Biographies & Memoirs

CHAPTER EIGHT

The House of Hanover

When Queen Anne died in 1714, her nearest living Protestant relative was her third cousin, Prince George of Hanover, who was the grandson of Elizabeth Stuart, the Winter Queen of Bohemia and daughter of James I; Elizabeth’s daughter Sophia had married the Elector of Hanover. When the Act of Settlement was passed in 1701, investing the succession in the House of Hanover, Sophia was still alive and hopeful of becoming Queen of Great Britain herself in the fullness of time; this was not to be, as she died only weeks before Queen Anne passed away, and it was her son George who succeeded instead.

There were, however, still living in France at that time, members of the House of Stuart, the children of James II, notably Prince James Francis Edward, the Old Pretender (as he later came to be called). He was a Roman Catholic, and therefore barred from the succession, yet he maintained all his life the belief that he was the rightful King of Great Britain, and his adherents, known as Jacobites, led an uprising on his behalf in 1715 in an ill-fated attempt to restore him to the throne. It failed miserably, and James never took up arms again in his cause. It was left to his son, known to history as Bonnie Prince Charlie, to uphold the Jacobite claims, and in 1745 a further uprising saw the young Prince at first victorious. The bloody defeat of his supporters at Culloden, however, put an end once and for all to any hopes the Stuarts had of ever regaining the throne. In exile in Italy, they quietly continued to style themselves Kings of Great Britain: James III, Charles III, and lastly Henry IX (brother of Charles), but they were no longer a threat to the House of Hanover, and their line came to an end in 1807.

The Hanoverians reigned over Great Britain for nearly 200 years, with the succession passing peacefully from father to son, or grandson, and, finally, to the girl who became the illustrious Queen Victoria. Yet the sovereigns of this particular dynasty all manifested a peculiar resentment against their heirs designate: George I, George II and George III all disliked their eldest sons vehemently; George IV had a poor relationship with his only daughter, Princess Charlotte; and Queen Victoria never understood and was irritated by the future Edward VII. It was not, on a personal level, a happy dynasty.

Furthermore although it was a fruitful dynasty, it was fraught with marital scandals. George I divorced his wife for adultery, and shut her up in a castle for the rest of her life. Several brothers and sons of George III made morganatic, or unofficial, and therefore unsuitable, marriages, most notably the future George IV. Some Hanoverian males lived openly in sin with their mistresses, many for years. It was the marriages of his brothers that shocked George III, a moral-minded man, into passing the Royal Marriages Act in 1772. This Act, which still applies to the royal family today, provides that any marriage made by any of the descendants of George II without the consent of the sovereign automatically becomes null and void. Should the sovereign withhold consent to a projected marriage, the Prince or Princess wishing to make it may wait until he or she reaches the age of 25 and then apply to the Privy Council for assent. This being given, the marriage may be lawfully entered into. It will be seen in the following chapters what effect the Act had upon the personal lives of members of the House of Hanover.

Modern monarchy evolved during the Hanoverian period. Increasingly, the sovereign reigned, rather than ruled, over his/her people. The rights of the sovereign became confined to the rights of being informed, of advising, and of warning those in whom actual power was invested, i.e. the government.

The monarch came to be seen more as a figurehead than as a participant; George II was the last king to lead his troops into battle, at Dettington in 1747. Later sovereigns confined their martial activities to reviewing their armed forces, and undertaking military training. As Head of the Church of England, the monarch was expected to set a moral example. Few of the Hanoverians were capable of this. It was left to George III and Queen Charlotte, Queen Adelaide, and Queen Victoria and Prince Albert to set moral standards acceptable to their people, and which we now think of as Victorian. In this way, the monarchy became very much a domestic institution, and to this day a constitutional sovereign leading an exemplary family life has a very much better chance of achieving popularity than one who might be described as ‘playboy’. One is reminded, when reflecting upon this, of the Victorian lady who went to watch a performance of Shakespeare’s Antony and Cleopatra: ‘So unlike the home life of our own dear Queen!’ she commented.

The Hanoverians were very much a German dynasty; even Queen Victoria spoke with a German accent. They married German princes or princesses. Apart from George IV and Victoria, they had little time for the arts, although George I and George II patronised Handel. They were not popular monarchs, and suffered scathing portrayals by the caricaturists of their time. They were licentious and uncouth; even Victoria was highly sexed, and in her youth revelled in being ‘decadent’. George I and George II saw Britain as secondary in importance to Hanover, which did not endear them to their new subjects. Yet this dynasty, which began so unpromisingly with George I, ended in a blaze of glory as Victoria, the Queen-Empress, celebrated her Diamond Jubilee four years before her death in 1901, amidst scenes of unprecedented adulation and reverence. Thus was the monarchy pulled from the mire to the pinnacle of respectability where it has remained, almost constantly, to this very day.

Image Missing

George I


FATHER: Ernest Augustus

He was the son of George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneberg, by Anne Eleanor, daughter of Louis, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt, and he was born on 20 or 30 November, 1629/30, at Herzberg, Germany. He married Sophia of Bohemia on 30 September, 1658, at the Castle Chapel, Heidelberg, Germany. He was elected Prince Bishop of Osnabrück in 1661, and succeeded his father as Duke of Hanover and Brunswick-Lüneberg in 1679; he was created Elector of Hanover in 1692 (this conferred upon him the right to elect the German Emperor). He died on 23 January, 1698, at Schloss Herrenhausen, Hanover, and was buried in the Chapel of the Leine Schloss, Hanover. His remains were later removed to the Chapel of Schloss Herrenhausen, Hanover.

Ernest perhaps had the following illegitimate issue:

By Clara Elizabeth Meisenburg, wife of Francis Ernest, Count von Platen:

1  Sophia Charlotte, Countess of Platen, Baroness von Kielmansegge, Countess of Leinster, Baroness of Brentford, and Countess of Darlington (1673?–1725). She later became the mistress of her half-brother, George I.

2  George Louis.

3  Charles Augustus.

4  Caroline.

By the Marchesa Paleotti of Bologna:

5  Unnamed son.

6  Laura (?).

MOTHER: Sophia

She was the daughter of Frederick V, King of Bohemia and Elector Palatine of the Rhine, by Elizabeth, daughter of James I, and she was born on 13/14 October, 1630, at the Wassenaer Court Palace, The Hague, Holland. She died on 8 or 14 June, 1714, at Schloss Herrenhausen, Hanover, and was buried in the Chapel of the Leine Schloss, Hanover. Her remains were later removed to the family vault in the Chapel of Schloss Herrenhausen, Hanover.

SIBLINGS:

1  Frederick Augustus

He was born on 3 October, 1661, at Hanover, Germany. He was killed on 31 December, 1690 (O.S.) or 10 January, 1691 (N.S.), fighting the Turks at the Battle of St Georgen, Siebenbürgen, Transylvania.

2  Stillborn twins

They were born in February, 1664, at Heidelberg, Germany.

3  Maximilian William

He was born on 13 (O.S.) or 23 (N.S.) December, 1666, at Schloss Iburg, Hanover, and died on 16 (O.S.) or 27 (N.S.) July, 1726, at Vienna, Austria.

4  Stillborn son

He was the twin of Maximilian, and was born in December, 1666, at Schloss Iburg, Hanover.

5  Sophia Charlotte

She was born on 12 October, 1668, at Schloss Iburg, Hanover. She married Frederick III of Brandenburg, later Frederick I King of Prussia (1657–1713), on 8 or 28 September, 1684, at Schloss Herrenhausen, Hanover, and had issue:

1  Frederick Augustus (1685–1686).

2  Unnamed son (b.&d.1687).

3  Frederick William I, King of Prussia (1688–1740); he married Sophia Dorothea, daughter of George I, and had issue.

Sophia died on 21 January (O.S.) or 1 February (N.S.), 1705, at Hanover, and was buried in the Royal Chapel, Berlin, Germany.

6  Charles Philip

He was born on 3 or 13 October, 1669, at Schloss Iburg, Hanover. He was killed on 31 December, 1690, or 1 January, 1691, fighting the Turks at the Battle of Pristina, Albania.

7  Christian

He was born on 19 or 29 September, 1671, at Schloss Iburg, Hanover. He drowned on 31 July, 1703, in the River Danube, near Ulm, during the Battle of Munderkingen.

8  Ernest Augustus

He was born on 7 (O.S.) or 17 (N.S.) September, 1674, at Osnabrück, Hanover. He was elected Prince Bishop of Osnabrück in 1715. He was made a Knight of the Garter on 3 July, 1716, and was created Duke of York and Albany and Earl of Ulster on 5 July, 1716. He died on 14 August, 1728, at Osnabrück, Hanover.

GEORGE I

Baptised George Louis, he was born on 28 May (O.S.) or 7 June (N.S.), 1660, at Osnabrück, Hanover. He succeeded his father as Duke and Elector of Hanover on 23 January, 1698. He was made a Knight of the Garter on 18 June, 1701, and was naturalised as a British subject in 1705. He succeeded his third cousin, Queen Anne, as King of Great Britain on 1 August, 1714, and adopted the style King of Hanover also on the same day. He was crowned on 20 October, 1714, in Westminster Abbey.

George I married, on 21 November, 1682, at Celle Castle Chapel, Germany:

Sophia Dorothea

She was the daughter of George William, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneberg-Celle, by Eleanor, Countess of Williamsburg, daughter of Alexander II d’Olbreuse, Marquess of Desmiers, and she was born on 3 February, 5 September or 15 September, 1666, at Celle Castle, Germany. She was divorced by Prince George on 28 December, 1694, on the grounds of her adultery with Count Philip Christopher von Königsmarck. She was forbidden to remarry, and was confined to the Castle of Ahlden for the rest of her life, being styled Duchess of Ahlden from February, 1695. She was never Queen of England. She died on 2 (O.S.) or 13 (N.S.) November, 1726, at the Castle of Ahlden, Hanover, Germany, and was buried in Celle Church, Germany.

Issue of marriage:

1  George II ( Image Missingsee here).

2  Sophia Dorothea

She was born on 16 (O.S.) or 26 (N.S.) March, 1685 or 1687, at Hanover. She married Frederick William of Prussia, later Frederick William I, King of Prussia (1688–1740), firstly on 17 November, 1706, at Hanover, and secondly on 28 November, 1706, at Berlin, Prussia, and had issue:

1

Frederick Louis (1707–1708).

2

Frederica Sophia Wilhelmina (1709–1758); she married Henry or Frederick, Margrave of Bayreuth (1711–1763), and had issue.

3

Frederick William, Prince of Orange (1710–1711).

4

(Charles) Frederick II ‘the Great’, King of Prussia (1712–1786); he married Elizabeth Christina (1715–1797), daughter of Ferdinand Albert II, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel.

5

Charlotte Albertine (1713–1714).

6

Frederica Louisa (1714–1784); she married Charles William Frederick, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach (1712–1757), and had issue.

7

Philippina Charlotte (1716–1801); she married Charles I, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (1713–1780), and had issue.

8

Louis Charles William (1717–1719).

9

Sophia Dorothea Maria (1719–1765); she married Frederick William, Margrave of Brandenburg-Schwedt (1700–1771), and had issue.

10

Louisa Ulrica (1720–1782); she married Adolphus Frederick of Gottorp, King of Sweden (1710–1771), and had issue.

11

Augustus William (1722–1758); he married Louisa Amelia (1722–1780), daughter of Ferdinand Albert II, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, and had issue.

12

Anne Amalia, Abbess of Quedlinburg (1723–1787).

13

Frederick Henry Louis (1726–1802); he married Wilhelmina (1726–1808), daughter of Maximilian, Landgrave of Hesse-Cassel.

14

Augustus Ferdinand (1730–1813); he married Louisa (1738–1820), daughter of Frederick William, Margrave of Brandenburg-Schwedt, and had issue.

Sophia Dorothea died on 28 or 29 June, 1757, at Monbijou Palace near Berlin, Prussia, and was buried at Potsdam, Germany.

George I also had the following illegitimate issue:

By Ermengarde Melusina (1667–1743), Baroness von der Schulenberg, Duchess of Kendal, daughter of Gustavus Adolphus, Baron von der Schulenberg:

1  Petronilla Melusina, Baroness of Aldborough and Countess of Walsingham (1693?–1778); she married Philip Stanhope, Earl of Chesterfield (1694–1773).

2  Margaret Gertrude (1703–1773); she married Count von Lippe.

GEORGE I

He died on 28 May (O.S.) or 11 June (N.S.), 1727, near Osnabrück, Hanover, of the effects of a stroke. He was buried in the Chapel of the Leine Schloss, Hanover, but was transferred to the Chapel vaults of Schloss Herrenhausen after the Second World War. He was succeeded by his son George.

Image Missing

George II


FATHER: George I ( Image Missingsee here).

MOTHER: Sophia Dorothea of Celle ( Image Missingsee here, under George I).

SIBLINGS: ( Image Missingsee here, under George I).

GEORGE II

Baptised George Augustus, he was born on 30 October (O.S.) or 9 November (N.S.), 1683, at Schloss Herrenhausen, Hanover. He was naturalised as a British subject in 1705, and was made a Knight of the Garter on 4 April, 1706. He was created Duke and Marquess of Cambridge, Earl of Milford Haven, Viscount Northallerton and Baron of Tewkesbury on 9 November, 1706. He became Duke of Cornwall and Rothesay when his father succeeded to the throne of Great Britain on 1 August, 1714, and was created and invested Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester on 27 September, 1714, at the Palace of Westminster. He succeeded his father as King of Great Britain on 28 May (O.S.) or 11 June (N.S.), 1727, and was crowned on 11 October, 1727, at Westminster Abbey.

George II married, on 22 August (O.S.) or 2 September (N.S.), 1705, at Schloss Herrenhausen, Hanover:

(Wilhelmina Charlotte) Caroline

Known by her last Christian name, she was the daughter of John Frederick, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach, by Eleanor Erdmuthe Louisa, daughter of John George, Duke of Saxe-Eisenach. She was born on 1/2 (O.S.) or 11 (N.S.) March, 1683, at Ansbach, Germany. She was crowned on 11 October, 1727, at Westminster Abbey. She died on 20 November, 1737, at St James’s Palace, London, and was buried in Westminster Abbey.

Issue of marriage:

1  Frederick Louis

He was born on 20 January (O.S.) or 1 February (N.S.), 1707, at Hanover, Germany. He was made a Knight of the Garter on 3 July, 1716, and was created Duke of Gloucester on 10 January, 1717. He became Duke of Cornwall and Rothesay when his father succeeded to the throne of Great Britain on 11 June, 1727. He was created Duke of Edinburgh, Marquess of the Isle of Ely, Earl of Eltham, Viscount of Launceston, and Baron of Snowdon on 26 July, 1727. He was created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester on 8 January, 1729. He died on 20 (O.S.) or 31 (N.S.) March, 1751, at Leicester House, St Martin’s-in-the-Fields, London, and was buried in Westminster Abbey.

Frederick had the following illegitimate issue:

By Anne (1705–1736), daughter of Gilbert Vane, Baron Barnard:

1  FitzFrederick Vane (1732–1736).

By Margaret, Comtesse de Marsac:

2  Charles Marsack (1736–1820).

Frederick married, on 27 April (O.S.) or 8 May (N.S.), 1736, at the Chapel Royal, St James’s Palace, London:

Augusta

She was the daughter of Frederick II, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, by Magdalena Augusta, daughter of Charles William, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst, and she was born on 20 (O.S.) or 30 (N.S.) November, 1719, at Gotha, Germany. She died on 8 February, 1772, at Carlton House, London, of cancer, and was buried in Westminster Abbey.

Issue of marriage:

(i)

Augusta

 

She was born on 31 July, 1737, at St James’s Palace, London. She married Charles II (William Ferdinand), Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (1735–1806), at the Chapel Royal, St James’s Palace, on 16 January, 1764, and had issue:

 

1  Augustina Caroline Frederica Louise (1764–1788); she married Frederick I (William Charles), King of Württemberg (1754–1816) (who afterwards married Charlotte, daughter of George III), and had issue.

 

2  Charles George Augustus (1766–1806); he married Frederica Louise Wilhelmina (1770–1819), daughter of William V, Prince of Orange.

 

3  Caroline Amelia Elizabeth; she married George IV, King of Great Britain ( Image Missingsee here, under George IV).

 

4  George William Christian (1769–1811).

 

5  Augustus (1770–1820).

 

6  Frederick William, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (1771–1815); he married Mary Elizabeth Wilhelmina (1782–1808), daughter of Prince Charles Louis of Baden, and had issue.

 

7  Amelia Caroline Dorothea Louise (1772–1773).

 

Augusta died on 23 March, 1813, at her house in Hanover Square, London, and was buried in St George’s Chapel, Windsor.

(ii)

George III ( Image Missingsee here).

(iii)

Edward Augustus

 

He was born on 14 March, 1739, at Norfolk House, St James’s Square, London. He was made a Knight of the Garter on 13 March, 1752, and was created Duke of York and Albany and Earl of Ulster on 1 April, 1760. He died on 17 September, 1767, at Monaco, and was buried in Westminster Abbey.

(iv)

Elizabeth Caroline

 

She was born on 30 December, 1740, at Norfolk House, St James’s Square, London. She died on 4 September, 1759, at Kew Palace, Surrey, and was buried in Westminster Abbey.

(v)

William Henry

 

He was born on 14 November, 1743, at Leicester House, St Martin’s-in-the-Fields, London. He was made a Knight of the Garter on 27 May, 1762, and was created Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh and Earl of Connaught on 19 November, 1764. He died on 25 August, 1805, at Gloucester House, Grosvenor Street, London, and was buried in St George’s Chapel, Windsor.

 

William had the following illegitimate issue:

 

By Lady Almeria Carpenter:

 

1  Louisa Maria (1762–1835); she married Godfrey Bosville MacDonald, 3rd Baron of Slate, and had issue.

 

William married, on 6 September, 1766, at her father’s house in Pall Mall, London:

 

Maria

 

She was the illegitimate daughter of Sir Edward Walpole by Dorothy, daughter of Hammond Clement of Darlington or Durham, and she was born shortly before 10 July, 1736, at Westminster, London. She married firstly James Waldegrave, 2nd Earl Waldegrave (1714–1763), on 15 May, 1759, at her father’s house in Pall Mall, London, and had issue:

 

1  Elizabeth Laura (1760–1816), Countess Waldegrave; she married George Waldegrave, 4th Earl Waldegrave (1751–1789), and had issue.

 

2  Charlotte Maria (1761–1808); she married George Henry FitzRoy, Duke of Grafton (1760–1844), and had issue.

 

3  Anne Horatia (1762–1801); she married Admiral Sir Hugh Seymour (1759–1801), and had issue.

 

Maria died on 22/23 August, 1807, at Oxford Lodge, Brompton, Middlesex, and was buried in St George’s Chapel, Windsor.

 

Issue of marriage:

(a)

Sophia Matilda

 

She was born on 29 May, 1773, at Gloucester House, Grosvenor Street, London. She died on 29 November, 1844, at the Ranger’s House, Blackheath, Kent, and was buried in St George’s Chapel, Windsor.

(b)

Caroline Augusta Maria

 

She was born on 24 June, 1774, at Gloucester House, Grosvenor Street, London, and died there on 14 March, 1775. She was buried in St George’s Chapel, Windsor.

(c)

William Frederick

 

He was born on 15 January, 1776, at the Tedoli Palace, Rome, Italy. He was made a Knight of the Garter on 16 July, 1794. He succeeded his father as Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh and Earl of Connaught on 25 August, 1805. He died on 30 November, 1834, at Bagshot Park, Surrey, and was buried in St George’s Chapel, Windsor.

 

William married, on 22 July, 1816, at the Private Chapel, Buckingham Palace, London:

 

Mary

 

She was the daughter of George III, King of Great Britain, by Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, and she was born on 25 April, 1776, at Buckingham Palace. She died on 30 April 1857, at Gloucester House, Piccadilly, London, and was buried in St George’s Chapel, Windsor. There was no issue of the marriage.

(vi)

Henry Frederick

 

He was born on 27 October, 1745, at Leicester House, St Martin’s-in-the-Fields, London. He was created Duke of Cumberland and Strathearn and Earl of Dublin on 22 October, 1766, and was made a Knight of the Garter on 21 December, 1767. He died on 18 September, 1790, at Cumberland House, Pall Mall, London, and was buried in Westminster Abbey.

 

Henry is alleged, on circumstantial evidence, to have married privately, either on 4 March (?), 1767, or in 1770:

 

Olivia

 

She was the daughter of the Reverend D. James Wilmot. She died on 5 December, 1774.

 

Alleged issue of marriage:

(a)

Olivia

 

Known as ‘Princess Olivia of Cumberland’; she was born on 3 April, 1772. She married John Thomas Serres on I September, 1791, and had issue:

 

1  Lavinia Janetta Horton (1797–1871); she married Antony Thomas Ryves, and had issue.

 

2  Daughter.

 

Olivia died before 3 December, 1834 (date of burial), and was buried in St James’s Church, Westminster.

 

Henry certainly did marry, on 2 October, 1771, at her house in Hertford Street, Mayfair, London (the which marriage was bigamous if Henry had actually married Olivia Wilmot):

 

Anne

 

She was the daughter of Simon Luttrell, 1st Earl of Carhampton, by Judith Maria, daughter of Sir Nicholas Lawes, and she was born on 24 January, 1742/3, in the Parish of St Marylebone, London. She married firstly Christopher Horton of Catton Hall, Derbyshire, on 4 August, 1765, and had issue:

 

1  Son (name not known) (d. young).

 

Anne died on 28 December, 1808, or in February, 1809, at Trieste, Italy. There was no issue of her marriage to Henry.

(vii)

Louisa Anne

 

She was born on 8 March, 1749, at Leicester House, St Martin’s-in-the-Fields, London. She died on 13 May, 1768, at Carlton House, Mayfair, London, and was buried in Westminster Abbey.

(viii)

Frederick William

 

He was born on 13 May, 1750, at Leicester House, St Martin’s-in-the-Fields, London. He died there on 29 December, 1765, and was buried in Westminster Abbey.

(ix)

Caroline Matilda

 

She was born on 11 July, 1751, at Leicester House, St Martin’s-in-the-Fields, London. She married Christian VII, King of Denmark (1749–1808), by proxy on 1 October, 1766, at Carlton House, London. and in person on 8 November, 1766, at Schloss Frederiksberg, or at Christianborg, Denmark, and had issue:

 

1  Frederick VI, King of Denmark (1768–1839); he married Mary Sophia Frederica (1767–1852), daughter of Charles, Landgrave of Hesse-Cassel, and had issue.

 

2  Louise Augusta (1771–1843); she married Frederick Christian II, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein (1765–1814), and had issue. Although recognised as the legitimate daughter of Christian VII, Louise was without doubt the daughter of Queen Caroline by her lover, Count Struensee: her portraits bear this out most strikingly when compared to those of Struensee.

 

Caroline was crowned Queen Consort of Denmark on 1 May, 1767. She was divorced on 6 April, 1772, on the grounds of her adultery with Count John Frederick Struensee (1737  executed 1772). She died on 10 May, 1775, at Celle Castle, Hanover, and was buried in Celle Church.

2 Anne

She was born on 9 or 22 (O.S.) October or 2 November (N.S.), 1709, at Schloss Herrenhausen, Hanover. She was styled Princess Royal from c.30 August, 1727. She married William IV (Charles Henry Friso), Prince of Orange (1711–1751) on 14 (O.S.) or 24/25 (N.S.) March, 1734, at the Chapel Royal St James’s Palace, and had issue:

1  Unnamed son (b.&d.1735).

2  Unnamed daughter (b.&d.1736).

3  Unnamed daughter (b.&d.1739).

4  Wilhelmina Caroline (1743–1787); she married Charles Christian, Duke of Nassau-Weilburg (1735–1788), and had issue.

5  Anne Marie (b.&d.1746).

6  William V (Batavus), Prince of Orange (1748–1806); he married Frederica Sophia Wilhelmina (1751–1820), daughter of Prince Augustus William of Prussia, and had issue.

Anne died on 2 (O.S.) or 12 (N.S.) January, 1759, at The Hague, Holland.

3  Amelia Sophia Eleanor

Known as Emily, she was born on 30 May (O.S.) or 10 June (N.S.), 1711, at Schloss Herrenhausen, Hanover. She died on 31 October, 1786, at her house in Cavendish Square, London, and was buried in Westminster Abbey.

4  Caroline Elizabeth

She was born on 30 May (O.S.) or 10 June (N.S.), 1713, at Schloss Herrenhausen, Hanover. She died on 28 December, 1757, at St James’s Palace, London, and was buried in Westminster Abbey.

5  Stillborn son

He was born on 9 November, 1716, at St James’s Palace, London.

6  George William

He was born on 2/3 November, 1717, at St James’s Palace, London. He is sometimes referred to as the Duke of Gloucester, but there is no evidence that he was ever so styled, designated or formally created. He died on 6 February, 1718, at Kensington Palace, London, and was buried in Westminster Abbey.

7  Miscarriage

This occurred in 1718.

8  William Augustus

He was born on 15 April, 1721, either at Leicester House, St Martin’s-in-the-Fields, London, or – less probably – at St James’s Palace, London. He was made a Knight of the Bath on 27 May, 1725, and was created Duke of Cumberland, Marquess of Berkhamstead, Earl of Kennington, Viscount Trematon, and Baron of Alderney on 27 July, 1726. He was made a Knight of the Garter on 18 May, 1730. He died unmarried on 31 October, 1765, at his house in Upper Grosvenor Street, London, and was buried in Westminster Abbey.

William is said, without reliable evidence, to have had three illegitimate children by the daughter of a Scottish soldier.

9  Mary

She was born on 22 February (O.S.) or 5 March (N.S.), 1723, at Leicester House, St Martins-in-the-Fields, London. She married Frederick II, Landgrave of Hesse-Cassel (1720–1785), by proxy on 8 (O.S.) or 19 (N.S.) May, 1740, at St James’s Palace, London, and in person on 28 June, 1740, at Cassel, Germany, and had issue:

1  William (1741–1742).

2  William IX, Landgrave and Elector of Hesse-Cassel (1743–1821); he married Wilhelmina Caroline (1747–1820), daughter of Frederick V, King of Denmark by Louisa, daughter of George II ( Image Missingsee here), and had issue.

3  Charles, Landgrave of Hesse-Cassel (1744–1836); he married Louisa (1750–1831), daughter of Frederick V, King of Denmark, by Louisa, daughter of George II ( Image Missing below), and had issue.

4  Frederick III, Landgrave of Hesse-Cassel (1747–1837); he married Caroline Polyxena (1762–1823), daughter of Charles William, Prince of Nassau-Usingen, and had issue, including Augusta, wife of Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge, son of George III.

Mary died on 14 or 16 January, 1772, at Hanau, Germany.

10  Louisa

She was born on 7 December, 1724, at Leicester House, St Martin’s-in-the-Fields, London. She married Frederick V, King of Denmark and Norway (1723–1766), by proxy on 27 or 30 October, 1743, at Hanover, Germany, and in person on 11 December, 1743, at Altona, near Hamburg, Germany and had issue:

1  Christian (1745–1747).

2  Sophia Magdalena (1746–1813); she married Gustavus III, King of Sweden (1746–1792), and had issue.

3  Wilhelmina Caroline (1747–1820); she married William I, Elector of Hesse-Cassel (son of Mary, daughter of George II – Image Missing above) (1747–1821), and had issue.

4  Christian VII, King of Denmark (1749–1808); he married Caroline Matilda of Wales, granddaughter of George II ( Image Missingsee here).

5  Louisa (1750–1831); she married Charles, Landgrave of Hesse-Cassel (1744–1836) (son of Mary, daughter of George II – Image Missing above), and had issue.

Louisa died on 8 or 19 December, 1751, at Christianborg Castle, Copenhagen, Denmark.

George II may have had the following illegitimate issue, although the King never acknowledged him as such:

By Amalia Sophia Marianne, Countess von Walmoden and Countess of Yarmouth (1704–1765):

1  John Louis, Count von Walmoden-Gimborn (1736–1811).

GEORGE II

He died on 25 October, 1760 at Kensington Palace, London, and was buried in Westminster Abbey.

He was succeeded by his grandson George.

Image Missing

George III


FATHER: Frederick, Prince of Wales ( Image Missingsee here, under George II).

MOTHER: Augusta of Saxe-Gotha ( Image Missingsee here, under George II).

SIBLINGS: ( Image Missingsee here, under George II).

GEORGE III

Baptised George William Frederick, he was born on 24 May (O.S.) or 4 June (N.S.), 1738, at Norfolk House, St James’s Square, London. He was made a Knight of the Garter on 22 June, 1749. He succeeded his father as Duke of Cornwall and Rothesay, Duke of Edinburgh, Marquess of the Isle of Ely, Earl of Eltham, Viscount of Launceston and Baron of Snowdon on 20 March, 1751. He was created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester on 20 April, 1751. He succeeded his grandfather George II as King of Great Britain on 25 October, 1760, and was crowned on 21/22 September, 1761, at Westminster Abbey. On 1 January, 1801, he relinquished for ever the title ‘King of France’, held by English Kings since Edward III laid claim to the French crown in 1340.

George III is alleged to have married secretly, on 17 April, 1759, a Quakeress called Hannah Lightfoot, daugher of a Wapping shoemaker, who is said to have borne him three children. Documents relating to the alleged marriage, bearing the Prince’s signature, were impounded and examined in 1866 by the Attorney General. Learned opinion at that time leaned to the view that these documents were genuine. They were then placed in the Royal Archives at Windsor; in 1910, permission was refused a would-be author who asked to see them. If George III did make such a marriage when he was Prince of Wales, before the passing of the Royal Marriages Act in 1772, then his subsequent marriage to Queen Charlotte was bigamous, and every monarch of Britain since has been a usurper, the rightful heirs of George III being his children by Hannah Lightfoot, if they ever existed.

George III married, bigamously or not, on 8 September, 1761, at the Chapel Royal, St James’s Palace, London:

(Sophia) Charlotte

Known as Charlotte, she was the daughter of Charles Louis Frederick, Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, by Elizabeth Albertine of Saxe-Hildburghausen, and she was born on 19 May, 1744, at Mirow, Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Germany. On 7 March, 1760, she was invested as a Protestant canoness of Herford (or Hervorden) in Westphalia, Germany. She was crowned Queen Consort on 21/22 September, 1761. She died on 17 November, 1818, at Kew Palace, Surrey, and was buried in St George’s Chapel, Windsor.

Issue of marriage:

1  George lV ( Image Missingsee here).

2  Frederick Augustus

He was born on 16 August, 1763, at St James’s Palace, London (or, less probably, at Buckingham Palace). He was elected Prince Bishop of Osnabrück on 27 February, 1764, and was made a Knight of the Garter on 19 June, 1771. He was created Duke of York and Albany and Earl of Ulster on 29 November, 1784. He died on 5 January, 1827, at Rutland House, Arlington Street, London, and was buried in St George’s Chapel, Windsor.

Frederick had the following illegitimate issue (?):

1  Charles, Captain Hesse. There is no certain proof that Frederick actually was his father, although he was generally reputed to be. Charles was killed in a duel with Count Léon, bastard son of Napoleon I, Emperor of the French.

Frederick married, on 28 September, 1791, at Charlottenburg, Berlin, Prussia, and again on 23 November, 1791, at Buckingham Palace:

Frederica Charlotte Ulrica Katherine

She was the daughter of Frederick William II, King of Prussia, by Elizabeth Christine Ulrica, daughter of Charles, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, and she was born on 7 May, 1767, either at Charlottenburg or at Potsdam, Prussia. She died on 6 August, 1820, at Oatlands Park, Weybridge, Surrey, and was buried in Weybridge Churchyard, Surrey. There was no issue of the marriage.

3  Miscarriage

This occurred in the summer of 1764 at Richmond Lodge, Surrey.

4  William IV ( Image Missingsee here).

5  Charlotte Augusta Matilda

She was born on 29 September, 1766, at Buckingham Palace, and was styled Princess Royal from October, 1766; she was officially designated Princess Royal on 22 June, 1789. She married Frederick William Charles, Duke of Württemburg, afterwards Frederick I, King of Württemburg (1754–1816), on 18 May, 1797, at the Chapel Royal, St James’s Palace, London, and had issue:

1  Stillborn daughter; she was born on 27 April, 1798.

Charlotte became Queen Consort when her husband acceded to the throne of Württemburg on 1 January, 1806, and was crowned as such on the same day at Stuttgart, Germany. She died on 6 October, 1828, at Ludwigsburg Palace, Stuttgart, Germany, and was buried there in the Ludwigsburg family vault.

6  Edward Augustus

He was born on 2 November, 1767, at Buckingham Palace. He was made a Knight of the Garter on 2 June, 1786, and was created Duke of Kent and Strathearn and Earl of Dublin on 23 or 24 April, 1799. He died on 23 January, 1820, at Woodbrook Cottage, Sidmouth, Devon, and was buried in St George’s Chapel, Windsor. His remains were later removed to the Kent Mausoleum, Frogmore, Windsor.

Edward had the following illegitimate issue:

By Adelaide Dubus:

1  Adelaide Victoria Augusta (1789–1790).

By Julie de St Laurent (?):

2  A son or sons, said to have been adopted at birth in Canada (?).

Edward married, on 29 May, 1818, at Schloss Ehrenburg, Coburg, Germany, and again on 13 July, 1818, at Kew Palace, Surrey:

(Mary Louisa) Victoria

Known as Victoria, she was the daughter of Francis I (Frederick Anthony), Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfield, by Augusta Caroline Sophia, daughter of Henry XXIV, Count of Reuss-Ebersdorf, and she was born on 17 August, 1786, at Coburg, Germany. She married firstly Emich Charles, 2nd Prince of Leiningen (1763–1814), on 21 December, 1803, and had issue:

1  Charles Frederick William Ernest, 3rd Prince of Leiningen (1804–1856); he married Mary, Countess of Kleklesburg (1806–1880), daughter of Maximilian, Count of Kleklesburg, and had issue, although they were afterwards divorced.

2  Anne Feodora Augusta Charlotte Wilhelmina (1807–1872); she married Ernest, Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg (1794–1860), and had issue.

Victoria died on 16 March, 1861, at Frogmore House, Windsor, and was buried in St George’s Chapel, Windsor. Her remains were later removed to the Kent Mausoleum, Frogmore, Windsor.

Issue of marriage:

(i)  Queen Victoria ( Image Missingsee here).

7  Augusta Sophia

She was born on 8 November, 1768, at Buckingham Palace. She perhaps married Major General Sir Brent Spencer (d.1828) in c.1811, but there is no substantiating evidence for this. She died on 22 September, 1840, at Clarence House, London, and was buried in St George’s Chapel, Windsor.

8  Elizabeth

She was born on 22 May, 1770, at Buckingham Palace. Some documentary evidence exists to suggest that she either married or was the mistress of a page called George Ramus in c.1785, and that they had a daughter Eliza, born in c.1786/7, who married a man called James Money. Although such a marriage would have been illegal under the Royal Marriages Act 1772, other evidence would seem to indicate that it did not take place at all, and that there was no connection whatsoever between Elizabeth and ‘George Ramus’: among 6 or 7 pages surnamed Ramus, not one was called George. Furthermore, the known details of the Princess’s illness in 1786/7 are not identifiable with the symptoms of pregnancy. Elizabeth did marry Frederick (Joseph) VI, Landgrave and Prince of Hesse-Homburg (1769–1829) on 7 April, 1818, at the Private Chapel, Buckingham Palace. She died on 10 January, 1840, at Frankfurt-am-Main, Germany, and was buried in the Mausoleum of the Landgraves at Homburg, Germany.

9  Ernest Augustus

He was born on 5 June, 1771, at Buckingham Palace. He was made a Knight of the Garter on 2 June, 1786, and was created Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale and Earl of Armagh on 24 April, 1799. He succeeded his brother William IV as King of Hanover on 20 June, 1837, adopting the style Ernest I; the Salic Law governed the Hanoverian succession, thus preventing the accession of Queen Victoria. Ernest died on 18 November, 1851, at Schloss Herrenhausen, Hanover, and was buried there in the Chapel vaults.

Ernest had the following illegitimate issue:

1  George FitzErnest (d.1828).

Ernest married, on 29 May, 1815, at the parish church of Neu Strelitz, Germany, and again on 29 August, 1815, at Carlton House, London:

Frederica Louisa Caroline Sophia Alexandrina

She was the daughter of Charles Louis Frederick V, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, by Frederica Caroline Louise, daughter of George William, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt, and she was born on 2 March, 1778, at Hanover, Germany. She married firstly Prince Frederick Louis Charles of Prussia (1773–1796) on 26 December, 1793, at the Royal Palace, Berlin, Prussia, and had issue:

1  Frederick William Louis (1794–1863); he married Louise (1799–1882), daughter of Alexis, Duke of Anhalt-Bernbourg, and had issue.

2  Charles George (1795–1798).

3  Frederica Wilhelmina Louise (1796–1850); she married Leopold Frederick, Duke of Anhalt-Dessau (1794–1871).

Frederica was divorced from her first husband in 1796. She married secondly Frederick William, Prince of Solms-Braunfels (1770–1814) on 7 or 10 January, 1798/9, or 10 December, 1798, at Berlin, Prussia, and had issue:

4  Frederick William Henry Casimir George Charles Maximilian (1801– 1868); he married Mary Anne (1809–1892), daughter of Francis, Count of Kinsky, and had issue.

5  Son  (name not known); (b.1801; d. young).

6  Augusta Louisa Theresa Matilda (1804–1865); she married Albert, Prince of Schwarzbourg-Roudolstadt (1798–1869).

7  Alexander Frederick Louis (1807–1867); he married Louise (b.1835), daughter of Engelbert, Baron Landsberg-Steinfürt, and had issue.

8  Frederick William Louis George Alfred Alexander (1812–1875); he married Marie Josephine Sophie, daughter of Prince Constantine of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rochefort, and had issue. Frederica became Queen of Hanover upon the accession of her third husband, Prince Ernest, to the throne of Hanover, on 20 June, 1837. She died on 29 June, 1841, at Hanover, and was buried in the Chapel at Schloss Herrenhausen, Hanover. Issue of marriage:

(i)

Frederica

 

She was stillborn on 27 January, 1817, at St James’s Palace, London. She was buried in Westminster Abbey, but was later removed to St George’s Chapel, Windsor.

(ii)

Stillborn Daughter

 

She was born in April, 1818. There is no record of her burial.

(iii)

George Frederick Alexander Charles Ernest Augustus

 

He was born on 27 May, 1819, in a house on the Unter-den-Linden Strasse, Berlin, Prussia. He was made a Knight of the Garter on 15 August, 1835. He succeeded his father as King of Hanover, Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale, and Earl of Armagh on 18 November, 1851; he was styled George V of Hanover. He was deposed on 20 September, 1866, by the Prussians, and formally abdicated on the same day. He died on 12 June, 1878, at 7, Rue Presbourg, Paris, and was buried in St George’s Chapel, Windsor.

 

(Note: King George went blind following an accident in 1834).

 

George married, on 18 February, 1843, at Hanover, Germany:

 

(Alexandrina) Mary Wilhelmina Katherine Charlotte Theresa Henrietta Louisa Pauline Elizabeth Frederica Georgina

 

Known as Mary, she was the daughter of Joseph George Frederick Ernest Charles, Duke of Saxe-Altenburg, by Amelia Theresa Louise Wilhelmina Philippina, daughter of Louis Alexander, Duke of Württemburg, and she was born on 14 April, 1818, at Hildburghausen, Germany. She died on 9 January, 1907, at Gmunden, Austria, where she was buried.

 

Issue of marriage:

(a)

Ernest Augustus William Adolphus George Frederick

 

He was born on 21 September, 1845, at Hanover, and was Crown Prince of Hanover until his father’s abdication on 20 September, 1866. He succeeded his father as Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale and Earl of Armagh on 12 June, 1878, and was made a Knight of the Garter on 23 June, 1878. He was created Duke of Brunswick-Lüneberg on 18 October, 1884. He died on 14 November, 1923, at Gmunden, Austria.

 

Ernest married, on 21 December, 1878, at Copenhagen, Denmark:

 

Thyra Amelia Caroline Charlotte Anne

 

She was the daughter of Christian IX, King of Denmark, by Louise Wilhelmina Frederica Caroline Augusta Julie, daughter of William X, Landgrave of Hesse-Cassel, and she was also sister to Alexandra, Queen of Edward VII. She was born on 29 September, 1853, at Copenhagen, Denmark. She died on 26 February, 1933, at Gmunden, Austria, where she was buried.

 

Issue of marriage:

(i)

Marie Louise Victoria Caroline Amelia Alexandra Augusta Frederica

 

She was born on 11 October, 1879, at Gmunden, Austria. She married Maximilian, Prince and Margrave of Baden (1867–1929), on 10 July, 1900, at Gmunden, Austria, and had issue:

 

1  Marie Alexandra Thyra Victoria Louisa Carola Hilda (1902–1944); she married Wolfgang Moritz, Prince of Hesse (b.1896).

 

2  Berthold Friedrich William Carl, Margrave of Baden (1906–1963); he married Theodora (b.1906), daughter of Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark, and sister of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, and had issue.

 

Marie died on 31 January, 1948, at Salem Castle, Germany.

(ii)

George William Christian Albert Edward Alexander Frederick Waldemar Ernest Adolphus

 

He was born on 28 October, 1880, at Gmunden, Austria, and was styled Duke of Armagh. He was killed on 20 May, 1912, in a motor accident at Nackel, Brandenburg, Germany.

(iii)

Alexandra Louise Marie Olga Elizabeth Theresa Vera

 

She was born on 29 September, 1882, at Gmunden, Austria. She married Frederick Francis IV, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1882–1945) on 7 June, 1904, at Gmunden, Austria, and had issue:

 

1  Frederick Francis V, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (b.1910); he married Karen Elizabeth (b.1920), daughter of Walter von Schaper.

 

2  Christian Louis, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (b.1912); he married Barbara (b.1920), daughter of Prince Sigismund of Prussia, and had issue.

 

3  Thyra (b.1919).

 

4  Anastasia (b.1922); she married Frederick Ferdinand, Prince of Schleswin-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg (b.1913), and had issue.

 

Alexandra died on 30 August, 1963, at Glucksburg Castle, Germany.

(iv)

Olga Adelaide Louise Marie Alexandrina Agnes

 

She was born on 11 July, 1884, at Gmunden, Austria, and died on 21 September, 1958, either at Linz, or at Hubertibus, Gmunden, Austria.

(v)

Christian Frederick William George Peter Waldemar

 

He was born on 4 July, 1885, at Gmunden, Austria, and died there on 3 September, 1901.

(vi)

Ernest Augustus Christian George

 

He was born on 17 November, 1887, at Penzing Hall, near Vienna, Austria. He succeeded his father as Duke of Brunswick-Lüneberg on 14 November, 1923. He died on 30 January, 1953, at Marienburg Castle, Hanover, Germany.

 

Ernest married, on 24 May, 1913, at Berlin, Germany:

 

Victoria Louise

 

She was the daughter of William II, Emperor of Germany, by Augusta Victoria, daughter of Frederick, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg, and she was born on 13 September, 1892, at the Marble Palace, Potsdam, Germany. She died in 1980.

 

Issue of marriage:

 

1  Ernest Augustus George William Christian Louis Francis Joseph Nicholas (b.1914); he married firstly Ortrud (1925–1980), daughter of Prince Albert of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, and had issue. He married secondly Monica (b. 1929), daughter of George Frederick, Duke of Solms-Laubach.

 

2  George William Ernest Augustus Frederick Axel (b.1915); he married Sophia (b.1914), daughter of Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark, and sister of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, and had issue.

 

3  Frederica Louise Thyra Victoria Margaret Sophia Olga Cecilia Isabella Christa (1917–1981); she married Paul I, King of Greece (1901–1964), and had issue.

 

4  Christian Oscar Ernest Augustus William Victor George Henry (1919–1981); he married Mireille (b.1946), daughter of Armand Dutry, and had issue, although they were divorced in 1976.

 

5  Welf Henry Ernest Augustus George Christian Berthold Frederick William Louis Ferdinand (b.1923); he married Alexandra (b.1938), daughter of Otto Frederick, Fürst of Ysenburg and Büdingen.

(b)

Frederica Sophia Marie Henrietta Amelia Theresa

 

She was born on 9 January, 1848, at Hanover, Germany. She married Liutbert Alexander George Lionel Alphonse, Baron von Pawel-Rammingen (1843–1932), on 24 April, 1880, at St George’s Chapel, Windsor, and had issue:

 

1 Victoria Georgina Beatrice Maud Anne, Baroness von Pawel-Rammingen (b.&d.1881).

 

Frederica died on 16 October, 1926, at Biarritz, France.

(c)

Mary Ernestine Josephine Adolphine Henrietta Theresa Elizabeth Alexandra

 

She was born on 3 December, 1849, at Hanover, Germany, and died on 4 June, 1904, at Gmunden, Austria, where she was buried.

10  Augustus Frederick

He was born on 27 January, 1773, at Buckingham Palace. He was made a Knight of the Garter on 2 June, 1786, and was created Duke of Sussex, Earl of Inverness and Baron Arklow on 27 November, 1801. He died on 22 April, 1843, at Kensington Palace, London, and was buried in Kensal Green Cemetery, London.

Augustus had the following illegitimate issue:

By Miss Tranter of Windsor:

1  Lucy Beaufoy Tranter; she married Charles George Tranter, and had issue, from whom was descended the actress Dame Anna Neagle.

Augustus married firstly, privately, and in contravention of the Royal Marriages Act 1772, on 4 April, 1793, at the Hotel Sarmiento, Rome, and again on 5 December, 1793, at St George’s Church, Hanover Square, London:

Augusta

She was the daughter of John Murray, 4th Earl of Dunmore, by Charlotte, daughter of Alexander Stewart, 6th Earl of Galloway, and she was born on 27 January (?), 1763 (or, less probably, 1768), in London. Her marriage to Augustus was declared null and void by the Arches Court of Canterbury on 14 July, 1794, and again by the Prerogative Court on 3 August, 1794, although she did not separate from Augustus until 1801. She assumed the style ‘Duchess of Sussex’ in 1801. On 13 October, 1806, she assumed instead, by Royal Licence, the surname and title Lady de Ameland. She died on 5 March, 1830, at her house on the East Cliff, Ramsgate, Kent, and was buried in St Lawrence’s Church, Isle of Thanet, Kent.

Issue of marriage:

(i)

Augustus Frederick

 

He was born on 13 January, 1794, at 16, Lower Berkeley Street, London. He adopted the surname ‘d’Este’, and was knighted. He died on 28 December, 1848, at Ramsgate, Kent, of disseminated sclerosis, and was buried in St Lawrence’s Church, Isle of Thanet, Kent.

(ii)

Augusta Emma

 

She was born on 9 August, 1801, in Grosvenor Street, London, and was styled ‘Mademoiselle d’Este’. She married Thomas Wilde, 1st Baron Truro of Bowes (1782–1855) on 13 August, 1845, in London. She died on 21 May, 1866, at 83, Eaton Square, London, and was buried in St Lawrence’s Church, Isle of Thanet, Kent.

Augustus married secondly, also privately and in contravention of the Royal Marriages Act 1772, on c.2 May, 1831, at Great Cumberland Place, London:

Cecilia Laetitia

She was the daughter of Arthur Saunders Gore, 2nd Earl of Arran, by Elizabeth, daughter of Richard Underwood of Dublin, and she was born in 1778, or 1785, or 1788, or 1789. She married firstly Sir George Buggin of Thetford, Norfolk (1760–1825), on 14 May, 1815, at her father’s house in Dover Street, London. She assumed her mother’s maiden surname of Underwood by Royal Licence on 2 May, 1831, the day her second marriage is thought to have taken place. She was created Duchess of Inverness in her own right on 5 April, 1840. She died on 1 August, 1873, at Kensington Palace, London, and was buried in Kensal Green Cemetery, London. There was no issue of the marriage.

11  Adolphus Frederick

He was born on 24 February, 1774, at Buckingham Palace. He was made a Knight of the Garter on 2 June, 1786, and was created Duke of Cambridge, Earl of Tipperary, and Baron of Culloden on 27 November, 1801. He died on 8 July, 1850, at Cambridge House, Piccadilly, London, and was buried at Kew. His remains were later removed to St George’s Chapel, Windsor.

Adolphus married, on 7 May, 1818, at Cassel, Prussia, and again on 1 June, 1818, at Kew Palace, Surrey:

Augusta Wilhelmina Louisa

She was the daughter of Frederick III, Landgrave of Hesse-Cassel (son of Mary, daughter of George II), by Caroline Polyxena, daughter of Charles William, Prince of Nassau-Usingen, and she was born on 25 July, 1797, at Rumpenheim Castle, Cassel, Germany. She died on 6 April, 1889, at St James’s Palace, London, and was buried at Kew. Her remains were later removed to St George’s Chapel, Windsor.

Issue of marriage:

(i)

George William Frederick Charles

 

He was born on 26 March, 1819, at Cambridge House, Hanover, Germany. He was made a Knight of the Garter on 15 August, 1835, and succeeded his father as Duke of Cambridge, Earl of Tipperary and Baron of Culloden on 8 July, 1850. He died on 17 March, 1904, at Gloucester House, Piccadilly, London, and was buried in Kensal Green Cemetery, London.

 

George married, privately and in contravention of the Royal Marriages Act 1772, on 8 January, 1847, at St John’s Church, Clerkenwell, London:

 

Sarah Louisa

 

She was the daughter of John Fairbrother by an unnamed daughter of Thomas Freeman of Wylcot, Shrewsbury, and she was born in 1816 at Bow Street, Covent Garden, London. An actress, she was known as ‘Mrs FitzGeorge’ after her marriage. She died on 12 January, 1890, at 6, Queen Street, Mayfair, London, and was buried in Kensal Green Cemetery, London.

 

Sarah Louisa had the following illegitimate issue:

 

1  Charles Manners Sutton Fairbrother (?) (1836–1901).

 

2  Louisa Katherine (b.1839?); she married a Captain Hamilton.

 

Issue of marriage, all surnamed ‘FitzGeorge’ (the first two were actually born before their parents entered wedlock):

(a)

George William Adolphus

 

He was born on 27 August, 1843, in London. He died on 2 September, 1907, at Lucerne, Switzerland.

 

George married, on 28 November, 1885, in Paris:

 

Rosa Frederica

 

She was the daughter of William Baring of Norman Court, Hants., by Elizabeth Hammersley, and she was born on 9 March, 1854, at Norman Court, Hants. She married firstly Frank Wigsell Arkwright of Sanderstead Court, Surrey, on 29 August, 1878, and had issue:

 

1  Mabel Iris (b.1886); she married firstly Robert Shekelton Balfour (1869–1942), and had issue, and secondly Vladimir Emanuellovitch, Prince Galitzine (1884–1954).

 

2  George Daphné (1889–1954); she married Sir George Foster Earle (1890–1965), although they later divorced.

 

3  George William Frederick (1892–1960); he married firstly Esther Vignon (1888–c.1935), from whom he was later divorced, and secondly Frances (b.1911), daughter of Robert Bellenger.

 

Rosa was divorced from her first husband, prior to marrying George FitzGeorge. She died on 10 March, 1927, either at Cannes or in London. There was no issue of her marriage to George.

(b)

Adolphus Augustus Frederick

 

He was born on 30 January, 1846, in London, and rose to the rank of knight. He died on 17 December, 1922, in London.

 

Adolphus married firstly, on 21 September, 1875, either at Hull or at Hessle, Yorkshire:

 

Sophia Jane

 

She was the daughter of Thomas Holden of Winestead Hall, Hull, and she was born in 1857 at Hull. She died on 3 February, 1920, in London.

 

Issue of marriage:

(i)

Olga Mary Adelaide

 

She was born in 1877. She married firstly Sir Archibald Hamilton (1876–1939), and had issue:

 

1  George Edward Archibald Augustus FitzGeorge (1898–killed in action 1918). She was divorced from her first husband in 1902, and married secondly Robert Charlton Lane (1873–1943), and had issue, although again, I have been unable to obtain details of such. She died in 1920.

 

Adolphus married secondly, on 28 October, 1920, at Pimlico, London:

 

Margaret Beatrice Daisy

 

She was the daughter of John Watson, and she was born in 1863. She died on 26 February, 1934, in London. There was no issue of the marriage.

(c)

Augustus Charles Frederick

 

He was born on 12 June, 1847, in London, and rose to the rank of knight. He died unmarried on 30 October, 1933, in London.

(ii)

Augusta Caroline Charlotte Elizabeth Mary Sophia Louise

 

She was born on 19 July, 1822, at the Palace of Montbrilliant, Hanover. She married Frederick William, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (1819–1904), on 28 June, 1843, at Buckingham Palace, and had issue:

 

1  Unnamed son (b.&d. 1845).

 

2  George Adolphus Frederick Augustus Victor Ernest Adalbert Gustavus William Wellington, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (1848–1914); he married Elizabeth Marie Frederica Amelia Agnes of Anhalt (1857–1933), and had issue.

 

Augusta died on 4/5 December, 1916, at Neustrelitz, Germany, where she was buried.

(iii)

Mary Adelaide Wilhelmina Elizabeth

 

She was born on 27 November, 1833, at Hanover, Germany. She married Francis Paul Charles Louis Alexander, Duke of Teck (1837–1900), on 12 June, 1866, at Kew Church, Surrey, and had issue:

 

1  Queen Mary, wife of George V. ( Image Missingsee here, under George V).

 

2  Adolphus Charles Alexander Albert Edward George Philip Louis Ladislaus, 1st Marquess of Cambridge (1868–1927); he married Margaret Evelyn (1873–1929), daughter of Hugh Lupus Grosvenor, 1st Duke of Westminster, and had issue.

 

3  Francis Joseph Leopold Frederick (1870–1910).

 

4  Alexander Augustus Frederick William Alfred George, Earl of Athlone (1874–1957); he married Princess Alice of Albany, daughter of Prince Leopold, Queen Victoria’s youngest son, and had issue.

 

Mary Adelaide died on 27 October, 1897, at White Lodge, Richmond Park, Surrey, and was buried in St George’s Chapel, Windsor.

12  Mary

She was born on 25 April, 1776, at Buckingham Palace. She married her cousin, William Frederick, Duke of Gloucester ( Image Missingsee here, under George II) (1776–1834), on 22 July, 1816, at the Private Chapel, Buckingham Palace. She died on 30 April, 1857, at Gloucester House, Piccadilly, London, and was buried in St George’s Chapel, Windsor.

13  Sophia Matilda

She was born on 3 November, 1777, at Buckingham Palace. She died on 27 May, 1848, at her house in Vicarage Place, Kensington, London, and was buried in Kensal Green Cemetery.

Sophia had the following illegitimate (?) issue:

By General Thomas Garth (d.1829):

1  Thomas Garth (1800–after 1839). He left issue. He was born before August, 1800, in Weymouth, Dorset. It is possible that Sophia and General Garth had been married soon after her arrival in Weymouth that year, as his family lived nearby. However, there is no evidence to support a story that they were married in Puddletown Church, Dorset. A portrait of Sophia in old age shows her wearing a wedding ring.

14  Octavius

He was born on 23 February, 1779, at Buckingham Palace. He died on 3 May, 1783, at Kew Palace, Surrey, and was buried in Westminster Abbey. His remains were later removed to St George’s Chapel, Windsor.

15  Alfred

He was born on 22 September, 1780, at Windsor Castle. He died on 20 August, 1782, at Windsor Castle, and was buried in Westminster Abbey. His remains were later removed to St George’s Chapel, Windsor.

16  Amelia

She was born on 7 August, 1783, at The Lodge, Windsor Castle. It is possible that she married, at some unknown date, the Hon. Charles FitzRoy (1762–1831), but the evidence is conflicting. She died on 2 November, 1810, at Augusta Lodge, St Albans Street, Windsor, of erysipelas, and was buried in St George’s Chapel, Windsor.

GEORGE III

He suffered from the disease porphyria, which led his contemporaries to believe he was mad. The death of his youngest daughter Amelia in 1810 broke his health for good, and he became unfit to reign. In 1811, his son George was created Prince Regent, and remained so until his father’s death, when he succeeded him.

George III died on 29 January, 1820, at Windsor Castle, and was buried in St George’s Chapel, Windsor.

He was succeeded by his son George.

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George IV


FATHER: George III ( Image Missingsee here).

MOTHER: Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz ( Image Missingsee here, under George III).

SIBLINGS: ( Image Missingsee here, under George III).

GEORGE IV

Baptised George Augustus Frederick, he was born on 12 August, 1762, at St James’s Palace, London, and was Duke of Cornwall and Rothesay, Earl of Carrick, Baron Renfrew and Lord of the Isles from birth. He was created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester on 17 or 19 August, 1762. He was created Prince Regent of the United Kingdom by Act of Parliament on 5 February, 1811, because of his father’s incapacity; he held this title until his accession. He succeeded his father as King of Great Britain on 29 January, 1820, and was crowned on 19 July, 1821, at Westminster Abbey.

George IV married firstly, privately and in contravention of the Act of Settlement 1701 and the Royal Marriages Act 1772, on 15 September, 1785, at her house in Park Lane, Mayfair, London:

Maria Anne

She was the daughter of Walter Smythe of Brambridge, Hants., by Mary, daughter of John Errington of Red Rice, Andover, Hants., and she was born on 26 July, 1756, at Brambridge, Hants. She married firstly Edward Weld (d.1775), of Lulworth Castle, Dorset, in 1775, and secondly Thomas FitzHerbert of Norbury, Derby, and Swynnerton, Staffs. (d.1781), in 1778. Her marriage to the Prince of Wales was invalid under British Law, but was recognised by Papal Brief in 1800 (Mrs FitzHerbert was a Roman Catholic). Maria formally adopted the following children:

1  Mary (‘Minnie’) Seymour, orphaned daughter of Lord Hertford, who later married Colonel Dawson Darner.

2  Mary Anne Smythe, the illegitimate daughter of Maria’s brother; she later married Captain Jerningham.

Maria spent most of her married life living apart from her husband. She died on 27 or 29 March, 1837, at Brighton, Sussex, and was buried in the R.C. Church of St John the Baptist, Brighton, Sussex. There was no issue of her marriage to George IV.

George IV married secondly, on 8 April, 1795, at the Chapel Royal, St James’s Palace, London:

Caroline Amelia Elizabeth

She was the daughter of Charles II (William Ferdinand), Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, by Princess Augusta of Wales, granddaughter of George II. She was born on 17 May, 1768, at Brunswick, Germany. The King tried unsuccessfully to divorce her for adultery (then a treasonable crime on the part of his Consort), and she was refused admission to his coronation in 1821. She died on 7 August, 1821, at Brandenburg House, Hammersmith, London, and was buried at Brunswick.

Issue of marriage:

1  Charlotte Augusta

She was born on 7 January, 1796, at Carlton House, London. She married Prince Leopold George Frederick of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfield (1790–1865) (later to become Leopold I, King of the Belgians) on 2 May, 1816, at Carlton House, London, and had issue:

1  Miscarriage; this occurred in July, 1816, at Camelford House, London.

2  Stillborn son; he was born on 5 November, 1817, at Claremont House, Esher, Surrey, and was buried in St George’s Chapel, Windsor.

Charlotte died on 6 November, 1817, at Claremont House, Esher, Surrey, in childbed, and was buried in St George’s Chapel, Windsor.

George IV also had the following illegitimate issue:

By Grace Darymple, Mrs Elliott:

1  Georgina Frederica Augusta (?) (b.1782). She may have been the daughter of Lord Cholmondeley.

By Elizabeth Milbanke, Viscountess Melbourne (d.1818):

2  George (b.1784). Perhaps died young.

GEORGE IV

He died on 26 June, 1830, at Windsor Castle, and was buried in St George’s Chapel, Windsor.

He was succeeded by his brother William.

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William IV


FATHER: George III ( Image Missingsee here)

MOTHER: Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz ( Image Missingsee here, under George III).

SIBLINGS: ( Image Missingsee here, under George III).

WILLIAM IV

Baptised William Henry, he was born on 21 August, 1765, at Buckingham Palace. He was made a Knight of the Thistle on 5 April, 1770, and a Knight of the Garter on 19 April, 1782. He was created Duke of Clarence and St Andrews, and Earl of Munster on 20 May, 1789. He succeeded his brother George IV as King of Great Britain on 26 June, 1830, and was crowned on 8 September, 1831, at Westminster Abbey.

William IV married, on 13 July, 1818, at Kew Palace, Surrey:

Adelaide Louisa Theresa Caroline Amelia

She was the daughter of George I (Frederick Charles), Duke of Saxe-Meiningen, by Louisa Eleanor, daughter of Christian Albert Louis, Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg, and she was born on 13 August, 1792, at Meiningen, Thuringia, Germany. She was crowned Queen Consort on 8 September, 1831, at Westminster Abbey. She died on 2 December, 1849, at Bentley Priory, Stanmore, Middlesex, and was buried in St George’s Chapel, Windsor.

Issue of marriage

1  Charlotte Augusta Louise

She was born on 27 March, 1819, at the Fürstenhof Palace, Hanover, and died the same day. She was buried at Hanover, Germany.

2  Stillborn child

It was born on 5 September, 1819, at Dunkirk, France.

3  Elizabeth Georgina Adelaide

She was born on 10 December, 1820, at St James’s Palace, London, where she died on 4 March, 1821. She was buried in St George’s Chapel, Windsor.

4  Stillborn child

It was born in the spring of 1822 at Bushey Park, Middlesex.

5  Stillborn twins

They were born in 1824.

William IV also had the following illegitimate issue:

By Caroline von Linsingen (who alleged that William married her in 1784/5 or c.1790, in secret; this is very unlikely, although not impossible):

1  William (1784/5–drowned 1807).

By Dorothea Bland, Mrs Jordan (1761–1816):

2  George Augustus Frederick FitzClarence, Earl of Munster (1794–committed suicide 1842); he married Mary, illegitimate daughter of George Wyndham, 3rd Earl of Egremont, and had issue.

3  Henry Edward FitzClarence (1795–1817).

4  Sophia FitzClarence (1796–1837); she married Philip Charles Sidney, 1st Baron de Lisle and Dudley of Penshurst (1800–1851).

5  Mary FitzClarence (1798–1864); she married Charles Richard Fox.

6  Frederick FitzClarence (1799–1854); he married Augusta Boyle.

7  Elizabeth FitzClarence (1801–1856); she married William George Hay, 18th Earl of Erroll (1801–1846), and had issue.

8  Adolphus FitzClarence (1802–1856).

9  Augusta FitzClarence (1803–1865); she married firstly John Kennedy Erskine, and had issue, and secondly John, Lord Gordon.

10  Augustus FitzClarence, Rector of Mapledurham (1805–1854); he married Sarah Elizabeth Katherine Gordon.

11  Amelia FitzClarence (1807–1858); she married Lucius Bentinck Carey, 10th Viscount Falkland (1803–1884), and had issue.

WILLIAM IV

He died on 20 June, 1837, at Windsor Castle, and was buried in St George’s Chapel, Windsor.

He was succeeded by his niece Victoria.

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Queen Victoria


FATHER: Edward, Duke of Kent ( Image Missingsee here, under George III).

MOTHER: Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfield ( Image Missingsee here, under George III).

SIBLINGS: Queen Victoria did not have any full siblings.

QUEEN VICTORIA

Baptised Alexandrina Victoria, she was born on 24 May, 1819, at Kensington Palace, London. She succeeded William IV, her uncle, as Queen of Great Britain on 20 June, 1837, and was crowned on 28 June, 1838, at Westminster Abbey. She was declared Empress of India on 1 May, 1876, and proclaimed as such on 1 January, 1877, at Delhi, India.

Queen Victoria married, on 10 February, 1840, at the Chapel Royal, St James’s Palace, London:

Albert Francis Charles Augustus Emmanuel

He was the son of Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, by Louise of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, and he was born on 26 August, 1819, at the Marble Hall, Schloss Rosenau, Coburg, Germany. He was made a Knight of the Garter on 16 December, 1839. He was created Prince Consort by Letters Patent on 26 June, 1857, and proclaimed as such the same day. He died on 14 December, 1861, at Windsor Castle, of typhoid, and was buried in St George’s Chapel Windsor (in the Albert Memorial Chapel). His remains were later removed to the Royal Mausoleum, Frogmore, Windsor.

Issue of marriage:

1  Victoria Adelaide Mary Louise

She was born on 21 November, 1840, at Buckingham Palace, and was designated Princess Royal from birth. She married Prince Frederick William Nicholas Charles of Prussia, afterwards Frederick III, Emperor of Prussia (1831–1888), on 25 January, 1858, at the Chapel Royal, St James’s Palace, London, and had issue:

1  William II (Frederick William Albert Victor), Emperor of Germany (1859–1941); he married Augusta Victoria Louisa Feodora Jenny (1858–1921), daughter of Frederick, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein, and had issue. He married secondly, Hermine (1887–1947), daughter of Henry XXII, Duke of Reuss.

2  Victoria Elizabeth Augusta Charlotte (1860–1919); she married Bernhard III, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen (1851–1928), and had issue.

3  Albert William Henry (1862–1929); he married Irene Louise Mary Anne (1866–1953), daughter of Louis IV, Grand Duke of Hesse-Darmstadt, by Alice, daughter of Queen Victoria ( Image Missing below), and had issue.

4  Francis Frederick Sigmund (1864–1866).

5  Frederica Wilhelmina Amelia Victoria (1866–1929); she married firstly Prince Adolphus William of Schaumburg-Lippe (1856–1916), and secondly Alexander Alexandrovich Zubka (1900–1936).

6  Joachim Frederick Ernest Waldemar (1868–1879).

7  Sophia Dorothea Ulrica Alice (1870–1932); she married Constantine I, King of Greece (1868–1923), and had issue.

8  Margaret Beatrice Feodora (1872–1954); she married Frederick Charles, Landgrave of Hesse (1868–1940), and had issue.

Victoria died on 5 August, 1901, at the Friedrichshof Palace, Krönberg, Germany, of cancer, and was buried in the Friedenskirche, Potsdam, Germany.

2  Edward VII ( Image Missingsee here).

3  Alice Maud Mary

She was born on 25 April, 1843, at Buckingham Palace. She married Louis IV, Grand Duke of Hesse-Darmstadt and the Rhine, and Duke of Saxony (1837–1892) on 1 July, 1862, at Osborne House, Isle of Wight, and had issue:

1  Ernest Louis Albert Charles William (1868–1937), Grand Duke of Hesse-Darmstadt and the Rhine; he married Princess Victoria of Edinburgh (1876–1936), granddaughter of Queen Victoria ( Image Missingsee here), and had issue, although they were afterwards divorced. He married secondly Eleanor Ernestine Marie of Solms-Hohensolmslich (1871–1937), and had issue. Both he and his second wife were killed in air crashes.

2  Frederick William Augustus Victor Leopold Louis (1870–1873). He was killed falling out of an upstairs window.

3  Victoria Alberta Elizabeth Matilda Mary (1863–1950); she married Prince Louis Alexander of Battenberg (who changed his name to Mountbatten in 1917), 1st Marquess of Milford Haven (1854–1921), and had issue, including Lord Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma (1900–assassinated by the I.R.A. in 1979).

4  Elizabeth Alexandra Louise Alice (assumed name Elizabeth Federovna upon marriage) (1864–assassinated 1918 during the Russian Revolution); she married Grand Duke Serge of Russia (1857–murdered 1905).

5  Irene Louise Marie Anne (1866–1953); she married Prince Albert William Henry of Prussia (1862–1929), son of the Princess Royal, eldest daughter of Queen Victoria ( Image Missingsee here), and had issue.

6  Alice Victoria Helena Louise Beatrice (assumed name Alexandra Federovna upon marriage) (1872–1918: murdered during the Russian Revolution); she married Nicholas II, Tsar of all the Russias (1868–assassinated 1918 by the Bolsheviks), and had issue, all of whom were assassinated during the Russian Revolution.

7  Mary Victoria Feodora Leopoldine (1874–1878); she died of diphtheria.

Alice died on 14 December, 1878, at Darmstadt, of diphtheria, and was buried in the Mausoleum of Rosenhöhe, Hesse-Darmstadt, Germany.

4  Alfred Ernest Albert

He was born on 6 August, 1844, at Windsor Castle. He was made a Knight of the Garter on 24 May, 1863, and was created Duke of Edinburgh, Earl of Kent and Earl of Ulster on 24 May, 1866. He succeeded his father’s brother Ernest as reigning Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha on 22 August, 1893. He died on 30 July, 1900, at Schloss Rosenau, Coburg, Germany, of cancer, and was buried in the cemetery of Coburg.

Alfred married, on 23 January, 1874, at the Winter Palace, St Petersburg, Russia:

Marie Alexandrovna

She was the daughter of Alexander II, Tsar of all the Russias, by Marie Alexandrovna, daughter of Louis II, Grand Duke of Hesse and the Rhine, and she was born on 5 or 17 October, 1853, at Tsarskoie-Selo, Russia (or, less probably, at St Petersburg, Russia). She died on 5 or 24 October, 1920, at Zürich, Switzerland.

Issue of marriage:

(i)

Alfred Alexander William Ernest Albert

 

He was born on 15 October, 1874, either at Buckingham Palace, or at Eastwell Park, Kent. He became a Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha upon the accession of his father to the ducal throne on 22 August, 1893, and he was made a Knight of the Garter on 23 April, 1894. He never married. He shot himself on 6 February, 1899, at Meran, in the Austrian Tyrol (or, much less probably, at Coburg), and was buried in the Castle church at Friedenstein, near Gotha, Germany.

(ii)

Marie Alexandra Victoria

 

She was born on 29 October, 1875, at Eastwell Park, Kent. She married Ferdinand I (Albert Meinrad), King of Romania (1865–1927), on 10 January, 1893, at Sigmaringen Castle, Romania, and had issue:

 

1  Charles II, King of Romania (1893–1953); he married firstly Joanna Maria Valentina (known as Zizi) (1898–1953), daughter of Constantine Lambrino; they were divorced in 1919. He married secondly Helen (1896–1982), daughter of Constantine I, King of Greece, and had issue; they were divorced in 1928. He married thirdly Elena Magda (1902–1977), daughter of Nicholas Lepescu.

 

2  Elizabeth Charlotte Josephine Victoria Alexandra (1894–1956); she married George II, King of Greece (1890–1947), but they were divorced in 1935.

 

3  Marie (1900–1961); she married Alexander I, King of Yugoslavia (1891–murdered 1934), and had issue.

 

4  Nicholas (b.1903); he married firstly Joanna Dolete (1909–1963), daughter of John Dumitrescu-Tohani, and secondly Theresa Lisboa Figueria (b.1913), daughter of Jeronymo de Avellar Figueira de Mello.

 

5  Ileana (b.1909); she married firstly Anton, Archduke of Austria-Tuscany (b.1901), and had issue; they were divorced in 1954. She married secondly Stephen Issarescu (b.1906). She is now a nun, and is known as Mother Alexandra of the Monastery of the Transfiguration, Ellwood City, P.A., U.S.A.

 

6  Mircea (1913–1916).

 

Marie died on 18 July, 1938, at Peles Castle, Sinaia, Romania.

(iii)

Victoria Melita

 

She was born on 25 November, 1876, at the Palace of San Antonio, Malta. She married firstly Ernest Louis, Grand Duke of Hesse-Darmstadt and the Rhine (1868–1937) (son of Alice, daughter of Queen Victoria – Image Missing above) on 19 April, 1894, at Schloss Ehrenburg, Coburg, Germany, and had issue:

 

1  Elizabeth Mary Alice Victoria (1895–1903).

 

2  Unnamed son (b.&d. 1900).

 

3  Miscarriage.

 

Victoria was divorced from Ernest on 21 December, 1901. She married secondly Grand Duke Kyrill Vladimirovitch of Russia (1876–1938) on 8 October, 1905, at Tegernsee, and had issue:

 

1  Marie Kirillovna (1907–1951); she married Frederick Charles Edward Erwin, 6th Fürst of Leiningen (1898–1946), and had issue.

 

2  Kira Kirillovna (1909–1967); she married Louis Ferdinand, Prince of Prussia (b.1907), and had issue.

 

3  Vladimir Kirillovitch (b.1917); he married Leonida Georgievna, Princess Bagration-Monkhransky (b.1913), and had issue.

 

Victoria died on 2 March, 1936, at Amorbach, Germany.

(iv)

Alexandra Louise Olga Victoria

 

She was born on 1 September, 1878, at Coburg, Germany. She married Ernest William Frederick Charles Maximilian, 7th Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg (1863–1950), on 20 April, 1896, at Coburg, and had issue:

 

1  Godfrey Victor Hermann Alfred Paul Maximilian, 8th Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg (1897–1960); he married Margaret (1905–1981), daughter of Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark and sister of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, and had issue.

 

2  Marie Melita Leopoldine Victoria Feodora Alexandra Sophia (1899–1967); she married William Frederick, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Glücksburg, and had issue.

 

3  Alexandra Beatrice Leopoldine (1901–1963).

 

4  Irma Helena (b.1902).

 

5  Alfred (b.&d.1911).

 

Alexandra died on 16 April, 1942, at Schwäbisch-Hall, Württemburg, Germany.

(v)

Unnamed daughter

 

She was born on 13 October, 1879, at Eastwell Park, Kent, and died the same day. She may have been stillborn.

(vi)

Beatrice Leopoldine Victoria

 

She was born on 20 April, 1884, at Eastwell Park, Kent. She married Alfonso Maria Francisco Antonio Diego, Infante of Spain and 3rd Duke of Galliera (1886–1975), on 15 July, 1909, at Schloss Rosenau, Coburg, Germany, and had issue:

 

1  Alvaro Antonio Fernando Carlos Felipe, Prince of Orléans (b.1910); he married Carla Delfino (b.1909), and had issue.

 

2  Alonso Maria Cristino Justo (1912–killed 1936).

 

3  Ataulfo Alejando Isabelo Carlos (b.1913).

 

Beatrice died on 13 July, 1966, at Sanlucar de Barrameda, Spain.

5  Helena Augusta Victoria

She was born on 23 or 25 May, 1846, at Buckingham Palace. She married Christian, Prince of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg (1831–1917), on 5 July, 1866, at the Private Chapel, Windsor Castle, and had issue:

1  Christian Victor Albert Louis Ernest Anthony (1867–1900).

2  Albert John Charles Frederick Alfred George, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein (1869–1931).

3  Victoria Louise Sophia Augusta Amelia Helena (1870–1948).

4  Franzisca Josepha Louise Augusta Marie Christina Helena (known as Princess Marie Louise) (1872–1956); she married Aribert Joseph Alexander, Prince of Anhalt (1864–1933); they were divorced in 1900.

5  Frederick Christian Augustus Leopold Edward Harold (b.&d.1876).

6  Unnamed son (b.&d.1877).

Helena died on 9 June, 1923, at Schomberg House, Pall Mall, London, and was buried at Frogmore, Windsor.

6  Louise Caroline Alberta

She was born on 18 March, 1848, at Buckingham Palace. She married John George Edward Henry Douglas Sutherland Campbell, Marquess of Lorne, later 9th Duke of Argyll (1845–1914), on 21 March, 1871, at St George’s Chapel, Windsor. She died on 3 December, 1939, at Kensington Palace, London, and was cremated at Golders Green Crematorium, her ashes being buried at Frogmore, Windsor.

7  Arthur William Patrick Albert

He was born on 1 May, 1850, at Buckingham Palace. He was made a Knight of the Garter on 24 May, 1867, and a Knight of the Thistle on 24 May, 1869. He was created Duke of Connaught and Strathearn and Earl of Sussex on 24 May, 1874. He died on 16 January, 1942, at Bagshot Park, Surrey, and was buried in the Royal Mausoleum, Frogmore, Windsor.

Arthur married, on 13 March, 1879, at St George’s Chapel, Windsor:

Louise Marguerite Alexandra Victoria Agnes

She was the daughter of Prince Frederick Charles Nicholas of Prussia by Mary Anne, daughter of Leopold Frederick, Duke of Anhalt-Dessau, and she was born on 25 July, 1860, at Marmorpalais (Marble Palace), near Potsdam, Germany. She died on 14 March, 1917, at Clarence House, London, and was buried in the Royal Mausoleum, Frogmore, Windsor.

Issue of marriage:

(i)

Margaret Victoria Augusta Charlotte Norah

 

She was born on 15 January, 1882, at Bagshot Park, Surrey. She married (Oscar Frederick William Olaf) Gustavus Adolphus VI, King of Sweden (1882–1973), on 15 June, 1905, at St George’s Chapel, Windsor, and had issue:

 

1 Gustavus Adolphus Oscar Frederick Arthur Edmund (1906–1947); he married Sybilla Calma Marie Alice Bathildis Feodora of Saxe-Coburg (1908–1972), and had issue.

 

2  Sigvard Oscar Frederick, Duke of Upland (b.1907); he married firstly Erika Maria Regina Rosalie Patzeck; they were later divorced. He married secondly Sonia Helen Robbert (b.1909), and had issue.

 

3  Ingrid Victoria Sophia Louise Margaret (b.1910); she married Frederick IX, King of Denmark, and had issue.

 

4  Bertil Gustavus Oscar Charles Eugene, Duke of Holland (b.1912).

 

5  Charles John Arthur, Duke of Dalecarlia (b.1916); he married Ellen Christine Margaret Wijkmark (b.1910).

 

6  Unnamed daughter (d. young).

 

Margaret died on 1 May, 1920, at Stockholm, Sweden.

(ii)

Arthur Frederick Patrick Albert

 

He was born on 13 January, 1883, at Windsor Castle. He was made a Knight of the Garter on 15 July, 1902. He died on 12 September, 1938, at Belgrave Square, London.

 

Arthur married, on 15 October, 1913, at the Chapel Royal, St James’s Palace:

 

Alexandra Victoria Alberta Edwina Louise

 

She was the daughter of Alexander William George Duff, Duke of Fife, by Louise, daughter of Edward VII, and she was born on 17 May, 1891, at East Sheen Lodge, Surrey. She succeeded her father as Duchess of Fife in her own right in 1912. She died on 26 February, 1959, at her house in Avenue Road, London, and was cremated at Golders Green Crematorium, London.

 

Issue of marriage:

(a)

Alastair Arthur

 

He was born on 9 August, 1914, in Mount Street, London, and was styled Earl of MacDuff from birth. He succeeded his grandfather Arthur as Duke of Connaught and Strathearn and Earl of Sussex on 16 January, 1942. He died on 26 April, 1943, at Government House, Ottawa, Canada, and was buried in Mar Lodge Chapel, Braemar, Aberdeenshire.

(iii)

Victoria Patricia Helen Elizabeth

 

She was born on 17 March, 1886, at Buckingham Palace. She married Sir Alexander Robert Maule Ramsay (1881–1972) on 27 February, 1919, at Westminster Abbey (this was the first royal wedding to take place in the Abbey since Tudor times). She renounced her title of Princess, and assumed the style Lady Patricia Ramsay upon marriage. She had issue:

 

1  Alexander Arthur Alfonso David Maule (b.1919); he married Marjorie Flora (b.1930), daughter of Alexander Arthur Fraser, 19 Earl of Saltoun, and had issue.

 

Lady Patricia died on 12 January, 1974.

8  Leopold George Duncan Albert

He was born on 7 April, 1853, at Buckingham Palace. He was made a Knight of the Garter on 24 May, 1869, and created Duke of Albany, Earl of Clarence and Baron Arklow on 14 May, 1881. A haemophiliac, he died after an accident on 28 March, 1884, at the Villa Nevada, Cannes, France, and was buried in St George’s Chapel, Windsor.

Leopold married, on 27 April, 1882, at St George’s Chapel, Windsor:

Hélène Frederica Augusta

She was the daughter of George Victor, Prince of Waldeck-Pyrmont, by Helena Wilhelmina Henrietta Pauline Marianne, daughter of George William Augustus Henry, Duke of Nassau-Weilburg, and she was born on 17 February, 1861, at Arolsen, Waldeck, Germany. She died on 1 September, 1922, at Hinterris in the Austrian Tyrol, and was buried in Austria.

Issue of marriage:

(i)

Alice Mary Victoria Augusta Pauline

 

She was born on 25 February, 1883, at Windsor Castle. She married Alexander of Teck, Earl of Athlone (1874–1957) (great-grandson of George III and brother of Queen Mary, wife of George V), on 10 February, 1904, at St George’s Chapel, Windsor, and had issue:

 

1  May Helen Emma (b.1906); she married Colonel Sir Henry Abel Smith (b.1900), and had issue.

 

2  Rupert Alexander George Augustus, Viscount Trematon (1907-killed in a car accident, 1928).

 

3  Maurice Francis George (b.&d.1910).

 

In 1917, Alexander of Teck adopted the surname Cambridge, which has since been used by his family. Princess Alice died on 3 January, 1981, at Kensington Palace, London, and was buried at Frogmore, Windsor.

(ii)

(Leopold) Charles Edward George Albert

 

Known as Charles, he was born on 19 July, 1884, at Claremont House, Esher, Surrey, his father’s posthumous son. He therefore succeeded at birth as Duke of Albany, Earl of Clarence and Baron Arklow. He succeeded his uncle Alfred as Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha on 30 July, 1900. He was made a Knight of the Garter on 15 July, 1902. He supported Kaiser William II during the First World War, and was consequently struck off the register of the Knights of the Garter in 1915. He abdicated as Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha on 14 November, 1918, and his English titles were formally removed by order of King George V in Council on 28 March, 1919. He died on 6 March, 1954, at Coburg, Germany.

 

Charles married, on 11 October, 1905, at Glücksburg Castle, Holstein, Germany:

 

Victoria Adelaide Helena Louise Marie Frederica

 

She was the daughter of Frederick Ferdinand George Christian Charles William, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, by Victoria Frederica Augusta Marie Caroline Matilda, daughter of Frederick Christian Augustus, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg. She was born on 31 December, 1885, at Grünholz, Holstein, Germany. She died on 3 or 5 October, 1970, either at Coburg, Germany, or at Greinburg, Austria.

 

Issue of marriage:

(a)

John Leopold William Albert Ferdinand Victor (1906–1972); he married firstly Feodora Mary Alma Margaret (b.1907), daughter of Baron Bernard von der Horst, and had issue; they were divorced in 1962. He married secondly Maria Theresa Elizabeth (1908–72), daughter of Max Reinde.

(b)

Sybilla Calma Mary Alice Bathildis Feodora (1908–1972); she married Prince Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden (1906–killed 1947), and had issue.

(c)

Dietmar Hubert Frederick William Philip (1909–1943).

(d)

Caroline Matilda Louisa Eleanor Augusta Beatrice (b.1912); she married firstly Frederick Wolfgang, Count of Castell-Rudenhausen (1906–1940), and had issue; they were divorced in 1938. She married secondly Max Schnirring (1896–1944), and had issue, and thirdly Jim Andree (b.1912); they were divorced in 1949.

(e)

Frederick Josias Charles Edward Ernest Cyril Harold (b.1918); he married firstly Victoria Louisa Frederica Caroline Matilda (b.1921), daughter of Hans, Count of Solmsbaruth, and had issue; they were divorced in 1946. He married secondly Denise Henrietta (b.1923), daughter of Gaston Robert de Muralt, and had issue; they were divorced in 1964. He married thirdly Katherine (b.1940), daughter of Dietrich Charles Bremme.

9  Beatrice Mary Victoria Feodore

She was born on 14 April, 1857, at Buckingham Palace. She married Prince Henry Maurice of Battenberg (1858–1896) on 23 July, 1885, at Whippingham Church, Isle of Wight, and had issue:

1  Alexander Albert, Marquess of Carisbrooke (1886–1960); he married Irene Frances Adza (1890–1956), daughter of William Denison, 3rd Earl of Londesbrough, and had issue.

2  Victoria Eugénie Julia Ena (who took the additional names Maria Christina upon entering the Roman Catholic Faith) (1887–1969); she married Alfonso XIII, King of Spain (1886–1941), and had issue.

3  Leopold Arthur Louis (1889–1922).

4  Maurice Victor Donald (1891–killed at the Battle of Mons, 1914).

Beatrice died on 26 October, 1944, at Brantridge Park, Balcombe, Sussex, and was buried in St George’s Chapel, Windsor. Her remains were later removed to St Mildred’s Church, Whippingham, Isle of Wight.

QUEEN VICTORIA

She died on 22 January, 1901, at Osborne House, Isle of Wight, and was buried in the Royal Mausoleum, Frogmore, Windsor.

She was succeeded by her son Albert, who styled himself Edward VII.

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