Ancient History & Civilisation

Chronology

The Roman consular year usually began in March and as a result the consuls remained in office for the first few months of the year after the date given here. There is some debate over to what extent the Roman calendar was at this period out of synchronization with the modern year. Numerals in brackets after a name denote whether the man had held the consulship before. Consuls who abdicated after a few days or whose election was declared invalid are not included here.

264 Ap. Claudius Caudex M. Fulvius Flaccus

Outbreak of First Punic War; Roman expedition to relieve Messana.

263 M. Valerius Maximus Messala M. Otacilius Crassus

Hiero surrenders and allies Syracuse with Rome.

262 L. Postumius Megellus Q. Mamilius Vitullus

Siege of Agrigentum.

261 L. Valerius Flaccus T. Otacilius Crassus

Fall of Agrigentum; Punic naval squadrons raid Italian coast; Romans decide to build fleet.

260 Cn. Cornelius Scipio Asina C. Duilius

Scipio Asina taken prisoner at Lipara; Duilius wins sea battle off Mylae.

259 L. Cornelius Scipio C. Aquillius Florus

Fighting in Corsica and Sardinia as well as Sicily.

258 A. Adius Caiatinus C. Sulpicius Paterculus

Romans win naval battle off Sulci

257 C. Atilius Regulus Cn. Cornelius Blasio

Romans win naval battle off Tyndaris

256 L. Manlius Vulso Longus M. Atilius Regulus - suff. (II)

Romans win naval battle off Ecnomus and invade Africa; Regulus defeats Punic army at Adys; peace negotiations fail.

255 Ser. Fulvius Paetinus Nobilior M. Aemilius Paullus

Regulus defeated by Xanthippus near Tunis; Roman fleet rescues survivors and defeats Punic navy off Hermaeum; heavy Roman losses in storm.

254 Cn. Cornelius Scipio Asina (II) A. Atilius Caiatinus (II)

Panormus captured.

253 Cn. Servilius Caepio C. Sempronius Blaesus

Roman fleet suffers in storm off Cape Palinurus.

252 C. Aurelius Cotta P. Servilius Geminus

Romans capture more towns in Sicily, including Lipara and Thermae.

251 L. Caecilius Metellus C. Furius Pacilus

Further fighting in Sicily; Carthaginians reinforce their army on the island.

250 C. Atilius Regulus (II) L. Manlius Vulso Longus (II)

Romans win battle outside Panormus and commence siege of Lilybaeum.

249 P. Claudius Pulcher L. Junius Pullus Dictator: A. Atilius Caiatinus Mag. Equ: Caecilius Metellus

Punic navy wins great victory off Drepana; Roman fleet suffers heavily in storm near Camarina; dictator sent to command in Sicily.

248 C. Aurelius Cotta (II) P. Servilius Geminus (II)

Sieges of Lilybaeum and Drepana continue.

247 L. Caecilius Metellus (II) N. Fabius Buteo

Sieges continue; Hamilcar Barca lands in Sicily.

246 M. Otacilius Crassus (II) M. Fabius Licinus

Continued low-intensity fighting in Sicily.

245 M. Fabius Buteo C. Atilius Balbus

Continued low-intensity fighting in Sicily.

244 A. Manlius Torquatus Atticus C. Sempronius Blaesus (II)

Hamilcar moves to Mt Eryx.

243 C. Fundanius Fundulus C. Sulpicius Galus

Continued fighting around Eryx.

242 C. Lutatius Catulus A. Postumius Albinus

New Roman fleet formed.

241 A. Manlius Torquatus Atticus (II) Q. Lutatius Cerco

Romans win decisive sea battle at the Aegates Islands; Carthage accepts peace; end of First Punic War.

240 C. Claudius Centho M. Sempronius Tuditanus

Outbreak of Mercenary War in Africa

239 C. Mamilius Turrinus Q. Valerius Falto

238 Ti. Sempronius Gracchus P. Valerius Falto

Rome annexes Sardinia and threatens Carthage with renewal of war.

237 L. Cornelius Lentulus Caudinius Q. Fulvius Flaccus

End of Mercenary War; Hamilcar Barca sent to Spain.

236 P. Cornelius Lentulus Caudinus C. Licinius Varus

Gallic raids on northern Italy.

235 T. Manlius Torquatus C. Atilius Balbus (II)

234 L. Postumius Albinus Sp. Carvilius Maximus

233 Q. Fabius Maximus M. Pomponius Matho

232 M. Aemilius Lepidus M. Publicius Malleolus

The tribune C. Flaminius carries a bill to distribute the ager Gallicus to citizens.

231 M. Pomponius Matho C. Papirius Maso

230 M. Aemilius Bardula M. Junius Pera

229 L. Postumius Albinus (II) Cn. Fulvius Centumalus

Death of Hamilcar Barca; succeeded by his son-in-law Hasdrubal; First Illyrian War; Romans establish a protectorate on the Illyrian coast.

228 Sp. Carvilius Maximus (II) Q. Fabius Maximus (II)

227 P. Valerius Flaccus M. Atilius Regulus

The praetor C. Flaminius probably the first governor of Rome's Sicilian province.

226 M. Valerius Messalla L. Apustius Fullo

225 L. Aemilius Papus C. Atilius Regulus

Gallic invaders defeated at Telamon.

224 T. Manlius Torquatus (II) Q. Fulvius Flaccus (II)

223 C. Flaminius P. Furius Philus

Flaminius wins victory over Insubres in Cisalpine Gaul.

222 M. Claudius Marcellus Cn. Cornelius Scipio Calvus

Insubres defeated at Clastidium and their capital, Mediolanum (Milan), captured.

221 P. Cornelius Scipio Asina M. Minucius Rufus

Hasdrubal assassinated and succeeded by Hannibal

220 L. Veturius Philo C. Lutatius Catulus

Construction of Via Flaminia.

219 L. Aemilius Paullus M. Livius Salinator

218 P. Cornelius Scipio Ti. Sempronius Longus

Second Illyrian War; Siege and Fall of Saguntum. Outbreak of Second Punic War; Hannibal's March to Italy; Romans defeated at Ticinus and Trebia; Cn. Scipio lands in Spain.

217 Cn. Servilius Gerninus C. Flaminius (II) Dictator: Q. Fabius Maximus Mag. Equ: M. Minucius Rufus

Flaminius defeated at Lake Trasimene; Romans appoint Fabius Maximus dictator; Fabius avoids contact with Hannibal's army, but fails to prevent his escape from Campania; Minucius defeated in large skirmish; Cn. Scipio wins naval encounter off the River Ebro.

216 L. Aemilius Paullus (II) C. Terentius Varro Dictator: M. Junius Pera Mag. Equ: Ti. Sempronius Gracchus

Hannibal wins massive victory at Cannae; Capua and some other states defect; Cn. and P. Scipio defeat Hasdrubal Barca near the Ebro (Iber); Romans appoint dictator; continued fighting especially around Nola; Roman army massacred in Cisalpine Gaul.

215 Q. Fabius Maximus (III) Ti. Sempronius Gracchus

Further fighting around Nola; Hannibal takes Casilinum; Punic reinforcements arrive at Locri; death of Hiero; alliance between Hannibal and Philip V of Macedon; start of First Macedonian War.

214 Q. Fabius Maximus (IV) M. Claudius Marcellus (II)

Romans retake Casilinum; Gracchus defeats Hanno at River Calor; murder of Hieronymus and defection of Syracuse to Carthage; Marcellus begins to operate in Sicily; Laevinus defeats Macedonians at Apollonia; more fighting near Nola

213 Q. Fabius Maximus the Younger Ti. Sempronius Gracchus (II)

Assault on Syracuse fails and Marcellus begins siege; Carthaginian army lands in Sicily.

212 Ap. Claudius Pulcher Q. Fulvius Flaccus (III)

Hannibal captures Tarentum; Romans start siege of Capua; Hanno defeated at Beneventum; Gracchus killed; Hannibal wins victory at Herdonea; in Sicily Marcellus eventually captures Syracuse.

211 P. Sulpicius Galba Maximus Cn. Fulvius Centumalus Maximus

Hannibal marches on Rome, but fails to prevent the fall of Capua; P. and Cn. Scipio defeated and killed in Spain; alliance between Rome and Aetolian League.

210 M. Valerius Laevinus M. Claudius Marcellus (III)

Hannibal wins second victory at Herdonea; Scipio Africanus appointed to Spanish command; Lilybaeum captured by Romans;

209 Q. Fabius Maximus (V) Q. Fulvius Flaccus (IV)

M. Servilius Pulex Geminus mixed fortunes in Greece; Romans raid African coast.

Tarentum recaptured by Fabius; Scipio takes New Carthage; further fighting in Greece

208 T. Quinctius Crispinus M. Claudius Marcellus (TV)

Both consuls killed in ambush; further Roman raids on African coast; Scipio wins battle of Baecula, but Hasdrubal Barca still leaves Spain.

207 C. Claudius Nero M. Livius Salinator (II)

Hasdrubal Barca invades Italy, but defeated at Metaurus; Philip Vs allies win victory at Mantineia; more Roman raids on African coast.

206 L. Veturius Philo Q. Caecilius Metellus

Aetolians make peace with Philip V; Scipio wins decisive victory at Ilipa and later suppresses Caecilius Metellus rebellion by Spanish tribes.

205 P. Cornelius Scipio P. Licinius Crassus Dives

End of First Macedonian War; Scipio prepares invasion of Africa; more Roman raids on African coast; Locri captured and Pleminius scandal; Mago invades Italy.

204 M. Cornelius Cethegus P. Sempronius Tuditanus

Invasion of Africa.

203 Cn. Servilius Caepio C. Servilius Geminus

Scipio destroys enemy winter camps and wins victory at Great Plains; Hannibal and Mago recalled.

202 Ti. Claudius Nero

Scipio defeats Hannibal at Zama.

201 Cn. Cornelius Lentulus P. Aelius Paetus

Peace formally concluded; end of Second Punic War.

200 P. Sulpicius Galba Maximus (II) C. Aurelius Cotta

heavy fighting in Cisalpine Gaul. Start of Second Macedonian War;

199 L. Cornelius Lentulus P. Villius Tappulus

198 T. Quinctius Flamininus Sex. Aelius Paetus Catus

197 C. Cornelius Cethegus Q. Minucius Rufus

Cethegus wins major victory over Insubres. Flamininus defeats Philip V at Cynoscephalae and ends Second Macedonian War; rebellion in Spain.

196 L. Furius Pupureo M. Claudius Marcellus

Marcellus defeats Insubres; Hannibal elected suffete

195 L. Valerius Flaccus M. Porcius Cato

Hannibal exiled; Cato campaigns in Spain, winning a major battle at Emporion.

194 P. Cornelius Scipio (II) Ti. Sempronius Longus

Victory over Lusitanian tribes, but war continues.

193 L. Cornelius Merula Q. Minucius Thermus

192 L. Quinctius Flamininus Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus

Beginning of Syrian War with Antiochus III.

191 P. Cornelius Scipio Nasica M. Acilius Glabrio

Antiochus III defeated by Romans at Thermopylae; Scipio defeats Boii in Cisalpine Gaul.

190 L. Cornelius Scipio C. Laelius

Seleucid fleet led by Hannibal defeated.

189 Cn. Manlius Vulso M. Furius Nobilior

Antiochus III defeated by L. Scipio at Magnesia, brings the Syrian War to an end; Vulso attacks the Galatians.

188 M. Valerius Messalla C. Livius Salinator

187 M. Aemilius Lepidus C. Flaminius

Beginning of attacks on Scipios; Via Aemilia and Via Flaminia constructed in northern Italy.

186 Sp. Postumius Albinus Q. Marcius Philippus

Philippus defeated by Ligurians.

185 Ap. Claudius Pulcher M. Sempronius Tuditanus

184 P. Claudius Pulcher L. Porcius Licinus

Exile of Scipio Africanus; Cato's censorship. Death of Scipio Africanus.

183 Q. Fabius Labeo M. Claudius Marcellus

182 L. Aernilius Paullus Cn. Baebius Tamphilus

181 P. Cornelius Cethegus M. Baebius Tamphilus

Major rebellion by Celtiberian tribes.

180 A. Postumius Albinus Luscus C. Calpurnius Piso

179 L. Manlius Acidinus Fulvianus Q. Furius Flaccus

Celtiberians defeated.

178 A. Manlius Vulso M. Junius Brutus

177 C. Claudius Pulcher Ti. Sempronius Gracchus

176 Cn. Cornelius Scipio Hispallus Q. Petillius Spurinus

175 M. Aemilius Lepidus (II) P. Murcius Scaevola

174 Sp. Postumius Albinus Paullulus Q. Murcius Scaevola

173 L. Postumius Albinus M. Popillius Laenas

172 P. Aelius Ligus C. Popillius Laenas

Both consuls plebeian for the first time; start of Third Macedonian War.

171 P. Licinius Crassus C. Cassius Longinus

170 A. Atilius Serranus A. Hostilius Mancinus

169 Cn. Sevilius Caepio Q. Marcius Philippus (II)

168 L. Aemilius Paullus (II) C. Licinius Crassus

167 Q. Aelius Paetus M. Junius Pennus

Perseus defeated at Pydna, ending the Third Macedonian War; Kingdom of Macedon dissolved.

166 C. Sulpicius Gallus M. Claudius Marcellus

165 T. Manlius Torquatus Cn. Octavius

164 A. Manlius Torquatus Q. Cassius Longinus

163 Ti. Sempronius Gracchus (II) M. Iuventius Thalna

162 P. Cornelius Lentulus Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus

161 M. Valerius Messalla C. Fannius Strabo

160 M. Cornelius Cethegus L. Anicius Gallus

159 Cn. Cornelius Dolabella M. Furius Nobilior

158 M. Aemilius Lepidus C. Popillius Laenas (II)

157 Sex. Julius Caesar L. Aurelius Orestes

156 L. Cornelius Lentulus Lupus C. Marcius Figulus

155 P. Cornelius Scipio Nasica M. Claudius Marcellus (II)

154 L. Postumius Albinus M. Acilius Glabrio - suff.

Victory over Ligurians; major war begins in Lusitania.

153 Q. Fulvius Nobilior T. Annius Luscus

Major rebellion by Celtiberians.

152 L. Valerius Flaccus M. Claudius Marcellus (III)

151 A. Postumius Albinus L. Licinius Lucullus

Carthage declares war on Masinissa.

150 T. Quinctius Flamininus M. Acilius Balbus

149 L. Marcius Censorinus M. Manilius

Start of Third Punic War; campaign begins with Roman failures; Andriscus invades Macedonia

148 Sp. Postumius Albinus Magnus L.Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus

Poor performance of Roman army in Africa continues.

147 P. Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus C. Livius Drusus

Scipio given African command and tightens siege of Carthage.

146 Cn. Cornelius Lentulus L. Mummius

Capture and destruction of Carthage; end of Third Punic War.

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