TIME LINE

Dates in italics are traditional and legendary. Some traditional dates are judged likely to be historical. Some people and places are listed here whose names, to avoid an excess of detail, do not appear in the main text.

1084

Fall of Troy.

753

Romulus founds Rome.

c. 625

Earliest evidence of contact with the Etruscans.

753–715

Romulus.

715–673

Numa Pompilius.

673–642

Tullus Hostilius.

642–616

Ancus Marcius.

617–579

Tarquinius Priscus.

579–534

Servius Tullius.

534–510

Tarquinius Superbus.

509

Fall of the monarchy. First treaty with Carthage.

494

First secession.

493

Treaty of Spurius Cassius with the Latins.

491

Coriolanus marches on Rome.

From 486

Wars with the Aequi and Volsci from time to time over the next fifty years.

479

Battle of the Cremera; sacrifice of the Fabii.

474

Etruscans defeated off Cumae by Hiero I of Syracuse.

471

Concilium plebis and tribunes recognized.

451–450

Rule of the decemvirs. Twelve Tables published.

449

Secession. Valerio-Horatian laws. Rights of tribunes legally defined.

447

Quaestors elected by the People. Comitia tributa probably established.

445

Military tribunes with consular powers replace the consulship.

443

Censors appointed for the first time.

431

Dictatorship of Cincinnatus.
Battle of Mons Algidus. Aequi decisively defeated.

396

Pay for soldiers introduced.
Fall of Veii.

390 (or 387)

Battle of the Allia.
Sack of Rome.

378

Construction of Rome’s Servian walls starts.

367

Licinio-Sextian Rogations passed.
Consulship restored. Curule aediles elected for the first time.

366

First plebeian consul elected. First praetors elected.

358

Treaty with the Latins renewed.

356

First plebeian dictator.

354

Alliance with the Samnites.

348

Treaty with Carthage renewed.

343–341

First Samnite War.

340–338

Latins revolt. Latin League dissolved.

337

First plebeian praetor elected.

326–304

Second Samnite War.

323

Alexander’s death.

321

Roman defeat at the Caudine Forks.

312

Censorship of Appius Claudius.

298–290

Third Samnite War.

295

Battle of Sentinum.

287

Lex Hortensia makes resolutions of the concilium plebis binding on all citizens.

282

Tarentum attacks Roman naval squadron.

281

Rome attacks Tarentum, which seeks help from Pyrrhus of Epirus.

280–275

War with Pyrrhus.

279

Battle of Asculum.

278

Roman treaty with Carthage.
Pyrrhus goes to Sicily.

276

Pyrrhus returns to Italy.

275

Pyrrhus defeated at Malventum, returns to Greece.

272

Surrender of Tarentum.
Livius Andronicus brought to Rome.

264

First Punic War starts. Mamertines of Messana appeal to Rome for assistance against Carthage. Rome sends an expeditionary force.
First gladiatorial show at Rome.

263

Hiero II changes sides, and allies Syracuse to Rome.

263/62

Sicilian city-states come under Roman control.

262/61

Siege and fall of Acragas.

261

The Carthaginian navy raids the Italian coast from Sardinia. Rome builds a fleet.

260

Naval victory off Mylae.

259

Hamilcar Barca campaigns in Sicily; also, fighting in Corsica and Sardinia.

258

Rome attacks Panormus. Carthaginians defeated off Sulci, in Sardinia.

257

Rome raids Malta and wins minor victory at Tyndaris.

256

Regulus defeats Carthaginian fleet at Ecnomus and sails to North Africa, where he defeats a Punic army and takes Tunis.

256/55

Peace negotiations fail.

255

Spartan Xanthippus leads Carthaginian army to victory near Tunis over Regulus, who is taken prisoner. Roman fleet victorious off Cape Bon. Survivors of Regulus’s army are rescued. Storm inflicts great losses on a Roman fleet.

255/54

Roman fleet rebuilt.

254

Rome captures Panormus; Carthage holds Drepana and sacks Acragas.

253

Rome fails to take Lilybaeum. Major Roman naval losses in a storm.

252

Rome captures Thermae Himerae and the Lipara Islands.

251/50

Hasdrubal defeated near Panormus.

250–241

Roman siege of Lilybaeum.

249

Carthage wins a great sea victory off Drepana over Claudius Pulcher. Heavy Roman losses in a storm near Camarina. Rome seizes Eryx.

248

Mutiny by Carthaginian mercenaries is put down.

248–244

Punic raids on the Italian coast.

247

Hamilcar Barca arrives in Sicily and sets up camp on Mount Heirkte.

244

Hamilcar captures Eryx.

242

New Roman fleet blockades Drepana and Lilybaeum.

242/41

Decisive Roman victory off the Aegates Islands.

241

Peace gives Rome control of Sicily. First Punic War ends.

241–237

Mercenary War at Carthage.

238–225

Invasion and annexation of Corsica and Sardinia.

236

Hamilcar Barca and his son Hannibal go to Spain. Barca launches a war of conquest.

231

Roman embassy to Hamilcar Barca in Spain.

229–228

First Illyrian War.

228

Hamilcar Barca killed in battle. His son-in-law, Hasdrubal, succeeds to his command.

226

Roman embassy to Hasdrubal in Spain. Ebro treaty.

225

Celtic invasion halted at Battle of Telamon.

221

Hasdrubal assassinated. Hannibal succeeds to the command.
Saguntum appeals to Rome.

219

Second Illyrian War.
Hannibal storms Saguntum.

218–201

Second Punic War.

218

Hannibal climbs the Alps and enters Italy.
Battles of the Ticinus and the Trebia.

217

Battle of Lake Trasimene.

216

Fabius Maximus, dictator.
Battle of Cannae. Large-scale defections in southern Italy; revolt of Capua.

215

Partial Roman recovery.
Hiero of Syracuse dies.

214

Roman successes in Spain.
Syracuse defects to the Carthaginians.

214–205

First Macedonian War.

213

Marcellus besieges Syracuse.

212

Hannibal takes Tarentum.
Marcellus takes Syracuse.
Scipios take Saguntum.

211

Hannibal marches on Rome.
Capua recaptured.
Scipios defeated and killed.

210

Young Scipio (later Africanus) arrives in Spain.

209

Scipio takes New Carthage.

208

Marcellus ambushed and killed.
Scipio wins Battle of Baecula. Hasdrubal disengages and marches to Italy.

207

Hasdrubal defeated and killed at the Battle of the Metaurus.

206

Scipio wins Battle of Ilipa, leaves for Italy.

205

Scipio elected consul, wins African command. Scipio in Sicily.

204

Scipio lands in northern Africa.
Ennius brought to Rome.
Cult of Great Mother introduced in Rome.

203

Carthaginian and Numidian camps destroyed.
Battle of the Great Plains.
Peace negotiations.
Hannibal recalled to Carthage.

202

Last dictator appointed before Sulla.
Battle of Zama. Carthage capitulates.
Fabius Pictor writes first prose history of Rome.

201

Rome negotiates peace treaty. Carthage becomes a client state.

200–196

Second Macedonian War.

197

Philip V of Macedon loses Battle of Cynoscephalae.
Peace agreed with Philip.

196

Flamininus announces liberation of Greece at Corinth.
Hannibal elected sufet at Carthage.

195

Hannibal exiled from Carthage.
Masinissa begins encroachments on Punic territory.

194

Rome evacuates Greece.

192–189

War with Antiochus.
Antiochus in Greece.

191

Battle of Thermopylae. Antiochus driven from Greece.

189

Antiochus loses battle of Magnesia to the Scipios.

188

Settlement of Asia.

187

Criticism of the Scipios.

186

Bacchanalian conspiracy.

184

Scipio withdraws from Rome.
Cato elected censor.

181–179

First Celtiberian War in Spain.

179

Philip V of Macedon dies, succeeded by Perseus.

173

Embassy sent to arbitrate between Masinissa and Carthage.

172

Two plebeian consuls, for the first time.

172–167

Third Macedonian War.

168

Perseus defeated at Battle of Pydna.

167

Macedon divided into four republics.
One thousand Achaeans deported to Italy (including Polybius).

166–159

Production of Terence’s comedies.

153–151

Second Celtiberian War.

151

Carthage declares war on Masinissa.

149–146

Third Punic War.

149

Publication of Cato’s Origines.

147

Macedon becomes a province.

146

Sack of Carthage.
Africa becomes a province.
War between Rome and the Achaean League.
Sack of Corinth.

143–133

Third Celtiberian War.

133

Tiberius Gracchus elected tribune. Land-reform law passed and land commission created.
Pergamum bequeathed to Rome by King Attalus III.
Gracchus murdered by rioting senators.
Scipio Aemilianus takes Numantia. Spain settled.
Slave war in Sicily continues.

132

Special court set up to punish Gracchus’s supporters.
Secret ballot for legislation votes in the People’s Assembly.
Slave war in Sicily ended.

129

Scipio Aemilianus dies mysteriously.

125

Proposal to enfranchise the Latins fails.

123

Gaius Gracchus elected tribune for the first time. Proposes many laws this year and in 122.
Tiberius’s land reform confirmed.
Special courts barred from imposing death penalty unless approved by the People.
Judicial reforms: extortion court juries to comprise equites only.
Large overseas coloniae planned, including Junonia, on the site of Carthage.
Grain supply and distribution improved.
Many construction and road-building projects commissioned.
Proposal to extend citizenship to all Italian allies rejected.

122

Gaius Gracchus elected tribune for the second time.
Gracchus opposed by Tribune Marcus Livius Drusus. Fails to win reelection for 121.
Senate passes the Final Decree (state of emergency) for the first time.
Gracchus and followers defeated by force of senators and equites. Gracchus killed or commits suicide.

116

Problem of Jugurtha begins. Senatorial commission of inquiry partitions Numidian kingdom between Jugurtha and Adherbal.

112

Jugurtha besieges Adherbal, who surrenders and is put to death. Italian merchants in Numidia massacred. Rome declares war on Jugurtha.

111

Jugurtha surrenders but keeps his crown. Visits Rome, where he has a Numidian opponent murdered.

110

War with Jugurtha resumes.

109

Metellus campaigns against Jugurtha.

107

Marius, elected consul, replaces Metellus.

106

Marius advances into western Numidia.
Bocchus, king of Mauretania, surrenders Jugurtha to Sulla.

105

Cimbri and Teutones defeat two Roman armies at Arausio, near the river Rhône.

104

Marius, Consul II, reorganizes Roman army equipment and tactics.
Jugurtha starved to death after appearing in Marius’s triumph.
Second Sicilian slave war.

103

Marius, Consul III, trains army in Gaul.
Saturninus elected tribune, works in partnership with Marius.
Land allotments in Africa assigned to Marius’s veterans.

102

Marius, Consul IV, defeats Teutones at Aquae Sextiae (Aix-en-Provence).

101

Marius, Consul V, and Catulus defeat Cimbri near Vercellae (Vercelli).

100

Saturninus, Tribune II.
Marius, Consul VI, breaks with Saturninus.
Rioting in Rome. Senate passes the Final Decree. Marius restores order. Saturninus and his followers lynched.
Second Sicilian slave war ended.

98

Marius leaves politics and travels to Asia as a privatus.

97–92

Sulla, as proconsul of Asia, orders Mithridates, king of Pontus, out of Paphlagonia and Cappadocia. Mithridates obeys.

91

Marcus Livius Drusus, Jr., elected tribune. His plans to enfranchise the Italian allies fail. Drusus assassinated.
War of the Allies (Social War) breaks out.
Mithridates takes Bithynia. Aquillius incites invasion of Pontus.

90

Roman reverses in the Social War. Legislation grants Roman citizenship to Italian allies.

89

Roman victories in Social War.

88

Social War restricted to the Samnites, who yield.
Sulla Consul I.
Sulpicius Rufus, tribune, proposes to transfer command of war against Mithridates from Sulla to Marius.
Sulla marches on Rome, captures the city, repealsSulpicius’s legislation.
Marius flees to Africa.
Mithridates overruns Asia Minor, orders massacre of Romans and Italians. Mithridates invited to “liberate” Greece.

87

Cinna and Marius seize Rome, massacre opponents.
Sulla lands in Greece, besieges Athens.

86

Fall of Athens. Pontic army evacuates Greece after two defeats.
Marius, Consul VII, dies.
Cinna sends army to Asia (taken over by Sulla in 84).

85

Sulla negotiates peace treaty with Mithridates at Dardanus, near Troy.

84

New Italian citizens distributed among all the tribes.
Cinna murdered by mutineers.

83

Sulla lands in Italy.
Second Mithridatic War (to 82).

82

Civil war in Italy. Sulla wins battle of the Colline Gate.
Proscriptions start.

81

Sulla appointed dictator, reforms the constitution and the criminal law.

80

Sulla Consul II.

79

Sulla resigns as dictator.

78

Sulla dies.

75 (or 74)

King Nicomedes bequeaths Bithynia to Rome.

74

Mithridates invades Bithynia. Lucullus given command against him.

73–71

Slave revolt in Italy, led by Spartacus.

68

After successful campaigning against Mithridates, Lucullus’s troops become restless.

67

Pompey given command against pirates, whom he clears from the Mediterranean.

66

Pompey given command against Mithridates.

63

Mithridates commits suicide.
Cicero elected consul.

62

Pompey’s eastern settlement; he returns to Italy.

61

Senate refuses to confirm Pompey’s settlement and land allocations for his soldiers.

60

Julius Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus agree alliance, known as the First Triumvirate.

59

Caesar elected consul.

58–50

Caesar’s conquest of Gaul.

49–45

Civil war.

48

Battle of Pharsalus.

44

Caesar assassinated.

43–33

Octavian, Mark Antony, and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus establish Second Triumvirate.
Proscription. Cicero put to death.

32–31

Civil war.

31

Antony and Cleopatra defeated at the Battle of Actium.

30

Antony and Cleopatra commit suicide.

27

Octavian/Augustus establishes new constitutional settlement.

43

Invasion of Britannia.

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