Ancient History & Civilisation

NOTES

Chapter 1. Introduction

1.   Eliot (1957), 68.

2.   From the Constitution of the Society, reproduced in Blandford (1993), 90.

3.   On the reception of Virgil in the first half of the twentieth century see Ziolkowski (1993), 17–26, on the bimillennial celebrations.

4.   See Burrow (2004).

5.   Ziolkowski and Putnam (2008), 744–50.

6.   Hardie and Moore (2010), 4–7.

7.   The phrase of Theodorakopoulos (1997), 156.

8.   The Life of Donatus is conveniently available in English translation in Camps (1969), Appendix I. There is an excellent survey of the life and career of Virgil by Don and Peta Fowler in the Oxford Classical Dictionary, under ‘Virgil’.

9.   The great work on Virgil’s imitation of Homer is Knauer (1964a); for an English summary of his main conclusions see Knauer (1964b), 61–84.

10. Macrobius, Saturnalia 1.24.11.

11. Hardie (1993).

12. Ricks (2002), 12.

13. Comparetti (1997), 28–9.

14. Suetonius, De Grammaticis et Rhetoribus 16.3.

15. See Wallace (2010); Tudeau-Clayton (1998), Ch. 2.

16. Comparetti (1997), 32.

17. An excellent impression of the range of Virgilian commentary down to the Renaissance, with ample exemplification, is given by Ziolkowski and Putnam (2008), 623–824. For antiquity and the Middle Ages see Comparetti (1997), Chs 5 and 6; Baswell (1995). Wilson-Okamura (2010) uses the commentary tradition to build a picture of how Virgil was read in the Renaissance.

18. The other is the Virgilian Interpretations by Tiberius Claudius Donatus (late fourth to early fifth century; not to be confused with Aelius Donatus), a paraphrase of the Aeneid focusing on Virgil’s rhetorical skill in what is interpreted as an epic of sustained praise.

19. Title-page of Virgilius cum commentariis quinque (Lyon: Jacobus Sacon, 1499), reproduced in Wallace (2010), 62.

20. See Comparetti (1997), 63–9; Ziolkowski and Putnam (2008), 636–41.

21. Trapp (1984).

22. Ziolkowski and Putnam (2008), 829–30; Ekbom (2013); Loane (1928); van der Horst (1998).

23. McGill (2005); Rondholz (2012); Ziolkowski and Putnam (2008), 471–85.

24. On the Homer–Virgil comparison see Wilson-Okamura (2010), 124–42.

25. Simonsuri (1979); Caldwell (2008). On changing views of Virgil see Williams (1969); Selden (2006).

26. Plain Truth, or Downright Dunstable: a Poem (London, 1740): for this and other citations in the paragraph see T.W. Harrison (1967). See also Weinbrot (1978).

27. Upton (1746), 134.

28. Warton (1763), Vol. i, vi–vii.

29. Atherton (2006).

30. Hegel (1983–85), Vol. ii, 402.

31. English translation as Heinze (1993).

32. Graves (1962), an expansion of one of Graves’ 1961 lectures as Oxford Professor of Poetry.

33. On Atlas as an emblem of the Virgilian sublime see Hardie (2009), 79–89.

34. This passage is not cited by Burke as an example of the sublime, but a number of passages from the Aeneid are.

35. As argued by Harrison (1967), 81–91.

36. Warton (1763), postscript to Vol. iv, 305–6.

37. For a fuller survey see Vance (1984).

38. Blair (1793), Vol. i, 447.

39. Shairp (1881), 188.

40. ‘The modern element in literature’, inaugural lecture as Oxford Professor of Poetry, 1857.

41. For a recent survey see Wharton (2008).

42. Watson (1986), 115.

43. For an excellent detailed survey of the landmarks and tendencies in twentieth-century criticism and scholarship on the Aeneid see S.J. Harrison, ‘Some views of the Aeneid in the twentieth century’, in Harrison (1990), 1–20.

44. Parry (1963).

45. Trapp (1718–20), Vol. ii, 880.

46. Clausen (1964).

47. Kallendorf (2007a).

48. Thomas (2001).

49. Eloy (1990).

50. Higgins (2009).

51. Cox (2011).

Chapter 2. Underworlds

1.   Clark (1979), 13–16 ‘Near Eastern descents’.

2.   Meres, Francis, Palladis Tamia, in Smith (1904), Vol. ii, 317–18. On the history of literary metempsychosis see Gillespie (2010).

3.   Hardie (1993), 103–5; Kofler (2003), Ch. 4 ‘Ennius in der Unterwelt’.

4.   Most (1992).

5.   Particularly influential is Feeney (1986).

6.   Hardie (1990).

7.   Feldherr (1999).

8.   The crossroads leading to places of damnation and places of bliss is Orphic-Pythagorean doctrine: Plato, Gorgias 524a.

9.   On the consequences for imperial Roman epic see Hardie (1993), Ch. 3 ‘Heaven and Hell’.

10. Fabbri (1918); Hammond (1933).

11. The Alexandreis is accessible in a translation by Townsend (1996). The Alexandreis is one of three major twelfth-century works that rework the Underworld of the ancient Virgilian tradition, together with Bernardus Silvestris’ Cosmographia and Alan of Lille’sAnticlaudianus: see Korte (2008).

12. For an extended study of the afterlives of Virgil’s Fama see Hardie (2012a).

13. See Feeney (1993), 241–8; Hardie (2002), 231–6.

14. See Hardie (2012a), 596–7.

15. On ghosts and intertextuality see Burrow (forthcoming).

16. Eduard Norden (1899) showed that Anchises’ praise of Augustus at Aen. 6.791–805 is modelled on lost Alexander panegyric.

17. Hardie (1993).

18. There is an annotated translation by Bergin and Wilson (1977); for discussion see Bernardo (1962); Marchesi (2009).

19. Africa 9.179 ‘he was a shade’ umbra fuit: cf. Dante, Inferno 1.66–7 ‘“Whatever you be, whether a shade or, for sure, a man.” He replied: “Not a man; I was a man once”’ (‘Qual che tu sia, od ombra od uomo certo.’ | Risposemi: ‘Non uomo; uomo già fui’).

20. On the ‘necromantic metaphor’ at the heart of the Renaissance’s sense of itself as the revival of antiquity see Greene (1982).

21. See Hinds (2004).

22. Comparetti (1997), Part II; Spargo (1934).

23. In the Image du Monde (1245): see Comparetti (1997), 312–13.

24. Laird (2001), 50.

25. Comparetti (1997), 92–3.

26. Wiseman (1992).

27. Comparetti (1997), Ch. 8; Baswell (1995), Ch. 3 ‘Spiritual allegory, platonizing cosmology, and the Boethian Aeneid in medieval England’; 91–101 ‘Late Antique Virgilianism and medieval modes of allegorical interpretation’.

28. See Wilson-Okamura (2010), 157–8.

29. Kallendorf (1989), Ch. 6 ‘Dante and the Virgil criticism of Cristoforo Landino’; Wilson-Okamura (2010), Index s.v. ‘Landino’.

30. See Courcelle (1995a) for copious illustration of the response of the Church Fathers to the several parts of the Virgilian Underworld, from the third to the sixth centuries.

31. See Courcelle (1995b).

32. Courcelle (1995a), 52–3; Wilson-Okamura (2010), 173–8 ‘Purgatory’.

33. Norden (1957), 5–10; Courcelle (1995b), 65, revises this conclusion, with reference to the Vision of St. Paul.

34. From the very extensive bibliography on Dante and Virgil a few items: Comparetti (1997), Ch. 14; Jacoff and Schnapp (1991); Brownlee (1993), Ch. 9.

35. On this episode see Hawkins (1991); Jacoff (1991).

36. Edited by Thurn (1995); commentary by Thurn (2002).

37. Noted by Stephen J. Harrison (2008), 115.

38. Fowler (2009), 244.

39. Reeves (1989).

40. On modern descents see Pike (1997); Platthaus (2004); Falconer (2005).

41. ‘A short account of psycho-analysis’, Standard Edition […] of Sigmund Freud, Vol. 19 (1923), 191, discussed by Oliensis (2009), 127–9.

42. Timpanaro (1976), 29–61.

43. See Cox (1999), 132–58; Duffy (1990), 36–8.

44. Butor (1964), 256.

45. See Putnam (2012).

Chapter 3. ‘La donna è mobile’: Versions of Dido

1.  General books on the reception of Dido: Burden (1998); Bono and Tessitore (1998); Martin (1990); Kailuweit (2005).

2.   Hinds (1993).

3.   On the traditions about Dido see Pease (1935), 14–22.

4.   Desmond (1994), 24–33, 55–73.

5.   Lord (1969).

6.   Kallendorf (1989), Ch. 3 ‘Boccaccio’s two Didos’.

7.   See Hardie (forthcoming).

8.   Pascal (1917).

9.   O’Hara (1996), 110–11.

10. See Baccar (1990).

11. Translations by Melvin Dixon, in Senghor (1991). See Cailler (2007).

12. On similarities between Virgil’s Dido and Aeneas and Plutarch’s Antony and Cleopatra (Shakespeare’s main source) see Pelling (1988), 17–18.

13. Desmond (1994), Ch. 2 ‘Dido as libido: from Augustine to Dante’.

14. Warner (2005), Ch. 1 ‘Petrarch’s culpa and the allegory of the Africa’; Ch. 2 ‘Renaissance allegories of the Aeneid: the doctrine of the two Venuses and the epic of the two cities’; Kallendorf (1989), 28–9, 48–9.

15. Hall (2008), Ch. 14 ‘Sex and sexuality’.

16. Watkins (1995); Hardie (2010).

17. See Pugh (2005), 58–66.

18. See Williams (2006); Weber (1999).

19. Binns (1971); Roberts-Baytop (1974). On Gager’s Dido and the Sieve portrait see Purkiss (1998).

20. Camden (1615), i, 494

21. Desmond (1994), Ch. 6 ‘Christine de Pizan’s feminist self-fashioning and the invention of Dido’.

22. Marshall (2011).

23. See Semrau (1930), 63–6.

24. This is the ingenious argument of Tschiedel (2010).

25. Transl. in Ahern (1988).

26. Cox (2011), Ch. 12. Another supplement of Lavinia’s story is Claudio R. Salvucci’s The Laviniad: An Epic Poem (1994). A modern novel which practises greater violence on Virgil’s plot in order to allow a female character a central role is the Creusid by the leading Hungarian woman novelist Magda Szabó (2009), in which Creusa, Aeneas’ first wife, does not die in the flight from Troy, but instead kills Aeneas outside the gate of the city before he can kill her, to become another female leader of a refugee people, impersonating her husband in the journey to Italy.

27. See Green (2009).

28. See Porter (1993), 112.

29. Transl. Yunck (1974); see Cormier (1973); Mora-Lebrun (1994); Singerman (1986), 80–98 on the love of Eneas and Lavine; Baswell (1995), Ch. 5 ‘The Romance Aeneid’; Wilson-Okamura (2010), 233–9.

30. Wilson-Okamura (2010), 239–47.

31. Bennett (2002).

32. Dynastic romance: Fichter (1982); the reconciliation of honour and love is a central theme of Burrow (1993).

33. From the large bibliography on the House of Fame see Baswell (1995), Ch. 6 ‘Writing the reading of Virgil: Chaucerian authorities in the House of Fame and The Legend of Good Women’.

34. Waddell (1932), xxiii.

35. Dronke (1992).

36. Ziolkowski (1993), 95–8.

37. Semrau (1930), 18–36; Glei (2000).

38. For lists see Martin (1990, xi–xxv; Semrau (1930), 93–4. On the Italian tradition see Lucas (1987); Herrick (1965). On the French tradition see White (1975) and the chapters by Lazard, Ducos and Fabre in Martin (1990). On the German tradition see Semrau (1930).

39. Page numbers are as in Balmas (1968).

40. Howe (1994) has a long and informative introduction.

41. For a survey of approaches see Deats (2004).

42. Ziosi (2012).

43. On Virgil and Purcell’s Dido and Aeneas see Harris (1987); Paulsen, ‘Henry Purcells Oper “Dido and Aeneas”,’ in Binder (2000), Ch. 7; Fisk and Munns (2002).

44. On Virgil and Les Troyens see Cairns (1988); Fitzgerald (2004); Bowersock (2009); Pillinger (2010).

45. See Heller (1998).

46. Semrau (1930), Ch. V.

47. Néraudau (1990), 299–306.

48. See Paratore (1973).

49. Vance (2000), 221.

Chapter 4. The Many Faces of Aeneas

1.   Mackie (1988); Schauer (2007).

2.   Heinze (1993), 223.

3.   Stahl (1981).

4.   Griffin (1993).

5.   Discourse on Epick Poetry.

6.   Werner (2002).

7.   This is the suggestion of E.L. Harrison (2006).

8.   Stanford (1954), Ch. 9 ‘Ulysses among Alexandrians and Stoics’.

9.   See Starr (1992); for a selection of Tiberius Donatus see Ziolkowski and Putnam (2008), 644–9.

10. See Kallendorf (1989); see also Wilson-Okamura (2010), 208–12 ‘The ideal man theory’; Morton (2000), Introduction.

11. Cited by Brower (1940), 120.

12. See Hammond (1999), Ch. 4 ‘The epic of exile’.

13. For a survey see Garrison (1992), Ch. 6 ‘War: Turnus and pietas in the later Renaissance’.

14. Fowler (2000).

15. ‘Repressed remorse’ is the phrase of Colin Burrow (1993), 57; the history of pity and compassion in epic and romance, with a particular focus on the evolutions of Virgilian pietas, is at the heart of Burrow’s book. On Virgil’s pietas and the later history of the word see also Henry (1873–89), i, 175–87; Garrison (1992).

16. Morton (2000), Ch. 6 ‘Turnus the bold and Aeneas the pious’.

17. See Seem (1990).

18. Vegio (2004). On supplements to the Aeneid in general see Oertel (2001), 1–18.

19. Kallendorf (1989), Ch. 5.

20. Also reworking the antithesis in Aeneas’ address to Ascanius at 12.435–6 ‘disce, puer, uirtutem ex me uerumque laborem, | fortunam ex aliis.’

21. Cairns (1989), esp. Chs 1–3.

22. Heinze (1993), 227

23. Hardie (1986), 326.

24. Comparetti (1997), 107–15; Kallendorf (1989), 175 n. 14.

25. Galinsky (1972), Ch. 5 ‘Herakles among the philosophers and Alexandrians’.

26. On the tenacity of allegorization see Borris (2000). On medieval allegorization of the Aeneid see Baswell (1995), Chs 3–4; on Renaissance allegorical epic see Aguzzi (1971); Treip (1994).

27. Kallendorf (1989), Ch. 6; Allen (1970), 142–54; Murrin (1980), Ch. 2.

28. See Kallendorf (1989), 160–5.

29. Paduano (2008).

30. Donatus, Life of Virgil, 39; the gesture has been often repeated through history with or without conscious imitation of Virgil: see Krevans (2010).

31. Kofler (2003); Deremetz (1995), Ch. 6 ‘Heros cunctans’, on the hesitating Aeneas as a reflection of the hesitations of the poet himself in the face of his poetic task.

32. Cox (1999), 38–56; Ziolkowski (1993), 203–22.

33. Putnam (1965), 41–8.

Chapter 5. Empire and Nation

1.   For the comparison between the historical allegory of the Aeneid and biblical typology see Gransden (1973/74).

2.   Ziolkowski (1993), 12–17.

3.   Thomas (2001), 1–7.

4.   See Haan (1992, 1993); Hardie (2012a), 429–38.

5.   Martin (1972); Brower (2010).

6.   See Stechow (1968), 47, 58 for pagan/Christian interferences in Rubens.

7.   Gevaerts (1641).

8.   Hardie (1986), Chs 3 and 4.

9.   Ibid., Ch. 8.

10. von Albrecht (1964), 143.

11. Ware (2012).

12. Ibid., 128–41.

13. Rees (2004), 39–40.

14. Curtius (1953), 29, 384.

15. Ziolkowski and Putnam (2008), 96–100; Holtz (1997).

16. Godman (1987), 74–6; see also Tanner (1993), Ch. 3.

17. See Zwierlein (1973).

18. See Yates (1975), 9–11.

19. The classic study is Yates (1975). On the Hapsburg tradition see Tanner (1993).

20. Strong (1973), 79.

21. Joachim Meister, De Rodolpho Habspurgico (Görlitz, 1576): see Römer (2001).

22. Parry (1981), 17.

23. Gwynne (2012).

24. Yates (1975), 29–87 ‘Queen Elizabeth I as Astraea’.

25. See Parry (1981), 1–21; Erskine-Hill (1983), 123–9.

26. Dekker (1953–61), ii, 298.

27. Stephen Harrison (1604).

28. Jonson (1925–52), vii, 100.

29. See Erskine-Hill (1983), 106.

30. Ogilby (1662); see Erskine-Hill (1983), 216–19.

31. Hammond (1999); Erskine-Hill (1983), Ch. 8 ‘Dryden and the Augustan idea’.

32. Hammond (1999), 92–105.

33. Vance (2000), 216–17.

34. Recorded by Camden, Britain (1610), 80; revived by Edmund Bolton in London, King Charles, His Augusta (1648).

35. Audra and Williams (1961), 132.

36. O’Brien (2002).

37. Tennyson and Virgilian imperialism: Vance (1997), 149–53 ‘Virgil and Tennyson’; and also Vasunia (2009), 100 ff.

38. Markley (2004), 8.

39. Vance (1997), 151–2.

40. Anzinger (2010).

41. See Barchiesi (2006), xxxvii.

42. The phrase urbs aeterna itself is first attested at Tibullus 2.5.23.

43. Feeney (1993), 155.

44. O’Hara (1990), 132–51.

45. Bawcutt (1976), 109.

46. Neander (1768).

47. Hammond (1999), 126–38 on The Hind and the Panther; Ch. 4 on Dryden’s response ‘to several kinds of tragic loss and alienation’ in his translation of the Aeneid.

48. I am indebted to Mark Heerink for help with the interpretation of Gijsbreght. See van der Paardt (1987).

49. In general see Erskine (2001).

50. Beaune (1982); Tanner (1993), Ch. 5 ‘Mythic genealogy’; Hay (1957), 48–9.

51. Huppert (1965).

52. Laumonier (1983); see also Yates (1975), 130–3, on the connections between the Franciade and Ronsard’s programme for the entry of Charles IX with his new queen, Elizabeth of Austria, from a house also of Trojan descent.

53. Tatlock (1950); Heninger (1962); Waswo (1988).

54. Vance (2000), 221–2; Fisk and Munns (2002).

55. O’Brien (2002), 283.

56. Spencer (1952).

57. J.C. Scaliger, Poematia (Lyons, 1546), 382.

58. Ed. Manetti (1978).

Chapter 6. Imperium sine fine. The Aeneid and Christianity

1.   Comparetti (1997), 313–14.

2.   Ziolkowski and Putnam (2008), 856–7 (Alexander Neckam); Spargo (1934), 117.

3.   Paschoud (1967), 178–87, 224–7; McShane (1979), 61–8.

4.   Ziolkowski and Putnam (2008), 487–503; Comparetti (1997), 99–103.

5.   For a judicious sifting of the evidence see Nisbet (1978).

6.   Roberts (1985); Green (2006); Herzog (1975). For a survey of biblical epic down to the Renaissance see Lewalski (1966), Ch. 3.

7.   For an account of the treatment of Virgilian fame in Christian epic see Hardie (2012a), Ch. 11 ‘Christian conversions of fama’.

8.   Pollmann (2004); Buchheit (1988); Roger Green (1995).

9.   Galinsky (1972), 202–6.

10. Virgilii Evangelisantis Christiados Libri XIII. Inflante Alexandro Rosaeo Aberdonense (London, 1638), an expansion of Virgilius Evangelisans (London, 1634).

11. Döpp (2000).

12. There is a rich bibliography on Augustine and Virgil: important contributions include Hagendahl (1967), 444–59 on Virgil in the City of God; MacCormack (1998); O’Donnell (1980); Gillian Clark (2004).

13. On Virgil in the Confessions see also Bennett (1988); O’Meara (1963), 252–61.

14. O’Meara (1963), 260, for the suggestion that Augustine here thinks of the Virgilian underworld.

15. This problem and the solutions found for it are the subject of Gregory (2006).

16. Ulysses: Stanford (1954); Hercules: Galinsky (1972).

17. Steadman (1967).

18. Cairns (1989), 31–8; see also McGushin (1964).

19. Hardie (1986), 280–1, 374.

20. The phrase is Roberts’ (2004), 57.

21. See Quint (1983), Ch. 3 ‘Sannazaro: from Orpheus to Proteus’; Hardie (2013).

22. Auerbach (1965), Ch. 1 ‘Sermo humilis’.

23. Milton and Virgil: start from Blessington (1979) and Martindale (1986); see also Gransden (1984); Putnam (2006). On the generic encyclopedism of Paradise Lost see Lewalski (1985).

24. In Fracastoro, Opera Omnia (Venice, 1555).

25. Greene (1982).

26. Hardie (2012b).

27. Quoted by Haecker (1931), 86.

28. For detailed discussion of the topics in these paragraphs see Ziolkowski (1993), esp. Ch. 1; 48–51 on Haecker; 76–89 on ‘The German millennialists’, and the scholarly and more popular revival of interest in the Fourth Eclogue in Germany in the years around 1930.

29. In Eliot (1957).

30. Galinsky (1972), Ch. 5 ‘Herakles among the philosophers and Alexandrians’.

31. ‘Vergil and the Christian world’, in Eliot (1957), 135–48.

32. Lützeler (1976), 204–5.

33. Snell (1953), 301.

34. Klingner (1965), 297–8.

35. For what follows see Hardie (2000).

36. Fränkel (1945), 163.

37. Ziolkowski (2005), 118–21 on Horia; 125–9 on Malouf.

Chapter 7. The Aeneid and New Worlds

1.   See Jones (1964), esp. Chs 1 and 2; Elliott (1970), 24–6 on the importance of the classical tradition.

2.   See Clay (1992).

3.   For a detailed study of the source and meaning(s) of the motto see Rosenthal (1971).

4.   Jones (1964), Ch. 1 ‘The image of the New World’ (Utopian); Ch. 2 ‘The anti-image’ (devils and cannibals).

5.   In the translation of Richard Eden (1555).

6.   Gambara’s epic is edited by Gagliardi (1993). For a survey of Columbus epics see Hofmann (1994).

7.   Cañizares-Esguerra (2006).

8.   Laird (2010).

9.   On New World themes in Paradise Lost see Evans (1996); Quint (1993), 253–6 on Satan as a New World explorer.

10. Quint (1993), 49 ‘Appendix 2. Lepanto and Actium’. For a selection of neo-Latin poems on Lepanto see Wright, Spence, Lemons (2014).

11. See Dougherty (2001), index s.v. ‘Cyclopes’.

12. See Hall (2008), Ch. 7.

13. Quint (1993), 126–7; Hardie (2004).

14. Davis (2000); Quint (1993), 157–85; Kallendorf (2007a), 77–102; Galperin (2009).

15. On Dido in Spanish literature see Lida de Malkiel (1974).

16. Valuable for its detailed comparisons with voyagers’ accounts is Frey (1979).

17. For a reading that does aim to show that ‘the Virgilian material merges with the colonial discursive context’, in a search for ‘the voice of the colonial Other’ speaking within an imperialist and colonialist Virgilian framework, see Kallendorf (2007a), 102–26, with extensive bibliography of earlier discussions of the Aeneid as source for The Tempest; note in particular Hamilton (1990); see also Wilson-Okamura (2003).

18. This is the conclusion of Martindale (2004), 89 ‘Shakespeare is not usefully to be described as a Virgilian poet.’

19. Orgel (1987), 33.

20. Ibid., 19.

21. Kallendorf (2007a), 125; Bruner (1976).

22. See Shields (2001); Reinhold (1984).

23. Jones (1964), 238.

24. Bercovitsch (1966), 337.

25. Cited by Shields (2001), 188.

26. Cited by Shields (2001), 190.

27. See McWilliams (1989).

28. See Ziolkowski (1993), Ch. 5 ‘Virgil in the New World’.

29. Allen Tate, obituary for William Faulkner, cited by Ziolkowski (1993), 173.

Chapter 8. Parody and Burlesque

1.   See Acosta-Hughes in Acosta-Hughes et al. (2011), 7–8. On laughter in Homer see Halliwell (2008), Ch. 2.

2.   Rosen (2007), Ch. 3 on Thersites and the ancient traditions of satire.

3.   Hutcheon (1985), 33; another influential account is Rose (1993); see also Goldhill (1991), Ch. 3.

4.   Gigante (1984), 83–4.

5.   On this and other aspects of Ovid’s imitation of Virgil in his ‘little Aeneid’ in Metamorphoses 13 and 14 see Hinds (1998), 104–22.

6.   On allusions to Virgil in Apuleius’ Golden Ass see Harrison (1997).

7.   Siewert (2007).

8.   Tucker (2009); Glei (2006).

9.   Most (1987).

10. Text and comment on ‘Virgil’s Gnat’ and ‘Muiopotmos’ in McCabe (1999).

11. McRae (1998).

12. von Stackelberg (1982).

13. Modern edition: Serroy (1988); see H.G. Hall (1967); Flamarion (1990).

14. Morillot (1888), cited by von Stackelberg (1982), 236.

15. Nicolas Boileau-Despreaux, ‘Au Lecteur’, prefixed to the first edition of Le Lutrin (1674).

16. Pinnock (1998).

17. See Mace (1996).

18. Parker (2012); Rawson (2010); see also Bond (1932).

19. Translated by Ozell (1711–12).

20. A Discourse concerning the Original and Progress of Satire, quoted in Brower (1940), 131.

21. Parker (2012), 335.

22. Brower (1959), Ch. 10 ‘The intellectual scene: the tradition of Pope’; Robertson (2009), Ch. 3 ‘Pope’s Dunciad and its successors’; Jones (1968).

23. Brower (1959), 342.

24. Robertson (2009), Ch. 8 ‘Heroes in their underclothes: Blumauer’s travesty of the Aeneid.’

25. Cadot (1999).

26. See Robertson (2009), 331–7 ‘Byron and Homer’.

27. Rawson (2010), 187–90.

Chapter 9. Art and Landscape

1.   The fullest collection of materials on Virgil in art is in the catalogue of an exhibition held in Rome on the bimillennium of Virgil’s death, Fagiolo (1981). For briefer surveys see Llewellyn (1984); Liversidge (1997). See also Bardon (1950).

2.   From the Casa di Sirico (VII 1, 25.47; Naples, Mus. Naz. inv. nr. 9009).

3.   Toynbee (1964), 241–6.

4.   Vatican Virgil: Wright (1993); Roman Virgil: Wright (2001). See also Cameron (2011), 706–12 ‘Illuminated manuscripts’.

5.   Ziolkowski and Putnam (2008), 433–4; 438–46 ‘Illuminated Aeneid, 800–1500’; Courcelle and Courcelle (1984).

6.   Callmann (1974).

7.   Suerbaum (2008). On particular sets of illustrations see Leach (1982) (Brant and Dryden); Kallendorf (2001).

8.   Langmuir (1976), 157.

9.   Fagiolo (1981), 161–71; Preimesberger (1976); Rowland (2010).

10. See Levey (1957).

11. See Hano (1990); Montagu (1998).

12. Postle (1995), 187–92; Brenneman (1999).

13. Brunel (1986).

14. Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae, ‘Aineias’ 99.

15. Hibbard (1990), 34–8.

16. See Most (2010); Settis (1999).

17. McKay (1969).

18. On landscape in the Aeneid there is much sensitive discussion in Jenkyns (1998).

19. Rosenberg and Christiansen (2008), 109–10.

20. Langdon (1989), 148–50.

21. Woodbridge (1970); timely scepticism as to the extent of the Virgilian programme at Stourhead in Kelsall (1983).

22. Finley (1999), 61–81.

23. Barchiesi (1999).

24. Vance (2000), 217 n. 9.

25. Powell (1990), 62–71.

26. Noble (1853), 168.

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