Ancient History & Civilisation

Notes

Preface and Introduction

1. Quiller-Couch (1918) 15–16.

Chapter 1: The Prehistory of Roman Roads

1. Viatores (1964) 50.

2. Collingwood and Richmond (1969) 4.

3. Sharpstone Hill: Malim and Hayes (2011). New book: Robb (2013). Roads before the Romans: Forbes and Burmester (1904) 26–39; Margary (1973) 18; Cox (1944). Old Straight Track: Watkins (1925). Akeman Street: Copeland (2009).

4. Armies and roads: Jones (2011) 112. Plautius’ landing place: Hind (1989); Frere and Fulford (2001).

5. Pilgrim’s Way: Hindle (1998) 13. Chaucer: Littlehales (1896). Thames crossing: Webster (1980) 98.

6. Prehistoric trackways: Taylor (1979) 1–39; Muir (1985) 260–3. Ridgeways: Davies (2006) 29–32; Taylor (1979) 19–20. Somerset Levels: Coles and Coles (1986). Native predecessor to Roman system: Belloc (1924), cf. Davies (2006) 28–9; Margary (1973) 18; Viatores (1964) 49–51. Early wheeled vehicles: Coles and Coles (1986) 180. Earliest wooden wheel: Sheridan (1996) 189.

7. Viatores (1964) 49 citing Fox (1923).

8. Corlea: Raftery (1991) 110. Eton: Allen and Welsh (1996). Vauxhall: Anonymous (1999).

9. Holne Moor: Fleming (1988) 70, Fig 34. Melton: Bishop (1999). Mount Pleasant: NAA (2005). Ley lines: Watkins (1925).

10. Ridgeways: Taylor (1979) 19–20; Rackham (1986) 251; Davies (2006) 29–32.

11. Peak District trackways: Dodd and Dodd (1980) 10–18.

12. Roecliffe: Bishop (1995). Devil’s Arrows: Castleden (1992) 249. Thornborough henges: Thomas (1955).

13. Corbridge: Bishop and Dore (1989).

14. Badbury: Frere and St Joseph (1983) 10–11, plate 5. Other hillforts: Field (1992) 154. Burgundy: Madry and Crumley (1990). Roman forts and hillforts: Maxfield (1987) 19. Oppida: Witcher (1998) 66–7.

15. Tweed camps: Welfare and Swan (1995) 72–134, 181. Road to Cardean: Margary (1973) 495. Northern camps: Maxwell (1989) 38–67. Edward I: Maxwell (1986).

16. Monastic route: Hindle (1998) 14. Malham camp: Welfare and Swan (1995) 143–5.

17. Roads in the American West: Gregory (1931) 10–11.

18. Avebury: Burl (2002) 212–13. Arbor Low: Dodd and Dodd (1980) 10–12. Via Sacra: Smith (2000) 29. Spartacus: Appian, Histories 120.

19. Roads help armies: Barrett (1896) 427. Cart terminology: Stevenson (1983) 49. Britons opposing Caesar: Caesar, Gallic Wars 4.33. Mons Graupius: Tacitus, Agricola 36. Chariots of the Parisi: Ramm (1978) 13, 21. Edinburgh chariot: Carter and Hunter (2008). Boudica: Tacitus, Annals 14.34. Tropaeum Traiani: Florescu (1959) Fig 219.

20. Drove roads: Hindle (2001) 56–76; Forster (1888) 99–101. Stagshaw Fair: ibid. 63–70. Transhumance routes: Muir (1985) 206–7; Hindle (2001) 56. Knag Burn gateway: Bishop (2011) 21.

21. Tumuli: Cox (1944) 4. High Rochester: Wilson (2004). Great Chesters: Breeze (2006) 274. Coney Hills: Marwood (1995). Corpse roads: Hindle (2001) 44–6. Mardle Green: ibid. 46.

22. Burgundy network: Madry and Crumley (1990). Beacon Hill: Cox (1944) 33–4.

23. Maen Madoc: Westwood (1856) 407. Bwlch y Ddeufaen: Muir (1985) 263–4. Gelligaer: RCAHMW (1976) 36.

24. Arbor Low: Dodd and Dodd (1980) 10–12. Y Pigwyn: Burl (2005) 184. Silbury settlement: Linford (2208–9).

25. Prehistoric origins: Rackham (1986) 250.

26. Outpost forts: Breeze (2006) 97–102. Bewcastle road: Hodgson (2009) 170.

Chapter 2: Conquest and Construction

1. Viatores (1964) 15.

2. Advance detachments: Josephus, Jewish War 3.118. Opening up: Isaac (1988) 126. Teutoburg Forest: Dio Cassius, Roman History 56.18–20. Caravan route: Kennedy and Riley (1990) 77.

3. Germanicus: Tacitus, Annals 1.56.

4. Assault roads: Peddie (1987) 188–90.

5. Sherman: Barrett (1996) 35.

6. Germanicus: Tacitus, Annals 1.56.

7. Campaign roads in Arabia: Kennedy (1982) 169. Proto Dere Street: Bishop (2000) 218. Rey Cross: Richmond and McIntyre (1934).

8. Idleness: Vegetius, Epitoma Rei Militari 3.4. Summer season: Taylor (1996) 33. Dere Street: Bishop and Dore (1989) 140.

9. Scaftworth: Noort and Ellis (1997) 447–9; Noort and Lillie (1997). Southwark: Merrifield (1983) 27–32. Ambleside: Armitt (1916) 13.

10. Statius: Silvae 4.3.

11. Wall construction: Hill (2004); Graafstal (2012). Stints: Hill (2004) 110–28. Order of construction: ibid. 37–8; cf. Graafstal (2012) 160. Variations: ibid. 129–44. Direction: Poulter (2010) 25–32.

12. Military roads of Scotland: Taylor (1996) 35–6. 1½ yards per man per day: Taylor (1996) 34. Royal Engineers’ figures: Peddie (1987) 188–90.

13. Hadrian’s Wall: Hill (2006) 146. Cf. Graafstal (2012). Wade’s teams: Taylor (1996) 33. Caulfeild’s teams: ibid. 26–8. Manipuli: Tacitus, Annals 1.20.

14. Mensores: Vegetius, Epitoma Rei Militaris 2.7. Roads, bridges, and tunnels: Austin and Rankov (1995) 114; CIL 8.2728. Equipment: Dilke (1985) 88–9; Lewis (2009).

15. Surveying teams: Taylor (1996) 33. The Newcastle to Carlisle Military Road: Lawson (1966). Civil companies: Lawson (1973).

16. Straightness of roads: Poulter (2010) 13.

17. Haltwhistle Burn: Frere and St Joseph (1983) 61 Plate 31.

18. Stane Street: Bagshawe (1979) 14. Ptolemy’s coordinates: Dilke (1985) 75–86.

19. London: Johnston (1979) 38.

20. Roman maps: Davies (2002) 44–52; cf. Dilke (1985).

21. Davies (2002).

22. Poulter (2010).

23. Arc: De Munitionibus Castrorum 54. Gregory (1989) 170–1.

24. The foot: Jones (2000) 72. Regional measurements: Walthew (1978). Arabia: Kennedy (1982) 150.

25. Crindledykes: RIB 2299–2305. Corbridge: Forster and Knowles (1912) 141–2; RIB 2296–7.

26. Three Spital milestones: RIB 2280–1. Old Spital: RIB 2282. Rey Cross camp: Richmond and McIntyre (1934) 50–8; Robinson in Vyner (2001), 76–86. Eric Bloodaxe and the Diocese of Glasgow: Bailey in Vyner (2001), 120. The Rey Cross: Vyner (2001) 118–21.

27. Hodometer: Lewis (2009) 134–42. Scribal errors: Rivet (1970) 39. Turnpike milestones: OS six-inch county series (1857) Yorkshire sheet 11, measured using Google Earth. 1743: Albert (1972) 39. 1593: 35 Eliz cap 6.

28. Celtic mile: Black (1995) 98–107.

29. Construction: Codrington (1918) 11–15; Margary (1973) 18–22, 500–1, 503–6; Bagshawe (1979) 15; Davies (2002) 53–66; Davies (2010) 32–42. Statius, Silvae 4.3.20–4; 27–37; 40–55. Opinions of Statius: ‘more concerned with flattering Domitian than with precise description’ – Codrington (1918) – ‘succinct and plausible’ – Davies (2002) 56. Roman Ridge: Roberts (1998) 5. Inveresk: Bishop (2004), 11.

30. Eighteenth-century corduroys: Taylor (1996) 35–6.

31. Surfaces questioned: Davies (2002) 81–2; Hart (1984) 92.

32. Iron-making debris: Margary (1973) 61, 330.

33. Stane Street: Winbolt (1936) 210. Doctor’s Gate: Dodd and Dodd (1980) 40. Axle width: Crow (1995) 33–4.

34. Encroachment of vegetation: Rackham (1986) 257.

35. Wheeldale Moor: Hayes and Rutter (1964); cf. Poulter (2010) 69. Brough-on-Noe: Dearne (1993) 44. Inveresk: Bishop (2004) 10–11, 17, 18.

36. Brough-on-Noe: Dearne (1993) 42. Roecliffe: Bishop (2005) 158.

37. Dere Street’s original course: Soffe in Bishop and Dore (1989) 9 and 12. Stanegate eastern extension: Simpson (1972).

38. Corbridge drains: Forster and Knowles (1912) 139–41.

39. Stone spine: Margary (1973) 404. Via Nova Traiana: Kennedy (1982) 144.

40. Corbridge junction: Forster and Knowles (1912) 139. Wade’s Causeway: Hayes et al. (1964). Inveresk: Bishop (2004) 21. Roecliffe: Bishop (2005) 150.

41. Vindolanda: Margary (1973) 446. Temple Sowerby: Sedgley (1975) 41–2. Stinsford: Margary (1973) 109. Re-used milestone: e.g. RIB 3519. Single milestone: e.g. RIB 2310. Group of milestones: e.g. RIB 2280–1 or 2290–2. Crindledykes: Bruce (1886); RIB 2299–305. Smith’s Shield milestone: RIB 2308.

42. Jordanian milestation: Kennedy (1982) 146. Gallows Hill: RIB 2290–2. Crindledykes: Bruce (1886); RIB 2299–305. Date of Stanegate: Poulter (2010) 112–14.

43. Painted milestones: Graf (1995a). Brough milestone: RIB 2243. Crindledykes milestone: RIB 2299.

44. Margary’s network: Margary (1973).

45. Corbridge junction: Forster and Knowles (1912) 139.

46. Shrines, crossroads, and suicides: Lay and Vance 1992, 52.

47. Burial law: Cicero, De Legibus 2.23.58. Early London burial grounds: Merrifield (1983) 154. High Rochester: Wilson (2004). Great Chesters: Breeze (2006) 274.

48. Bridges on Highland roads: Taylor (1996) 44–5. Temporary ones: suggested by J.S. Poulter (pers comm). Unacceptable: Tacitus, Annals 1.56. Fording: Vegetius, Epitoma Rei Militaris 3.7.

49. Trajan’s Danube Bridge: Lepper and Frere (1988) 148–51. Caesar’s Rhine bridge: Gallic Wars 4.17. Pontoon bridges: Lepper and Frere (1988) 50–3. Severus’ Tay bridge: Birley (1988) 181.

50. Alfoldean bridge: Winbolt (1936) 97–9. Rossington Bridge: Magilton (1977) 63.

51. Aldwincle bridge: Jackson and Ambrose (1976).

52. Roman London Bridge: Milne (1982).

53. Scaftworth causeway: Van de Noort and Lillie (1997). Bridge: Van de Noort (2001) 168–9. Rossington Bridge: Magilton (1977) 63.

54. Newcastle bridge: Bidwell and Holbrook (1989) 99–103.

55. Hadrian’s Wall bridges: Bidwell and Holbrook (1989).

56. Corbridge bridge: Craster (1914) 64–5. Chollerford bridge: Bidwell and Holbrook (1989) 32.

57. Agger: Margary (1973) 19–21. The agger as an accumulation: Davies (2002) 35–6.

58. Haltwhistle Burn: Gibson and Simpson (1909). Pesco Montano: Coarelli (1982) 325.

59. Tramlines: Cüppers (1990) 312 (Bacharach) Drack and Fellmann (1988) 419 (Langenbruck).

Chapter 3: Development and Use

1. Reports of Commissioners for Highland Roads and Bridges 1,22, cited in Taylor (1996) 119.

2. Corbridge: Bishop and Dore (1989) 140. Beaufront Red House: Hanson et al (1979). Stratigraphy: Harris (1979). TAQ and TPQ: ibid. 97.

3. Deorestrete at Gainford: Curle (1911) 9–10. Watling Street: Keynes and Lapidge (1983) 171–2.

4. Via Julia: Codrington (1918) 277. Sallustius Lucullus: Suetonius, Life of Domitian 10.3. Arabian roads: Kennedy and Riley (1990) 77.

5. Baylham House: Frere and St Joseph (1985) 94.

6. Centuriation: Dilke (1985) 88–100; Campbell (2000) 278–316. Colchester: Haverfield (1918) 293–6. Gloucester: Berry (1949). Sussex: Margary (1973) 73; Peterson (2002). Imperial estate: Salway (1981) 637. Orange cadaster: Dilke (1985) 108–10. Aerial photographs: Deuel (1969) 112, 137–8. Northern home counties: Peterson (1990). Middlesex: Sharpe (1918); Peterson (2006). Weald: Peterson (2002).

7. Army and engineering: Goldsworthy (2003) 146–8. Indigenous rights: Churchill (2002) 98–9.

8. Town councils: Chevallier (1997) 32; Frend 1956; Mitchell (1976).

9. Inveresk: Bishop (2004) 18. Milestones: Collingwood and Wright (1965) 691–727; Tomlin et al. (2009) 465–79.

10. Highlands: Taylor (1996) 43. Rutting and flooding: Jackman (1916) 98.

11. Cursus publicus: Black (1995). Mansiones: Chevallier (1997) 281–91.

12. Pottery: Fulford (1973); cost comparison: Greene (1986) 164–5.

13. Palmyrene Tax Law: Matthews (1984). Customs posts: Sartre (2005) 256–7. Beneficiarius posts: Ott (1995) 85–113; Nelis-Clément (2000) 133–210. Brigandage: Grünewald (2004).

14. Peutinger’s Table: Margary (1973) 27–8; Rivet and Smith (1979) 149–50; Dilke (1985) 113–20; Talbert (2010).

15. Maps and itineraria: Broderson (2002); Laurence (2002); Salway (2002). Antonine Itinerary: Margary (1973) 27; Rivet and Smith (1979) 150–4; Dilke (1985) 125–8.

16. Caracalla and Severus: Black (1984) later rejected in Black (1995) 106.

17. Luttwak (1976) 127–90, followed by Burnham and Johnson (1979), but then critiqued by Mann (1979) and Isaac (1992).

18. Strategic view of Hadrian’s Wall: Luttwak (1976) 66. Abhorrence of wall-top fighting: Hingley (2012) 296. David Divine (1969). Outpost forts: Moffatt (2008) 149. Signalling: Woolliscroft (2001). Protecting friendly peoples: Breeze and Dobson (2000) 46.

19. Number of milecastles and turrets: Bishop (2011) 16 and 18. Milecastle garrisons: Breeze and Dobson (2000) 41. Exploratores: Austin and Rankov (1995), 193–4.

20. Pridianum: Bowman and Thomas (1994) 90–8.

21. Brigandage: Grünewald (2004).

22. Phasing the network: Webster (1980; 1981); Breeze and Dobson (1985); Bidwell and Hodgson (2009) 7–29.

23. Vigiles: Coulston (2000) 89. Numerus vigilum: Bishop (1993) 67. Beneficiarii: Rankov (1999); Nelis-Clément (2000) 211–68. Regionary centurions: Fuhrman (2012) 222–3.

24. Cavalry unshod: Hyland (1990) 123; army marching order: Gilliver (1999) 32–62.

25. Abuse of system: Tacitus, Agricola 19.

26. Vegetius, Epitoma Rei Militaris 3.8.

27. Logistics and fort distribution: Bishop (1999b) 111–14.

28. Vegetius and Frontinus: Schenk (1932) 88.

29. Finds from towns and the ‘military zone’: Bishop (1991).

30. Bozeman: Ward (1996) 226–30. Myos Hormos: Jackson (2002) 98–105.

31. Allied troops’ pay: Tacitus, Histories 1.67. Shipment of pigs: Elkington (1976) 187–8. By water: Grinsell (1958) 240–2.

32. Lead pigs: Elkington (1976) 192–5; Gardiner (2001).

33. Lead pig weight: Frere et al. (1990) 38–66. Capacity of a mule: Marcy (1861) 109 suggests 125 lbs (57 kg); Engels (1978) 14 cites 200 lbs (91 kg).

34. Vindolanda tablet: Tab. Vind. 2, No.343.21; cf. Poulter (2010) 45–6.

35. Native attitude to roads: Witcher (1997); Highlanders’ reaction: Taylor (1996) 117. Imperialist ambitions: Witcher (1998).

36. Waterways: Selkirk (1983); balanced view: e.g. Anderson (1992).

37. Tiberius’ ride: Speidel (1994) 19.

38. Roman military pace: Vegetius, Epitoma Rei Militari 1.9.

39. Cart speeds: Anderson (1992) 12. Mule speeds: Roth (1998) 206–7.

40. Edict on Prices: Leake (1826). Inclines: Selkirk (1995) 61. Actual loads: Anderson (1992) 13. Des Noëttes and draft harness: Weller (1999), notably www.humanist.de/rome/rts/load.html. Trajan’s Column: Coulston (2001) 109–10.

41. Water transport: Selkirk (1995) 189–264. Selkirk’s views challenged: Anderson (1992).

42. Proof: Walters (1999).

Chapter 4: After the Romans

1. Gregory (1931) 91.

2. Decay: Stenton (1936) 1–3. Continuity: Rackham (1986) 257; Poulter (2010) 51–3, 78.

3. Codrington (1879). Blackthorn: Rackham (1986) 257.

4. Trevelyan (1945) 45–6.

5. Battles and roads: Higham (1993) 122. Medieval armies needed roads: Beeler (1956) 290 n.52. Medieval road building: Stenton (1936); Bland (1957); Hindle (1998) 6. Yarmouth to Winterton: Hindle (1998) 20. Road at Corbridge: Craster (1914) 65. Chester to the River Conwy: Colyer (1984) 60. Surviving Roman bridges: Troyano (2003), 100–9. Cromwell Lock: Crompton and Brooke (1885); Salisbury (1995). Ford at Corbridge: Craster (1914) 65. Et Corabrige: ibid. 14.

6. Battles: Kinross (1998); Battlefields Trust (2012). Romans: Barrett (1896) 426–7.

7. Roads making themselves: Hindle (1998) 6. Wealas: Partridge (1966) 218 cf. Flanders para 5.

8. Natanleaga: Giles (1914) 9. Cerdicesford: Reno (2000) 220. Searoburh: ibid. 10. Beranburh: ibid.

9. Mons Badonicus: Alcock (1971) 68–71. Obsessio: Gildas, De Excidio Britanniae 26.1.

10. Camlann: Alcock (1971) 67; Reno (1996) 179–201.

11. Catraeth/Catterick: Jackson (1989) 83. Cirencester: Giles (1914) 16.

12. Heavenfield: Giles (1914) 16. Deniseburn: Bede, Ecclesiastical History 3.1.

13. Repton: Wood (2010) 79–82. Crayke: Simeon, History of the Church of Durham 21; 28.

14. Battle(s) of Corbridge: South (2002) 105–6. Via regia: Curle (1911) 14.

15. Simeon, Libellus de Exordio 33. Bromborough: Foot (2008) 136–7. Burnswark: Neilson (1910). Brinsworth: Wood (1999) 320.

16. Maldon: Kinross (1998) 12–13.

17. Carham: Duncan (1976). Dunsinane Hill: Marren (1990) 53–4. Lumphanan: ibid. 54. Camps: Jones (2011) 102–3.

18. Statute of Winchester: 13 Edward I. Importance of Roman roads: Steane (1984) 104–5. ‘Self-made roads’: Hindle (2001) 80 for the concept, 34 described.

19. Fulford in general: Jones (2011). On the possible red herring of the ‘Gate’ place-name element: ibid. 106. Heslington to Pool Farm: Margary (1973) 427. Stamford Bridge: Kinross (1998) 14–16. Norman invasion: Gravett (1992); Morillo (1996); Morris (2012).

20. Timings: Gravett (1992) 44; Morillo (1996) 181. Roman army speed: Vegetius, Epitoma Rei Militaris 1.9. Camp Toccoa to Fort Benning: Ambrose (2001) 28–9. All forced marches over distance, whether Roman, Saxon, or American, include time for sleep and this is incorporated in the above averages. Condition: Morillo (1996) 181.

21. Hastings fought near a Roman road: Gravett (1992) 59. Battle of London: Mills (1996).

22. Battle of Stafford: Forester (1854) 26–7. Cuthbert’s route: Stevenson (1855) 687. William’s marches: Forester (1854) 29–30; cf. Morris (2012) 234. Malcolm’s Cross: Anderson (1908) 110–14.

23. Invasion of 1136: Stevenson (1856) 4:1, 5–6, 39. 1138: ibid, 7. Clitheroe: ibid, 8–9. Battle of the Standard: ibid, 46–51; Kinross (1998) 20–1.

24. Renfrew: Andreson (1908) 243. Whitemoss, Lurg Moor, and Outerwards: Newall (1976). Syleham: Barber (2003) 180; Copinger (1904) 154–6.

25. Treasure: Forster (1881) 28. 1201, 1208, 1212: Hardy (1835).

26. Norham: Church (2003) 256; Hardy (1835). Barons’ route: Giles (1849) 391–8. Simon de Montfort at Fletching: Halliwell (1840) 27. Movements prior to Evesham: ibid. 57–60; Kinross (1998) 24. Kempsey milestone: RIB 2249. Palmer’s Cross: Purton (1901). Haxey: Prestwich (1988) 55.

27. Clearing a road: Morris (1901) 130. Rhuddlan: ibid. 131. Deganwy: ibid. 134. Woodmen: ibid. 139.

28. 1296: Gough (1900) 139–45.

29. Liddesdale: Gough (1900) 141. Wheel Causeway: Haverfield (1899–1900).

30. May to August: Gough (1900) 141–4. Edward I and the Romans: Maxwell (1986).

31. Stirling Bridge: Kinross (1998) 27–9; Paterson (1996) 18–19; Foard (2005b).

32. 1298: Gough (1900) 166–72. Falkirk: Paterson (1996) 22–4. Battlefield site: Foard (2005a).

33. 1300: Gough (1900) 190–2. Caerlaverock road: St Joseph (1952). Gatehouse of Fleet: St Joseph (1983). Glenlochar: Frere and St Joseph (1983) 127–9.

34. 1301: Gough (1900) 203–6. Road to Newstead: Graham and Richmond (1952–3); Anon. (1995) 23.

35. 1303: Gough (1900) 225–32; Paterson (1996) 33–5.

36. 1306: Gough (1900) 264–8. Ailing: Paterson (1996) 44. 1307: Gough (1900) 269–75. Death: Paterson (1996) 48.

37. Decaying roads: cf. Gregory (1931) 94. Loudon Hill: Paterson (1996) 47. Bannockburn: ibid. 63–4.

38. Itinerary: Hartshorne (1861). Frustration: Paterson (1996) 59. Waggons: Childs (2005) 89. Bannockburn: Foard (2006).

39. Stainmore and Gilsland: Maxwell (1913) 227–8.

40. Burton Bridge: Glover (1865) 340–1.

41. Aldborough: Bishop (1996) 1–2. Great North Road: Hindle (1998) 43–5 with Fig. 33. Domesday Book: Morris (1975–1992) 1Y18; domesdaymap.co.uk/place/SE4066/aldborough/ accessed 8.12.12. Battle: Kinross (1998) 36–7; Foard (2003). Roecliffe: Bishop (2005). Ford: Foard (2003) 18;www.biffvernon.freeserve.co.uk/boroughbridge.htmaccessed 8.12.12.

42. Solway: Haines (2003) 271. Old Byland: Paterson (1996) 81–2. Barbour: Mackenzie (1909) 476.

43. Stanhope Park: Paterson (1996) 87–8; Maxwell (1913) 257. Fordun: Skene (1872) 344.

44. Gask Ridge: Woolliscroft and Hoffmann (2006).

45. Neville’s Cross: Kinross (1998) 40–1. Route: Ogilby (1675) Plate 99.

46. Froissart: Johnes (1901) 1:288–94. Froissart’s description of the Scots showing the French the advancing English from a high mountain perfectly describes the terrain south of Soutra. Pluscarden has Richard’s invasion the following year and is unclear on the route – Skene (1877) 247.

47. 1388: White (1857); Armstrong (2006). Via Ponteland: Johnes (1901) 2:37.

48. Mynydd Hyddgen: Morgan (1851) 30–2.

49. Homildon Hill: Skene (1877) 259–60; Kinross (1998) 44–5.

50. Battle: Harrison (2002), 42–3. Campaign road: White and Barker (1998) 39 with Fig. 15. Shrewsbury to Wrexham: Ogilby (1675) Plate 98.

51. Worcester: Thomas (1822) 136–43; Wylie (1894) 296–315.

52. Bramham Moor: Wylie (1896) 146–59.

53. Piperdean: Bower, Scotichronicon 16.25.16–24. Sark (Lochmaben Stone): Thomson (1819) 18 and 40.

54. St Albans: Anon. (1815) 63–6; Harrison (2002), 46–7. Blore Heath: Twemlow (1912); Kinross (1998) 52–3; Harrison (2002), 48–9. Hales villa: Goodyear (1974).

55. Northampton: Harrison (2002), 50–1.

56. Mortimer’s Cross: Kinross (1998) 58–9; Battlefields Trust www.battlefieldstrust.com/resource-centre/warsoftheroses/battleview.asp?BattleFieldId=25 accessed 9.12.12. Ogilby: (1675) Plate 3. St Albans: Anon. (1815) 66–8. Ferrybridge: Gravett (2003) 32–9. Towton: Kinross (1998), 60–1. Harrison (2002) 54–5; Gravett (2003) 40–78.

57. Hedgeley Moor: Kinross (1998) 62–3. Road leading south-west from Corbridge: Codrington (1918) 151–2. Earlier references: Maclauchlan (1851) 20; Forster (1881) 10. Selkirk (1995) 120–5. Aerial photo: NMR NY 9863/26 (20559/50) taken 13.7.06.

58. Edgecote Moor: Kinross (1998) 64–5. Losecote Field: Ellis (1844) 126–8.

59. Barnet: Kinross (1998) 66–9. Tewkesbury: Kinross (1998) 70–1.

60. Bosworth Field (traditional): Kinross (1998) 72–4. New site: Foard (2010). Stoke Field: Kinross (1998) 75–6.

61. Road east from Winchester: Millea (2007) 85; NEHHAS (2011). Warbeck: Macmullen (1858) 90–1. James IV: Graham (1959–60) 224–6.

62. Milfield: Jones (1869) 21–2. Flodden: Kinross (1998) 77–8; Barr (2001). Etal and Berwick: ibid. 117.

63. Haddon Rigg: Lindsay (1728) 169–70. Sir Thomas Wharton’s account: Gairdner (1900) 624–5.

64. Ancrum Moor: Kinross (1998) 79–80.

65. Pinkie: Pollard (1903) 79–157. Northern end of Dere Street: Bishop (2004) 175–7. Eyewitness sketch: Pollard (1903) 114–15.

66. Crediton: Sturt (1987) 21. Fenny Bridges: ibid. 75. Exeter: ibid. 51–68. Clyst Heath: ibid. 83. Sampford Courtenay: ibid. 98.

67. Carberry Hill: Colville (1825) 12.

68. Carter Bar: Brown (1911) 128.

69. Highways Acts: Albert (1972) 14–15.

70. Newburn ford: Kinross (1998) 85–6. Condition of Military Way: Hingley (2012) 129–30. Cart wheel: Piggott (1949).

71. Bund (1905) 38–44.

72. Edgehill: Kinross (1998) 87–90. Turnham Green and Brentford: Marsh (2005; 2008).

73. Braddock Down: Foard and Partida (2005). Stratton: Kinross (1998) 91–2. Place-name: Margary (1973) 26.

74. Adwalton Moor: Kinross (1998) 95–6.

75. Lansdown Hill: Kinross (1998) 97–8. Ogilby’s road: Ogilby (1675) Plate 11.

76. Newbury: Kinross (1998) 101–3, 123–5.

77. Battle of Nantwich: Kinross (1998) 106–7.

78. Battle of Cheriton: Kinross (1998) 111–12. Winchester to London road: www.nehhas.org.uk/dig.htm accessed 14.12.12. Cropredy Bridge: ibid. 113–15. Lostwithiel: ibid. 120–2. Marston Moor: ibid. 116–19.

79. Naseby: ibid. 128–30.

80. Langport: ibid. 133–4. Villas and roads: Branigan (1976) 14–15. Rowton Heath: Kinross (1998) 139–41. Stow-on-the-Wold: Gardiner (1893) 79–80. Battle of Worcester: Kinross (1998) 147–9.

81. First Turnpike Act: Albert (1972) 17.

82. Sedgemoor: Kinross (1998) 152–5. Causeways: Foard (2003b) 34–5; Baggs and Siraut (1992).

83. Prestonpans: Kinross (1998) 163–5.

84. Wade and the Military Road: Lawson (1966). Carelgate: Ogilby (1675) Plate 86.

85. Clifton Moor: Kinross (1998) 166–8.

86. Dunnichen: Fraser (2002).

87. Danes: Fleming (1985) 253–4. Sea Lion: Fleming (2011) 255.

88. Roads as boundaries: Poulter (2010) 53. Watling Street and the Danelaw: Davis (1982). Fosse Way and Icknield Way: Hooke (2009) 92. Parish boundaries: Pounds (2000), 67–9. Villa estate boundaries: Johnston (2004) 58.

89. Edward the Confessor: Collins (1916) 34–53. Later monarchs: Blair (2003) 256.

90. London stone: Pennant (1813) 4–5; Merrifield (1983) 75–7; Ackroyd (2000) 18–19.

91. Henry: Stenton (1936) 3. Statute of Winchester: Bland (1957) 7–8. Pavage: Cooper (2006) 127. Strand: Pennant (1813) 187. Pessimistic view countered: Hindle (2001) 41.

92. Stane Street: Hindle (2001) 22, Fig. 17.

93. Statute of Phillip and Mary: Byrne (1961) 106.

94. Marlborough and Silchester: Grinsell (1958) 301.

95. Castles and Roman roads: Beeler (1956) 540. Tomen-y-Mur: Nash-Williams (1969) 112. Bowes: Clark (1884) 263. Brough: ibid. 286–8. Brougham: ibid. 294. Cardiff: Nash-Williams (1969) 71. Portchester: Munby (1990) 35–6. Newcastle upon Tyne: Snape and Bidwell (2002) 5.

96. Chester-le-Street: Cambridge (1989) 367. Inveresk: Carrick (1894) 37. Caerleon: Boon (1992). Chester: Mason (2001) 212. York: Carver (1995). Mastiles Lane: Hindle (2001) 47–8.

97. Gough map: Colyer (1984) 60. Portways etc: Hindle (2001) 11–12, 35. Roads that made themselves: Flower (1923) xvi.

98. Blackthorn: Rackham (1986) 257. Complaints: Hindle (2001) 49. Complaints exaggerated: Rackham (1986) 248–9.

99. Dere Street and A68: NT 60047 28230 to NT 59572 29750; Margary (1973) 485. Trans- Sahara routes: Symons (1938) 153; Thomas (1952) 272–3. Stanegate: NY 72632 66260 to NY 71564 66167; Margary (1973) 446. Chew Green: NT 81311 06387 to NT 80436 07277; ibid. 484. Multiple trackways: Hindle (1998) 46–9.

100. Highland military roads: Taylor (1996); Davies (2006) 59–61. Military Road: Spain (1937); Lawson (1966; 1973).

101. Turnpike Roads: Albert (1972); Davies (2006) 53–8. Macadamized roads: Codrington (1892) 3–9; Albert (1972) 141–8; Davies (2006) 85–7. Tarmac: Airey (2010) 209; Davies (2006) 87–9.

102. Telford: Albert (1972) 145–8; Hindle (2001) 116–17; Davies (2006) 84–5.

103. Watford Gap: Fisher (2009) 63.

104. Modern roads and motorways: Charlesworth (1984); Davies (2006) 69–73.

Chapter 5: Rediscovery

1. Horsley (1732) 428.

2. Margary’s methodology: Margary (1973) 24–33. Remote sensing: Clark (1990); Wilson (1982); Barber (2011). Other methodologies: Sherman and Evans (2004) 5–6.

3. Straight stretches: Codrington (1918) 30.

4. Roadworks: e.g. Rushton (1995). Developer-funded archaeology: Greene and Moore (2010), 107–9. Fosse Way: Andrews and Harding (2012). Roman Ridge: Roberts (1998). Ermin Street: Mudd et al. (2000).

5. Cadw Roman Roads Project: Sherman and Evans (2004); Hopewell (2004; 2005; 2006; 2007; 2008).

6. Field boundaries: Margary (1973) 512; Bagshawe (1979) 24.

7. Place-names: Codrington (1918) 31–2; Margary (1973) 26, 507–8; Bagshawe (1979) 21–2.

8. Coldharbour: E.g. Viatores (1964) 351. Statistics: Ogden (1966); Briggs (2009). Antiquity of Coldharbour and Caldecote: Cole (2011) 58–61.

9. Royal itineraries: Hindle (1998) 17, 21–7; Gough (1900). No Roman predecessor: contra Hindle (1982) 204.

10. Alfred and Guthrun: Davis (1982). Osmanthorpe: Roy, J. in Bishop and Freeman (1993) 159–64.

11. Paris map: Lewis (1987) 364–72. Gough map: Hindle (1998) 31. Place-name evidence: Hussey (1853) 105–6. Sea-level change and alluviation: Burnham (1989). Canterbury to Southampton road: Hindle (1998) Fig 9. Royal itinerary: Hardy (1835) April 24–7, AD 1213 (Arundel – Lewes – Battle – Dover – Rye – Winchelsea). Gough’s forty per cent: Colyer (1984) 60.

12. Richard of Westminster’s map: Forbes and Burmester (1904) 194–6; cf. Codrington (1918) 24–5; Bagshawe (1979) 20.

13. Selkirk’s roads: Selkirk (1983; 1995). Disputed: Poulter (2010) 62–3. Blackstone Edge: Brierley (1980); Pearson et al. (1985) 125–8.

14. OS and Roy’s maps for Scotland: Hewitt (2010) 20–42. OS maps for England and Wales: Margary (1973) 510.

15. Margary dismissive of OS interpolations: e.g. Margary (1973) 160. Margary’s own: e.g. ibid. 302.

16. OS record cards: Iredale (2003) 30. NMRs: Darvill (2004) 414 (note that the NMR for England has now been unhelpfully renamed the English Heritage Archive). HERs/SMRs: Wilkinson (2007) 10.

17. Aerial photography: Wilson (1982); Riley (1980; 1982); Barber (2011). Getmapping: www1.getmapping.com/Home accessed 17.12.12. Virtual globes: Myers (2010). Armchair archaeology: Handwerk (2006); cf. Summers (1950).

18. Lidar: Jones (2010).

19. Charterhouse: Jones (2010) 30–2.

20. Fieldwalking: Greene and Moore (2010) 57–8.

21. Probing: Margary (1973) 26; Greene and Moore (2010) 79.

22. Dowsing: Plummer (1976).

23. Geophysical survey: Bartlett (1976).

24. Sondages: Field (1992) 207–43; Waddelove (1999) passim.

25. Horsley: Macdonald (1933). Defoe’s observations: Horn and Ransome (1969) 541–4. Background: Codrington (1892). Review: Haverfield (1918) 245–7. Acknowledgement: Margary (1973) 17.

26. Watkins and ‘ley lines’: Davies (2006) 36–7.

27. Green roads: Hippisley Cox (1944).

28. Monographs: Belloc 1913; Grant 1922; Winbolt 1936. Put-down: Grant (1922) 10.

29. First edition: Margary (1955; 1957). Second edition (Margary (1967). Third edition: Margary (1973). Reviews of the first edition: Richmond (1956; 1958); Rivet (1956; 1958).

30. Codrington: (1918) 232. South-West Scotland: Wilson (1994–5) especially Fig.1.

31. Misspelling: e.g. ‘Cheese Hill Street’ for ‘Chesil Street’ (Margary (1973) 91, or ‘Black Oar’ for ‘Black Carr’ (ibid. 271).

32. Margary and the Viatores: Viatores (1964) frontispiece; Margary (1973) 176. On the Viatores methodology: Poulter (2010) 60–2.

33. Field (1992); Waddelove (1999); Allan (1994).

34. Books: Selkirk 1983; 1995. Questionable routes: Poulter (2010) 62–3.

35. France: Chevallier (1997). Arabia: Graf (1995b); Kennedy (1982). Stanegate project: www.journallive.co.uk/north-east-news/todays-news/2012/11/16/hadrian-s-wall-community-archaeology-event-will-probe-legacy-61634-32242664/ accessed 13.2.13. Birmingham Roman Roads Project: Leather (1994).

36. OS Roman Britain maps: Margary (1973) 31.

37. Tabula Imperii Romani: TIR (1983; 1987).

38. Via Julia: Codrington (1918) 277. First edition, 6-inch OS map: Somerset sheet 6NE, published 1867. Third edition Roman Britain: OS (1956). Fourth edition: OS (1978). Revised fourth edition: OS (1994). TIR: (1983). Margary: (1955) 217.

39. Star rating system: www.nehhas.org.uk/RRAbstracts.html#rat accessed 7.3.12.

40. Summaries: www.nehhas.org.uk/RRAbstracts.html#contents accessed 7.2.12.

41. OCL: opencontent.org/opl.shtml accessed 13.2.13. Development tax: www.rescue-archaeology.freeserve.co.uk/manifest.html accessed 13.2.13

42. Winchester to London road: NEHHAS (2011). Aldborough: Wacher (1974) 401. Melton: Burnham (2005) 415.

Chapter 6: Conclusions

1. Belloc (1906) 220.

Appendix 1: Margary’s Road Numbers

1. Numbering system: Margary (1973) 32–3; Viatores (1964).

Appendix 5: Possible Roman Roads in North-East England and South-East Scotland

1. ‘Romanized’: e.g. Margary (1973) 262, of the Icknield Way (Margary 333); cf. 18–19.

2. Codrington: (1918) 165; Hafemann (1956) 150; Bidwell and Holbrook (1989) 103. Newcastle: Bidwell and Snape (2002) 254; 260. Inveresk and Cramond: Bishop (2004) 175–7. Ogilby: (1675) Plate 9.

3. Roads in SE Scotland and NE England: Bishop (forthcoming a and b). Road north of Newcastle: Codrington (1918) 165; Bidwell and Holbrook (1989) 103. Malcolm III: Anderson (1908) 110–14. William I: Anderson (1908) 271–4. Edward I: Gough (1900) vol 2, 140; 166; 184.

4. Chester: NU 172 205. Chesters: NU 106 350. Chesterhill: NU 162 040. Coldharbour: NU 205 226. Causey: NZ 182 950. Morpeth: NZ 197 860. Hemelspeth: NZ 181 995.

5. Ogilby (1675) Plate 9. Helm: Harper (1901) 202.

6. Longshaws: St Joseph (1969) 105–6. Learchild: Taylor (1957) 206. Wooperton: Burnham (2004) 275. Pacified region: Hanson (1987) 91–2.

7. Published: Inglis (1915–16) 38–40.

8. Tweedmouth castle: F. Cowe, pers. comm.

9. Fords on the Tweed: J.L. Marlow pers. comm.

10. Route long known: Graham (1962–63). 1810 post road: Mackay (1998) 56; Inglis (1915–16) 39.

11. Kirklandhill: RCAHMS (1924) 131–2. Pencraig Hill: ibid. 99. Lamberton Moor: Anderson (1905). New post road: Mackay (1998) 55–6.

12. Norham: Welfare and Swan (1995) 118. East Learmouth: ibid. 95–6. Mindrum: ibid. 181. Carham: ibid. 82. Wooden House Farm: Jones (2011) 319. Maxton: ibid. 337. Milrighall: ibid. 278. Oakwood: ibid. 288. Eastcote: ibid. 195. Cavers Mains: ibid. 170. Innerleithen: ibid. 229. Eshiels: ibid. 200. Lyne: ibid. 268–9. Other evidence: Walter Elliot pers. comm.

13. Haddon Rigg and Kelso: Lindsay (1728) 169–70.

14. Holy Chesters: NT 875 421.

15. Duddo stone circle: NT 930 437.

16. Road to Otterburn: Tyson (1992) 76.

17. Northumberland at Alnwick: Ramsay (1913) 259.

18. Ferney Chesters: NZ 053 812. Raechester: NY 978 871.

19. See above, note 2.

20. Hotspur intercepts the Scots: Skene (1877) 259–60. Montagu: Kinross (1998) 62–3.

21. A697: see above, note 3.

22. Cornhill Castle: Bates (1891) 11–12. Ford: Home (1863) 458.

23. Bowchester: NT 979 291. Battle Stone: NT 968 294.

24. A697: Mackay (1998) 64–8.

25. Cornhill–Lennel ford: Home (1863) 458.

26. Darnchester: NT 815 427. Belchester: NT 794 435. Rowchester: NT 733 439. Chesters: NT 741 474.

27. B6397: Mackay (1998) 80–5.

28. Edward I: Gough (1900) 141. Jean de Vienne: Johnes (1901) 1:289.

29. Edward I: Gough (1900) 240.

30. Graham (1959–60) 223–6.

31. 1497: Graham (1959–60) 224–6.

32. Whitchester: NT 720 590. Chesters: NT 567 709. Stoneypath: NT 616 711.

33. Chester-le-Street: Bidwell and Hodgson (2009) 183–5. Newcastle: Breeze (2006) 144–8. Pons Aelius: Bidwell and Holbrook (1989) 99–103.

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