CHRONOLОGY

753 bc Traditional date for foundation of Rome by Romulus.

509 Expulsion of Rome’s last king, Tarquinius Superbus.

201 Rome wins the Second Punic War with Carthage.

146 Third Punic War ends with destruction of Carthage.

133 Tribunate and death of Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus.

123-122 Tribunates and death of Caius Sempronius Gracchus.

c.112 Birth of Crassus.

106 Birth of Pompey.

105 Cimbri and Teutones destroy a large Roman army at Arausio.

102-101 Marius defeats the Cimbri and Teutones.

c.100 Birth of Julius Caesar.

91-88 The Social War, the last great rebellion by Rome’s Italian allies. The socii are defeated only after a hard struggle.

88 Sulla marches on Rome when Marius takes the command against Mithridates from him.

86 Death of Marius.

c.85 Death of Caesar’s father.

84 Caesar marries Cornelia.

82-79 Dictatorship of Sulla.

81 Caesar refuses Sulla’s order to divorce Cornelia and goes on the run. He is subsequently pardoned following appeals from his mother’s relatives.

80-78 Caesar undergoes military service in Asia and wins the corona civica at Mytilene.

77 Caesar appears in the courts at Rome, unsuccessfully prosecuting Cnaeus Cornelius Dolabella.

76 Caesar unsuccessfully prosecutes Caius Antonius.

75 Caesar travels to Rhodes to study and is captured and ransomed by pirates.

74 On his own initiative Caesar goes to Asia, raises local troops and defeats an invasion or raid led by one of King Mithridates’ commanders.

73 Caesar returns to Rome and is admitted to the college of pontiffs.

73-70 Rebellion of slaves led by Spartacus.

72 or 71 Caesar elected as military tribune and probably serves against Spartacus.

69 Caesar elected to the quaestorship and serves in Further Spain. Death of his aunt Julia and wife Cornelia, both of whom are given public funerals.

67 Lex Gabinia: Pompey given extraordinary command to clear the Mediterranean of pirates, and succeeds in a brief, but highly organised campaign. Caesar spoke in favour of the law. Around this time he married Pompeia.

66 Lex Manilia: Pompey given extraordinary command to complete the war with Mithridates. Caesar also supported this bill.

65 Caesar is curule aedile with Bibulus, who complains about being outshone. He also gives gladiatorial games in honour of his father.

64 Caesar placed in charge of one of the extraordinary courts required to deal with Cato’s investigations into debts to the Republic left unpaid by Sulla’s supporters.

63 Caesar appointed judge in prosecution of Rabirius. Conspiracy of Catiline. Caesar elected Pontifex Maximus.

62 Caesar is praetor. He supports the tribune Metellus Nepos and temporarily resigns after the latter has fled. Bona Dea scandal leads him to divorce Pompeia.

61-60 Caesar sent to govern Further Spain. He reforms administration and leads a highly aggressive punitive campaign. On his return to Rome he gives up the prospect of a triumph to stand for election for the consulship.

59 Caesar’s consulship and the formation of the First Triumvirate between Caesar, Pompey and Crassus. Determined obstruction by his colleague Bibulus and supporters including Cato produces repeated disorders. Caesar forces through his legislation, but leaves himself vulnerable to future prosecution. Pompey marries Caesar’s daughter Julia. Caesar marries Calpurnia.

58 Caesar takes command of his province and defeats the migrating Helvetii at Bibracte. Then he defeats the Germanic King Ariovistus.

57 Caesar defeats the Belgic tribes, winning the battle of the Sambre.

55 Caesar bridges the Rhine for the first time and leads an expedition to Britain.

54 Second and larger invasion of Britain. Death of Julia and her infant child. Death of Caesar’s mother Aurelia.

54-3 First major Gallic rebellion against Caesar, leads to defeat and death of Cotta and Sabinus. Caesar bridges the Rhine a second time.

53 Crassus defeated and killed by Parthians under Surenas at Carrhae.

52 Second major Gallic rebellion led by Vercingetorix. Caesar storms Avaricum, is defeated at Gergovia, but besieges Alesia and forces the Gaulish rebels to surrender. Clodius murdered outside Rome. Pompey appointed sole consul and allowed to bring troops into the city to restore order.

51 Caesar fights a number of campaigns in Gaul, culminating in the siege of Uxellodunum.

51-50 Growing pressure to terminate Caesar’s command.

49-45 The Civil War starts when Caesar crosses the Rubicon. He overruns Italy quickly. Afterwards he defeats the Pompeians in Spain.

48 Caesar is briefly dictator and consul for the second time. He crosses to Greece and is checked at Dyrrachium, but defeats Pompey at Pharsalus. Pompey flees to Egypt and is murdered. Caesar pursues to Egypt and intervenes in the power struggle to place Cleopatra on the throne.

48-47 The Alexandrian War. Caesar has an affair with Cleopatra.

47 Caesar leads a swift campaign to defeat Pharnaces, King of the Bosporus, at Zela.

46 Caesar is consul for the third time, but early in the year takes an expedition to Africa. Caesar suffers a near defeat at the hands of Labienus at Ruspina in North Africa, but finally defeats Pompeian army at Thapsus. Suicide of Cato. Caesar is given the dictatorship for ten years.

45 Caesar’s fourth consulship. He wins final victory at Munda in Spain. He is granted the dictatorship for life.

44 Assassination of Caesar a few days before he planned to set out for a series of campaigns against the Dacians and Parthians. Caesar deified.

44-42 Caesar’s assassination provokes a further cycle of civil war between the conspirators and Caesar’s supporters led by Mark Antony, later joined by Octavian, Caesar’s nephew and adopted son.

42 Brutus and Cassius defeated in twin battles of Philippi.

31 Antony defeated by Octavian in naval battle at Actium. Octavian becomes effectively the sole ruler of the Roman Empire.

30 Suicide of Antony and Cleopatra.

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