausibly interpreting Suetonius’ words literally to indicate that Caesar divorced Pompeia by letter.

13 Appian, BC 2. 8, Plutarch, Cato the Younger 31. 2-3, Dio 37. 54. 1-2.

14 Suetonius, Caesar 19. 2; for the suggestion that this was a means of keeping the consuls in reserve see Seager (2002), p. 84; on personal hatreds and enemies see D. Epstein, Personal Enmity in Roman Politics 218-43 BC (1978).

15 See L. Ross Taylor, Roman Voting Assemblies:From the Hannibalic War to the Dictatorship of Caesar (1966), esp. pp. 84-106.

16 See Taylor (1966), pp. 54-55, H. Mouritsen, Plebs and Party Politics in the Late Roman Republic (2001), pp. 27-32; on the population of Rome at this time see N. Purcell, ‘The City of Rome and the plebs urbana in the Late Republic’, in CAH2 IX (1994), pp.644-688.

17 Suetonius, Caesar 19. 1; Cicero, ad Att. 1. 1; on the importance of the Italian vote see L. Ross Taylor, Party Politics in the Age of Caesar (1949), pp. 57-59.

18 Cicero, ad Att. 2. 3.

19 Suetonius, Caesar 19.

20 Suetonius, Caesar 19. 2, Dio 37. 56-58, Appian, BC 2. 9; see also Seager (2002), pp. 82-85, Ward (1977), pp. 210-216, Gelzer (1968), pp. 67-69, C. Meier, Caesar (1996), pp. 182-189.

21 Plutarch, Caesar 13, Pompey 47; on oaths see Livy, Pers. 103, Appian, BC 2. 9, and Pliny, Epistulae 10. 96; for a case of two enemies each canvassing for the same candidate see Cicero, ad Att. 2. 1.

22 Suetonius, Caesar 20. 1, cf. Plutarch, Cato the Younger 23. 3.

23 Dio 38. 1. 1-7, Suetonius, Caesar 20. 1; on the chronology of this year see L. Ross Taylor, ‘The Dating of Major Legislation and Elections in Caesar’s First Consulship’, Historia 17 (1968), pp. 173-193; see also Gelzer (1968), pp. 71-74, Meier (1996), pp. 207-213, Seager (2002), pp. 86-87; on the five ‘inner’ commissioners see Cicero, ad Att. 2. 7.

24 Dio 38. 2. 1-3. 3 Suetonius, Caesar 20. 4 gives a slightly different version apparently dating Cato’s arrest to later in the year. Plutarch, Cato the Younger 33. 1-2 also places this incident later; on Petreius’ military experience see Sallust, Bell. Cat. 59. 6.

25 Dio 38. 4. 1-3.

26 Dio 38. 4. 4-5. 5, Plutarch, Pompey 47; for the date of the vote see Taylor (1968), pp. 179-181.

27 Dio 38. 6. 1-3, Plutarch, Cato the Younger32. 2; see Taylor (1969), p. 179 on Bibulus’ intentions.

28 Dio 38. 6. 4-7. 2 , Appian, BC 2. 11, Plutarch, Cato the Younger 32. 2-6, Suetonius, Caesar 20. 1.

29 Suetonius, Caesar 20. 2, Dio 38. 8. 2; see also Taylor (1968), pp. 177-179.

30 Suetonius, Caesar 20. 3-4, 54. 3, Dio 38. 7. 4-6, Cicero, In Vatinium 29, 38; see Gelzer (1968), pp. 75-6, Seager (2002), p. 88; for some sense of Vatinius’ character see his letters to Cicero, ad Fam. 5. 9, 10 and 10A; on Caesar’s law regulating governors see T. Rice Holmes, The Roman Republic, 1 (1928), p. 319, and Cicero, pro Sestio 64, 135, In Pisonem 16, 37, In Vatinium 12, 29, ad Att. 5. 10. 2.

31 Suetonius, Caesar 21, 50. 1-2, and on his fondness for pearls 47, Plutarch, Pompey 47-48, Caesar 14, Dio 38. 9. 1.

32 Dio 38. 7. 3, Suetonius, Caesar 20. 3, Cicero, ad Att. 2. 15, 16, 17 and 18.

33 Dio 38. 12. 1-3, Cicero, de Domo 41, ad Att. 8. 3, de provinciis consularibus 42, Suetonius, Caesar 20. 4, Plutarch, Caesar 14; see also Gelzer (1968), pp. 76-78.

34 Cicero, ad Att. 2. 9.

35 Cicero, ad Att. 2. 16 and 17; on C. Cato see ad Quintum Fratrem 1. 2. 5.

36 Cicero, ad Att. 2. 19.

37 Cicero, ad Att. 2. 21, 22 and 23.

38 Cicero, ad Att. 2. 24.

39 Cicero, ad Att. 2. 24, In Vatinium 24-26, pro Sestio 132, Dio 38. 9. 2-10. 1, Suetonius, Caesar 20. 5, Appian, BC 2. 12-13, Plutarch, Lucullus 42. 7-8; for Caesar as the prime mover behind these events see Rice Holmes (1928), pp. 323-324 and Gelzer (1968), pp. 90-92, Meier (1996), p. 221; for Clodius see Seager (2002), pp. 98-99; for Pompey’s involvement see Ward (1977), pp. 236-241, Gruen, The Last Generation of the Roman Republic (1974), pp. 95-96; for a more complex interpretation and the suggestion that there may actually have been a plot see D. Stockton, Cicero (1971), pp. 183-186.

40 Suetonius, Caesar 23, 73, Scholia Bobiensia on Cicero, pro Sestio 40 and In Vatinium 15.

41 Suetonius, Caesar 22. 2 (Loeb translation); on Cicero’s fears of civil war see ad Att. 2. 20, 21 and 22.

IX Gaul

1 Pliny, NH 7. 92.

2 Hirtius from his preface to BG 8.

3 Pliny, NH 7. 92, Appian, BC 2. 150.

4 For Theophanes see Cicero, pro Archia 24; for Caesar’s earlier works see Suetonius, Caesar 56. 5-7; for the Commentaries in general see the collection of papers in K. Welch & A. Powell (eds.), Julius Caesar as Artful Reporter:The War Commentaries as Political Instruments (1998).

5 Cicero, Brutus 262.

6 ‘An orator should avoid a . . .’, see Gellius, NA 1. 10. 4; see also L. Hall, ‘Ratio and Romanitas in the Bellum Gallicum’, in Welch & Powell (1998), pp. 11-43, esp. p. 23.

7 For the dating of the Commentaries see M. Gelzer, Caesar (1968), pp. 170-172,

C. Meier, Caesar (1996), pp. 254-264; for the arguments in favour of annual publication see Welch & Powell (1998), and especially the article by P. Wiseman, ‘The Publication of the De Bello Gallico’, pp. 1-9, and also T. Rice Holmes, Caesar’s Conquest of Gaul (1911), pp. 202-209 see also Hirtius, BG 8 preface and Suetonius, Caesar 56. 3-4.

8 Cicero, de Finibus 5. 52; see also Wiseman (1998), esp. pp. 4-7.

9 Suetonius, Caesar 56. 4.

10 Cicero, de provinciis consularibus 3. 5, ad Quintum Fratrem 2. 14-16, 3. 1-9.

11 On Labienus see R. Syme, ‘The Allegiance of Labienus’, JRS 28 (1938), pp. 113-128, esp. p. 120 and W. Tyrrell, ‘Labienus’ Departure from Caesar in January 49 BC’, Historia 21 (1972), pp. 424-440.

12 On Cotta’s book see Cicero, ad Att. 13. 44. 3, cf. Athenaeus 273b and Hall, (1998), pp. 11-43, esp. p. 25; on the identity of Caesar’s legates see Broughton, MRR 2, pp. 197-199.

13 Caesar, BG 1. 39; Cicero, ad Att. 2. 18. 3, 19. 5, de provinciis consularibus 41; E. Gruen, The Last Generation of the Roman Republic (1974), pp. 112-116.

14 For Caesar’s legions see H. Parker, The Roman Legions (1957), pp. 47-71, esp. 55-56. On the army in this period see F. Adcock, The Roman Art of War under the Republic (1940), P. Brunt, Italian Manpower, 225 BC - AD 14 (1971), P. Connolly, Greece and Rome at War (1981), M. Feugere (ed.), L’Equipment Militaire et L’Armement de la Republique. JRMES 8 (1997), E. Gabba, The Roman Republic, the Army and the Allies (1976), L. Keppie, The Making of the Roman Army (1984), Y. Le Bohec, The Imperial Roman Army (1994), J. Harmand, L’armee et le soldat a Rome de 107 a 50 avant notre ere (1967).

15 For an introduction to this question with further references see A. Goldsworthy. The Roman Army at War, 100 BC - AD 200 (1996), pp. 31-32.

16 For equipment see Goldsworthy (1996), pp. 83-84, 209-219, M. Bishop & J. Coulston, Roman Military Equipment (1993), Connolly, (1981), and Feugere, (1997).

17 See D. Saddington, The Development of the Roman Auxiliary Forces from Caesar to Vespasian (1982); Caesar, BC 1. 39 for numbers of auxiliary cavalry and infantry.

18 For a discussion of this see C. Goudineau, Cesar et la Gaule (1995), pp. 130-148.

19 Caesar, BG 1. 1, 6. 11-20; for a good survey of Gallic society see N. Roymans, Tribal Societies in Northern Gaul: An Anthropological Perspective, Cingula 12 (1990), esp. pp. 17-47, and B. Cunliffe, Greeks, Romans and Barbarians: Spheres of Interaction (1988), esp. pp. 38-58 and 80-105.

20 See M. Todd, The Northern Barbarians (1987), pp. 11-13, The Early Germans (1992), pp. 8-13, C. M. Wells, The German Policy of Augustus (1972), pp. 14-31, and most recently the useful survey in P. Wells, The Barbarians Speak: How the Conquered Peoples Shaped the Roman Empire (1999).

21 For Domitius Ahenobarbus see Suetonius, Nero 2; on exchanging a slave for an amphora see Diodorus Siculus 5. 26. 3-4; on the relations between Gauls and Romans and the history of Transalpine Gaul see S. Dyson, The Creation of the Roman Frontier (1985), pp.126-173; on the wine trade see Cunliffe (1988), 59-105, esp. p. 74, and Roymans (1990), pp. 147-167 and A. Tchernia, ‘Italian Wine in Gaul at the End of the Republic’, in P. Garnsey, K. Hopkins & C. Whittaker (eds.), Trade in the Ancient Economy (1983), pp. 87-104.

22 Wells (1999), pp.49-78, Cunliffe (1988), pp. 48-49, 86-87, 96-97, 132-134, Dyson (1985), pp. 137-139, 154, and C. Goudineau (1995), pp. 141-143.

23 On human sacrifice at Rome see Pliny, NH 30. 12-13; on head-hunting see Polybius 3. 67, Livy 10. 26, 23. 24, Diodorus Siculus 5. 29. 2-5, M. Green, Dictionary of Celtic Myth and Legend (1992), pp. 116-118; on human sacrifice in Germany see Todd (1992), pp. 112-115.

24 Strabo, Geog. 4. 4. 5 (Loeb translation by H. Jones (1923), p. 247).

25 Caesar, BG 6. 15, cf. Strabo, Geog. 4. 4. 2; on Ribemont-sur-Ancre see T. Derks, Gods, Temples and Ritual Practices: The Transformation of Religious Ideas and Values in Roman Gaul (1998), p. 48, 234-5.

26 Caesar, BG 1. 18, 31-33; see also Dyson (1985), pp. 169-170, Cunliffe (1988), p. 94, 118.

27 For a more detailed discussion of Gallic armies see Goldsworthy (1996), pp. 53-60.

28 Dyson (1985), pp. 168-171; Caesar, BG 1. 36, 40, 44, Cicero, ad Att. 1. 19, 20.

X Migrants and Mercenaries: The first campaigns, 58 BC

1 Cicero, ad Att. 1. 19.

2 Caesar, BG 1. 6-7, Plutarch, Caesar 17.

3 Caesar, BG 1. 2.

4 Caesar, BG 1. 2-3, 18, cf. C. Goudineau, Cesar et la Gaule (1995), 136-137.

5 Caesar, BG 1. 4, Pliny, NH 2. 170 records the meeting between Roman ambassadors and a Suebian king, who was probably Ariovistus; see also S. Dyson, The Creation of the Roman Frontier (1985), pp. 169-170. 172, B. Cunliffe, Greeks, Romans and Barbarians: Spheres of Interaction (1988), pp. 114-117.

6 For a discussion see T. Rice Holmes, Caesar’s Conquest of Gaul (1911) pp. 218-224, and H. Delbruck, History of the Art of War, Volume 1: Warfare in Antiquity (1975), pp. 459-478.

7 Caesar, BG 6. 11; on the desire for allied tribes around provincial frontiers see Dyson (1985), pp. 170-173.

8 Caesar, BG 1. 5-6; for the focus on the Balkans, see Goudineau (1995), pp. 130-148; for Helvetii’s numbers and size of columns see Holmes (1911), pp. 239-240, Delbruck (1975), pp. 460-463.

9 Caesar, BG 1. 7-8, cf Appian, Mithridatic Wars 99, Plutarch, Crassus 10.

10 Caesar, BG 1. 8.

11 Caesar, BG 1. 10.

12 Caesar, BG 1. 10-11, Cicero, de provinciis consularibus 28, Suetonius, Caesar 24; L. Keppie, The Making of the Roman Army (1984), p. 98.

13 Caesar, BG 1. 11, 16; on the logistics of the Roman army, including discussions of the number of slaves and camp followers see P. Erdkamp, Hunger and Sword: Warfare and Food Supply in Roman Republican Wars 264-30 BC (1998), J. Roth, The Logistics of the Roman Army at War, 264 BC-AD 235 (1999), A. Labisch, Frumentum Commeatusque. Die Nahrungsmittelversongung der Heere Caesars (1975), and A. Goldsworthy, The Roman Army at War, 100 BC - AD 200 (1996), pp. 287-296.

14 Caesar, BG 1. 12.

15 Caesar, BG 1. 13.

16 Caesar, BG 1. 13-14.

17 Caesar, BG 1. 15-16.

18 Caesar, BG 1. 16-20, cf. Goudineau (1995), p. 138.

19 See Arrian, Alexander 3. 10. 1-4 on the danger and difficulties of night attacks.

20 Caesar, BG 1. 21-22; for a discussion of this operation see Goldsworthy (1996), pp. 128-130.

21 Caesar, BG 1. 23.

22 Sallust, Bell. Cat. 59, Plutarch, Crassus 11. 6; for a discussion of the commander’s role before and during battle see Goldsworthy (1996), pp. 131-163; on pre-battle speeches see M. Hansen, ‘The Battle Exhortation in Ancient Historiography: Fact or Fiction’, Historia 42 (1993), pp. 161-180.

23 For the battle see Caesar, BG 1. 24-26; for discussion of the nature of battles in this period see Goldsworthy (1996), pp. 171-247.

24 Caesar, BG 26-29.

25 Caesar, BG 1. 30-33.

26 Caesar, BG 1. 34-37.

27 Caesar, BG 1. 39.

28 Dio 38. 35. 2.

29 Caesar, BG 1. 40.

30 Caesar, BG 1. 39-41.

31 Caesar, BG 1. 41, cf. Plutarch, Sulla 5 for the fame he derived from being the first Roman magistrate to receive a Parthian envoy.

32 Caesar, BG 1. 42-46.

33 Caesar, BG 1. 46-47.

34 Caesar, BG 1. 48, cf. Tacitus, Germania 6; for a discussion of Germanic armies see Goldsworthy (1996), pp. 42-53.

35 Caesar, BG 1. 49.

36 For the encouragement offered by German women to their warrior husbands see Tacitus, Germania 7-8.

37 Caesar, BG 1. 51-54; See Frontinus, Strategemata 2. 6. 3 on letting the Germans escape.

38 Caesar, BG 1. 54.

XI ‘The Bravest of the Gaulish Peoples’: The Belgae, 57 BC

1 Caesar, BG 2. 15.

2 Strabo, Geog. 4. 4. 2 (Loeb translation by H. Jones (1923), p. 237).

3 For promotions of centurions for gallantry see Caesar, BG 6. 40; Suetonius, Caesar 65. 1; on centurions’ command style and heavy casualties see A. Goldsworthy, The Roman Army at War, 100 BC -AD 200 (1996), pp. 257-8, cf. Caesar, BG 7. 51, BC 3. 99; also on the competition to show conspicuous valour and win promotion or reward see BG 5. 44, 7. 47, 50, BC 3. 91.

4 On sudden marches and relaxed discipline see Suetonius, Caesar 65, 67; for a discussion of Marius’ style of command see A. Goldsworthy, In the Name of Rome (2003), pp. 113-136 (or 2004 edn, pp. 127-153).

5 Plutarch, Caesar 17 (Loeb translation by B. Perrin (1919), p. 483).

6 See Suetonius, Caesar 67. 2 for commilitones and inlaid weapons; see also Polybius 6. 39 and Goldsworthy (1996), pp. 264-282 on individual boldness.

7 On Pompeius Trogus see Justin, 43. 5. 12; for Caesar dictating letters while on horseback see Plutarch, Caesar 17; on receiving petitioners while in Cisalpine Gaul for the winter, Plutarch, Caesar 20.

8 On Valerius Meto see Plutarch, Caesar 17; for dining arrangements see Suetonius, Caesar 48; Catullus, 29.

9 Catullus, 57 (Loeb translation by F. Cornish (1988), pp. 67-69).

10 Suetonius, Caesar 73.

11 Suetonius, Caesar 51; Tacitus, Histories 4. 55; for other poems attacking Mamurra see Catullus, 41, 43.

12 Caesar, BG 2. 1; for a summary of Pompey’s campaigns see Goldsworthy (2003), pp. 169-179 (or 2004 edn, pp. 190-201).

13 See N. Roymans, Tribal Societies in Northern Gaul: An Anthropological Perspective, Cingula 12 (1990), pp. 11-15, cf. Tacitus, Germania 28, Caesar, BG 2. 4, 15, 5. 12; on resistance to Cimbri see BG 2. 4, and descent from them of the Atuatuci, 2. 29.

14 Caesar, BG 2. 2-5; on numbers see T. Rice Holmes, Caesar’s Conquest of Gaul (1911), p. 71, and L. Rawlings, ‘Caesar’s Portrayal of Gauls as Warriors’, in K. Welch & A. Powell, Julius Caesar as Artful Reporter: The War Commentaries as Political Instruments (1998), pp. 171-192, esp. 175, and fn. 13. For an extremely critical view of Caesar’s numbers see H. Delbruck, History of the Art of War, Volume 1: Warfare in Antiquity (1975), pp.488-494. Delbruck believed that barbarians were markedly superior fighters to civilised Romans, and as a result consistently reduces the size of their forces, while inflating the numbers in Caesar’s army.

15 Caesar, BG 2. 5-7.

16 For Sulla’s use of trenches to protect his flanks see Frontinus, Strategemata 2. 3. 17.

17 Caesar, BG 2. 8-11.

18 Caesar, BG 2. 11-13.

19 Caesar, BG 2. 13-15.

20 Caesar, BG 2. 16-18, cf. 28 on the strength of the Nervii at the battle.

21 For the possible significance of the site see Rawlings (1998), pp. 176-177; for the suggestion of Maubeuge see Rice Holmes (1911), p. 76.

22 Caesar, BG 2. 19; cf. Rice Holmes (1911), p. 77 for Napoleon’s comments; on marching camps see Goldsworthy (1996), pp.111-113.

23 Caesar, BG 2. 20; on delays before battle see Goldsworthy (1996), pp. 143-145.

24 Caesar, BG 2. 20-24.

25 Caesar, BG 2. 25.

26 See Goldsworthy (1996), pp. 154-163, esp. 160-161, and (2003), pp. 155, 176, 195 (or 2004 edn, pp. 175, 198, 219); on the nature of combat see Goldsworthy (1996), pp. 191-227.

27 Caesar, BG 2. 27-28.

28 Caesar, BG 2. 29-32.

29 Caesar, BG 2. 33; on his reluctance to let soldiers loose in a town during the hours of darkness see BC 1. 21, 2. 12, African War 3; on ritual offerings see BG 6. 17, Suetonius, Caesar 54. 2.

30 Caesar, BG 2. 35, Dio 39. 25. 1-2, cf. M. Gelzer, Caesar (1968), pp. 116-118.

XII Politics and War: The Conference of Luca

1 Cicero, ad Quintum Fratrem 2. 3. 3-4.

2 Cicero, de provinciis consularibus 25.

3 Publius and Claudia in the First Punic War see Livy, Pers. 19, Cicero, de natura deorum 2. 7, Florus 1. 19. 29, Suetonius, Tiberius 2. 3, Gellius, NA 10. 6.

4 Plutarch, Lucullus 34, 38, Cicero, pro Milone 73; for a discussion of the family’s position see E. Gruen, The Last Generation of the Roman Republic (1974), pp. 97-100; on the identity of Lesbia see Apuleius, Apologia 10.

5 Dio 38. 12-13, see also M. Gelzer, Caesar (1968), pp. 96-99, G. Rickman, The Corn Supply of Ancient Rome (1979), pp. 104-119.

6 Plutarch, Cicero 30-32, Cato the Younger 34-40, see also D. Stockton, Cicero (1971), pp. 167-193, R. Seager, Pompey the Great (2002), pp. 101-103.

7 Plutarch, Cicero 33-34, Seager (2002), 103-109.

8 Cicero, pro Sestio 71, de provinciis consularibus 43, In Pisonem 80, ad Fam. 1. 9. 9; on Pompey and the Egyptian command see especially Cicero, ad Fam. 1. 1-9; see also Seager (2002), pp. 107-109, Gelzer (1968), pp. 117-119.

9 Cicero, ad Quintum Fratrem 2. 3. 2.

10 For Ahenobarbus see Cicero, ad Att. 4. 8b; for the Campanian land see Cicero, ad Quintum Fratrem 2. 1. 1, 6. 1, ad Fam. 1. 9. 8.

11 Suetonius, Caesar 24. 1.

12 Appian, BC 2. 17, Plutarch, Pompey 50, Caesar 21, Crassus 14; see also Gelzer (1968), pp.120-124, Seager (2002), pp. 110-119, C. Meier Caesar (1996), pp. 270-273, A. Ward, Marcus Crassus and the Late Roman Republic (1977), pp. 262-288.

13 Cicero, ad Fam. 1. 9. 8-10, ad Quintum Fratrem 2. 7. 2; for the accusation of incest between Clodia and her brother see pro Caelio 32.

14 Cicero, de provinciis consularibus 32-33.

15 Plutarch, Crassus 15, Pompey 51-52, Cato the Younger 41-42, Dio 39. 27. 1-32. 3; Seager (2002), pp. 120-122.

16 For ‘All Gaul at peace’ see Caesar, BG 3. 7, for Galba in the Alps see 3. 1-6, for Crassus see 2. 34, 3. 7.

17 Caesar, BG 3. 8-11.

18 Caesar, BG 3. 11-16; cf. Gelzer (2002), p. 126, and Meier (1996), pp. 274-275 pointing out that Caesar’s officers were not ambassadors.

19 For Sabinus see Caesar, BG 3. 17-19; for Crassus see 3. 20-26, for Caesar and the Morini see 3. 27-28.

13 ‘Over the Waters’: The British and German Expeditions, 55-54 BC

1 Cicero, ad Att. 4. 18.

2 Tacitus, Agricola 13.

3 Caesar, BG 4. 20, Suetonius, Caesar 47, Plutarch, Caesar 23.

4 Caesar, BG 4. 1-4, Plutarch, Caesar 22; for a detailed discussion of the incident see A. Powell, ‘Julius Caesar and the Presentation of Massacre’, in K. Welch & A. Powell (eds.), Julius Caesar as Artful Reporter: The War Commentaries as Political Instruments (1998), pp. 111-137.

5 See Powell (1998), esp. pp. 124-129; on Roman resistance to peoples moving into frontier zones see S. Dyson, The Creation of the Roman Frontier (1985), esp. pp. 172-173.

6 Caesar, BG 4. 5-7; in 52 BC he referred to his reluctance to trust his security to the tribal leaders, see BG 7. 6.

7 Caesar, BG 4. 7-9.

8 Caesar, BG 4. 11-12; cf. 4. 2 on German scorn for saddles; on small size of German horses see 7. 65, Tacitus, Germania 6.

9 Caesar, BG 4. 13-14.

10 Caesar, BG 4. 14-15.

11 Caesar, BG 4. 14-16.

12 Plutarch, Cato the Younger 51. 1-2 (Loeb translation).

13 Suetonius, Caesar 24. 3, and M. Gelzer, Caesar (1968), pp. 130-132, C. Meier, Caesar (1996), pp. 282-284.

14 Plutarch, Cato the Younger 51. 2 (Loeb Translation).

15 On Cato’s attack see Powell (1998), pp. 123, 127-128, Gelzer (1968), pp. 131-132.

16 Caesar, BG 4. 16-18, cf. T. Rice Holmes, Caesar’s Conquest of Gaul (1911), p. 100.

17 Caesar, BG 4. 18-19.

18 Caesar, BG 4. 20, 22. For general accounts of Caesar’s expeditions and their place within the wider context of the later Roman conquest of Britain see G. Webster, The Roman Invasion of Britain, rev. edn (1993), pp. 43-40, and M. Todd, Roman Britain, 3rd edn. (1999), pp. 4-22. The most detailed treatment remains T. Rice Holmes, Ancient Britain and the Invasions of Julius Caesar (1907). See also the excellent recent analysis by G. Grainge, The Roman Invasions of Britain (2005), esp. pp. 83-109. It is not possible in a study of this nature to enter into the vigorous debates over many of the details of Caesar’s expeditions.

19 Caesar, BG 4. 20-21; see the comments in N. Austin & B. Rankov, Exploratio: Military and Political Intelligence in the Roman World (1995), p. 13, who are critical of Caesar’s failure to discover more information and cite Polybius 3. 48 in support. On the ports of Britain and trade with Europe see B. Cunliffe, Greeks, Romans and Barbarians (1988), pp. 145-149; on the coastline see the survey in Grainge (2005), pp. 17-42, 105-107.

20 Caesar, BG 4. 23-24; on the possible choice of Dover for the landing see Grainge (2005), pp. 101-105.

21 Caesar, BG 4. 25.

22 Caesar, BG 4. 25-26.

23 Caesar, BG 4. 27-30; for ‘ ... peace was established’, see 4. 28; see also Grainge (2005), pp. 107-109.

24 Caesar, BG 4. 33.

25 Caesar, BG 4. 32-35.

26 Caesar, BG 4. 36-38.

27 Caesar, BG 4.38, Dio 39. 53. 1-2.

28 Caesar, BG 5. 1-7.

29 Caesar, BG 5. 5, 8.

30 Caesar, BG 5. 9.

31 Caesar, BG 5. 10-11; see also Grainge (2005), p. 105-106.

32 Caesar, BG 5. 11, 15-16.

33 Caesar, BG 5. 17-22.

34 Caesar, BG 5. 22-23. In AD 16 part of a Roman army travelling by sea off Germany was blown off course and landed in Britain. The soldiers brought back wild tales of its inhabitants, see Tacitus, Annals 2. 24.

35 Cicero, ad Att. 4. 17; on excitement from receipt of his brother Quintus’ account of operations in Britain see ad Quintum Fratrem 2. 16. 4.

XIV Rebellion, Disaster and Vengeance

1 Caesar, BG 5. 33.

2 Plutarch, Pompey 53, Suetonius, Caesar 26. 1, Vellieus Paterculus 2. 47. 2, Dio 39. 64.

3 Plutarch, Caesar 23; on Trebonius’ law see Velleius Paterculus 2. 46. 2, Plutarch, Crassus 15, Dio 39. 33. 2; on Pompey’s position at this period see R. Seager, Pompey the Great (2002), pp. 120-132, esp. 123-124.

4 Plutarch, Crassus 15-16, Dio 39. 39. 5-7, Cicero, ad Att. 4. 13. 2, and A. Ward, Marcus Crassus and the Late Roman Republic (1977), pp. 243-253, 262-288.

5 Cicero, ad Quintum Fratrem 2. 15a. 3; for letters to Cicero from Caesar during the British campaign see Cicero, ad Quintum Fratrem 3. 1. 17 and 25, ad Att. 4. 18. 5; on Quintus as Caesar’s legate see M. Gelzer, Caesar (1968), pp. 138-139.

6 For letter of recommendation to Caesar see Cicero, ad Fam. 7. 5, letters to Trebatius, ad Fam. 7. 6-19, Cicero, ad Quintum Fratrem 2. 15a. 3 for quote; see also Gelzer (1968), pp. 138-139.

7 Caesar, BG 5. 24-25; Cicero, ad Att. 4. 19.

8 Caesar, BG 5. 26.

9 Caesar, BG 5. 26-37.

10 For a discussion see A. Powell, ‘Julius Caesar and the Presentation of Massacre’, in K. Welch & A. Powell (eds.), Julius Caesar as Artful Reporter: The War Commentaries as Political Instruments (1998), pp. 111-137, esp. 116-121, & Gelzer (1968), p. 143; for it seen as Caesar’s defeat see Suetonius, Caesar 25. 2, Plutarch, Caesar 24, Appian, BC 2. 150; for a consideration of this campaign within the framework of Roman strategy see A. Goldsworthy, The Roman Army at War, 100 BC -ad 200 (1996), pp. 79-84, 90-95.

11 Caesar, BG 5. 38-45, 52; on four tragedies in sixteen days see Cicero, ad Quintum Fratrem 3. 5/6. 8.

12 Caesar, BG 5. 46-47; on the presence of Trebatius see Cicero, ad Fam. 7. 16, 11, 12.

13 Caesar, BG 5. 47-48, Suetonius, Caesar 67. 2.

14 Caesar, BG 5. 48-49, Suetonius, Caesar 66.

15 Caesar, BG 5. 49-51.

16 Cicero, ad Fam. 7. 10. 2.

17 Caesar, BG 5. 53.

18 Caesar, BG 5. 52-58.

19 Caesar, BG 6. 1-2; on plundering see J. Roth, The Logistics of the Roman Army at War, 264 BC-AD 235 (1999), pp. 305-309; on legionary numbers see L. Keppie, The Making of the Roman Army (1984), p. 87.

20 Caesar, BG 6. 3-4.

21 Caesar, BG 6. 5-8.

22 Caesar, BG 6. 9-10, 29.

23 For a wide discussion of the importance of rivers see D. Braund, ‘River Frontiers in the Environmental Psychology of the Roman World’, in D. Kennedy (ed.), The Roman Army in the East, JRA Supplementary Series 18 (1996), pp. 43-47.

24 Caesar, BG 6. 29-34, on the death of Catuvolcus see 6. 31.

25 Caesar, BG 6. 43.

26 Caesar, BG 6. 35-44; on the impact of Caesar’s campaigns on the region see N. Roymans, Tribal Societies in Northern Gaul: An Anthropological Perspective, Cingula 12 (1990), pp. 136-144 and ‘The North Belgic Tribes in the First Century BC’ in R. Brandt & J. Slofstra (eds.), Roman and Native in the Low Countries, BAR 184 (1983), pp. 43-69.

27 On date of release see P. Wiseman, ‘The Publication of the De Bello Gallico’, in Welch & Powell (1998), pp. 1-9, esp. 5-6; on the elk see Caesar, BG 6. 27.

28 The main accounts of Carrhae are Plutarch, Crassus 17-33 and Dio 40. 12-30.

XV The Man and the Hour: Vercingetorix and the Great Revolt, 52 BC

1 Caesar, BG 7. 1.

2 For a classic study of fighting ‘colonial’ wars between a regular army on one side and irregular forces on the other see C. Calwell, Small Wars (1906); a readily accessible introduction to the topic is D. Porch, Wars of Empire (2000).

3 On elevation of Commius see Caesar, BG 7. 76.

4 For reaction to death of Acco see Caesar, BG,7. 1-2; importance of a retinue, BG 1. 18, 6. 15; annual meeting of druids in land of Carnutes, BG 6. 13; for Caesar’s attitude to the Gauls see J. Barlow, ‘Noble Gauls and their other,’ and L. Rawlings, ‘Caesar’s Portrayal of the Gauls as Warriors,’ both in K. Welch & A. Powell (eds.), Julius Caesar as Artful Reporter: the War Commentaries as Political Instruments (1998), pp. 139-170, and 171-192 respectively.

5 For the events of these months in Rome see M. Gelzer, Caesar (1968), pp. 145-152, C. Meier, Caesar (1996), pp. 297-301, and R. Seager, Pompey the Great (2002), pp. 126-135; Cicero in Ravenna, ad Att. 7. 1. 4; on the role of legates see K. Welch, ‘Caesar and his Officers in the Gallic War Commentaries’, in Welch & Powell (1998), pp. 85-103.

6 Caesar, BG 7. 4; on friendly relations between Vercingetorix and Caesar see Dio 40. 41. 1, 3.

7 Caesar, BG 7. 5; on rebellions see A. Goldsworthy, The Roman Army at War, 100 BC-AD 200 (1996), pp. 79-95, esp. 90-95.

8 Caesar, BG 7. 6-7; for 400 German cavalry see 7. 13.

9 Caesar, BG 7. 7-9; Suetonius, Caesar 58. 1 for story of dressing as a Gaul.

10 Caesar, BG 7. 10; on initiative see Goldsworthy (1996), pp. 90-92, 94-95, 99-100,

114-115, and Calwell (1906), pp. 71-83.

11 Caesar, BG 7. 11-13.

12 Caesar, BG 7. 14.

13 Caesar, BG 7. 14-15.

14 Caesar, BG 7. 16-17; for the types of food eaten by Roman soldiers see R. Davies, ‘The Roman Military Diet’, in R. Davies, Service in the Roman Army (1989), pp. 187-206.

15 Caesar, BG 7. 18-21; on the problems of supplying tribal armies see Goldsworthy (1996), pp. 56-60.

16 Caesar, BG 7. 22-25; cf. Rawlings (1998), pp. 171-192.

17 Caesar, BG 7. 28.

18 Caesar, BG 7. 26-28; Polybius 10. 15. 4-6, cf. W. Harris, War and Imperialism in Republican Rome 327—70 BC (1979), pp. 51-53.

19 Caesar, BG 7. 32-34.

20 Caesar, BG 7. 28-31, 35.

21 Caesar, BG 7. 36.

22 Caesar, BG 7. 37-41.

23 Caesar, BG 7. 42-44.

24 Caesar, BG 7. 45.

25 Caesar, BG 7. 47.

26 Caesar, BG 7. 50.

27 For the account of Gergovia see Caesar, BG 7. 44-54, and see also the comments on the style of this passage in A. Powell, ‘Julius Caesar and the Presentation of Massacre’, in Welch & Powell, (1998), pp. 111-137, esp. 122-123; for ‘kicking the enemy in the stomach’ see Plutarch, Lucullus 9. 1.

28 Caesar, BG 7. 55-56, 63-67; for Labienus’ operations see 7. 57-62.

29 Caesar, BG 7. 68-69; on this campaign see J. Harmand, Une Campagne Cesarienne: Alesia (1967), J. Le Gall, La Bataille D’Alesia (2000), and H. Delbruck, History of the Art of War, Volume 1: Warfare in Antiquity (1975), pp. 495-507, mentioning Napoleon’s comments on p. 501.

30 Caesar, BG 7. 69, 72-73, and comments in Le Gall (2000), pp. 64-77.

31 Caesar, BG 7. 70-71, 75-78; for a discussion of the size of the relief army see Le Gall (2000), pp. 82-84.

32 Caesar, BG 7. 79-81.

33 Caesar, BG 7. 88.

34 For the account of the final battle see Caesar, BG 7. 82-88.

35 Caesar, BG 7. 89, Plutarch, Caesar 27. 5, Dio 40. 41. 1-3.

36 Caesar, BG 7. 89-90.

XVI All Gaul is Conquered’

1 Cicero. ad Fam. 8. 1. 4

2 Suetonius, Caesar 56. 5, Cicero, Brutus 252-255, ad Quintum Fratrem 2. 16. 5, 3. 9. 6-7.

3 On the opening of Pompey’s theatre see Dio 39. 38. 1-6, Pliny, NH 7. 34, 8. 21-22, Plutarch, Pompey 52-53. 1; for criticism of Pompey see Cicero, de Officiis 2. 60, and of others, Tacitus, Annals 14. 20; the number of elephants was variously reported as seventeen, eighteen and twenty.

4 Cicero, ad Att. 4. 17. 7, Suetonius, Caesar 26. 2, Pliny, NH 36. 103; for gladiators in school at Capua see Caesar, BC 1. 14, and on the importance of games see Z. Yavetz, Julius Caesar and His Public Image (1983), pp. 165-168.

5 See Dio 40. 48. 1-52. 4, Plutarch, Pompey 54-55, and also R. Seager, Pompey the Great (2002), pp. 130-135, M. Gelzer, Caesar (1968), pp. 148-152.

6 Plutarch, Cicero 35, Dio 40. 54. 1-4, E. Gruen, The Last Generation of the Roman Republic (1974), pp. 338-342.

7 Seager (2002), pp. 137-139, Gruen (1974), pp. 150-159.

8 Plutarch, Pompey 55. 1-2, Cato the Younger 49-50, Dio 40. 56. 3-58. 4, Suetonius, Caesar 28. 3; Seager (2002), pp. 131-132, Gruen (1974), pp. 154, 454.

9 Caesar, BC 1. 32, Suetonius, Caesar 26. 1, Appian, BC 2. 25, Dio 40. 51. 2, and Gelzer (1968), pp. 146-148, Seager (2002), pp. 137-139.

10 Caesar, BG 8. 1-5.

11 For the campaign against the Bellovaci see Caesar, BG 8. 6-23; Commius, 8. 23, 47-48; Ambiorix, 8. 25.

12 Caesar, BG 8. 49.

13 On Uxellodunum see Caesar, BG 8. 26-44, and comments on executions in A. Powell, ‘Julius Caesar and the Presentation of Massacre’, in K. Welch & A. Powell (eds.), Julius Caesar as Artful Reporter: The War Commentaries as Political Instruments (1998), pp. 111-137, esp. 129-132; Carnutes, 8. 38; for rebellion of Bellovaci in 46 BC see Livy Pers. 114.

14 On casualties see Plutarch, Caesar 15, Pliny, NH 7. 92, Velleius Paterculus 2. 47. 1, and see comments in C. Goudineau, Cesar et la Gaule (1995), pp. 308-311.

15 For a discussion of Caesar as a general see A. Goldsworthy, ‘Instinctive Genius: The depiction of Caesar the General’, in K. Welch & A. Powell (1998), pp. 193-219.

XVII The Road to the Rubicon

1 Suetonius, Caesar 31. 2.

2 Cicero, ad Att. 7. 3.

3 On the struggle to get the ten tribunes to pass the law see Cicero, ad Fam. 6. 6. 5, and ad Att. 7. 3. 4, 8. 3. 3.

4 On Caesar’s alleged ambition see Suetonius, Caesar 9, Plutarch, Caesar 4, 6, 28, Cicero, Philippics 5. 49.

5 For Cato and Pompey see Plutarch, Cato the Younger 48. 1-2, Pompey 54; Cato and Milo see Asconius on Cicero, pro Milonem 95, pp. 53-54, Velleius Paterculus 2. 47. 4, Cicero, ad Fam. 15. 4. 12.

6 Suetonius, Caesar 28. 2-3, Appian, BC 2. 25, Dio 40. 59. 1-4; on debate over the legion see Cicero, ad Fam. 8. 4. 4; for the debate on 29 September see 8. 8. 4-9; for a general discussion see M. Gelzer, Caesar (1968), pp. 175-178, R. Seager, Pompey the Great (2002), pp. 140-143, J. Leach, Pompey (1978), pp. 150-172, esp. 161.

7 For the flogging of the magistrate see Suetonius, Caesar 28. 3, Appian, BC 2. 26, Plutarch, Caesar 29, Cicero, ad Att. 5. 11. 2; see Caelius’ quote from Cicero, ad Fam. 8. 8. 9.

8 Discussions of the terminal date of Caesar’s command see Seager (2002), pp. 191-193, T. Mitchell, Cicero: The Senior Statesman (1991), pp. 237-239, P. Cuff,

‘The Terminal Date of Caesar’s Gallic Command’, Historia 7 (1958), pp. 445-471, D. Stockton, ‘Quis iustius induit arma’, Historia 24 (1975), pp. 222-259, and in general E. Gruen, The Last Generation of the Roman Republic (1974), pp. 460-497.

9 Suetonius, Caesar 30. 3; for a discussion of Pompey’s attitude see Seager (2002), pp. 138-147.

10 On buying Curio and Paullus see Suetonius, Caesar 29. 1, Plutarch, Caesar 29, Pompey 58, Dio 40. 60. 2-3, Appian, BC 2. 26, Valerius Maximus 9. 1. 6, Velleius Paterculus 2. 48. 4; on revolving theatres see Pliny, NH 36. 177; on Caelius’ belief in Curio’s planned opposition to Caesar see Cicero, ad Fam. 8. 8. 10, moderated at 8. 10. 4.

11 Quotation from Cicero, ad Fam. 8. 11. 3; for the earlier debate see Velleius Paterculus 2. 48. 2-3, Plutarch, Pompey 57, Caesar 30, Cato the Younger 51, and Dio 40. 62. 3; for discussion see Seager (2002), p. 144, and Gelzer (1968), pp. 178-181.

12 Quotation from Cicero, ad Fam. 8. 14. 4; more generally see Cicero, ad Fam. 8.

13. 2, 8. 14, Appian, BC 2. 27-30, Plutarch, Caesar 29, Dio 40. 60, 1-66. 5.

13 Appian, BC 2. 28, with a slightly different version in Plutarch, Pompey 58, cf. Dio 60. 64. 1-4; on Cicero’s attitude see Mitchell (1991), pp. 243-248.

14 Cicero, ad Att. 7. 3. 4-5, 7. 4. 3, 7. 5. 5, 7. 6. 2, 7. 7. 5-6, ad Fam. 8. 14. 3; Mitchell (1991) pp. 232-248.

15 For Caesar’s attitude see especially Suetonius, Caesar 30. 2-5; on Gabinius see Seager (2002), pp. 128-130.

16 Lucan, Pharsalia 1. 25-26, and in general 1. 98-157; on censorship of Appius Claudius see Dio 40. 57. 2-3, 63. 2-64. 1.

17 Plutarch, Antony 2-5.

18 For Hirtius see Cicero, ad Att. 7. 4; Plutarch, Pompey 59, Caesar, BG 8. 52. 3, Dio 40. 64. 3-4, Appian, BC 2. 31.

19 Caesar, BC 1. 1-5, Plutarch, Pompey 59, Caesar 31, Suetonius, Caesar 29. 2, Appian, BC 2. 32; on Cicero’s involvement in negotiations see ad Fam. 16. 11. 2, ad Att. 8. 11d.

20 Caesar, BC 1. 5, Dio 41. 1. 1-3. 4, Appian, BC 2. 32-33, Cicero, ad Att. 7. 8, ad Fam. 16. 11. 3; on Antony vomiting his words see ad Fam. 12. 2.

21 Suetonius, Caesar 31-32, Plutarch, Caesar 32, Appian, BC 2. 35.

XVIII Blitzkrieg: Italy and Spain, Winter-Autumn, 49 BC

1 Cicero, ad Att. 7. 11.

2 Cicero, ad Att. 9. 7C.

3 Caesar, BC 1. 7-8, Appian, BC 2. 33, Suetonius, Caesar 33, Dio 41. 4. 1; on the centurions recommended by Pompey see Suetonius, Caesar 75. 1; on soldiers’ pay see Suetonius, Caesar 26. 3, and discussion of pay in G. Watson, The Roman Soldier (1969), pp. 89-92.

4 For Marcellus in R. Syme, Roman Revolution (1939), p. 62; Brutus see Plutarch, Brutus 4.

5 See Caesar, BG 8. 52, Cicero, ad Att. 7. 7. 6, 7. 12. 5, 7. 13. 1, ad Fam. 16. 12. 4, Dio 41. 4. 2-4, and R. Syme, ‘The Allegiance of Labienus,’ JRS 28 (1938), pp. 113-125, & W. Tyrell, ‘Labienus’ Departure from Caesar in January 49 BC’, Historia 21 (1972), pp. 424-440.

6 Cicero, ad Fam. 8. 14. 3.

7 Caesar, BC 1. 6, Cicero, ad Fam. 16. 12. 3.

8 Cicero, ad Att. 7. 14.

9 Caesar, BC 1. 8-11, Dio 41. 5. 1-10. 2, Appian, BC 2. 36-37, Plutarch, Caesar 33-34, Pompey 60-61, Cato the Younger 52.

10 Caesar, BC 1. 12-15.

11 Caesar, BC 1. 16-23 and quote from 1. 23, cf. Dio 41. 2-11. 3; for the letters between Domitius and Pompey see Cicero, ad Att. 8. 11A, 12B, 12C, 12D.

12 Plutarch, Pompey 57, 60.

13 Caesar, BC 1. 24-29, Dio 41. 12. 1-3, Appian, BC 2. 38-40; for surveys of the beginning of the Civil War see M. Gelzer, Caesar (1968), pp. 192-204, C. Meier, Caesar (1996), pp. 364-387, and R. Seager, Pompey the Great (2002), pp. 152-161.

14 Caesar, BC 1. 29-31, Cicero, ad Att. 7. 11. 3, 9. 1. 3, 11. 3, Appian, BC 2. 37; Suetonius, Caesar 34. 2 for the quote.

15 T. Mitchell, Cicero: The Senior Statesman (1991), pp.243-266.

16 Cicero, ad Fam. 2. 15, 8. 11. 2, ad Att. 7. 1. 7, 2. 5-7, 3. 5, cf. Mitchell (1991), pp. 235-236.

17 Cicero, ad Att. 9. 6a; see also ad Att. 8. 13, 9. 13. 4, 15. 3, 16. 1-2, 9. 1. 2, 5. 4, 8. 1.

18 Cicero, ad Att. 9. 11a for Cicero’s letter of 19 March; 9. 16 for Caesar’s letter of

26 March; 9. 18 for the meeting.

19 Caesar, BC 1. 32-33, Dio 41. 15. 1-16. 4.

20 Caesar, BC 1. 32-33, Dio 41. 17. 1-3, Appian, BC 2. 41, Plutarch, Caesar 35, Pliny, NH 33. 56, Orosius 6. 15. 5.

21 See, for example, Cicero, ad Att. 10. 4. 8, ad Fam. 8. 16. 2-5.

22 Sallust, Bell. Cat. 59. 6, Pliny, NH 22. 11; Caesar, BC 1. 38-39.

23 Caesar, BC 1. 37, 39, Dio 41. 19. 1-4, Velleius Paterculus 2. 50. 3, Cicero, ad Att. 10.

8b.

24 For the quotation see Caesar, BC 1. 39; more generally see 1. 37-40.

25 Caesar, BC 1. 41-42.

26 Caesar, BC 1. 44-48.

27 Caesar, BC 1. 47-55, 59-61.

28 Caesar, BC 1. 61-65.

29 Caesar, BC 1. 66-76.

30 Caesar, BC 1. 77-87, for the siege of Massilia see 1. 56-58, 2. 1-16, 22, Varro 2. 17-21.

XIX Macedonia, November 49-August 48 BC

1 Cicero, ad Fam. 9. 9.

2 Caesar, BC 3. 68.

3 Suetonius, Caesar 56. 4, 72, Cicero, ad Att. 9. 18; on the partisans of both sides see R. Syme, The Roman Revolution (1939), pp. 50-51, 61-77; for ‘what you need is a civil war’ see Suetonius, Caesar 27. 2; for the campaign in Sicily and Africa see Plutarch, Cato the Younger 53. 1-3, Caesar, BC 2. 23-44.

4 Appian, BC 2. 47, Dio 41. 26. 1-35. 5, Suetonius, Caesar 69.

5 Caesar, BC 3. 3-4, Plutarch, Pompey 63-64, Appian, BC 2. 40, 49-52.

6 Cicero, ad Att. 8. 11. 2, 9. 7, 9. 10. 2,10. 4, and for Cicero’s attitude see T. Michell, Cicero: The Senior Statesman (1991), pp. 252-266.

7 Cicero, ad Att. 9. 9. 3, for Servilius see CAH IX, p. 431, Dio 41. 36. 1-38. 3, Caesar, BC 3. 1-2, Plutarch, Caesar 37, Appian, BC 2. 48.

8 Caesar, BC 3. 2-8, Dio 41. 39. 1-40. 2, 44. 1-4, Appian, BC 2. 49-54, Plutarch, Caesar 37.

9 Caesar, BC 8-13, Appian, BC 2. 55-56.

10 Caesar, BC 3. 14; for death of Bibulus’ sons see BC 3. 110 and Valerius Maximus 4. 1. 15; for Cicero’s attitude to the Pompeians see Cicero, ad Fam. 7. 3. 2-3.

11 Caesar, BC 3. 15-17, 17 for the quote; on the properties of ancient warships see the very useful summary in B. Rankov, ‘The Second Punic War at Sea’ in T. Cornell, B. Rankov, & P. Sabin, The Second Punic War: A Reappraisal (London, 1996), pp. 49-57, as well as more generally J. Morrison & J. Coates, Greek and Roman Oared Warships (1996).

12 Caesar, BC 3. 19 for the meeting, 3. 18 for Bibulus’ death and Pompey’s comment; for the attempt to cross to Brundisium see Appian, BC 2. 50-59, Plutarch, Caesar 65, Dio 41. 46. 1-4.

13 Caesar, BC 3. 39-44, Dio 41. 47. 1-50. 4, Appian, BC 2. 58-60.

14 Caesar, BC 3. 45-49, Plutarch, Caesar 39, Appian, BC 2. 61.

15 Caesar, BC 3. 50-53; for Scaeva see Suetonius, Caesar 68. 3-4, Appian, BC 2. 60, Dio mentions a Scaevius who served with Caesar in Spain in 61 BC, Dio 38. 53. 3, and for the ala Scaevae CIL10. 6011 and comments in J. Spaul, ALA 2 (1994), pp. 20-21; on Sulla’s caution see A. Goldsworthy, ‘Instinctive Genius: The depiction of Caesar the General’, in K. Welch & A. Powell (eds.), Julius Caesar as Artful Reporter: The War Commentaries as Political Instruments (1998), pp. 193-219, esp. p. 205.

16 Caesar, BC 3. 54-58.

17 Caesar, BC 3. 59-61.

18 Caesar, BC 3. 61-65.

19 Caesar, BC 3. 66-70, quote from 69, Plutarch, Caesar 39, Appian, BC 2. 62.

20 Caesar, BC 3. 71-75, Appian, BC 2. 63-64, Dio 41. 51. 1.

21 Caesar BC 3. 77-81, Plutarch Caesar 41, Appian, BC 2. 63, Dio 41. 51. 4-5.

22 Caesar, BC 3. 72, 82-83, Cicero, ad Fam. 7. 3. 2; Plutarch, Cato the Younger 55, Pompey 40-41, Appian, BC 2. 65-67, Dio 41. 52. 1; in general for Pompey’s strategy and attitude see R. Seager, Pompey the Great (2002), pp. 157-163, 166-167.

23 Caesar, BC 3. 84-85, quotation from 85; Appian, BC 2. 68-69, Plutarch, Pompey 68, Caesar 42, Dio 41. 52. 2-57. 4.

24 Caesar, BC 3. 86-88, Appian, BC 2. 70-71, 76, Frontinus, Strategemata 2. 3. 22; for a discussion of formations in this period see A. Goldsworthy, The Roman Army at War 100 BC - ad 200 (1996), pp. 176-183.

25 Caesar, BC 3. 89.

26 Caesar, BC 3. 90-91, Dio 41. 58. 1-3, Appian, BC 2. 77-78, Plutarch, Pompey 71, Caesar 44.

27 For the battle and losses see Caesar, BC 3. 92-99, Appian, BC 2. 78-82, Plutarch, Caesar 42-47, and also Dio 41. 58. 1-63. 6 although he gives a vague, impressionistic account; Suetonius, Caesar 30. 4.

28 Caesar, BC 3. 102-104, Dio 42. 1. 1-5. 7, Plutarch, Pompey 72-80, Appian, BC 2. 83-86, Velleius Paterculus 2. 53. 3; and Seager (2002), pp. 167-168.

XX Cleopatra, Egypt and the East, Autumn 48-Summer 47 BC

1 Suetonius, Caesar 52. 1.

2 Dio 42. 34. 3-5 (Loeb translation by E. Cary (1916), p.169).

3 Caesar, BC 3. 106, Plutarch, Caesar 48, Pompey 80, Dio 42. 6. 1-8. 3, Appian, BC 2. 86, 88; see also M. Gelzer, Caesar (1968), pp. 246-247, and C. Meier, Caesar (1996), p. 406.

4 Caesar, BC 3. 106, Alexandrian War 17, 29, and 69.

5 On the wealth of Egypt and the impression it made on the Romans see Diodorus Siculus 28 b.3; on Egypt in this period see S. Walker & P. Higgs (eds.), Cleopatra of Egypt: From History to Myth (2001), especially the papers by A. Meadows, ‘The Sins of the Fathers: The Inheritance of Cleopatra, Last Queen of Egypt’, pp. 14-31, and J. Ray, ‘Alexandria’, pp. 32-37, and also S. Walker & S. Ashton, Cleopatra Reassessed (2003), esp. G. Grimm, ‘Alexandria in the Time of Cleopatra’, pp. 45-49.

6 See chapter 6; for Cleopatra’s possible visit to Italy see G. Gouldaux, ‘Cleopatra’s Subtle Religious Strategy’, in Walker & Higgs (2001), pp. 128-141, esp. 131-132.

7 On the history of the later Ptolemies see CAH2 IX, pp. 310-326, esp. 323; on the low level of the Nile see Pliny, NH 5. 58; for the story of Cnaeus Pompeius see Plutarch, Antony 25.

8 In general see M. Grant, Cleopatra (1972), and for a useful survey E. Rice, Cleopatra (1999); for her skill with languages see Plutarch, Mark Antony 27; on her support for Egyptian cults see Goudchaux (2001), pp. 128-141, and Walker & Ashton (2003), esp. J. Ray, ‘Cleopatra in the Temples of Upper Egypt: The Evidence of Dendera and Armant’, pp. 9-11, and S. Ashton, ‘Cleopatra: Goddess, Ruler or Regent’, pp. 25-30, D. Thompson, ‘Cleopatra VII: The Queen of Egypt,’ pp. 31-34.

9 On her appearance see Plutarch, Mark Antony 27, Dio 42. 34. 3-5, and also Grant (1972), pp. 65-67, Rice (1999), pp. 95-102, Walker & Higgs (2001), esp. S. Walker, ‘Cleopatra’s Images: Reflections of Reality’, pp. 142-147, G. Goudchaux, ‘Was Cleopatra Beautiful? The Conflicting Answers of Numismatics’, pp. 210-214, and also in Walker & Ashton (2003), esp. S. Walker, ‘Cleopatra VII at the Louvre’, pp. 71-74, and F. Johansen, ‘Portraits of Cleopatra - Do They Exist?’, pp. 75-77.

10 See Ray (2001), Grimm (2003), pp. 45-49, and G. Goudchaux, ‘Cleopatra the Seafarer Queen: Strabo and India’, in Walker & Ashton (2003), pp. 109-112.

11 Caesar, BC 3. 106-112, Alexandrian War 1-3, Plutarch, Caesar 48, Appian, BC 2. 89.

12 Alexandrian War 4, Plutarch, Caesar 48-49, Dio 42. 34. 1-38. 2, 39. 1-2, Suetonius, Caesar 53. 1.

13 Alexandrian War 5-22, Plutarch, Caesar 49, Dio 42. 40. 1-6, Suetonius, Caesar 64, Appian, BC 2. 90.

14 Alexandrian War 23-32, Dio 42. 41. 1-43. 4, Josephus, Jewish Antiquities 14. 8. 12, Jewish War 1. 187-192.

15 Alexandrian War 33, Dio 42. 35. 4-6, 44. 1-45. 1, Suetonius, Caesar 52. 1, Appian, BC 90; for the bemused attitude of scholars to this cruise see Gelzer (1968), pp. 255-259 and also Meier (1995), pp. 408-410, 412.

16 For Caesar’s baldness see Suetonius, Caesar 45. 2.

17 Suetonius, Caesar 76. 3, Alexandrian War 33, Plutarch, Caesar 49.

18 Alexandrian War 34-41.

19 Alexandrian War 65-78, Dio 42. 45. 1-48. 4, Josephus, Jewish War 1. 190-195, Jewish Antiquities 14. 8. 3-5, Plutarch, Caesar 50, Suetonius, Caesar 35. 2, 37. 2.

XXI Africa, September 47-June 46 BC

1 Cicero, ad Att. 11. 17a. 3.

2 Plutarch, Cato the Younger 66. 2 (Loeb translation by B. Perrin (1919), p. 397).

3 Dio 42. 17. 1-19. 4, 22. 1-25. 3, Caesar, BC 3. 20-22, Velleius Paterculus 2. 68.

1-3, Livy Pers. 111; for discussion of Caelius’ and Milo’s unsuccessful rebellion see T. Rice Holmes, The Roman Republic, 3 (1923), pp. 223-225, M. Gelzer, Caesar (1968), pp. 227-228.

4 Dio 42. 21. 1-2, 26. 1-28. 4, Plutarch, Antony 8-10, Cicero, Philippics 2. 56-63, and in general see Holmes (1923), pp. 226-229, Gelzer (1968), pp. 253-254; for book on drinking see Pliny, NH 14. 148; on lions see Pliny, NH 8. 21, Plutarch, Antony 9.

5 Appian, BC 2. 92, Dio 42. 29. 1-32. 3, Plutarch, Antony 9, Alexandrian War 65, African War 54, Cicero, ad Att. 11. 10. 2, Philippics 6. 11, 11. 14; on the rumour of Pompeian attack on Italy see Cicero, ad Att. 11. 18. 1, Plutarch, Cato the Younger 58.

6 Dio 42. 19. 2-20. 5, Plutarch, Brutus 6, and Cicero 39; and T. Mitchell, Cicero: The Senior Statesman (1991), pp. 264-265.

7 Appian, BC 2. 92-94, Dio 42. 52. 1-55. 3, Suetonius, Caesar 70, Plutarch, Caesar 51, Frontinus, Strategemata 1. 9. 4. In Dio’s version the troops were allowed into the city and the confrontation took place there rather than in a camp outside.

8 Dio 42. 49. 150. 5, Suetonius, Caesar 38. 2, 51. 2, Plutarch, Antony 10, Cicero, Philippics 2. 65, 71-73; and Gelzer (1968), p. 262, Holmes (1923), pp. 234-235.

9 Quote from African War 1; African War 60 for legion numbers; Suetonius, Caesar 59, Dio 42. 58. 3 for story of stumbling; for ignoring bad omens see Cicero, de Divinatione 2. 52, where he uses this for further evidence of the spurious nature of such predictions.

10 African War 1-3, 10-11, 19, 27, Appian, BC 2. 96.

11 African War 4-15.

12 African War 16.

13 African War 16-19, Dio 43. 2. 1-3, Appian, BC 2. 95, who implies that the Pompeians deliberately withdrew, and Holmes (1923), pp. 242-245, J. Fuller, Julius Caesar: Man, Soldier and Tyrant (1965), pp. 267-270; rallying the standard-bearer, Suetonius, Caesar 62, Plutarch, Caesar 52.

14 African War 20-21, 24-26, 28, 33-35, 44-46; on seaweed used as fodder see African War 24; on Scipio Salvito see Dio 42. 58. 1, Plutarch, Caesar 52, Suetonius, Caesar 59.

15 African War 24-43, quotation from 31.

16 African War 48-55, Suetonius, Caesar 66.

17 African War 56-67.

18 African War 68-80.

19 African War 82-83.

20 Plutarch, Caesar 53.

21 African War 81-86, 91, 94-6, Appian, BC 2. 100.

22 African War 87-90, 97-98, Dio 43. 10. 1-13. 4, Appian, BC 2. 98-99, Plutarch, Cato the Younger 56. 4, 59. 1-73. 1; on Queen Eunoe see Suetonius, Caesar 52. 1.

XXII Dictator, 46-44 BC

1 Cicero, ad Fam. 12. 18.

2 Velleius Paterculus, 2. 61. 1.

3 For accounts of the triumphs see Dio 43. 19. 1-21. 4, Appian, BC 2. 101-102, Plutarch, Caesar 55, Suetonius, Caesar 37, Pliny, NH 7. 92, Cicero, Philippics 14. 23; see also comments in M. Gelzer, Caesar (1968), pp. 284-286, T. Rice Holmes, The Roman Republic, 3 (1923), pp. 279-281, and S. Weinstock, Divus Julius (1971), pp. 76-77, who suggests that the story of the chariot axle breaking was a confused version of Caesar’s superstitious mantra recited before travelling in a chariot, Pliny, NH 28. 21.

4 Suetonius, Caesar 49. 4.

5 Suetonius, Caesar 51, Dio 43. 20. 2-4.

6 For celebrations and games see Dio 43. 22. 1-24. 4, Appian, BC 2. 102, Suetonius, Caesar 38. 1, 39. 2, Plutarch, Caesar 55, Pliny, NH 8. 21-22, 181, Cicero, ad Fam. 12. 18. 2, Macrobius, Saturnalia 2. 7. 2-9, and also Gelzer (1968), pp. 285-287, Holmes (1923), pp. 280-282.

7 On behaviour at games see Suetonius, Augustus 45. 1; one of the most useful discussions of Caesar’s legislation can be found in Z. Yazetz, Julius Caesar and His Public Image (1983).

8 Caesar, BC 3. 57; for an introduction to the differing interpretations of Caesar see Yazetz (1983), pp. 10-57.

9 Dio 43. 50. 3-4, Suetonius, Caesar 42. 1, 81, Tiberius 4. 1, Plutarch, Caesar 57-58, Strabo, Geog. 8. 6. 23, 17. 3. 15, Appian, Punic History 136, Cicero, ad Fam. 9. 17. 2, 13. 4, 13. 5, 13. 8; also Yazetz (1983), pp. 137-149, E. Rawson, CAH2IX , pp. 445-480, and Holmes (1923), pp. 320-324.

10 Suetonius, Caesar 41. 2, 76. 2, 80. 3, Dio 43. 46. 2-4, Plutarch, Caesar 58, Pliny, NH 7. 181, Cicero, ad Fam. 7. 30. 1-2, Gelzer (1968), p. 309, 310-311, and Holmes (1923), pp. 328-330.

11 Cicero, ad Fam. 6. 18. 1, Philippics 11. 5. 12, 13. 13. 27, Dio 43. 47. 3, Suetonius, Caesar 76. 2-3, 80. 2; for a detailed discussion of the origins of Caesar’s senators see R. Syme, The Roman Revolution (1939), pp. 78-96.

12 On Sallust see Dio 43. 9. 2, 47. 4, Sallust, Bell. Cat. 3. 4, cf. Dio 43. 1. 3; on the refusal of a province to a follower see Dio 43. 47. 5, and Appian, BC 3. 89 for his cruelty.

13 Cicero, pro Marcello 3; cf. Titus Amplius Balbus, the ‘trumpet of the Civil War’ allowed back in November, Cicero, ad Fam. 6. 12. 3.

14 Suetonius, Caesar 42. 1, 44. 2.

15 Suetonius, Caesar 44. 2, Pliny, NH 18. 211, Plutarch, Caesar 59, Macrobius, Saturnalia 1. 14. 2-3, Holmes (1923), pp. 285-287, Gelzer (1969), p. 289, and Yazetz (1983), pp. 111-114.

16 Suetonius, Caesar 42. 1, 43. 1-2, Cicero, ad Att. 12. 35. 36. 1, 13. 6, 7, ad Fam. 7.

26, Dio 43. 25. 2, and Yazetz (1983), pp. 154-156 on sumptuary law; on the collegia see Suetonius, Caesar 42. 3, Josephus, Jewish Antiquities 14. 215-216, and Yazetz (1983), pp. 85-95.

17 Provincial law, Dio 43. 25. 3, and Cicero, Philippics 1. 8. 9 for approval; herders, Suetonius, Caesar 42. 1; on the municipia see discussion in Yazetz (1983), pp. 117-121.

18 Quotation from Cicero, ad Fam. 15. 19. 4; for Quintus Cassius in Spain see Alexandrian War 48-64, Spanish War 42, Appian, BC 2. 43, 103, Dio 43. 29. 1-31. 2, and Holmes (1923), pp. 293-295; the journey and the poem, Suetonius 56. 5, Strabo, Geog. 3. 4. 9, and Holmes (1923), p. 296.

19 Spanish War 2-27; for a more detailed discussion of the events of the war see Holmes (1923), pp. 297-306.

20 Spanish War 28-42, Appian, BC 2. 103-105, Plutarch, Caesar 56, Dio 43. 36. 1-41. 2, and Holmes (1923), pp. 306-308.

21 For honours see Dio 43. 42. 3, 44. 1-3; For Antony meeting Caesar see Plutarch, Antony 11; for Cicero’s daughter see Cicero, ad Att. 13. 20. 1, and T. Mitchell, Cicero: The Senior Statesman (1991), p. 282; for Pontius Aquila see Suetonius, Caesar 78. 2, see also R. Holmes, p. 318.

22 Dio 43. 14. 7, 44. 1-46. 2, Cicero, ad Att. 12. 47. 3, 45. 3, ad Fam. 6. 8. 1, 6. 18. 1, Suetonius, Caesar 76. 1, and see Holmes (1923), pp. 315-316, Gelzer (1968), pp. 307-308, Mitchell (1991), pp. 282ff.

23 Cicero, ad Att. 13. 40. 1.

24 Cicero, ad Att. 12. 21. 1, 13. 40. 1, 46, 51. 1, Orator 10, 35, Plutarch, Cato the Younger 11. 1-4, 25. 1-5, 73. 4, Cicero 39. 2, Caesar 3. 2, Suetonius, Caesar 56. 5, and Gelzer (1968), p. 301-304, Holmes (1923), p. 311, and D. Stockton, Cicero (1971), p. 138.

25 Cicero, ad Att. 12. 40. 2, 51. 2, 13. 2. 1, 27. 1, 28. 2-3, 40. 1.

XXVIII The Ides of March

1 Suetonius, Caesar 86. 1-2.

2 Cicero, pro Marcello 8, 25.

3 Dio 43. 51. 1-2, 44. 1. 1, Appian, BC 2. 110, 3. 77, Plutarch, Caesar 58, Velleius Paterculus 2. 59. 4, Suetonius, Caesar 44. 3, T. Rice Holmes, The Roman Republic, 3 (1923), pp. 326-327.

4 Cicero, ad Att. 13. 52 for the visit, 14. 1 for calling on him in Rome; for the view that Caesar’s character had changed profoundly, allegedly under the influence of Cleopatra see J. Collins, ‘Caesar and the Corruption of Power’, Historia 4 (1955), pp. 445-465.

5 Dio 43. 44. 1-45. 2, 44. 3. 1-6. 4, Suetonius, Caesar 76. 1; see also R. Carson, ‘Caesar and the Monarchy’, Greece and Rome 4 (1957), pp. 46-53, E. Rawson, ‘Caesar’s heritage: Hellenistic kings and their Roman equals’, Journal of Roman Studies 65 (1975), pp. 148-159, S. Weinstock, Divus Julius (1971), esp. pp. 200-206; for the New Testament accounts of Jesus being questioned over taxation see Matthew 22. 17-21, Mark 12. 14-17, for the famous ‘Render to Caesar the things that are Caesar’s’.

6 Dio 43. 14. 6-7, 44. 6. 1, 5-6, Appian, BC 2. 106, Weinstock (1971), pp. 241-243, 276-286, 305-310.

7 Dio 44. 5. 3-7. 1, Cicero, Philippics 2. 43. 1; on Vespasian’s last words see Suetonius, Vespasian 23; on the later imperial cult see S. Price, Rituals and Power: The Roman Imperial Cult in Asia Minor (1984).

8 Suetonius, Caesar 44. 2, Dio 43. 2, 44. 6. 1-3, Cicero, de Divinatione 1. 119, 2. 37; see also Weinstock (1971), pp. 271-3; on Cleopatra’s visit see Dio 43. 27. 3, Appian, BC 2. 102; Suetonius, Caesar 52. 1 claims that Caesar summoned her, but falsely states that she left during his lifetime; Cicero’s visit, ad Att. 15. 2; see also M. Grant, Cleopatra (1972), pp. 83-94, and E. Rice, Cleopatra (1999), pp. 41-44.

9 Suetonius, Caesar 52. 2, Plutarch, Caesar 49; however, note also Plutarch, Antony 52, which suggests that the boy was not born until after Caesar’s death; for discussions see Grant (1972), pp. 83-85.

10 Suetonius, Caesar 83. 1-2, Augustus 8. 1-2, Appian, BC 2. 143, Pliny, NH 35. 21, Plutarch, Antony 11.

11 Plutarch, Caesar 61, Antony 12, Suetonius, Caesar 79. 1-2, Appian, BC 2. 108, Dio 44. 9. 2-10. 3, Cicero, Philippics 13. 31, Velleius Paterculus 2. 68. 4-5, Valerius Maximus 5. 7. 2.

12 Dio 44. 11. 1-3, Appian, BC 2. 109, Plutarch, Caesar 61, Antony 12, Cicero, Philippics 2. 84-87, de Divinatione 1. 52, 119, Suetonius, Caesar 79. 2; see also Weinstock (1971), pp. 318-341.

13 Bodyguard, see Dio 44. 7. 4, Suetonius, Caesar 84. 2, 86. 1-2, Appian, BC 2. 107; on justice and juries see Suetonius, Caesar 41. 2, 53. 1.

14 Dio 44. 8. 1-4, Plutarch, Caesar 60, Suetonius, Caesar 78. 1; see also the comments in Weinstock (1971), p. 276, M. Gelzer, Caesar (1968), p. 317, Rice Holmes (1923), pp. 333-334.

15 See R. Syme, The Roman Revolution (1939), p. 64, 95, for Galba, and also Suetonius, Galba 3; for Decimus Brutus being mentioned in Caesar’s will see Suetonius, Caesar 83. 2, and also Dio 44. 14. 3-4; for Basilus see Dio 43. 47. 3, Appian, BC 3. 98; for Trebonius and Antony see Plutarch, Antony 13.

16 Plutarch, Brutus 6-13, Caesar 62, Appian, BC 2. 111-114, Dio 44. 11. 4-14. 4, Suetonius, Caesar 80. 1, 3-4, Velleius Paterculus 2. 58. 1-4; see also Syme (1939), p. 44-45, 56-60.

17 Suetonius, Caesar 52. 2-3, Appian, BC 2. 113, Plutarch, Caesar 62, Brutus 8, Antony 11.

18 Dio 43. 51. 7.

19 Plutarch, Caesar 63—65, Suetonius, Caesar 81. 14, Dio 44. 18. 1-4, Appian, BC 2. 115-116, Velleius Paterculus 2. 57. 2-3.

20 Plutarch, Brutus 14-15, Caesar 63, Suetonius, Caesar 80. 4, Cicero, de Divinatione 2. 9. 23, Dio 44. 16. 1-19. 1.

21 Plutarch, Caesar 66, Brutus 17, Dio 44. 19. 1-5, Appian, BC 2. 117, Suetonius, Caesar 82. 1-3; Dio and Suetonius both give Caesar’s words to Brutus as ‘You too, my son’ (kai sou teknon); Suetonius gives his reply to Casca as ‘What, this is violence!’ (Ista quidem vis est).

22 Plutarch, Caesar 67-68, Brutus 18-21, Antony 14, Dio 44. 20. 1-53. 7, Appian, BC 2. 118-148, Suetonius, Caesar 82. 4-85.

23 Cicero, ad Att. 14. 1 for the quote from Caius Matius, and 14. 4 for prediction of rebellion in Gaul.

Epilogue

1 For British readers Kenneth Williams’ portrayal of Caesar in Carry on Cleo (1964) - with the immortal line ‘Infamy, infamy, they’ve all got it in for me.’ - may be equally memorable, if not for reasons of historical accuracy. Similarly, for many, Caesar may be familiar from his regular appearances in the Asterix comics by Goscinny and Uderzo. Although the Romans are the principal villains of these stories, Caesar himself is a little formal and pompous, but still largely sympathetic.

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