Ancient History & Civilisation


Airlie, S. (1998). ‘Private Bodies and the Body Politic in the Divorce Case of Lothar II’, Past & Present 161, 3–38.

Alföldi, G. (1974). Noricum (London).

Allen, P. (2000). ‘The Definition and Enforcement of Orthodoxy’, in Cameron et al. (2000), 811–34.

Amory, P. (1997). People and Identity in Ostrogothic Italy, 489–554 (Cambridge).

Arnaud-Lindet, M.-P. (ed. and Fr. trans.) (1990–1). Orose: Histoires contre les païens (Paris).

Austin, G. (2009). Shaping church law around the year 1000: the Decretum of Burchard of Worms (Farnham).

Bachrach, B. S. (1973). Liber historiae Francorum (Lawrence, Kans.).

Barnes, T. D. (1993). Athanasius and Constantius: theology and politics in the Constantinian Empire (Cambridge, Mass.).

Barnish, S. J. B. (1986). ‘Taxation, Land and Barbarian Settlement in the Western Empire’, Papers of the British School at Rome 54, 170–95.

Barnish, S. J. B. (1988). ‘Transformation and Survivial in the Western Senatorial Aristocracy, c. AD 400–700’, Papers of the British School at Rome 56, 120–55.

Barnish, S. J. B. (1990). ‘Cassiodorus, Boethius, Theodahad: Literature, Philosophy and Politics in Ostrogothic Italy’, Nottingham Medieval Studies 34, 16–32.

Barnish, S. J. B. (1992). Cassiodorus: Variae (Liverpool).

Barthelemy, D. (2009). The Serf, the Knight, and the Historian, trans. G.R. Edwards (Ithaca).

Bassett, S. (ed.) (1989). The Origins of Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms (London).

Bavant, B (2007). ‘Caricin Grad and the Changes in the Nature of Urbanism in the Central Balkans in the Sixth Century’, in A. G. Poulter (ed.), The Transition to Late Antiquity on the Danube and Beyond (Oxford), 337–74.

Baxter, S. (2007). The Earls of Mercia: Lordship and Power in Late Anglo-Saxon England (Oxford).

Bethmann, L. and Waitz, G. (eds) (1878). Pauli Historia Langobardum, MGH Scriptores rerum Germanicarum (Hanover).

Beumann, H. et al. (1966). Karolus Magnus et Leo Papa. Ein Paderborner Epos vom Jahre 799 (Paderborn).

Bierbrauer, V. (1975). Die ostgotischen Grab- und Schatzfunde in Italien (Spoleto).

Bierbrauer, V. (1980). ‘Zur chronologischen, soziologischen und regionalen Gliederung des ostgermanischen Fundstoffs des 5. Jahrhunderts in Südosteuropa’, in Wolfram, H. and Daim, V. (eds.), Die Völker an der mittleren und unteren Donau im fünften und sechsten Jahrhundert, Denkschriften der (Osterreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, phil.-hist. Kl. 201 (Vienna), 131–42.

Birch, D. (1998). Pilgrimage to Rome in the Middle Ages (Woodbridge).

Birks, P. and McLeod, G. (1987). Justinian’s Institutes (London).

Bischoff, B. (1990). Latin Palaeography. Antiquity and the Middle Ages, trans. D. Ganz and D. O. Cronin (Cambridge).

Bischoff, B. (1994). Manuscripts and Libraries in the Age of Charlemagne (Cambridge).

Bjornlie, S. (2009). ‘What have Elephants to do with Sixth-Century Politics? A Reappraisal of the “Official” Governmental Dossier of Cassiodorus’, Journal of Late Antiquity 2, 143–7.

Blockley, R. C. (1981). The Fragmentary Classicising Historians of the Later Roman Empire: Eunapius, Olympiodorus, Priscus and Malchus, vol. 1 (Liverpool).

Blockley, R. C. (1983). The Fragmentary Classicising Historians of the Later Roman Empire: Eunapius, Olympiodorus, Priscus and Malchus, vol. 2 (Liverpool).

Blockley, R. C. (1985). The History of Menander the Guardsman (Liverpool).

Blockley, R. C. (1992). East Roman Foreign Policy: Formation and Conduct from Diocletian to Anastasius (Leeds).

Blumenthal, U.-R. (2004). ‘The Papacy 1024–1122’, in Luscombe and Riley-Smith (2004b), 8–37.

Bona, I. (1991). Das Hunnenreich (Stuttgart).

Boretius, A. (1883). MGH Capitularia, Legum Sectio II, Capitularia regum francorum i (Hanover).

Bourchard, C. (1981). ‘Origins of the French nobility: a reassessment’, American Historical Review 86, 501–32.

Bowlus, C. (1995). Franks, Moravians, and Magyars: The Struggle for the Middle Danube, 788–907 (Philadelphia).

Braund, D. C. (1984). Rome and the Friendly King: The Character of Client Kingship (London).

Bright, W. (1892). The Canons of the First Four General Councils of Nicœa, Constantinople, Ephesus and Chalcedon, 2nd ed. (Oxford).

Brock, S. (1981). ‘The Conversations with the Syrian Orthodox under Justinian (532), Orientalia Christiana Periodica 47, 87–121.

Brooks, E. R. (1893). ‘The Emperor Zenon and the Isaurians’, English Historical Review 8, 209–38.

Brown, P. R. L. (1967). Augustine of Hippo: A Biography (London).

Brown, P. (1970). ‘The Rise and Function of the Holy Man in Late Antiquity’, Journal of Roman Studies 61, 80–101.

Brown, P. R. L. (1981). The Cult of the Saints: Its Rise and Function in Latin Christianity (London).

Brown, P. (1996). The Rise of Western Christendom: Triumph and Diversity, AD 200–1000


Brown, T. S. (1984). Gentlemen and Officers: Imperial Administration and Aristocratic Power in Byzantine Italy, AD 554–800 (London).

Brundage, J. A. (1995). Medieval Canon Law (London).

Bryer, A. and Herrin, J. (eds) (1977). Iconoclasm (Birmingham).

Bullough, D. (1970). ‘Europae pater: Charlemagne’s Achievement in the light of recent Scholarship’, English Historical Review 85, 59–105.

Bullough, D. (2003). Alcuin: Achievement and Reputation (Leiden).

Bullough, D. (2005). ‘Charlemagne’s “men of God”: Alcuin, Hildebald, Arn’, in Story (2005a), 136–50.

Burgess, C. and Duffy, E. (eds) (2006). The Parish in Late Medieval England: Proceedings of the 2002 Harlaxton Symposium (Donington).

Burrus, V. (1995). The Making of a Heretic: Gender, Authority, and the Priscillianist Controversy (Berkeley).

Bury, J. B. (1889). History of the Later Roman Empire (AD 395 to 800), 2 vols (London).

Bury, J. B. (1923). History of the Later Roman Empire from the Death of Theodosius to the Death of Justinian, 2 vols (London).

Cabaniss, A. (1979). The Emperor’s Monk: Contemporary Life of Benedict of Aniane (Ilfracombe).

Cameron, A. D. E. (Alan) (1970). Claudian: Poetry and Propaganda at the Court of Honorius (Oxford).

Cameron, A. D. E. (Alan) (1973). Porphyrius the Charioteer (Oxford).

Cameron, A. D. E. (Alan) (1976). Circus Factions: Blues and Greens at Rome and Byzantium (Oxford).

Cameron, A. M. (Averil) (1985). Procopius and the Sixth Century (London).

Cameron, A. M. (Averil) and Herrin, J. (1984). Constantinople in the Early Eighth Century: The Parastaseis syntomoi chronikai: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (Leiden).

Cameron, A. M. (Averil) et al. (eds) (2000). The Cambridge Ancient History, 2nd ed., vol. 14 (Cambridge).

Campbell, J. (1986). Essays in Anglo-Saxon History (London).

Chadwick, H. (1981). Boethius: The Consolations of Music, Logic, Theology and Philosophy (Oxford).

Chadwick, H. (1993). The Early Church, rev. ed. (London).

Charles Edwards, T. M. (1979). ‘The Distinction Between Land and Moveable Wealth in Anglo-Saxon England’, in P. H. Sawyer (ed.), English Medieval Settlement (London), 97–104.

Chazelle, C. and Cubitt, C. (2007) (eds). The Crisis of the Oikoumene: The Three Chapters and the Failed Quest for Unity in the Sixth-century Mediterranean (Turnhout).

Christie, N. (1995). The Lombards (Oxford).

Christie, N. (1996). ‘Towns and Peoples on the Middle Danube in Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages’, in N. Christie and S. T. Loseby (eds), Towns in Transition: Urban Evolution in Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages (Aldershot), 71–98.

Christie, N. (2005). ‘Charlemagne and the Renewal of Rome’, in Story (2005a), 167–82.

Clarence Smith, J. A. (1975). Medieval Law Teachers and Writers, Civilian and Canonist (Ottowa).

Claude, D. (1989). ‘Zur Begrundung familiarer Beziehungen zwischen dem Kaiser und barbarischen Herrschern’, in E. K. Chrysos and A. Schwarcz (eds), Das Reich und die Barbaren (Vienna), 25–56.

Colgrave, B. and Mynors, R. A. B. (eds and trans.) (1969). Bede’s Ecclesiastical History ofthe English People (Oxford).

Collins, R. (1990). ‘Pippin I and the Kingdom of Aquitaine’, in Godman and Collins (1990), 363–90.

Collins, R. (2004). Visigothic Spain 409–711 (Oxford).

Collins, R. (2005). ‘Charlemagne’s Imperial Coronation and the Annals of Lorsch’, in Story (2005a), 52–70.

Cormack, R. (1985). Writing in Gold: Byzantine Society and its Icons (London).

Costambeys, M. et al. (2011). The Carolingian World (Cambridge).

Courtois, C. (1955). Les Vandales et l’Afrique (Paris).

Cowdrey, H. E. J. (1970). The Cluniacs and the Gregorian Reform (Oxford).

Cowdrey, H. E. J. (2002). The Register of Pope Gregory VII 1073–1085: An English Translation (Oxford).

Cowdrey, H. E. J. (2004). ‘The Structure of the Church 1024–73’, in Luscombe and Riley-Smith (2004a), 229–267.

Croke, B. (2001). Count Marcellinus and his Chronicle (Oxford).

Croke, B. (2005). Justianian’s Constantinople’, in Maas (2005), 60–86.

Croke, B. and Crow, J. (1983). ‘Procopius and Dara’, Journal of Roman Studies 73, 143–59.

Crone, P. and Cook, M. (1977). Hagarism: The Making of the Islamic world (Cambridge).

Crone, P. (1987). Meccan Trade and the Rise of Islam (Oxford).

Cubitt, C. (1995). Anglo-Saxon Church Councils c.650–c.850 (Leicester).

Curran, J. (2000). Pagan City and Christian Capital: Rome in the Fourth Century (Oxford).

Curta, F. (2001). The Making of the Slavs: History and Archaeology of the Lower Danube Region, c.500–700 (Cambridge).

Dagron, G. (1974). Naissance d’une capitale: Constantinople et ses institutions de 330 à 451 (Paris).

Daim, F. (2003). ‘Avars and Avar Archaeology: An Introduction’, in Goetz et al. (eds) (2003), 463–570.

Davies, W. and Fouracre, P. (1986). The Settlement of Disputes in Early Medieval Europe (Cambridge).

Davis, R. (1992). The Lives of the Eighth-Century Popes (Liber Pontificalis) (Liverpool).

Davis, R. (1995). The Lives of the Ninth-Century Popes (Liber Pontificalis) (Liverpool).

Davis, R. (2000). The Book of Pontiffs (Liber Pontificalis). The ancient Biographies of the First Ninety Roman Bishops to AD 715, 2nd ed. (Liverpool).

d’Avray, D. (2005). Medieval Marriage: Symbolism and Society (Oxford).

De Boor, C. and Wirth, P. (eds) (1992). Theophylacti Simocattae Historiae (Stuttgart).

Deferrari, R. (1952). Early Christian Biographies (Washington DC).

Deferrari, R. (1964). Orosius: Seven Books of History Against the Pagans (Washington DC).

de Jong, M. (2009). The Penitential State: Authority and Atonement in the Age of Louis the Pious, 814–840 (Cambridge).

Depreux, P. (1994). ‘Le Comte Matfrid d’Orléans’, Bibliotheque de l’Ecole des Chartres 152, 331–74.

Dessau, H. (1974). Inscriptiones Latinae Selectae, 4th ed. (Berlin).

Dewing, H. B. (1914–40). The Works of Procopius (London).

Diggle, J. and Goodyear, F. R. D. (eds) (1970). Corippus Iohannis (Cambridge).

Dignas, B. and Winter, E. (2007). Rome and Persia in late antiquity: neighbours and rivals (Cambridge).

Dindorf, L. (ed.) (1832). Chronicon Paschale (Bonn).

Dodgeon, M. H., and Lieu, S. N. C. (1991). The Roman Eastern Frontier and the Persian Wars (AD 226–363): A Documentary History (London).

Donner, F. M. (2005). ‘The Background to Islam’, in Maas (2005), 510–34.

Dooghe, D.-G. (2002). Le Comté de Flandre et ses origines (Wattignies)

Douglas, D. C. and Greenaway, G. W. (1952). English historical documents, 1042–1189 (London).

Duchesne, L. (1886–82). Le Liber Pontificalis, Texte, introduction et commentaire, 2 vols (Paris).

Duffy, E. (2005). Stripping of the Altars: Traditional Religion in England 1400–1580, 2nd ed. (New Haven, Conn.).

Duffy, E. (2006). Saints and Sinners: A History of the Popes, 3rd ed. (London).

Dümmler, E. (1877). Liudprandi episcopi Cremonensis Opera omnia (Hanover).

Dümmler, E. (1884). MGH Poetae Latini Aevi Carolini, vol. 2 (Berlin).

Dunbabin, J. (2000). France in the Making 843–1180, 2nd ed. (Oxford).

Dutton, P. (1998). Charlemagne’s Courtier: The Complete Einhard (Peterborough, Ontario).

Dutton, P. (2004). Carolingian Civilization. A Reader (Peterborough, Ontario).

Dvornik, F. (1966). Early Christian and Byzantine Political Philosophy: Origins and Background, The Dumbarton Oaks Center for Byzantine Studies (Washington DC).

Dvornik, F. (1970). Byzantine Missions Among the Slavs: Saints Constantine-Cyril and Methodius (New Brunswick, NJ).

Elton, H. (2007). ‘Cavalry in Late Roman Warfare’, in A. S. Lewin and P. Pellegrini (eds), The Late Roman Army in the Near East from Diocletian to the Arab Conquest (Oxford), 377–82.

Engelbrecht, A. (1891). Fausti Reiensis Praeter sermones pseudo-eusebianos opera: accedunt Ruricii Epistulae (Milan).

Evans, J. A. S. (1984). ‘The “Nika” Rebellion and the Empress Theodora’, Byzantion 54, 380–2.

Fletcher, R. A. (1989). The Quest for El Cid (London).

Fontaine, J. (1967). ‘Conversion et Culture chez les Wisigoths d’Espagne’, Settimane di studi sull’Alto medioevo 14, 87–147.

Foss, C. (1977). ‘Archaeology and the Twenty Cities of Byzantine Asia’, American Journal of Archaeology 81, 469–86.

Foss, C. (1990). History and Archaeology of Byzantine Asia Minor (Aldershot).

Foss, C. (1996). Cities, Fortresses and Villages of Byzantine Asia Minor (Aldershot).

Foulke, W. D. (2003). History of the Lombards (Philadelphia).

Fouracre, P. (1986). ‘Placita and the Settlement of Disputes in Later Merovingian Francia’, in Davies and Fouracre (1986), 23–44.

Fouracre, P. (2000) The Age of Charles Martel (Harlow).

Fouracre, P. (2005). ‘The Long Shadow of the Merovingians’, in Story (2005a), 5–21.

Frend, W. H. C. (1972). The Rise of the Monophysite Movement: Chapters in the History of the Church in the Fifth and Sixth Centuries (Cambridge).

Frendo, J. D. (trans.) (1975). Agathias History (Berlin).

Fried, J. (2007). Donation of Constantine and Constitutum Constantini (Berlin).

Fuhrmann, H. (1973). ‘Das Reformpapsttum und die Rechtswissenschaft’, Vorträge und Forschungen 17, 175–203.

Ganshof, F. L. (1949). La Flandre sous les premiers comtes, 3rd rev. ed. (Brussels).

Ganshof, F. L. (1971). The Carolingians and the Frankish Monarchy (London).

Ganz, D. (1989). ‘The Preconditions for Caroline Minuscule’, Viator 19, 23–44.

Geary, P. (1985). Aristocracy in Provence: The Rhone Basin at the Dawn of the Carolingian Age (Stuttgart).

George, J. (1995). Venantius Fortunatus: Personal and Political Poems (Liverpool).

Gerberding, R. (1987). The Rise of the Carolingians and the Liber Historiae Francorum (Oxford).

Gibbon, E. (1896–1900). The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, ed. J. B. Bury (London).

Gibson, M. T. (1975). The Continuity of Learning c.850–c.1050 (Berkeley).

Gibson, M. T. (1981). Boethius: His Life, Thought and Influence (Oxford).

Gilchrist, J. (1973). Diuersorum patrum sententie siue Collectio in LXXIV titulos digesta (Vatican City).

Gilchrist, J. (1980). The Collection in Seventy-Four Titles: A Canon Law Manual of the Gregorian Reform (Toronto).

Gillet A. (ed.) (2002). On Barbarian Identity: Critical Approaches to Ethnicity in the Early Middle Ages (Turnhout).

Godman, P. (1985). Poetry of the Carolingian Renaissance (London).

Godman, P. (1987). Poets and Emperors: Frankish Politics and Carolingian Poetry (Oxford).

Godman, P. and Collins, R. (eds) (1990). Charlemagne’s Heir: New Perspectives on the Reign ofLouis the Pious (Oxford).

Goetz, H.-W. et al. (eds) (2003). Regna and Gentes: The Relationship between Late Antique and Early Medieval Peoples and Kingdoms in the Transformation of the Roman World (Leiden).

Goffart, W. (1980). Barbarians and Romans AD 418–584: The Techniques of Accommodation (Princeton).

Goffart, W. (1988). The Narrators of Barbarian History (AD 550–800): Jordanes, Gregory of Tours, Bede, and Paul the Deacon (Princeton).

Goffart. W. (2006). Barbarian Tides: The Migration Age and the Later Roman Empire (Philadelphia).

Goldberg, E. J. (2006). Struggle for Empire: Kingship and Conflict under Louis the German 817–876 (Ithaca).

Gordon, D. C. (1966). The Age of Attila (Ann Arbor).

Goscinny and Uderzo (1963). Astérix et les Goths (Neuilly-sur-Seine).

Gray, P. (1979). The Defence of Chalcedon in the East (Leiden).

Gray, P. (2005). ‘The Legacy of Chalcedon: Christological Problems and Their Significance’, in Maas (2005), 215–38.

Greatrex, G. (1994). ‘The Dates of Procopius’ Works’, Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies 18, 101–14.

Greatrex, G. (1997). ‘The Nika Riot: A Reappraisal’, Journal of Hellenic Studies 117, 60–86.

Greatrex, G. (1998). Rome and Persia at War, 502–532 (Leeds).

Greatrex, G. (2000). ‘Procopius the Outsider?’, in D. S. Smythe (ed.), Strangers to Themselves: The Byzantine Outsider (Burlington, Vt.), 215–18.

Greatrex, G. and Lieu, S. (2002). The Roman Eastern Frontier and the Persian Wars: A Narrative Sourcebook (London).

Grig, L. and Kelly, G. (2012). Two Romes: Rome and Constantinople in Late Antiquity (Oxford Studies in Late Antiquity) (Oxford).

Gundlach, W. (ed.) (1892). Epistolae karolini aevi, MGH Epp. III, Epistolae merowingici et karolini aevi (Hanover).

Gundlach, W. (ed.) (1902). Epistolae aevi merowingici collectae, MGH Epp. III, Epistolae merowingici et karolini aevi (Hanover).

Hageneder, O. (2000). Il sole e la luna: Papato, impero e regni nella teoria e nella prassi dei secoli XII e XIII (Milan).

Hageneder, O. et al., (1965–). Die Register Innocenz III (Graz).

Haldon, J. F. (1990). Byzantium in the Seventh Century: The Transformation of a Culture (Cambridge).

Hallam, E. (1980). Capetian France, 987–1328 (London).

Halsall, G. (2003). Warfare and Society in the Barbarian West, 450–900 (London).

Halsall, G. (2007). Barbarian Migrations and the Roman West 376–568 (Cambridge).

Hanson, R. P. C. (1988). The Search for the Christian Doctrine of God (Edinburgh).

Harries, J. (1999). Law and Empire in Late Antiquity (Cambridge).

Hartel, W. (1882). Magni Felicis Ennodii Opera omnia (Vienna).

Heather, P. J. (1989). ‘Cassiodorus and the Rise of the Amals: Genealogy and the Goths under Hun Domination’, Journal of Roman Studies 79, 103–28.

Heather, P. J. (1991). Goths and Romans 332–489 (Oxford).

Heather, P. J. (1993). ‘The Historical Culture of Ostrogothic Italy’, in Teoderico il grande e i Goti d’Italia, Atti del XIII Congresso internazionale di studi sull’Alto Medioevo (Spoleto), 317–53.

Heather, P. J. (1994a). ‘Literacy and Power in the Migration Period’, in A. Bowman and G. Woolf (eds) (1994), Literacy and Power in the Ancient World (Cambridge), 177–97.

Heather, P. J. (1994b). ‘New Men for New Constantines?: Creating an Imperial Elite in the Eastern Mediterranean’, in P. Magdalino (ed.), New Constantines: The Rhythm of Imperial Renewal in Byzantium, 4th–13th Centuries (London), 11–33.

Heather, P. J. (1995). ‘Theodoric King of the Goths’, Early Medieval Europe 4.2, 145–73.

Heather, P. J. (1996). The Goths (Oxford).

Heather, P. J. (2000). ‘State, Lordship and Community in the West (c. AD 400–600)’, in Averil Cameron et al. (2000), 437–68.

Heather, P. (2003). ‘Gens and regnum Among the Ostrogoths’, in Goetz et al. (eds), 85–133.

Heather, P. (2005). The Fall of Rome: A New History (London).

Heather P. (2007). ‘Goths in the Roman Balkans c.350–500, in A. Poulter (ed.), The Transition to Late Antiquity on the Danube and Beyond (Oxford), 163–90.

Heather, P. (2008). ‘Ethnicity, Group Identity, and Social Status in the Migration Period’, in I. Garipzanov et al. (eds), Franks, Northmen, and Slavs: Identities and State Formation in Early Medieval Europe (Turnhout), 17–50.

Heather, P. (2009). Empires and Barbarians (London).

Heather, P. (2010). ‘Elite Militarisation and the Post-Roman West’, in G. Bonamente and R. Lizzi Testa (eds), Istituzioni, Carisimi et Esercizio del Potere (IV–VI secolo d.C.) (Bari), 245–66.

Heather, P. (ed.) (1999). The Visigoths from the Migration Period to the Seventh Century: An Ethnographic Perspective (Woodbridge).

Heather, P. J. and Matthews, J. F. (1991). The Goths in the Fourth Century, Translated Texts for Historians (Liverpool).

Heather, P. J. and Moncur, D. (2001). Politics, Philosophy, and Empire in the Fourth Century: Select Orations of Themistius, Translated Texts for Historians (Liverpool).

Heinichen, F. A. (1868–70). Eusebii Pamphili Scripta Historica (Leipzig).

Hendy, M. F. (1985). Studies in the Byzantine Monetary Economy, c.300–1450 (Cambridge).

Herrin, J. (1987). The Formation of Christendom (Oxford).

Herrmann, K. J. (1973). Das Tuskulanerpapsttum (1012–1046): Benedikt VIII., Johannes XIX., Benedikt IX. (Stuttgart).

Hillgarth, J. N. (1966). ‘Coins and Chronicles: Propaganda in Sixth Century Spain’, Historia 16, 482–508.

Hill, S. (1996). The Early Byzantine Churches of Cilicia and Isauria (Birmingham).

Hodgkin, T. (1886). The Letters of Cassiodorus (London).

Holum, K. (2005). ‘The Classical City in the Sixth Century: Survival and Transformation’, in Maas (2005), 87–112.

Honoré, A. M., (1978). Tribonian (London).

Honoré, A. (1994). Emperors and Lawyers, 2nd rev. ed. (Oxford).

Hooke, D. (1998). The Landscape of Anglo-Saxon England (London).

Horden, P. (2005). ‘Mediterranean Plague in the Age of Justinian’, in Maas (2005), 134–60.

Howard Johnston, J. (2010). Witnesses to a World Crisis: Historians and Histories of the Middle East in the Seventh Century (Oxford).

Howard Johnston, J. et al. (eds) (1999). The Cult of Saints in Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages: Essays on the Contribution of Peter Brown (Oxford).

Humfress, C. (2007). Orthodoxy and the Courts in Late Antiquity (Oxford).

James, E. F. (1988). The Franks (Oxford).

Jarnut, J. (1982). Geschichte der Langobarden (Stuttgart).

Jasper, D. and Fuhrmann, H. (2001). Papal Letters in the Early Middle Ages (Washington DC).

Johnson, M. J. (1988). ‘Towards a History of Theoderic’s Building Programme’, Dumbarton Oaks Papers 42, 73–96.

Jones, A. H. M. (1962). ‘The Constitutional Position of Odoacer and Theoderic’, Journal ofRoman Studies 52, 126–30.

Jones, A. H. M. (1964). The Later Roman Empire: A Social Economic and Administrative Survey, 3 vols (Oxford).

Kaldellis, A. (2004). Procopius of Caesarea: Tyranny, History, and Philosophy at the End of Antiquity (Philadelphia).

Kaster, R. A. (1988). Guardians of Language: The Grammarian and Society in Late Antiquity (Berkeley).

Kennedy, H. (2007). The Great Arab Conquests: How the Spread of Islam Changed the World We Live in (London).

Keydell, R. (1967). Agathiae Myrinaei Historiarum libri quinque (Berlin).

Khazanov, A. M. (1994). Nomads and the Outside World, 2nd ed. (Madison, Wis.).

King, P. D. (1987). Charlemagne: Translated Sources (Kendal).

Klingshirn, W. (1994a). Caesarius of Arles: The Making of a Christian Community in Late Antique Gaul (Cambridge).

Klingshirn, W. (1994b). Caesarius of Arles: Life, Testament, Letters (Liverpool).

Krautheimer R. (1980). Rome: Profile of a City, 312–1308 (Princeton).

Kreuger, P. (ed.) (1877). Corpus Iuris Civilis (Berlin).

Kreuger, P. and Mommsen, Th. (1928). Codex Theodosianus (Berlin).

Krusch, B. (1888). Fredegar Chronicorum libri IV cum continuationibus, MGH scriptores rerum Merovingicarum 2 (Hanover).

Krusch, B. (1924). Die Lex Bajuvariorum: Textgeschichte, Handschriftenkritik und Entstehung. Mit zwei Anhängen: Lex Alamannorum und Lex Ribuaria (Berlin).

Krusch, B. and Levison, W. (eds) (1951). Gregory of Tours Historiae, MGH scriptores rerum Merovingicarum 1.1 (Berlin).

Kurze, F. (ed.) (1890). MGH SRG, Reginonis abbatis Prumiensis Chronicon (Hanover).

La Rocca, C. (ed.) (2005). Italy in the Early Middle Ages: 476–1000 (Oxford).

Lattimore, O. (1940). Inner Asian frontiers of China (Oxford).

Law, V. (1994). ‘The Study of Grammar’, in McKitterick (1994a), 88–110.

Lawrence, C. H. (2001). Medieval Monasticism: Forms of Religious Life in Western Europe in the Middle Ages, 3rd ed. (Harlow).

Lengyel, A. and Radan, G. T. B. (eds) (1980). The Archaeology of Roman Pannonia (Budapest).

Leo, G. (1881). Venantius Fortunatus, Opera Poetica, MGH auctores antiquissimi 4.1 (Berlin).

Leonardi, C. (1999). ‘Intellectual Life’, in Reuter (1999), 186–211.

Le Roy Ladurie, E. (1990). Montaillou: Cathars and Catholics in a French Village, 1294–1324 (Harmandsworth).

Leyser, K. (1979). Rule and Conflict in an Early Medieval Society: Ottonian Saxony (London).

Leyser, K. (1982). Medieval Germany and Its Neighbours, 900–1250 (London).

Llewellyn, P. (1971). Rome in the Dark Ages (London).

Luscombe, D. and Riley-Smith, J. (eds) (2004a). The New Cambridge Medieval History. Volume IV, c.1024–c.1198, part 1 (Cambridge).

Luscombe, D. and Riley-Smith, J. (eds) (2004b). The New Cambridge Medieval History. Volume IV, c.1024–c.1198, part 2 (Cambridge).

Maas, M. (2005). The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Justinian (Cambridge). Macartney, C. A. (1930). The Magyars in the Ninth Century (Cambridge). MacCormack, S. A. (1981). Art and Ceremony in Late Antiquity (Los Angeles and Berkeley).

MacGeorge, P. (2002). Late Roman Warlords (Oxford).

McGiffert, A. S. (1905). Eusebius: Church History, Life of Constantine the Great, and Oration in Praise of Constantine (New York).

McKeon, P. R. (1978). Hincmar of Laon and Carolingian Politics (Urbana, Ill.).

McKitterick, R. (1977). The Frankish Church and the Carolingian Reforms, 789–895 (London).

McKitterick, R. (1983). The Frankish Kingdoms under the Carolingians, 751–987 (London).

McKitterick, R. (1989). The Carolingians and the Written Word (Cambridge).

McKitterick, R. (1990). The Uses of Literacy in Early Mediaeval Europe (Cambridge).

McKitterick, R. (ed.) (1994a). Carolingian Culture: Emulation and Innovation (Cambridge).

McKitterick R. (1994b). ‘Script and Book Production’, in McKitterick (1994a), 221–47.

McKitterick, R. (ed.) (1995). The New Cambridge Medieval History, II: c.700–c.900 (Cambridge).

McKitterick, R. (1999). ‘The Church’, in Reuter (1999), 130–63.

McKitterick, R. (2005). ‘The Carolingian Renaissance of Culture and Learning’, in Story (2005a), 151–66.

McKitterick, R. (2008). Charlemagne: The Formation of a European Identity (Cambridge).

MacLean, S. (2003). Kingship and Politics in the Late Ninth Century: Charles the Fat and the End of the Carolingian Empire (Cambridge).

McLynn, N. (1994). Ambrose of Milan (Berkeley).

Mango, C. (1977a). ‘Historical Introduction’, in Bryer and Herrin (1977), 1–6.

Mango, C. (1977b). ‘The Liquidation of Iconoclasm and the Patriarch Photius’, in Bryer and Herrin (1977), 133–40.

Mango, C. (1985). Le Développement urbain de Constantinople (IVe–VIIe siècles), Travaux et Mémoires, Monographies 2 (Paris).

Mango, C. and Scott, R. (trans.) (1997). Chronographia, The Chronicle of Theophanes Confessor (Oxford).

Markus, R. (1997). Gregory the Great and his World (Cambridge).

Martindale, J. (1981). ‘Charles the Bald and the Government of the Kingdom of Aquitaine’, in Gibson and Nelson, 115–38 (Oxford).

Mathisen, R. (1989). Ecclesiastical Factionalism and Religious Controversy in Fifth-Century Gaul (Washington DC).

Mathisen, R. (1999). Ruricius of Limoges and Friends (Liverpool).

Matthews, J. F. (1975). Western Aristocracies and Imperial Court AD 364–425 (Oxford).

Matthews, J. F., 1989. The Roman Empire of Ammianus (London).

Matthews, J. F. (2000). Laying Down the Law: A Study of the Theodosian Code (New Haven).

Mayr-Harting, H. (1972). The Coming of Christianity to Anglo-Saxon England (London).

Merridale, C. (2006). Ivan’s War: the Red Army 1939–1945 (London).

Merrills, A. and Miles, D. (2010). The Vandals (Oxford).

Metzger, E. (ed.) (1988). A Companion to Justinian’s Institutes (Ithaca).

Mierow, C. C. (1915). Jordanes Getica (New York).

Millar, F. (2006). A Greek Roman Empire. Power and Belief under Theodosius II 408–450 (Berkeley).

Mitchell, S. (1993). Anatolia. Land, Men and Gods in Asia Minor II. The Rise of the Church (Oxford).

Mocsy, A.(1974). Pannonia and Upper Moesia (London).

Momigliano, A. (1955). ‘Cassiodorus and the Italian Culture of His Time’, Proceedings of the British Academy 41, 215–48.

Mommsen, Th. (ed.) (1882). Jordanes Romana et Getica, MGH auctores antiquissimi 5. 1 (Berlin).

Mommsen, Th. (ed.) (1894a). Cassiodori … Variae: i. Epistulae Theodericianae variae. ii. Acta synhodorum habitarum Romae. iii. Cassiodori Orationum reliquiae, ed. L. Traube. MGH auctores antiquissimi 12 (Berlin).

Mommsen, Th. (ed.) (1894b). Chronica Minora, vol. 2, auctores antiquissimi (Berlin).

Moore, R. I. (1987). The Formation of a Persecuting Society: Power and Deviance in Western Europe, 950–1250 (Oxford).

Moorhead, J. (1992). Theoderic in Italy (Oxford).

Moorhead, J. (1994). Justinian (London).

Mordek, H. (1975). Kirchenrecht und Reform im Frankenreich: die collectio vetus Gallica: die älteste systematische Kanonessammlung des fränkischen Gallien: Studien und Edition (Berlin).

Mordek, H. (1985). ‘Kanonistik und gregorianische Reform’, in K. Schmid (ed.), Reich und Kirche vor dem Investiturstreit (Sigmaringen), 65–82.

Morin, G. et al. (eds) (2010). Vie de Césaire d’Arles (Paris).

Morris, C. (1989). The Papal Monarchy: The Western Church from 1050 to 1250 (Oxford).

Muller, C. (1868/1870). Fragmenta Historicorum Graecorum, vols 4 and 5 (Paris).

Nelson, J. (1977). ‘On the Limits of the Carolingian Renaissance’, Studies in Church History, 51–67 (reprinted as no. 2 in Nelson (1986b)).

Nelson, J. (1983), ‘Legislation and Consensus in the Reign of Charles the Bald’, in C. P. Wormald et al. (eds), Ideal and Reality in Frankish and Anglo-Saxon Society: Studies presented to J. M. Wallace-Hadrill (Oxford), 202–27 (reprinted as no. 5 in Nelson 1986b).

Nelson, J. (1986a). ‘Dispute settlement in Carolingian West Francia’, in Davies and Fouracre (1986), 45–64.

Nelson, J. (1986b). Politics and Ritual in Early Medieval Europe (London).

Nelson, J. (1987). ‘Making Ends Meet: Wealth and Poverty in the Carolingian Church’, Studies in Church History 24, 25–36.

Nelson, J. (1990). ‘The Last Years of Louis the Pious’, in Godman and Collins, 147–60.

Nelson, J. (1992), Charles the Bald (London).

Nelson, J. (1998). ‘Making a Difference in Eighth-century Politics: The Daughters of Desiderius’, in A. Murray (ed.), After Rome’s Fall (Toronto), 171–90.

Nelson, J. (2005). ‘Charlemagne the Man’, in Story (2005a), 22–37.

Nelson, J. (2008). Opposition to Charlemagne (London).

Nicol, D. M. (1992). The Immortal Emperor (Cambridge).

Niebuhr, B. G. (ed.) (1839–41). Theophanes Chronographia (Bonn).

Noble, T. F. X. (1984). The Republic of St Peter: The Birth of the Papal State, 680–825 (Philadelphia).

Noble, T. F. X. (1995). ‘The Papacy in the Eighth and Ninth Centuries’, in McKitterick (1995), 563–86.

Noble, T. F. X. (2009). Images, Iconoclasm, and the Carolingians (Philadelphia).

Norwich, J. J. (1988). Byzantium: The Early Centuries (London).

Obolensky, D. (1982). The Byzantine Commonwealth: Eastern Europe, 500–1453 (New York).

O’Donnell, J. J. (1979). Cassiodorus (Berkeley).

O’Donnell, J. J. (2009). The Ruin of the Roman Empire (London).

Pallas, D. (1977). Les Monuments paléochrétiens de Grèce découverts de 1959 a 1973 (Vatican City).

Perin, P. and Kazanski, M. (1996). ‘Das Grab Childerichs I’, in Die Franken: Wegbereiter Europas: vor 1500 Jahren, König Chlodwig und seine Erben (Mainz), 173–82.

Pharr, C. (1952). The Theodosian Code and Novels, and the Sirmondian Constitutions (New York).

Pohl, W.(1988). Die Awaren: ein Steppenvolk im Mitteleuropa, 567–822 n. Chr. (Munich).

Pohl, W. (2003). ‘A Non-Roman Empire in Central Europe: The Avars’, in Goetz et al. (eds), 571–95.

Pohl. W. (2005). ‘Invasions and Ethnic Identity’, in La Rocca, 11–33.

Poly, J.-P. and Bournazel, E. (1991). The Feudal Transformation, 900–1200 (New York).

Potter, D. (2004). The Roman Empire at Bay: AD 180–395 (London).

Price, R. (2009). The Acts of the Council of Constantinople of 553: with related texts on the Three Chapters Controversy (Liverpool).

Pringle, D. (1981). The Defence of Byzantine Africa from Justinian to the Arab Conquest (Oxford).

PLRE = The Prosopography of the later Roman Empire, Jones, A. H. M. et al. (eds), 3 vols (Cambridge), 1971–92.

Prostko-Prostynski, J. (1994). Utraeque Res Publicae: The Emperor Anastasius’ Gothic Policy (491–518) (Poznan).

Puzo, M. (1969). The Godfather (London).

Reuter, T. (1982). ‘The “Imperial Church System” of the Ottonian and Salian Rulers: A Reconsideration’, Journal of Ecclesiastical History 33, 347–74.

Reuter, T. (1985). ‘Plunder and Tribute in the Carolingian Empire’, in Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 75–94.

Reuter, T. (1990). ‘The End of Carolingian Military Expansion’, in Godman and Collins, 391–407.

Reuter, T. (1991). Germany in the Early Middle Ages c.800–1056 (London).

Reuter, T. (ed.) (2000). The New Cambridge Medieval History, vol. 3 (Cambridge),

Reuter, T. (2005). ‘Charlemagne and the World beyond the Rhine’, in Story (2005a), 183–94.

Reydellet, M. (1981). La Royauté dans la littérature latine: de Sidoine Apollinaire à Isidore de Séville (Rome).

Reynolds, L. D. and Wilson, N. G. (1991). Scribes and scholars: a guide to the transmission of Greek and Latin literature, 3rd ed. (Oxford).

Reynolds, R. E. (1995). ‘The Organisation, Law, and Liturgy of the Western Church 700–900’, in R. McKitterick (ed.), The New Cambridge Medieval History, vol. 2 (Cambridge), 587–621.

Richards, J. (1979). The Popes and the Papacy in the Early Middle Ages, 476–752 (London).

Riche, P. (1987). Gerbert d’Aurillac: le pape de l’an mille (Paris).

Richter, M. (1985). ‘Die politische Orientierung Mährens zur Zeit von Konstantin und Methodius’, in H. Wolfram and A. Schwarcz (eds), Die Bayern und ihre Nachbarn, vol. 1 (Vienna), 281–92.

Riley-Smith, J. (1986). The First Crusade and the Idea of Crusading (London).

Ripoll, G. and Velázquez, I. (1995). La Hispania visigoda: del rey Ataúlfo a don Rodrigo (Madrid).

Rivers, T. J. (1977). Laws of the Alamans and Bavarians (Philadelphia).

Rivière, Y. de la (ed.) (2012). Confiscations et l’histoire de l’Empire Romain (Rome).

Robinson, I. S. (1978). Authority and Resistance in the Investiture Contest. The Polemical Literature of the Eleventh Century (Manchester).

Robinson, I. S. (1990). The Papacy 1073–1198: Continuity and innovation (Cambridge).

Robinson, I. S. (2004a). The Papal Reform of the Eleventh Century: Lives of Pope Leo IX and Pope Gregory VII (Manchester).

Robinson, I. S. (2004b). ‘Reform and the Church 1073–1122’, in Luscombe and Riley-Smith (2004a), 268–334.

Robinson, I. S. (2004c). ‘Institutions of the Church 1073–1216’, in Luscombe and Riley-Smith (2004a), 368–460.

Robinson, I. S. (2004d). ‘The Papacy 1122–1198’, in Luscombe and Riley-Smith (2004b), 317–83.

Rolfe, J. C. (ed.) (1935–9). Ammianus Marcellinus (London).

Rosenwein, B. (1989). To be the Neighbor of Saint Peter: The Social Meaning of Cluny’s Property, 909–1049 (Ithaca).

Rothwell, H. (ed.) (1975). English Historical Documents 1189–1327 (London).

Rouche, M. (1979). L’Aquitaine: des Wisigoths aux Arabes, 418–781; naissance d’une région (Paris).

Rushworth, A. (2004). ‘From Arzuges to Rustamids: State formation and regional identity in the Pre-Saharan Zone’, in A. H. Merrills (ed.), Vandals, Romans, and Berbers: New Perspectives on Late Antique North Africa (Aldershot), 77–98.

Sarris, P. (2002). ‘The Justinianic Plague: Origins and Effects’, Continuity and Change 17, 169–82.

Sarris, P. (2011). Empires of Faith: The Fall of Rome to the Rise of Islam, 500–700 (Oxford).

Sartre, M. (1982). ‘Trois études sur l’Arabie romaine et byzantine’, in Revue d’études latines (Brussels).

Schäfer, C. (1991). Der weströmische Senat als Träger antiker Kontinuität unter den Ostgotenkönigen (490–540 n. Chr.) (St Katharinen).

Schatz, K. (1990) Papal Primacy from its Origins to the Present (Collegeville, Minn.).

Schenkl, H. et al. (eds) (1965–74). Themistii Orationes (Leipzig).

Schieffer (2003). Die Streitschriften Hinkmars von Reims und Hinkmars von Laon, 869–871 (Hanover).

Schmidt, T. (1977). Alexander II. (1061–1073) und die römische Reformgruppe seiner Zeit (Stuttgart).

Scholl, R. and Kroll, G. (eds) (1928). Novellae (Berlin).

Scott, L. R. (1976). ‘Aspar and the Burden of Barbarian Heritage’, Byzantine Studies 3, 59–69.

Scott, S. P. (trans.) (1932). The Civil Law, Including the Twelve Tables: The Institutes of Gaius, the Rules of Ulpian, the Opinions of Paulus, the Enactments of Justinian, and the Constitutions of Leo (Cincinnati).

Shanzer, D. and Wood, I. N. (trans.) (2002). Avitus of Vienne: Letters and Selected Prose (Liverpool).

Shea, G. W. (1998). The Iohannis or De bellis libycis of Flavius Cresconius Corippus (Lewiston, Me.).

Sinor, D. (1977). Inner Asia and Its Contacts with Medieval Europe (London).

Sirks, A. J. B. (2007). The Theodosian Code: A Study (Friedrichsdorf).

Smith, C. (1988). Christians and Moors in Spain, vol. 1 (Warminster).

Smith, R. P. (1860). The Third Part of the Ecclesiastical History of John Bishop of Ephesus (Oxford).

Somerville, R. and Brasington, B. C. (1998). Prefaces to Canon Law Books in Latin Christianity: Selected Translations, 500–1245 (New Haven).

Sorabji, R. (1983). Time, Creation and the Continuum: Theories in Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages (London).

Sotinel, C. (2005). ‘Emperors and Popes in the Sixth Century: The Western View’, in Maas, 267–90.

Staniforth, M. (ed.) (1987). Early Christian Writings (Harmondsworth).

Stathakopoulos, D. (2000). ‘The Justinianic Plague Revisited’, Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies 24, 256–76.

Stein, E. (1949). Histoire du Bas-Empire, vol. 1 (Paris).

Stein, E. (1950). Histoire du Bas-Empire, vol. 2 (Paris).

Stein, P. (1999). Roman Law in European History (Cambridge).

Stewart, H. F. et al. (1918). Boethius: Tractates, De Consolatione Philosophiae (Cambridge, Mass.).

Stocking, R. (2000). Bishops, Councils, and Consensus in the Visigothic Kingdom, 589–633 (Ann Arbor).

Story, J. (ed.) (2005a). Charlemagne: Empire and Society (Manchester).

Story, J. (2005b). ‘Charlemagne and the Anglo-Saxons’, in Story (2005a), 195–210.

Teillet, S. (1984). Des Goths à la nation gothique: les origines de l’idée de nation en Occident du Ve au VIIe siècle (Paris).

Thompson, A. and Gordley, J. (1993). The Treatise on Laws: (Decretum DD 1–20) (Washington DC).

Thompson, E. A. (1946). ‘The Isaurians under Theodosius II’, Hermathena, 18–31.

Thompson, E. A. (1969). The Goths in Spain (Oxford).

Thompson, E. A. (1982). Romans and Barbarians: The Decline of the Western Empire (Madison).

Thorpe, L. (1974), Gregory of Tours: The History of the Franks (London).

Tillmann, H. (1980). Pope Innocent III (Amsterdam).

Tuchman, B. (1979). A Distant Mirror: The Calamitous 14th Century (New York).

Turner, C. H. (1903). ‘Chapters in the History of Latin MSS III: The Lyon-Petersburg MS of Councils’, Journal of Theological Studies 4, 426–34.

Tyerman, C. (2006). God’s War: A New History of the Crusades (London).

Ullmann, W. (1960). The Medieval Papacy: St Thomas and Beyond (London).

Ullmann, W. (1970). Growth of Papal Government, 3rd ed. (London).

Vessey, M. (1993), ‘The Origins of the Collectio Sirmondiana’, in The Theodosian Code, ed. I. N. Wood and J. Harries (London), 178–99.

Vives, J. (1963). Concilios visigóticos e hispano-romanos (Barcelona).

Waitz, G. (1911). Einhardi Vita Karoli Magni, 6th ed., MGH Scriptores rerum Germanicarum in usum scholarum (Hanover).

Wallace-Hadrill, J. M. (1982). The Long-haired Kings (Toronto).

Ward Perkins, B. (1984.). From Classical Antiquity to the Middle Ages: Urban Public Building in Northern and Central Italy, AD 300–850 (Oxford).

Ward Perkins, B. (2005). The Fall of Rome and the End of Civilization (Oxford).

Watson, A. et al. (1998). The Digest of Justinian (Philadelphia).

Watt, J. A. (1999). ‘The Papacy’, in D. Abulafia (ed.), The New Cambridge Medieval History, vol. 5 (Cambridge), 107–63.

Werner, K. F. (1979). ‘Kingdom and Principality in Twelfth Century France’, in T. Reuter (ed.), The Medieval Nobility: Studies on the Ruling Classes of France and Germany from the Sixth to the Twelfth Century (Amsterdam), 243–90.

Werner, K. F. (1980). ‘Missus-marchio-comes: entre l’administration centrale et l’administration locale de l’empire carolingien’, in W. Paravicini and K. F. Werner (eds), Histoire comparée de l’administration (IVe–XVIIIe siècle), Beihefte der Francia 9 (Munich), 191–239.

Whitby, L. M. (1985). ‘Justinian’s Bridge over the Sangarius and the Date of Procopius’ De adeficiis’, Journal of Hellenic Studies 105, 129–48.

Whitby, L. M. (1986). ‘Procopius and the Development of Roman Defences in Upper Mesopotamia, in H. Kennedy and P. Freeman (eds), The Defence of the Roman and Byzantine Near East (Oxford), 717–35.

Whitby, L. M. (1988). The Emperor Maurice and his Historian: Theophylact Simocatta on Persian and Balkan Warfare (Oxford).

Whitby, L. M. (2000). ‘The Balkans and Greece, 420–602’, in Cameron et al. (2000), 701–30.

Whitby, L. M., and Whitby, J. M. (1986). The History of Theophylact Simocatta (Oxford).

Whitby, L. M. and Whitby, J. M. (1989). The Chronicon Paschale (Liverpool).

Whitelock, D. (1996). English Historical Documents, c.500–1042, 2nd ed. (London).

Whittow, M. (1996). The Making of Orthodox Byzantium, 600–1025 (London).

Wickham, C. J. (1981). Early Medieval Italy: Central Power and Local Society, 400–1000 (London).

Wickham, C. J. (1993). ‘La chute de Rome n’aura pas lieu. A propos d’un livre récent’, Le Moyen Age 99, 107–26.

Wickham, C. J. (2005). Framing the Early Middle Ages: Europe and the Mediterranean 400–800 (Oxford).

Wickham, C. J. (2009). The Inheritance of Rome: A History of Europe from 400 to 1000 (London).

Williams, A. (1991). The English and the Norman Conquest (Woodbridge).

Wiseman, J. (1984). ‘The City in Macedonia Secunda’, in V. Popovic (ed.), Villes et Peuplement dans l’Illyricum protobyzantin (Rome), 289–313.

Wolfram, H. (1988). History of the Goths, trans. T. J. Dunlap (Berkeley).

Wollasch, J. (1999). ‘Monasticism: the First Age of Reform’, in Reuter (1999), 163–85.

Wood, I. N. (1994). The Merovingian Kingdoms (London).

Wood, I. N. (1995). ‘Teutsind, Witlaic and the History of Merovingian Precaria’, in W. Davies and P. Fouracre (eds), Property and Power in the Early Middle Ages (Cambridge), 31–52.

Wood, S. (2006). The Proprietary Church in the Medieval West (Oxford).

Wormald, P. (1999). The Making of English Law: King Alfred to the Twelfth Century. Volume 1, Legislation and Its Limits (Oxford).

Wright, F. A. (1993). Liutprand of Cremona: The Embassy to Constantinople and Other Writings (London).

Wright, R. (1982). Late Latin and Early Romance in Spain and Carolingian France (Liverpool).

Wright, R. (1996). Latin and the Romance Languages in the Early Middle Ages (Philadelphia).

If you find an error please notify us in the comments. Thank you!