Ancient History & Civilisation


There is a huge quantity of modern literature on the Politics, but as yet no comprehensive and systematic bibliography has been published. However, most of the books and articles listed below provide at least some references to other works, and rich seams of bibliographical information may be mined in:

I. DÜRING, Aristoteles, Dařstellung und Interpretation seines Denkens (Heidelberg, 1966), pp. 623–40, esp. pp. 637–8

G. BIEN, Die Grundlegung der politischen Philosophie bei Aristoteles (München, 1973), pp. 369–94

Up-to-date information is to be found in the latest edition of L’Année Philologique, and in Polis, the periodical of the Society for Greek Political Thought (note in particular vol. I, 2 (April 1978), pp. 19–22). There is also a good bibliography in the third collection of essays below, which also gives (pp. 219–20) further bibliographical sources.


W. JAEGER, Aristotle: Fundamentals of the History of his Development (2nd ed., Oxford, 1948), esp. pp. 259–92. (A translation by Richard Robinson of Aristoteles, Grunglegung einer Geschichte seiner Entwicklung, Berlin, 1923)

H. VON ARNIM, ‘Zur Entstehungsgeschichte der aristotelischen Politik’, Sitzungsberichte der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, philos.-hist. Kl., 200.1 (1924), pp. 1–130

I. DÜRING, ‘Notes on the history of the transmission of Aristode’s writings’, Symbolae Philologicae Gotoburgenses, 56.3 (1950), pp. 35–70, esp. pp. 57 ff., 64 ff.

W. THEILER, ‘Bau und Zeit der aristotelischen Politik’, Museum Helveticum, 9 (1952), pp. 65–78. (Reprinted in F.-P. Hager (ed.), Ethik und Politik des Aristoteles, Darmstadt, 1972, pp. 253–74 (Wege der Forschung 208))

R. WEIL, see under ‘History and Historiography’ below, pp. 25–84.

A. DREIZEHNTER, Untersuchungen zur Textsgeschichte der aristotelischen Politik (Leiden, 1962) (Philosophia Antiqua 10)

A. H. CHROUST, ‘The first thirty years of modern Aristotelian scholarship’, Classica et Mediaevalia, 24 (1963), pp. 27–57, esp. pp. 46–9

C. LORD, ‘The Character and Composition of Aristotle’s Politics’, Political Theory, 9 (1981), 459–78

J. DUNBABIN, ‘The Reception and Interpretation of Aristotle’s Politics’, in The Cambridge History of Later Medieval Philosophy, ed. N. Kretzmann, A. Kenny and J. Pinborg (Cambridge, 1982), pp. 723–37

Not also certain essays in the first two collections below.


Vastly learned and on a princely scale, with an abundance of explanatory and supplementary material:

W. L. NEWMAN, The Politics of Aristotle, with an Introduction, Two Prefatory Essays and Notes Critical and Explanatory, 4 vols. (Oxford, 1887–1902)

Less comprehensive but still spacious:

F. SUSEMIHL and R. D. HICKS. The Politics of Aristotle, A Revised Text with Introduction, Analysis and Commentary, Books I–V (London and New York, 1894)

In both these editions Books VII and VIII in the customary order are renumbered IV and V; hence ‘I–V’ in Susemihl and Hicks’ title are I-III plus VII-VIII, and Newman’s ‘VI-VIII’ are IV-VI thus displaced to the end of the sequence. See pp. 33 ff. above.


W. D. ROSS, Aristotelis Politica (Oxford, 1957) (Oxford Classical Text)

A. DREIZEHNTER, Aristoteles Politik, eingeleitet, kritisch herausgegehen und mit Indices versehen (München, 1970) (Studia et Testimonia Antiqua 7)


The Works of Aristotle, translated into English under the editorship of W. D. Ross, vol X: Politica, by B. Jowett, rev. W. D. Ross (Oxford, 1921). (Contains also Oeconomica, trans. E. S. Forster, and Atheniensium Respublica, trans. F. G. Kenyon). Repr. and revised on the basis of Dreizehnter’s text in J. Barnes, The Complete Works of Aristotle: The Revised Oxford Translation, vol. II (Princeton, 1984)

H. RACKHAM, Aristotle, vol XXI (London and Cambridge, Mass., 1932; corrected ed. 1944) (Loeb Classical Library; Greek and English on facing pages)

E. BARKER, The Politics of Aristotle, Translated with an Introduction, Notes and Appendices (Oxford, 1946; corrected ed. 1948)

C. LORD, Aristotle, The Politics, Translated and with an Introduction, Notes and Glossary (Chicago and London, 1984)


R. ROBINSON, Aristotle’s Politics, Books III and IV, translated with introduction and comments (Oxford, 1962) (Clarendon Aristotle Series)

E. BRAUN, ‘Das dritte Buch der aristotelischen “Politik”: Interpretation’, Sitzungsberichte der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, philos.-hist. Kl., 247.4 (Wien, 1965)


E. BARKER, The Political Thought of Plato and Aristotle (London, 1906, repr. New York. 1959), pp. 208–524

W. D. ROSS, Aristotle (Oxford, 1923: 5th ed. 1949), pp. 235–69

M. DEFOURNY, Aristote: Études sur la ‘Politique’ (Paris, 1932)

T. A. SINCLAIR, A History of Greek Political Thought (London, 1951, 2nd ed. 1967), pp. 209–38

D. J. ALLAN, The Philosophy of Aristotle (Oxford, 1952), pp. 191–200

J. H. RANDALL, Aristotle (New York, 1960), pp. 243–71

G. H. SABINE, A History of Political Theory (3rd ed., London, 1963), pp. 88–105

D. KAGAN, The Great Dialogue: History of Greek Political Thought from Homer to Polybius (New York and London, 1965), pp. 195–230

I. DÜRING, See above, pp. 474–505

G. E. R. LLOYD, Aristotle, the Growth and Structure of His Thought (Cambridge, 1968), pp. 246–71

G. BIEN, see above

J. B. MORRALL, Aristotle (London, 1977) (Political Thinkers 7)

R. G. MULGAN, Aristotle’s Political Theory (Oxford, 1977)


Seven very useful collections of essays have appeared:

(1) La Politique d’Aristole (Geneva, 1965) (Foundation Hardt, Entretiens sur l’antiquité classique XI; each paper is followed by a discussion; two indexes):

R. STARK, ‘Der Gesamtaufbau der aristotelischen Politik

D. J. ALLAN, ‘Individual and state in the Ethics and Politics’ (Reprinted in German translation in F.-P. Hager, Ethik und Politik des Aristoteles, Darmstadt, 1972, pp. 403–32 (Wege der Forschung 208)

P. AUBENQUE, ‘Théorie et pratique politiques chez Alistote’

P. MORAUX, ‘Quelques Apories de la politique et leur arrière-plan historique’

R. WEIL, ‘Philosophie et histoire. La Vision de l’histoire chez Aristote’ (reprinted in translation in collection (3) below)

G. J. D. AALDERS H. Wzn., ‘Die Mischverfassung und ihre historische Dokumentation in den Polotica des Aristoteles’

O. GIGON, ‘Die Sklaverei bei Aristoteles’

(2) Schriften zu den Politika des Aristoteles, herausgegeben von P. Steinmetz (Hildesheim and New York, 1973) (Olms Studien 6; photographic reprints):

J. MESK, ‘Die Buchfolge in der aristotelischen Politik’ (= Wiener Studien, 38 (1916), pp. 250–69)

J. L. STOCKS, ‘The composition of Aristotle’s Politics’ (= Classical Quarterly, 21 (1927), pp. 177–87)

E. BARKER, ‘The life of Aristotle and the composition and structure and the Politics’ (= Classical Review, 45 (1931), pp. 162–72)

A. ROSENBERG, ‘Aristoteles über Diktatur und Demokratie (Politik Buch III)’ (= Rheinisches Museum fár Philologie, 82(1933), pp. 339–61)

W. SIEGFRIED, ‘Zur Entstehungsgeschichte von Aristoteles’ Politik’ (= Philologus, 88 (1933), pp. 363–91)

D. WILLERS, ‘Aufbau der aristotelischen Politik’ (= Neue Jahrbücher für Wissenschaft und Jugendbildung, 9 (1933), pp. 127–32)

K. KAHLENBERG, ‘Beitrag zur Interpretation des III. Buch der aristotelischen Politik’ (= Inaugural dissertation, Friedrich-Wilhelms Universität zu Berlin, 1934)

O. GIGON, ‘Einleitung zu einer Übersetzung der Politik des Aristoteles’ (= Aristoteles, Politik und Staat der Athener, eingeleitet und übertragen von O. G., Zürich, 1955, pp. 7–51)

O. LENDLE, ‘Die Einleitung des dritten Buches der aristotelischen Politika

W. SIEGFRIED, ‘Untersuchungen zur Staatslehre des Aristoteles’ (Zürich, 1942)

P. CLOCHÉ, ‘Aristote et les institutions de Sparte’ (= Les Études classiques, 11 (1942), pp. 289–313)

M. WHEELER, ‘Aristotie’s analysis of the nature of political struggle’ (= American Journal of Philology, 72 (1951), pp. 145–61)

G. R. MORROW, ‘Aristotle’s comments on Plato’s Laws’ (= I. Düring and G. E. L. Owen (eds.), Aristotle and Plato in the mid-fourth century, Göteburg, 1960, pp. 145 – 62 (Studia Graeca et Latina Gothoburgensia XI, Proceedings of Symposium Aristotelicum, Oxford, 1957)

E. BRAUN, ‘Die Summierungstheorie des Aristoteles’ (= Jahreshefte des Österreichischen Archäologischen Instituts, 44 (1959), pp. 157–84)

E. BRAUN, ‘Eine Maxime der Staatskunst in der Politik des Aristoteles’ (= Jahreshefte des Österreichischen Archäologischen Instituts, 44 (1959), pp. 385–98)

E. BRAUN, ‘Die Ursache der Pluralität von Verfassungsformen nach Aristoteles’ (= Wissenschaftliche Arbeiten aus dem Burgenland, 35 (1966), pp. 57–65)

(3) Articles on Aristotle: 2, Ethics and Politics, ed. J. Barnes, M. Schofield and R. Sorabji (London, 1977) (invaluable annotated bibliography, with two indexes; the articles relating to the Politics are with one exception reprints, translated into English when necessary, and with minor changes of format; there are ten other essays, on Aristotle’s ethics):

K. VON FRITZ and E. KAPP, ‘The development of Aristotle’s political philosophy and the concept of nature’ (= the authors’ Aristotle’s Constitution of Athens and Related Texts, New York, 1950, pp. 32–66 (retitled))

W. W. FORTENBAUGH, ‘Aristotle on slaves and women’ (not previously published)

M. I. FINLEY, ‘Aristotle and economic analysis’ (= Past and Present, 47 (1970), pp. 3–25; repr. also in Studies in Ancient Society, ed. M. I. Finley, London, 1974, and in German translation in Jahrbuch für Wirtschaftsgeschichte, 2 (1971), pp. 87–105)

M. WHEELER, ‘Aristotle’s analysis of the nature of political struggle’ (= American Journal of Philology, 72 (1951), pp. 145–61)

H. KELSEN, ‘Aristotle and Hellenic-Macedonian policy’ (= pp. 16–51 (with n. 39 printed at the end as an ‘additional note’) of ‘The philosophy of Aristotle and the Hellenic-Macedonian policy’. International Journal of Ethics, 48 (1937–8), pp. 1–64; the article was reprinted in W. Ebenstein (ed.), Political Thought in Perspective, New York, 1957, pp. 56–86; full references to other appearances in G. Bien (see above), p. 381)

M. DEFOURNY, ‘The aim of the state: peace’ (= translation of id., Aristole: Études sur la ‘Politique’, Paris, 1932, pp. 475–89)

R. WEIL, ‘Aristotle’s view of history’ (= translation of Weil’s article in the Fondation Hardt volume above)

(4) Aristoteles’ Politik: Akten des XI Symposium Aristotelicum, Friedrichshafen/Bodensee 25 Aug. to 3 Sept. 1987, herausgegeben von G. Patzig (Göttingen, 1990) (contains indexes of (i) passages of Aristotle, (ii) of other ancient authors and (iii) of ancient, medieval and modern names):

M. SCHOFIELD, ‘Ideology and Philosophy in Aristotle’s Theory of Slavery’

C. H. KAHN, ‘Comments on M. Schofield’

G. SEEL, ‘Die Rechtfertigung von Herrschaft in der Politik des Aristoteles’

T. EBERT, ‘Bemerkungen zu G. Seel’

T. IRWIN, ‘The Good of Political Activity’

G. STRIKER, ‘Comments on T. Irwin’

R. BODÉÜS, ‘Savoir politique et savoir philosophique’

P. PELLEGRIN, ‘Naturalité, excellence, diversité. Politique et biologie chez Aristote’

M. C. NUSSBAUM, ‘Nature, Function, and Capability: Aristotle on Political Distribution’ (for this and the following entry see also Nussbaum under ‘Political Philosophy’ below)

D. CHARLES, ‘Comments on M. Nussbaum’

C. LORD, ‘Politics and Education in Aristotle’s Politics

D. A. REES, ‘Comments on C. Lord’

J. M. COOPER, ‘Political Animals and Civic Friendship’

J. ANNAS, ‘Comments on J. Cooper’

J. BARNES, ‘Aristotle and Political Liberty’

R. SORABJI, ‘Comments on J. Barnes: State Power: Aristotle and Fourth Century Philosophy’

G. EUCKEN, ‘Der aristotelische Demokratiebegriff und sein historisches Umfeld’

T. IRWIN, ‘Comments on Christoph Eucken’

C. NATALI, ‘Aristote et la chrématistique’

G. BIEN, ‘Die Wirkungsgeschichte der aristotelischen Politik

W. KULLMANN, ‘Bemerkungen zu G. Bien’

C. H. KAHN, ‘The Normative Structure of Aristotle’s Politics

(5) A Companion to Aristotle’s Politics, ed. D. Keyt and F. D. Miller, Jr (Oxford, Blackwell, 1991) (contains introduction, a nine-page bibliography of the Politics and an index locorum; with the exception of Bradley’s, all reprinted pieces have certain revisions, and some originally had different titles):

A. C. BRADLEY, ‘Aristotle’s Conception of the State’ (= Hellenica, ed. E. Abbott (London, 1880, repr. 1971), pp. 181–243)

C. ROWE, ‘Aims and Methods in Aristotle’s Politics’ (= Classical Quarterly, 27 (1977), pp. 159–72)

A. W. H. ADKINS, ‘The Connection between Aristotle’s Ethics and Politics (= Political Theory, 12 (1984), pp. 29–49)

W. KULLMANN, ‘Man as a Political Animal in Aristotle’ (= Hermes, 108 (1980), pp. 419–43)

D. KEYT, ‘Three Basic Theorems in Aristotle’s Politics’ (= Phronesis, 32 (1987), pp. 54–79)

N. D. SMITH, ‘Aristotle’s Theory of Natural Slavery’ (= Phoenix, 37 (1983), pp. 109–22)

S. MEIKLE, ‘Aristotle and Exchange Value’ (= Journal of Hellenic Studies, 99 (1979), 57–73)

R. F. STALLEY, ‘Aristotle’s Criticism of Plato’s Republic

T. H. IRWIN, ‘Aristotle’s Defense of Private Property’ (= Social Philosophy and Policy, 4 (1987), pp. 37–54)

W. W. FORTENBAUGH, ‘Aristotle on Prior and Posterior, Correct and Mistaken Constitutions’ (= Transactions of the American Philological Association, 106 (1976), pp. 125–37)

D. KEYT, ‘Aristotle’s Theory of Distributive Justice’ (= Topoi, 4 (1985), pp. 23–45)

F. D. MILLER, JR, ‘Aristotle on Natural Law and Justice’ (= University of Dayton Review, Special Issue on Aristotle, 19 (1988–9), pp. 57–69)

R. MULGAN, ‘Aristotle’s Analysis of Oligarchy and Democracy’

R. POLANSKY, ‘Aristotle on Political Change’

D. J. DEPEW, ‘Politics, Music, and Contemplation in Aristotle’s Ideal State’

The remaining two collections are on specialized topics:

(6) Marxism and the Classics (= Arethusa, 8.1 (1975)). (Not primarily devoted to the Politics or even to Aristotle, but with much relevant material and an extensive annotated bibliography)

(7) Population Policy in Plato and Aristotle (= Arethusa, 8.2 (1975))

The following sections exclude, with one exception, material contained in the seven volumes listed above.


J. LAIRD, ‘Hobbes on Aristotle’s Politics’, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, 43 (1942-3), pp. 1–20

G. BOAS, ‘A basic conflict in Aristotle’s philosophy’, American Journal of Philology, 64 (1943), pp. 172–93

K. R. POPPER, The Open Society and Its Enemies (London, 1945; 5th ed. 1966), esp. II, pp. 1–26 (and notes, pp. 281ff.)

F. KORT, ‘The quantification of Aristotle’s theory of revolution’, The American Political Science Review, 46 (1952), pp. 486–93

K. VON FRITZ, The Mixed Constitution in Antiquity (New York, 1954)

E. A. HAVELOCK, The Liberal Temper in Greek Politics (London, 1957), pp. 339–75

J. DE ROMILLEY, ‘Le classement des constitutions d’Hérodote à Aristote’, Revue des Études Grecques, 72 (1959), pp. 81–99

E. BRAUN, ‘Aristoteles über Bürger- und Menschentugend: zu Politica III, 4 und 5’, Sitzungsberichte der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, philos.-hist. Kl., 236.2 (Wien, 1961)

M. CHAMBERS, ‘Aristotle’s “Forms of democracy”’, Transactions of the American Philological Association, 92 (1961), pp. 20–36

J. BLUHM, ‘The place of the “polity” in Aristotle’s theory of the ideal state’, Journal of Politics, 24 (1962), pp. 743–53

L. STRAUSS, The City and Man (Chicago, 1964), pp. 13–49

H. C. BALDRY, The Unity of Mankind in Greek Thought (Cambridge, 1965), pp. 88–101

F. D. HARVEY, ‘Two kinds of equality’, Classica el Mediaevalia, 26 (1965), pp. 101–46 (esp. p. 113 ff.), and 27 (1966), pp. 99–100

J. HINTIKKA, ‘Some conceptual presuppositions of Greek political theory’, Scandinavian Political Studies, 2 (1967), pp. 11–25

C. MOSSÉ, ‘La conception du citoyen dans la Politique d’Aristote’, Eirene. 6 (1967), pp. 17–21

J. PEČIRKA, ‘A note on Aristotle’s definition of citizenship and the role of foreigners in fourth century Athens’, Eirene, 6 (1967), pp. 23–6

T. J. TRACY, Physiological Theory and the Doctrine of the Mean in Plato and Aristotle (The Hague and Paris, 1969), esp. pp. 311–26 (Studies in Philosophy 17)

R. G. MULGAN, ‘Aristotle and the democratic conception of freedom’, in B. F. Harris (ed.), Auckland Classical Essays Presented to E. M. Blaiklock (Auckland and Oxford, 1970), pp. 95–111

R. G. MULGAN, ‘Aristotle’s sovereign’, Political Studies, 18 (1970), pp. 518–22

G. DOWNEY, ‘Aristotle as an expert on urban problems’, Talanta, 3 (1971), pp. 56–73

H. FLASHAR, ‘Ethik und Politik in der Philosophie des Aristoteles’, Gymnasium. 78 (1971), pp. 278–93

G. HUXLEY, ‘Crete in Aristotle’s Politics’, Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies, 12 (1971), pp. 505–15

S. CLARK, ‘The use of “man’s function” in Aristotle’, Ethics, 82 (1971–2), pp. 269–83

S. CASHDOLLAR, ‘Aristotle’s politics of morals’, Journal of the History of Philosophy, 11 (1973), pp. 145–60

R. DEVELIN, ‘The good man and the good citizen in Aristotle’s Politics’, Phronesis, 18 (1973). pp. 71–9

R. A. DELAIX, ‘Aristotle’s conception of the Spartan constitution’, Journal of the History of Philosophy, 12 (1974), pp. 21–30

R. BRANDT, ‘Untersuchung zur politischen Philosophie des Aristoteles’. Hermes. 102 (1974), pp. 191–200

R. G. MULGAN, ‘Aristotle’s doctrine that man is a political animal’, Hermes, 102 (1974), pp. 438–45

R. G. MULGAN, ‘A note on Aristotle’s absolute ruler’, Phronesis, 19 (1974), pp. 66–9

R. G. MULGAN, ‘Aristotle and absolute rule’, Antichthon, 8 (1974), pp. 21–8

R. ZOEPFFEL, ‘Aristoteles und die Demagogen’, Chiron, 4 (1974), pp. 69–90

J. M. RIST, ‘Aristotle: the value of man and the origin of morality’. Canadian Journal of Philosophy, 4 (1974-5), pp. 1–21

F. ROSEN, ‘The political context of Aristotle’s categories of justice’. Phronesis, 20 (1975), pp. 228–40.

W. MATHIE, ‘Justice and the question of regimes in ancient and modern political philosophy: Aristotle and Hobbes’, Canadian Journal of Political Science, 9 (1976), pp. 449–63

E. SCHÜTRUMPF, ‘Probleme der aristotelischen Verfassungs-theorie in PolitikΓ’. Hermes, 104 (1976), pp. 308–31

E. F. MILLER, ‘Primary questions in political inquiry’, Review of Politics, 39 (1977), pp. 298–331

R. MCKEON, ‘Person and community: metaphysical and ethical’, Ethics, 88 (1977–8), pp. 207–17

E. M. WOOD and N. WOOD, Class Ideology and Ancient Political Theory: Socrates, Plato and Aristotle in Social Context (Oxford, 1978), esp. pp. 209–57

C. LORD, ‘Politics and philosophy in Aristotle’s Politics’, Hermes, 106 (1978), pp. 336–57

R. POLANSKY, ‘The dominance of the polis for Aristotle’, Dialogus, 14 (1979). 43–56

G. HUXLEY, On Aristotle and Greek Society (Belfast, 1979)

S. M. OKIN, Women in Western Political Thought (Princeton, 1979, London, 1980), pp. 73–96

E. SCHÜTRUMPF. Die Analyse der Polis durch Aristoteles (Amsterdam, 1980)

W. J. BOOTH, ‘Politics and the household: a commentary on Aristotle’s Politics. Book One’, History of Political Thought, 2 (1981), pp. 203–26

S. G. SALKEVER, ‘Aristotle’s Social Science’, Political Theory, 9 (1981), 479–508

A. LINTOTT, Violence, Civil Strife and Revolution in the Classical City 750–330 B.C. (London, 1982), pp. 239–51

D. H. FRANK, ‘Aristotle on Freedom in the Politics’, Prudentia, 15 (1983), 109–16

C. JOHNSON, ‘Who is Aristotle’s Citizen?’, Phronesis, 29 (1984), 73–90

P. SPRINGBORG, ‘Aristotle and the problem of needs’, History of Political Thought, 5 (1984), pp. 393–424

J. M. COOPER, ‘Aristotle on the Goods of Fortune’, Philosophical Review, 94 (1985), 173–96

G. HUXLEY, ‘On Aristotle’s Best State’, in P. Cartledge and F. D. Harvey (eds.), Crux: Essays presented to G. E. M. de Ste Croix on his 75th birthday (Exeter 1985) (= History of Political Thought, VI 1/2), 139–49

T. H. IRWIN, ‘Moral science and political theory in Aristotle’, ibid, 150–68

P. A. VANDER WAERDT, ‘Kingship and philosophy in Aristole’s best regime’, Phronesis, 30 (1985), pp. 249–73

W. VON LEYDEN, Aristotle on Equality and Justice: his Political Argument (London 1985)

S. EVERSON, ‘Aristotle on the Foundation of the State’, Political Studies, 36 (1988), pp. 89–101

M. NUSSBAUM, ‘Nature, Function and Capability: Aristotle on Political Distribution’, Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy, Suppl. vol. 1988, pp. 145–84, with D. CHARLES, ‘Perfectionism in Aristotle’s Political Theory: Reply to Martha Nussbaum’, ibid., pp. 185–206, and Nussbaum’s ‘Reply to David Charles’, ibid., pp. 207–14

F. WOLFF, ‘Justice et pouvoir (Aristote, Politique III 9–13)’, Phronesis, 33 (1988), pp. 273–96

J. CREED, ‘Aristotle’s Middle Constitution’, Polis, 8 ii (1989), pp. 2–27

C. ROWE, ‘Reality and Utopia’, Elenchos, 10 (1989), pp. 317–36

R. MULGAN, ‘Aristotle and die Value of Political Participation’, Political Theory, 18 (1990), pp. 195–215


K. MARX, Capital (3rd German edition, 1883, and in various English translations), chs. I, sect. 3A3, II ad init., IV ad fin., V ad fin.

A. A. TREVER, A History of Greek Economic Thought (Chicago, 1916), pp. 81–124

R. SCHLAIFER, ‘Greek theories of slavery from Homer to Aristotle’, Harvard Studies in Classical Philology, 47 (1936), pp. 165–204. (Reprinted in M. I. Finley (ed.), Slavery in Classical Antiquity, Cambridge and New York, 1960)

V. JOHNSON, ‘Aristotle’s theory of value’, American Journal of Philology, 60 (1939), pp. 445–51

J. SOUDEK, ‘Aristotle’s theory of exchange’, Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 96 (1952), pp. 45–75

E. KAUDER, ‘Genesis of the marginal utility theory, from Aristotle to the end of the eighteenth century’, Economic Journal, 63 (1953), pp. 638–50

J. A. SCHUMPETER, History of Economic Analysis (New York, 1954), pp. 57–65

J. J. SPENGLER, ‘Aristotle on economic imputation and related matters’, Southern Economic Journal, 21 (1955), pp. 371–89

K. POLANYI, ‘Aristotle discovers the economy’, in K. Polanyi. C. M. Arensberg and H. W. Pearson (eds.), Trade and Market in the Early Empires (Glencoe, III., 1957), pp. 69–94. (Reprinted in G. Dalton (ed.), Primitive, Archaic and Modern Economics, New York, 1968)

E. C. WELSKOPF, Die Produktionsverhältnisse im alten Orient und in der griechischen–römischen Antike (Berlin, 1957), pp. 336–46

B. J. GORDON, ‘Aristotle and the development of value theory’, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 78 (1964), pp. 115–28

W. F. R. HARDIE, Aristotle’s Ethical Theory (Oxford, 1968; 2nd ed. 1980), pp. 195–201

E. C. WELSKOPF, ‘Marx und Aristoteles’, in J. Burian and L. Vidman (eds.), Antiquitas graeco-romana et tempora nostra (Prague, 1968), pp. 231–40

S. T. LOWRY, ‘Aristotle’s “natural limit” and the economics of price regulation’, Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies, 15 (1974), pp. 57–63

G. E. M. DESTE CROIX, ‘Early Christian attitudes to property and slavery’, Studies in Church History, 12 (1975), pp. 1–38

A. FLEW, ‘The profit motive’, Ethics, 88 (1976), 312–22

T. J. LEWIS, ‘Aquisition and anxiety: Aristotle’s case against the market’, Canadian Journal of Economics, 11 (1978), pp. 69–90

G. E. M. DE STE CROIX, The Class Struggle in the Ancient Greek World (London, 1981 corr. impr. 1983), esp. chs. II iv, VII ii, iii

R. MILLER, ‘Marx and Aristotle: a kind of Consequentialism’, Canadian Journal of Philosophy, supp. 7 (1981), 323–52

W. H. AMBLER, ‘Aristotle on acquisition’, Canadian Journal of Political Science, 17 (1984), pp. 487–502

O. LANGHOLM, The Aristotelian Analysis of Usury (Bergen, 1984) [on medieval interpretations of Aristotle’s views]


F. D. WORMUTH, ‘Aristotle on law’, in M. R. Konvitz and A. E. Murphy (eds.), Essays in Political Theory Presented to George H. Sabine (Cornell, 1948), pp. 45–61

M. HAMBURGER, Morals and Law: The Growth of Aristotle’s Legal Theory (new ed. New York, 1965)

W. VON LEYDEN, ‘Aristotle and the concept of law’, Philosophy, 42 (1967), pp. 1–19

D. N. SCHROEDER, ‘Aristotle on Law’, Polis, 4 (1981), pp. 17–31


K. VONFRITZ, ‘Die Bedeutung des Aristoteles für die Geschichts-schreibung’ in Histoire et historiens dans l’antiquité classique (Geneva, 1956), pp. 83–145 (Fondation Hardt, Entretiens sur l’antiquité classique IV). (Reprinted in F.-P. Hager (ed.), Ethik und Politik des Aristoteles, Darmstadt, 1972, pp. 313–67 (Wege der Forschung 208))

K. VON FRITZ, ‘Aristole’s contribution to the practice and theory of historiography’, University of California Publications in Philosophy, 28 (1958), pp. 113–37

R. WEIL, Aristote et l’histoire: essai sur la ‘Politique’ (Paris, 1960) (Études et Commentaires 36)

J. DAY and M. CHAMBERS, Aristotle’s History of Athenian Democracy (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1962) (University of California Publications in History 73)

G. HUXLEY, ‘On Aristotle’s historical methods’, Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies, 13 (1972), pp. 157–69

G. E. M. DE STE CROIX, ‘Aristotle on history and poetry (Poetics 9, 1451a36–b11)’, in B. Levick (ed.), The Ancient Historian and His Materials: Essays in Honour of C. E. Stevens on His 70th Birthday (Farnborough, 1975), pp. 45–58

F. E. ROMER, ‘The Aisymnēteia: A problem in Aristotle’s historic method’, American Journal of Philology, 103 (1982), pp. 25–46


V. EHRENBERG, Alexander and the Greeks (Oxford, 1938), 62–102

A. H. CHRODST, Aristotle: New Light on His Life and on Some of His Lost Works, I (Notre Dame and London, 1973). pp. 125–76. (Chapters X–XIII, versions of earlier articles, as follows: X. Classical Folia. I (1966). pp. 26–33; XI, Laval théologique et philosophique, 23 (1967). pp. 244–54; XII, Historia, 15 (1966), pp. 185–91; XIII. Laval Théologique et Philosophique, 22 (1966), pp. 186–96)


E. BORNEMANN, ‘Aristoteles’ Urteil über Platons politische Theorie’, Philologus, 79 (1923), pp. 70–111, 113–58, 234–57


A. BUSSE. ‘Zur Musikästhetik des Aristoteles’, Rheinisches Museum, 77 (1928), pp. 34–50

J. L. STOCKS, ‘∑XOAH’ [Leisure], Classical Quarterly, 30 (1936), pp. 177–87

E. KOLLER, ‘Musse und musische paideia: über die Musikaporetik in der aristotelischen Politik’, Museum Helveticum, 13 (1956). PP. 1–37. 94–124

F. SOLMSEN, ‘Leisure and play in Aristotle’s ideal state’, Rheinisches Museum, 107 (1964). pp. 193–220

W. D. ANDERSON, Ethos and Education in Greek Music: The Evidence of Poetry and Philosophy (Cambridge, Mass., 1966), pp. 111–46

C. LORD, Education and Culture in the Political Thought of Aristotle (Ithaca and London, 1982)


W. J. VERDENIUS, ‘Traditional and personal elements in Aristotle’s religion’, Phronesis, 5 (1960), pp. 56–70

If you find an error or have any questions, please email us at Thank you!