Ancient History & Civilisation

Abbreviations

ACSS: Ancient Civilizations from Scythia to Siberia.

Afghanistan (New York): Afghanistan. Forging Civilizations along the Silk Road (New York, Metropolitan Museum, 2012).

After Alexander: J. Cribb & G. Herrmann (eds), After Alexander (Oxford, 2007).

AWE: Ancient West and East.

BAI: Bulletin of the Asia Institute.

Ball 2000: W. Ball, Rome in the East (London, 2000).

Ball 2008: W. Ball, The Monuments of Afghanistan (London, 2008).

Ball, Persia: W. Ball, Towards One World: Ancient Persia and the West (London, 2010).

Boardman, GSLCP: J. Boardman, Greek Sculpture, the Late Classical Period (1995).

Boardman, GGFR: J. Boardman, Greek Gems and Finger Rings (London, 1979, 2001); and see DCAA, PW, TTG.

Boardman, GO: J. Boardman, The Greeks Overseas (1999).

Bosworth, Arrian: A. B. Bosworth, A Historical Commentary on Arrian’s History of Alexander I, II (1980, 1995).

Bosworth, Alexander: A. B. Bosworth, Alexander and the East: the Tragedy of Triumph (1996).

Brunt, Arrian: P. A. Brunt, Arrian: History of Alexander and Indica (Loeb, 1989).

CAH: Cambridge Ancient History.

CII: Corpus Inscriptionum Iranicarum II (London, 2012) by G. Rougemont et al.

Colledge, Parthians: M. A. R. Colledge, The Parthians (London, 1967).

Crossroads: E. Errington & J. Cribb (eds), The Crossroads of Asia (Cambridge, 1992).

Czuma 1985: S. J. Czuma, Kushan Sculpture Images from India (Cleveland Museum, 1985).

DCAA: J. Boardman, The Diffusion of Classical Art in Antiquity (1994).

Errington: E. Errington, London thesis (1987) on Jamalgarhi (British Library).

Ettinghausen, BSI: R. Ettinghausen, From Byzantium to Sasanian Iran and the Islamic World (Leiden, 1972).

Francfort: Henri-Paul Francfort, Les Palettes du Gandhara (Mem. Del. Arch. Fr. 23, 1979).

Frankfort 1996: H. Frankfort, The Art and Architecture of the Ancient Orient (1996).

Fraser, Cities: P. M. Fraser, Cities of Alexander the Great (1996).

GAC: R. Allchin, B. Allchin, N. Kreitman & E. Errington (eds), Gandharan Art in Context (New Delhi, 1997).

Galli 2011: M. Galli, ‘Hellenistic Court Imagery in the Early Buddhist Art of Gandhara’: ACSS 17, 279–329.

Gandhara: From Pella to Gandhara (Oxford, BAR 2221, 2011) – 2008 conference.

GSEM: G. Tsetskhladze & A. M. Snodgrass (eds), Greek Settlements in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea (BAR, 2002).

Harle 1986: J. C. Harle, The Art and Architecture of the Indian Subcontinent (Penguin Books).

Herrmann 1977: G. Herrmann, The Iranian Revival (London, 1977).

Holt, Lost World: F. L. Holt, Lost World of the Golden King (Univ. California, 2012).

Ingholt: H. Ingholt, Gandharan Art in Pakistan (New York, 1957).

IAW: G. Pollet (ed.), India and the Ancient World. History Trade and Culture before AD 650 (Eggermont Jubilee Volume; Leuven, 1987).

JIAAA: Journal of Inner Asian Art and Archaeology.

Lane Fox 1986: R. Lane Fox, Alexander the Great (1986).

Litvinsky Festschrift: V. Valsina et al. (eds), Tsentralnaya Asiya (Moscow, 2005).

Lotus: M. Lerner & S. Kossak, The Lotus Transcendent (New York, 1991).

Lukonin: V. G. Lukonin, Persia II (Geneva, Archaeologia Mundi, 1967).

Lydian Treasure: I. Ozgen & J. Ozturk, Heritage recovered. The Lydian Treasure (Ministry of Culture, Ankara, 1996).

Mairs 2011, 2013: R. Mairs, The Archaeology of the Hellenistic Far East. A Survey (Oxford, BAR 2196, 2011); and Supplement 1 (Feb. 2013; www.bactria.org).

Mayor, Mithradates: A. Mayor, The Poison King, the life and legend of Mithradates (Princeton, 2010).

MGB: O. Bopearachchi, Monnaies greco-bactriennes et indo-grecques (Paris, 1991).

Mordvintseva, Sarmatische Phaleren (Rahden, 2001).

Narain, Indo-Greeks: A. K. Narain, The Indo-Greeks (Oxford 1957); and cf. his ch. 11 in CAH VIII (1989).

Nehru, OGS: L. Nehru, The Origins of Gandhara Sculpture (Oxford University Press, Delhi, 1989).

Oxus: Oxus, neue Funde aus der Sowjetrepublik Tadschikistan (Museum Rietburg, Zurich, 1989).

PW: J. Boardman, Persia and the West (2000).

RA: Revue Archéologique.

Rahman Dar 1984: S. Saifur Rahman Dar, Taxila and the Western World (Lahore, 1984).

Rowland 1977: B. Rowland, The Art and Architecture of India (Penguin Books, 1977 – revised by J. C. Harle).

SAS: South Asian Studies.

SAA: South Asian Archaeology.

Sherwin-White/Kuhrt 1993: S. Sherwin-White & A. Kuhrt, From Samarkhand to Sardis (1993).

SRAA: Silk Road Art and Archaeology.

Susa: J. Perrot (ed.), Susa (London, 2013).

Tarn, Bactria and India: W. W. Tarn, The Greeks in Bactria and India (1st ed. 1938; 3rd ed. with revisions by F. L. Holt, Chicago 1997).

TT: V. Sarianidi, The Golden Hoard of Bactria (Leningrad, 1985); there are different editions in English, and in other languages, with the same figure numeration.

TTG: J. Boardman, ‘The Tillya Tepe Gold: a closer look’ in AWE 2 (2003) 48–74.

Notes

1 S. Amigues, Journal des Savants 2011, 71.

2 Their earliest home remains a matter for speculation but it seems that their language retained elements in common with Phrygian and Armenian in east Asia Minor: C. de Lamberterie, J. des Savants (2013) 3–69.

3 This is not the message of C. Renfrew, The Emergence of Civilisation (1973) which is mainly based on periods when there is no evidence beyond archaeology. I make it a major element in my The World of Ancient Art (2006).

4 Boardman, GO 272–8; ‘Aspects of Colonization’ in Bull.Amer.Sch.Or.Res. 322 (2001) 33–42.

5 Also on the advice and help of others, notably Lolita Nehru, Warwick Ball, Osmund Bopearachchi, Claudia Wagner.

6 D.F. Graf, ‘The Persian Royal Road System’ in Achaemenid History VIII (eds A. Kuhrt et al., 1995) 167–89.

7 On the emergence of the Silk Roads see Y. Juping in The Silk Road 6.2 (2009) 15–22.

8 See, notably, for our area, his Between Oxus and Jumna (1961), and throughout his last book Mankind and Mother Earth (1976).

9 GAC 1.

Chapter 1

10 For a very broad view of the Bronze Age to archaic period in Greece, J. Boardman, Preclassical (1967).

11 P.T. Daniels and W. Bright, The World’s Writing Systems (New York, 1996), esp. Daniels, 23–8.

12 For this see my GO, also for the Euboeans in the west (and in OJA 25 (2006) 195–200 for the Carthage area); and Boardman in GSEM 1–16. On Euboeans in general and their explorations in this period R.L. Fox, Travelling Heroes (2008). For the eastern cultures, Frankfort 1996, and in general also W. Burkert, The Orientalizing Revolution(1992).

13 J. Boardman in Greek Settlements in the East Mediterranean and the Black Sea (eds G. Tsetskhladze, A.M. Snodgrass, Oxford, BAR, 2002) 8–10.

14 For the reactionary view about Greek Geometric pottery going east simply for its appearance see J.N. Coldstream in AWE 8 (2009) 21–36

15 Boardman, GO 51, 272.

16 GO 35–51 deals with the Greeks in the east in the 8th to 6th century in detail.

17 R. Rollinger in Companion to the Classical World (ed. K.H. Kinzl, 2006) 197–226; and in State Archives of Assyria Bulletin 16 (2007) 63–90. G. Töttössy in Acta Antiqua 3 (1955) 301ff. on the name for the Greeks in ancient India.

18 J. Boardman, OJA 25 (2006) 195–200, on early Greek exploration of the Carthage area, indicated by place names.

19 See on Crete GO 58–61; J. Boardman, The Cretan Collection in Oxford (Oxford, 1961) ch. 5.

20 J. Boardman, The Archaeology of Nostalgia (2002) 106–7.

21 GO 30, fig. 4; 97, fig. 110, a section through the walls and siege-mound.

22 A. Fantalkin, ‘Naucratis as a contact zone’ in Colloquia Antiqua 10 (Kulturkontakten in antiken Welten, eds R. Rollinger, K. Schnegg, 2009) 27–51.

23 GO 257, fig. 298; ivory figure of a boar.

24 Samos has early material suggesting links with the Caucasus and the Black Sea, GO 64–5.

25 DCAA 197f., fig. 6.14. GO 260, fig. 303; and compare the rhyton, fig. 304

26 BCH Supplement 14 (1986; Iconographie Classique) 275, fig. 2 (V. Schiltz). On the Rolltier see B. Brentjes, Arch.Mitt.Iran 27 (1994) 147–64.

27 See DCAA ch. 6; GO ch. 6.

28 DCAA 201–2, figs. 6.21 (dentistry), 23.

29 Ibid., 215, fig. 6.43; cf. 209, fig. 6.32.

30 Ibid., 210, figs. 6.35–6.

31 J. Boardman in Afghanistan (New York, 2012) 108, fig. 7.

32 DCAA 217–22, the plaque, 219, fig. 6.46.

33 On fish in the Mediterranean and salt see J. Boardman, AWE 10 (2011) 1–9. The only export on Greek ships recorded leaving Egypt in 475 BC was natron salt, for pickling; see J. Boardman, AWE 12 (2013) 265–7.

Chapter 2

34 Ball, Persia, gives and excellent account of Persian fortunes in the Greek and Roman periods; and notably 31–8 on Greeks outside Europe and Ionia. And for the literary associations, J. Haubold, Greece and Mesopotamia. Dialogues in literature (Cambridge, 2012).

35 On early cruelty see J. Boardman in Amymona Erga (Fest. V. Lambrinoudakis, 2007) 257–64.

36 M. Brosius, Women in Ancient Persia (Oxford, 1996).

37 On Zoroastrianism in the east Ball 2000, 433–8.

38 H.J. Kim, Ethnicity and Foreigners in Ancient Greece and China (Duckworth, 2009).

39 An excellent account of Anatolia in this period is E. Dusinberre, Empire, Authority, and Autonomy in Achaemenid Anatolia (Cambridge, 2013). And cf. C.H. Rodenwaldt, The Archaeology of Lydia from Gyges to Alexander (Cambridge, 2009).

40 Lydian Treasure no. 78. On Lydian/Achaemenid silver, A. Melikian-Chirvani, Bull.As.Inst. 7 (1993) 111–30

41 E.g., DCAA 43, fig. 2.31, a gilt silver vase handle in the form of a winged ibex.

42 An unusual and very early instance being on the Median scabbard (from the Oxus Treasure but made farther to the west). J. Boardman in Litvinsky Festschrift 205–14, and Iran 44 (2006) 115–9.

43 On the pyramidal stamps seals see J. Boardman, Iran 8 (1970) 1–45 (pl. 2.23–4 = [fig. 9]); 36 (1998) 1–13.

44 On Greco-Persian seals see Boardman, GGFR ch. 6; PW 152–174. The pieces illustrated are GGFR pls. 880 [fig. 10], 856 [fig. 11], 910, 901 [fig. 12]; PW fig. 5.44 [fig. 13). A splendid tabloid with a Persian horseman spearing a Greek horseman was on the Kabul market in 1972: H. Francfort, Journal Asiatique 263 (1975) 219–22.

45 PW 174–8, for the pieces illustrated.

46 British Museum. Boardman, GSLCP fig. 218.11.

47 DCAA 40–1, fig. 2.27, from Elmali. E. Akurgal, The Birth of Greek Art (London, 1966) pl. 68, from Duver.

48 DCAA 41, fig. 2.28.

49 Boardman, GSLCP figs. 208–17; fig. 219, the Hellenistic.

50 B.F. Cook, Relief Sculptures of the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus (Oxford, 2005); Boardman, GSLCP 27–9.

51 Dusinberre, op. cit., 57–9; ch. 5 for tomb design.

52 Fantalkin, op. cit., n. 22.

53 In general on this orientalized Greekness see M. Munn, The Mother of Gods. Athens and the tyranny of Asia (Berkeley, 2006).

54 H. Gitler and O. Tal, Israel Numismatic Research 7 (2012) 7–15.

55 DCAA 54–5; GSLCP fig. 225.

56 J. Boardman, The Archaeology of Nostalgia (London, 2002) 54, fig. 23.

57 PW 182, fig. 5.63 (the shield). For the relevant sarcophagi and sculptures of Anatolia and Phoenicia see chs. 11, 12 in Boardman, GSLCP.

58 C. Nylander, in Architetti, Capomastri, Artigiani; Studi, D. Facenna (2006) 134, fig. 11, ‘I am Pytharchos’. CII nos. 55–57. In later, Seleucid Persepolis, there are Greek dedications on altars for Greek gods, ibid., nos. 59–63.

59 Greeks in Persepolis, Boardman, PW 131–4, figs. 4.3–5.

60 Boardman, PW 53–9.

61 Ibid., 64.

62 Ibid., 102–4.

63 Ibid., 128–31.

64 Well described and illustrated now in J. Perrot (ed.), Susa (London, 2013).

65 The architectural borrowings and adaptations are dealt with thoroughly in Boardman, PW; the Darius figure [fig. 25], pp. 114–6, the Susa soldiers, 112, fig. 3.33 [pl. v]. See also C. Nylander, Ionians at Pasargadae (Uppsala 1970).

66 T.S. Kawami, Monumental Architecture of the Parthian Period in Iran (1987) pl. 20.

67 Boardman, PW 111, fig. 3.32; O. Palagia in Ancient Greece and Ancient Iran (eds S.M.R. Darbandi, A. Zournatzi, Athens, 2008) 223–37.

68 Boardman, PW 136–7; Perrot, op. cit. fig. 394 (siren rhyton).

69 PW 199, fig. 5.83.

70 On these matters see M.C. Miller, Athens and Persia in the Fifth Century BC (1997); J. Boardman, ‘Persia in Europe’ in Colloquia Antiqua I (2011) 195–201. Persian objects in Greek inventories, E. Kosmetatou, Museum Helveticum 61 (2004) 137–70.

71 Miller, op. cit., figs. 1–2.

72 PW 213–5, fig. 5.93 a–d.

73 J. Boardman in AEIMNHΣTOΣ (Miscellania Cristofani 2005) II, 134–9.

Chapter 3

74 The works most useful for understanding this period are: Bosworth, Alexander; R. Lane Fox, Alexander the Great (1973, 1986) which offers far more than just the history; Cambridge Ancient History VI (1994); P. Cartledge, Alexander the Great (2004). In general for this and following chapters, Mairs 2011 is a most valuable short survey with detailed bibliography.

75 Notably the medieval story of him bribing Phyllis to seduce the sage and have him naked, carrying her on his back, through the garden. Ball, Persia ch. 4, gives an excellent account of Alexander which I find easy to accept.

76 On his early life, J.R. Hamilton in Greece and Rome 12.2 (1965) 117–24.

77 Plutarch, Alexander 2. The Indians placed Dionysos’ invasion of India 6042 years before Alexander’s.

78 A.W. Collins, Amer.J.Philology 133 (2012) 371–402, argues that Alexander generally rejected eastern dress. The evidence seems equivocal. On kissing hands and prostration (proskynesis) and westerners see Lane Fox 1986, 320–5.

79 P.M. Fraser, Cities of Alexander the Great (1996). The furthest, Alexandria ‘Eschate’, may be in the north at the entrance to the Ferghana Valley at Khujand; see Mairs 2011, 34.

80 On camp-followers, S. Burstein, ‘Whence the Women?’, AWE 11 (2012) 97–104.

81 On Alexander, Nisa, Meros and ivy, Lane Fox 1986, 340–2.

82 Text and commentaries on Alexander in India in J. Hahn, Alexander in Indien (2000).

83 DCAA 75, fig. 4.1. M.J. Price in Numismatica Antiqua (Studia Paulo Naster Oblata, ed. S. Scheers, 1982) 75–88. W. Hollstein, Schweiz.Num.Rundschau 68 (1989) 5–17. On Poros and his elephant, P. Goukowsky, BCH 96 (1972) 473–502.

84 F. Holt and O. Bopearachchi (eds), The Alexander Medallion (2011).

85 DCAA 143, fig. 4.89, from Hadda.

86 DCAA 119, fig. 4.54, in Oxford. Cut in elbaite, a very rare variety of the hard tourmaline. For Greek gem-cutters in Babylonia and beyond see D. Plantzos in Greek Offerings (ed. O. Palagia, Oxford, 1997) 197–207.

87 Xenophon (Anabasis 4.16) remarked that Greek troops operating in north Anatolia in the 4th century noticed that their opponents used battle axes like those the Amazons carried – what he means is, like those shown carried by Amazons in Greek art; see J. Boardman, The Archaeology of Nostalgia (2002) 160–2. On Amazons see now D. Braund,Amazons (London, 2013).

88 GO ch. 6. DCAA 192–217.

89 Euripides, Bacchae 64–72.

90 Ctesias, much maligned as a source, provides information of major importance on eastern flora: S. Amigues, ‘La flore indienne de Ctesias’, Journal des Savants 2011, 21–76. Trans. and commentary in J. Auberger, Ctesias (1991), and now A. Nichols, Ctesias on India (Bristol, 2011) for full translations and commentary.

91 For Herakles and Dionysos in India see Strabo 687–8. Pliny, Nat.Hist. 6.89, has Herakles worhipped in Ceylon and its king dressed as Dionysos. In general on Herakles in India, G. Melzer in Bayerische Akademie, Akademie Aktuell 2013.1, 24–9. See Index s.v.

92 H.J. Kim, Ethnicity and Foreigners in Greece and China (Duckworth, 2009).

93 For the history of this period the literature is enormous; there are several valuable essays: S. Price in Greece and the Hellenistic World (Oxford 1988) ch. 13 – an excellent account of the character of the period and kingdoms. C. Tuplin, ‘The Seleucids and their Achaemenid Predecessors. A Persian Inheritance?’ in Ancient Greece and Ancient Iran(eds M. Resa Darbandi, A. Zournatzi; Athens 2008) 109–136. P. Leriche in The Greeks beyond the Aegean (ed. V. Karageorghis, Nicosia, 2002) 78–128. For sources, C.M. Cohen, The Hellenistic Settlements in the East from Armenia and Mesopotamia to Bactria and India (Berkeley, 2012). W. Grajetzki, Greeks and Parthians in Mesopotamia and beyond, 331 BC–224 AD (Bristol, 2011).

94 See especially A. Mayor, The Poison King (2010); Ball, Persia ch. 5.

95 See J. Boardman, The Triumph of Dionysos (Oxford BAR, 2014). For the texts associating Dionysos and Alexander, K. Pfister in Religionsgeschichtliche Versuche und Vorarbeiten (ed. R. Wunsch, L. Deubner) 5 (1909/12) 169–179.

96 An important study on the Seleucid Empire and Greeks is S. Sherwin-White and A. Kuhrt, From Samarkhand to Sardis (London, 1993).

97 Sherwin-White/Kuhrt 1993, 162–4.

98 Fortified by Rome, P.M. Edwell, Between Rome and Persia (2008) ch. 4.

99 Boardman, PW 248, n. 163. On Persian Gulf sites see R. Boucharlat, RA 1989, 214–20. A dedication to the Dioskouroi at Bahrein: JHS 133 (2013) 61–79: 120s BC.

100 Berossos, under the patronage of the early Macedonian kings, wrote a History of Babylonia, from the Creation to his own day.

101 On the slight debt of the Seleucid armies to Achaemenid example see C. Tuplin, ‘The military Dimension of Hellenistic Kingship’ (forthcoming).

102 Sherwin-White/Kuhrt 1993, 180–4.

103 B. Fehr, Marburger Winckelmannsprogramm 1971/2, 14–59. The new temple for Artemis Leukophryene on the Maeander also had unusual interior features.

104 Sherwin-White/Kuhrt 1993, 68.

105 Ibid., 36–7.

106 Ibid., ch. 6.

107 Ibid., 54.

108 Useful reflections on Parthians in the east by R.N. Frye, Parthica 6 (2004) 129–43.

109 On elephants and westerners, Lane Fox 1986, 337–9.

110 R. Thapar, Asoka (Oxford, 1961) 173, 260–1. CII nos. 82–3.

111 Ibid., 82–3; Mairs 2011, 34.

112 W. Bray, South Asian Studies 4 (1988) 115–42; Mairs 2011, 35.

113 R. Mairs in Migrations and Identities 1 (2008) 30.

114 On the inscription, P. Bernard, G.-J. Pinault, G. Rougemont, Journal des Savants 2004, 227–281, and CII no. 84. For Greek inscriptions in Iran and Central Asia an important article by Rougemont in Journal dss Savants 2012, 1–17 and his CII. On Greek inscriptions in Bactria and Sophytos, Holt, Lost World ch. 6; A. Hollis, in Culture in Pieces: Essays for P. Parsons, (2011) 104–18; ibid., 107–9, for possible fragments of a ‘lost’ Greek play from the site.

115 Holt, Lost World 124, by one Heliodotos who had made a woodland shrine for her. CII no. 151.

116 S.B. Downey, Dura-Europos III.1–2, 288–93.

117 Sealings at Nisa betray something of the Greco-Persian but are locally inscribed (one exception): P. Mollo, Parthica 3 (2001) 159–210.

118 A. Invernizzi, Parthica 3 (2001) 133–157. Idem in Acta Iranica Ser.3, 21 (1999) for Greek and Persian culture at Nisa. V.N. Pilinko, Staraya Nisa (2001) for the architecture.

119 Litvinsky Festschrift 180, fig. 4.2.

120 Examples in Treasures of Ancient Bactria (Miho Museum, 2002) nos. 29 [pl. xiii], 30, 116, 117, 119, 122. Arthur M. Sackler Gallery and the Freer Gallery of Art (1992) 92–100, nos. 9–11. [Fig. 35] = DCAA 88, fig. 4.20 (Toledo Museum), 90, with n. 36; Antike Welt 22.2 (1991) 115–8. M. Pfrommer, Metalwork from the Hellenized East(Getty, 1993) nos. 66, 71, 73, 74.

121 GGFR pls. 966, 965. On the kausia see E.A. Fredricksmeyer in Trans.Am.Phil.Ass. 116 (1986) 215–27; R.R.R. Smith, Hellenistic Royal Portraits (Oxford, 1988) 34–8.

122 On the later ‘Greco-Persian’ see Boardman, GGFR 318–27.

123 Colledge 1967, 33, fig. 4. R. Ghirshman, Iranians, Parthians and Sassanians (1962) 52, figs. 64–5. V.S. Curtis in J. Curtis (ed.), Mesopotamia and Iran… (2000) 25. CII no. 71.

124 DCAA 79, fig. 4.6, 329, n. 12. For this Herakles type in the west, M.B. Aravantinos in Studi Misc. 28 (1991) 155–79. W. Kleiss, Arch.Mitt.Iran 3 (1970) 145–7, pl. 66.

125 M. Boyce and F. Grenet, A History of Zoroastrianism III (1991), 93–4; and for much else on eastern religion and Greeks.

126 A. Invernizzi, Revue Archeologique 1989, 65–113; P. Bernard, Journal des Savants 1990, 3–68; LIMC IV, Herakles no. 731.

127 Compare DCAA 82, fig. 4.9 (Nemrud Dagh). On Commagene, Ball, Persia 114–6.

128 T. Radt in Gandhara 49–64.

129 On eastern frontality, M. Pietrzykowski, Berytus 33 (1985) 55–9.

Chapter 4

130 Strabo 686.

131 Notably Sherwin-White/Kuhrt 1993. And A. Kuhrt, ‘Greeks’ and ‘Greece’ in Mesopotamian and Persian Perspectives (21st J.L. Myres Mem. Lecture, Leopard’s Head Press, 2002).

132 Overall, for us the record of the Greek kingdoms in Tarn’s magisterial work (its 1997 edition) remains a full and reliable, if sometimes challenged, source. F.L. Holt, Alexander the Great and Bactria (1988) is a major source for the Bactrian Greeks. Also, H. Sidky, The Greek Kingdom of Bactria (Lanham, 1984). The UNESCO History of the Civilizations of Central Asia II, is a very useful resumé of the period, down to the Kushans, by experts.

133 S. Kovalenko on the coins of Diodotos I and II, SRAA 4 (1995/6) 17–74.

134 Tarn, 312–53.

135 One on a parchment fragment in Oxford, C. Rapin, Topoi 6 (1996.2) 458–74; CII no. 92.

136 P. Leriche, in After Alexander 121–53, gives an excellent account of the archaeological evidence of sites for settlements of the period, and rightly draws attention to the slight evidence for any new Greek foundations (other than Aï Khanoum), but the other sites may have been relatively small, difficult by now to identify, not being ‘monumental’. Taking account of iconography, stray finds and even coins has to be the primary approach by now to estimating Greek presence and influence.

137 Fraser, Cities 155. Cf. idem, Greek Ethnic Terminology (2010) 352–3.

138 References for Aï Khanoum in Mairs 2011, 39–41, and see CRAI 2001, 971ff. and 1028f. The best conspectus, by P. Bernard, in Afghanistan, Crossroads of the Ancient World (eds F. Hiebert, P. Cambon, BM, 2011) 80–129.

139 On the Persian site at nearby Pachmak-tepe and its possible influence on the architecture of Ai Khanoum see Mairs 2011, 32.

140 CII 131–2.

141 To Hermes and Herakles, CII no. 98.

142 CII nos. 102–9.

143 CII nos. 146–8.

144 CII no. 97. On the maxims also A.K. Narain in IAW 115–30.

145 Afghanistan no. 9.

146 Ibid., no. 23.

147 O. Bopearachchi, Indian Historical Review 32 (2005) 103–25. Journal des Savants 2002, 267, fig. 15.

148 The Russian publication by the excavator, Boris Litvinsky (with I.R. Pichikian), is nearly complete and is being translated into English. See for the architecture Litvnsky and Pichikian, Taxt-I Sangin; der Oxus-Tempel (Mainz, 2002); and cf. DCAA 104–5. In general on the finds, R. Wood in Gandhara 141–51. On coins and dating of the site, E.V. Zeymal in Studies in Silk Road Coins and Culture (Papers… I. Hirayama; ed. K. Tanabe et al., 1997) 89–110.

149 DCAA 105, fig. 4.36; Oxus no. 14. CII no. 95. P. Bernard supports the association with Marsyas in Studia Iranica 16 (1987) 103–15. Mairs 2011, 39. Another apparent dedication to ‘Oxos’, the inscription on a mould for a large bronze vessel: A. Drujinina, Arch.Mitt.aus Iran und Turan 40 (2008) 121–35; CII no. 96bis. Also at Takht-I Sangin a stone vase inscribed to Oxos, CII no. 96.

150 Oxus no. 105. I.R. Pichikyan, Oxus-Schatz und Oxus-Tempel (Berlin, 1992) 101; eadem and B. Litvinsky in In the Land of the Gryphons (ed. Invernizzi, 1995) 138.

151 For the architecture of such temples in Persia of the Hellenistic period see M. Shenkar in Gandhara 117–39.

152 Oxus no. 5.

153 Oxus no. 8. Cf. K. Abdullaev in East and West 52 (2002) 53–69.

154 Oxus no. 9.

155 DCAA 105, fig. 4.37

156 Oxus no. 21.

157 Oxus no. 6.

158 M.E. Masson and G.A. Pugachenkovo, The Parthian Rhytons of Nisa (Florence, 1982). Herrmann 1977, 41–6 (as if 1st-century AD). DCAA 89–90, figs. 4.21a,b; 330, n. 37. Their technique, T. Mkrtychev, U. Treiner in Parthica 2 (2000) 55–67. N. Manassero, Rhyta e corni potori (Oxford, BAR 1750, 2008) pls. 49–53.

159 But taken for a Dionysiac audience by N. Massassero, Parthica 10 (2008) 81–97.

160 P. Bernard in Journal des Savants 1985, 26–118; on origins 89–91, and in Syria 47 (1970) 342–3. DCAA 89–90.

161 CII no. 77.

162 DCAA fig. 4.34; CRAI 1977, 407–27; Mairs 2011, 30. On the Dioskouroi in the Near East, G. Azarpay, Iranica Antiqua 23 (1988) 349–60.

163 CRAI 1990, 363–6. Sherwin-White/Kuhrt 1993, 106. RA 2003, 202–5. On Samarkand and the ‘Iron Gates’ on the road south to the Oxus see references in Mairs 2011, 33. The fortresses, L.M. Sverchkov, ACSS 14 (2008) 123–91; other sites, E.V. Rtveladze in Parthica 9 (2007) 193–204.

164 F. Grenet, ‘The Pre-Islamic Civilization of the Sogdians’, The Silk Road Newsletter 1.2. ‘Sogdiana iii’ in Encyclopaedia Iranica III.

165 See O.M. Dalton, The Treasure of the Oxus (London, 1905). Also from the banks of the Oxus, but excavated, are bronze plaques of Erotes with lyre and grapes, probably first-century AD: B. Litvinsky and I.R Pichikyan, Vestnik 1979.2, 87–109.

166 On its date see Boardman, Iran 44 (2006) 115–9, and in Litvinsky Festschrift 205–14. Others date it to the 5th century or even later but it was made in a style that did not linger in Persia and has many features, including Greek, of the late 7th century. It had been more knocked about than most of the treasure (all later), so it was quite possibly from another source.

167 Very well explained in J. Curtis, The Oxus Treasure (British Museum, 2012).

168 DCAA 104, fig. 4.35.

169 Dalton, op. cit., pl. 16.101; GGFR pl. 989.

170 B.A. Litvinsky, Parthica 2 (2000) 127, fig. 1–2.

171 Treasures of Ancient Bactria (Miho Museum, 2002), including many essays on subjects relevant to this chapter. O. Muscarella doubts the authenticity of much: ACSS 9 (2003) 259–75; but see J. Curtis, ACSS 10 (2004) 293–338.

172 I.R. Pichikyan, ACSS 4 (1997) 306–82.

173 The Mir Zakah provenience is argued by O. Bopearachchi and P. Flandrin in Le Portrait d’Alexandre le Grand (Monaco, 2005). On the hoard see Holt, Lost World 141–3.

174 Treasures of Ancient Bactria (Miho, 2002) nos. 114, 112. For the gilt silver rhyta, e.g., ibid., nos. 29, 30, 116–19, 122; DCAA 88, fig. 4.20 (silver) and pp. 86–90; N. Manassero, Rhyta e corni potori (Oxford BAR 1750, 2008) pls. 59–61; The Oxford History of Classical Art (ed. J. Boardman, 1997) no. 386 (Shelby White Coll.). These are splendid but seldom from controlled excavations.

175 Bopearachchi’s MGB is a major source. M. Mitchiner, Indo-Greek and Indo-Scythian Coinage (1975/6) gives the full range but with areas of unreliability. O. Guillaume, Greco-Bactrian and Indian Coins from Afghanistan (1991) discusses the Aï Khanoum hoards. A good brief survey in Crossroads 52–88. A. Ibrahim, Indus Greek Coins: a new Perspective (thesis, 1998). Holt, Lost World gives the most up-to-date review, especially of the historical aspects.

176 For these see Crossroads 56–7; S. Hirano, Archaic silver punch-marked coinage (Mumbai, 2007). Cf. P. Bernard and O. Guillaume, Rev. Numismatique 22 (1980) 9–17 on pre-Seleucid coinage: Athena head and owl. Classical ‘owls’ minted in Egypt and travelling to Bactria: H. Nicolet-Pierre in BCH Suppl. 14 (1986: Iconographie Classique) 365–76.

177 Cf. DCAA 330, n.62; Journal des Savants 2004, 282–9.

178 Holt, Lost World 175–83.

179 Guillaume, op. cit.

180 Also shown on its own on some of his coins: MGB pl. 5.

181 LIMC VIII, 514, coins and gems; no. 22 perhaps of Philip V of Macedon (d. 179 BC), an intaglio, perhaps one of the earliest.

182 LIMC VIII, Zeus, no. 428. On Zeus types in the east see LIMC VIII 744–99.

183 LIMC II, Athena, p. 1040. Inscribed in Greek on the obverse, the reverse inscribed in Kharoshti, with some graecized letters; Bayerische Akademie, Akademie Aktuell 2013.1, 11, fig. 3.

184 LIMC II, Athena, no. 171.

185 Athena’s whole shield alone for a Greek coin of Demetrios I, MGB pl. 5.

186 LIMC IV, p. 772.

187 Ibid., p. 765.

188 The reverse has a Helios and Selene and is inscribed in Kharoshti, the obverse in Greek.

189 On radiate figures and Mithra see A. D.H. Bivar, The Personalities of Mithra in Archaeology and Literature (1998) 40–2.

190 Guillaume, op. cit. ch. 4.

191 MGB 118–25.

192 Some scholars see the god ‘trampling’ the river god. but river gods are always recumbent and Poseidon often posed with a foot raised on a rock or the like.

193 For Poseidon in the east see F. Holt in Litvinsky Festschrift 721–6, stressing his association with any horse-culture.

194 Holt, Lost World 202–3.

195 DCAA 87, fig. 4.38 (from Bokhara). On these Parthian issues with the Apollos and others, see R. Vardenyan, Parthica 4 (2002) 25–132.

196 J.M. Rosenfield, The Dynastic Arts of the Kushans (1967), ch. 3. On western features on coinage, A. Kromann, Acta Hyperborea 1 (1988) 151–8. Western impact on Kushan coinage, D. MacDowell, in GAC 231–43. On Kushan coinage in detial, O. Bopearachchi in Journal des Savants 2008, 3–229.

Chapter 5

197 A useful account, A.I. Alekseev, Chronographiya Europeiskoi Skyphii (St Petersburg, 2003).

198 E. Porada, The Art of Ancient Iran (1965) ch. 10.

199 Hyun Jin Kim, Ethnicity and Foreigners in Ancient Greece and China (London, 2009), and in AWE 9 (2010) 115–34.

200 There is a good account of nomad practices in warfare and equipment in E. Hildinger, Warriors of the Steppes (1997) chs. 1–3.

201 DCAA 106–7, fig. 4.39; St Petersburg there are two such. On phalera see M. Treister in Ancient Greeks West and East (ed. G. Tsetskhladze, 1999) 565–604, and Mordvintseva. Pfrommer, op. cit. (n. 10).

202 DCAA , fig. 4.40.; St Petersburg. P. Goukowsky in BCH 96 (1972) 473–502 for the Greek turret.

203 J. Boardman ‘The Ketos in India’ in BCH Suppl. XIV (1986) 447–53 (where the plural is misspelled ketoi); ‘Very like a whale’ in Monsters and Demons in the ancient and mediaeval worlds (ed. E. Porada, Mainz, 1987) 73–84.

204 DCAA 107, fig. 4.40; St Petersburg; from between Omsk and Tobolsk.

205 Mordvintseva no. 36. M. Treister, ACSS 18 (2014) 81–109.

206 Mordvintseva, no. 43.

207 Archeo 21.4 (242) Sarmati 65, fig.

208 Still best expounded in E. Minns, Scythians and Greeks (Cambridge, 1913) and see V. Schiltz, Die Skythen (Munich 1994).

209 The griffin in Indian art, M. Magistro, Parthica 1 (1999) 171–95.

210 For the Altai finds see S. Rudenko, The Culture of the population of the High Altai in the Scythian Period (Moscow/Leningrad, 1953).

211 K. Abdullaev, CRAI 2007, 562–3, fig. 16; Parthica 10 (2008) 135–49.

212 M. Wagner et al., ‘The Ornamental trousers from Sampula’, Antiquity 83 (2009) 1067, fig. 2a. E. Knauer, The Camel’s Load (2011) 110, fig. 75.

213 In AWE 11 (2012) 134–8, I suggest that the Issyk-Kul ‘Golden Man’ burial might be of a Yuehzhi going west, not an earlier Scythian chief. J.F. Haskins, BAI 2 (1988) 1–10, thinks that the Massagetai in Greek sources are the migrant Yuehzhi. For the finds, see now Nomads and Networks (eds S. Stark and K.S. Rubinson, New York, 2012). For Ferghana, E. Gorbunova, The Culture of Ancient Ferghana (Oxford, BAR 281, 1986). On the Yuehzhi, their Tocharian language and history, there are important essays in The Bronze Age and Early Iron Age Peoples of Eastern Central Asia (ed. V.M. Mair, Washington, 1998). C. Benjamin in Eran and Aneran (Fest. B. Marshak, 2003) on the Yuehzhi in Sogdia.

214 The neatest account of his mission is in Tarn, esp. 119–22, 295–9.

215 B.J. Staviskij, La Bactriane sous les Kushans (1986) is somewhat dated but a useful guide to sites.

216 I study the Greek elements at Tillya Tepe in AWE 2 (2003) 348–74 (here TTG); and further in Afghanistan (ed. J. Aruz, New York, 2012) 102–11. There has been much discussion of the finds in recent years thanks to the travelling exhibition and a tendency by some to explain the complex as more nomad than Yuehzhi, but the finds tell their own story and only the Yuehzhi and the local early history of the area can explain the variety of sources and influences. Sarianidi found some Bronze Age elements in the work of the Tillya Tepe goldsmiths: Sov.Arch. 1987.1, 77–83. On local sources for gold see Holt, Lost World 163–4. Gold nuggets could be found in the Oxus: Aristotle,Mir. 46

217 On the coins at Tillya Tepe see also Holt, Lost World 197–8.

218 Other coins at Tillya Tepe include a Roman coin of the Emperor Tiberius, and an obol of Hermaios.

219 Burial 6.4; TT figs. 48–50; TTG fig. 11.

220 Burial 6.3, TT fig. 99; TTG fig. 14.

221 Burial 6.2; TTG fig 1.

222 See J. Boardman, The Triumph of Dionysos (Oxford BAR, 2014).

223 Burial 2.6; TT fig. 80; TTG fig. 13.

224 Burial 3.51; TT figs. 18,19.

225 Burial 3.1; TT figs. 81–4; TTG fig. 4.

226 On the echoes of Greek armour in the east, see E. R. Knauer, ‘Knemides in the East?’ in Nomodeiktes (Studies in honour of Martin Oswald, Ann Arbor, 1993) 235–54. On defensive armour in Asia, A.E. Dien, Journal of East Asian Archaeology 2,3/4 (2000) 1–22.

227 Burial 4.1; TT figs. 88–97; TTG fig. 3. See also S. Peterson, Parthian Aspects of Objects from Grave IV, T.T.

228 On Nana, M. Ghose, JIAAA 1 (2006) 97–112; K. Abdullaev in SRAA 9 (2003) 15–38.

229 For such a sleeve restored see Scythian Gold (ed. E.D. Reeder, 1999) 27, fig. 3. In general on nomad dress see E.R. Knauer in CRAI 1999, 1141–87.

230 Burial 1.1; TT fig. 86; TTG fig. 7.

231 TTG fig. 8, and for discussion of the associations; BCH Suppl. 29 (1996) pl. 93.2,3,

232 I discuss these in detail in Relief Plaques of Eastern Eurasia and China (Oxford, Beazley Archive, 2010), supplemented in AWE 11 (1912) 123–45.

233 Relief Plaques…, 69, pls. colour 3.310; 42.310.

234 On the ketos in the east see above, n. 203.

235 See After Alexander 20–24. In fig. 64 the left pair are Chinese, the right pair Greek, the lower one from Tillya Tepe.

236 U. Hermberg, Gewürze, Weihrauch, Seide:Welthandel in der Antike (1971) 39. The carnelian beads that appear in early China need not have come from far to the west, though likely to be of western Asian origin: J. Rawson, ‘Carnelian Beads, Animal Figures and Exotic Vessels’, Archeologie in China 1, Bridging Eurasia (2010) 1–42. S. Lieberman, Contacts between Rome and China (Michigan thesis 1953) 203–30 lists finds, notably coins. Ball 2000, 133–9 on Rome and China. For classical gems in the Thai-Malay peninsula, B. Borell et al., in N. Revire, Before Siam (2013) 99–117 (fig. 1 is a rare piece of cameo glass).

237 Dr Ian Glover told me of this.

238 J. Malayan Branch Royal As. Soc. 26.2 (1953) 64.

239 J. Rawson in Pots and Pans (Oxford Studies in Islamic Art III. 1986, ed. M. Vickers), 32–3, fig. 1.

240 J. Rawson, Chinese Ornament (BM, 1984) 40, fig. 15

241 China Archaeology and Art Digest 1.2 (1996) 279. F. Barratte, Arts Asiatiques 51 (1996) 142–7.

242 M. Rostovtseff, L’Art Gréco-Sarmate et l’Art Chinois (Arethuse April 1924.3) pl. 17.3 (Louvre).

243 China: Dawn of a Golden Age 200–750 AD (ed. C.Y. Watt, New York, 2004) no. 157; with what seem to be a Judgement of Paris, Helen abducted, Helen with Menelaus.

244 See Arts (below, n. 250).

245 Crossroads no. 95; DCAA 149, fig. 4.95. On such bronze vessels in Central Asia, B. Litvinski, East and West 52 (2002) 127–149.

246 DCAA 149, fig. 4.96. On Phrygian helmets, I. Vokotopoulou, AA 1982, 497–520. For the helmet type in the east see A.S. Balachvantsev in Litvinsky Festschrift 176–7.

247 DCAA 150–3, figs. 4.97–102. In DCAA there is a far more fully documented account of such echoes of the west in the east. For the helmet type in the east see A.S. Balachvantsev in Litvinsky Festschrift 176–7.

248 It seems likely that the early discoveries of silk in Europe need have nothing to do with China: I. Good, ‘On the Question of Silk in pre-Han Eurasia’, Antiquity 69 (1995) 959–68. Also E.R. Knauer, The Camels’ Load in Life and Death (Kilchberg, 2011) 30–3, in detail. Some Chinese Han mirrors in Europe: V. Guguev et al., Bull.of the Metals Museum 16 (1991) 32–50.

249 On caravan-cities F. Millar, Bull.Inst.Class.Stud. 42 (1998) 119–37.

250 There is a good summary of these contacts and later influences farther east in P.L.W. Arts, Violets between Cherry Blossoms (The Diffusion of Classical Motifs to the East. Traces in Japanese Arts; London 2011) 110–36.

251 Treasures of Ancient Bactria (Miho, 2002) no. 214.

252 L. Nikel, Bull.Amer.School Oriental and African Studies 76 (2013) 413–47.

253 Lane Fox 1986, 370–1.

254 Cf. J. Boardman, The World of Ancient Art (2006) pls. 79–97 (Chinese stylization), 98, 105 (realistic painting), 101 (the terracotta army); 4–5 (palaeolithic realism), 536 (Peru).

Chapter 6

255 G.L. Possehl, ‘Indus-Mesopotamian Trade’, Iranica Antiqua 37 (2002) 325–42.

256 An important essay on this by G.M. Bongard-Levin is ‘Ancient India and the Greco-Roman World’ in Indologica Taurinensia 13 (1985–6) 169–85. Generally, on the Greeks’ views on Indians see Lane Fox 1986, 347–9, and ch. 33.

257 Cf. A.B. Bosworth in Classical Philology 91 (1996) 113–27.

258 Camb.Hist.Class.Literature I (1985) 657.

259 J. Boardman, The Archaeology of Nostalgia (2002) 41–2, and for the griffins, 127–32, also noted by Ctesias.

260 Bongard-Levin, op. cit., 178–83. Various Greek words, of significant meaning, were adopted: mela for ink; kalamo for pen; khlania for bridle; barbara (see article by Sanujit at www.ancient. eu.com/article/208/).

261 V. Dehejia, ‘On modes of visual narration in early Buddhist art’, Art Bulletin 72 (1990) 374–92. An excellent survey of the arts of India in Harle 1986, whose predecessor in the Pelican series, Rowland 1977, is somewhat fuller on the early period.

262 V.-P. Yailenko, ‘Les maximes delphiques d’Ai Khanoum et la formation de la doctrine du dhamma d’Asoka’, in DHA 1990, 239–56.

263 DCAA 331, n. 85. J. Irwin, articles on the pillars in Burlington Magazine 1973, 1974, 1975, 1976; especially for the florals. Rowland 1977, 68–9.

264 DCAA 110, fig. 4.41. N.G. Majumbar, Guide to the Sculptures of the India Museum (Calcutta) I, pl. 1b; pl. 1a is similar with a single seated lion and frieze of birds.

265 DCAA 110, fig. 4.42. And see J. Irwin in IAW 87–93 on their lack of bases and restorations, and ibid., 131–9, K.R. Norman on the inscribing.

266 DCAA 113, fig. 4.44. There seems evidence that masons at Bharhut came from Gandhara; ibid., 331, n. 103. A comprehensive account of Bharhut and its sculpture in A. C. Coomaraswamy, La Sculpture de Bharhut (1956).

267 DCAA 113, fig. 4.45.

268 Ibid., 114, fig. 4.46.

269 Ibid., 151–3.

270 J. Boardman, ‘Reflections on the Origins of Indian stone architecture’ in BAI 12 (1998) 13–22, for more detail. On Greek bead-and-reel in India, R. Morton-Smith in East and West 25 (1975) 439–51.

271 E.g. from Mathura, Czuma 1985, nos. 8, 9.

272 Cf. Ball 2000, 281. For an entertaining and instructive imaginary dialogue between Kautilya and his near-contemporary Plato see S. Ookerjee, Plato and the Arthasastra (Mumbai, 2010).

273 The Bodh-Gaya sculptures, A. M. Coomaraswamy, Ars Asiatica 18 (1935); roundels, pls. 51.3; 52.2,4; the folded dress, pl. 39. Winged elephant, London, V&A.

274 J.E. van Lohuizen-de Leeuw in Aspects of Indian Art (ed. P. Pal, 1972) 28–43. J.P. Vogel, La Sculpture de Mathura: Ars Asiatica 15 (1930). M.L. Carter, Bull.Cleveland Mus. Oct. 1982, 246–57 on the ‘Dionysiac’ behaviour on the pillar in Cleveland (Czuma 1985 no. 42), and on Dionysiac aspects of Kushan art in Ars Orientalis 7 (1968) 121–46.

275 DCAA 139, fig. 4.82 (Delhi NM 2800). It is a moot point whether the woman is drunk, or simply kneeling/fleeing; see D.M. Stadtner in Orientations Jan. 1996, 39–46, where later groups with the harlot Vasantasena are adduced and associated with a myth and early Indian play.

276 Athenaeus 10.437a,b.

277 On Greeks, wine and India, K. Karttunen, India in early Greek Literature (Helsinki, 1989) 207–10. And cf. J. Boardman, The Triumph of Dionysos (Oxford BAR, 2014).

278 Karttunen, op. cit., 212–8.

279 Mathura Museum. Photo, C. Kontoleon.

280 Boston, from Mathura: Marg 39.4 (1988) 17, fig. 17. Ars Asiatica 15 (1930) pl. 5.5.

281 C. Wolff, Rev.Et.Anc. 101 (1999) 390.

282 W. Vogelsang, SAS 4 (1988) 103–13. Achaemenid Persian rule may not have extended much beyond Taxila: D. Fleming, BAI 9 (1993) 67–72.

283 On Taxila: the three-volume publication by its excavator, Sir John Marshall, Taxila (Cambridge, 1951) and his detailed Guide to Taxila (ed.4, 1960); Rahman Dar, Taxila, and in Urban Form and Meaning in South Asia (eds H. Spodek, D.M. Srinavasan, Washington Studies 31, 1993) 103–22; F.R. Allchin, The Archaeology of Early Historic South Asia (Cambridge, 1995) passim.

284 R. Stoneman, JHS 115 (1995) 99–114.

285 Useful essays on Kharoshti scripts in Akademie Aktuell 2013.1, 4–57.

286 Taxila pls. 73a, 120a.

287 Cf. Colledge, 126, 134. Rahman Dar 1984 argues for its Greekness and early date. Bernard doubts Philostratos’ reliability for information about Taxila: Topoi 6.2 (1996) 504–30.

288 G.E. Medleycott, India and the Apostle Thomas (1905); J.N. Farquhar, ‘The Apostle Thomas in North India’, Bull.J.Rylands Library 10 (1926) 80ff. and 11 (1927) 20ff. The columns were perhaps at Kasur. The altars, Pliny, Nat.Hist. 6.62.

289 R.E.M. Wheeler, Charsada (Oxford, 1962) pl. 40.A2 – the sealing; DCAA 135, fig. 4.76 (a Herakles). For more recent views on the site and its dating see Mairs 2011, 37.

290 Maues as a Saka king of an Indo-Greek kingdom, F. Widemann, East and West 53 (2003) 95–115.

291 Galli 2011, 299, fig. 6, a relief from Butkara in Rome.

292 H.P. Francfort, Ars asiatiques 32 (1976 ) 91–8.

293 On dating, C. Lo Muzio, ACSS 17 (2011) 331–40.

294 Les Palettes de Gandhara (MDAF 23, 1979). Important remarks and additions in Lotus, and see J. Pons’ essay and illustrations in Gandhara 153–175 – on ketos, Herakles and Dionysos motifs. Francfort listed 97 examples. Rahman Dar 150 examples (1984, 99–142). Other sources include: P. Pal, Indian Sculpture 1 (Los Angeles, 1986) S31a-c; Czuma, 1985, 150–3; Galli 2011, 296–302; C. Louzio, ACSS 17 (2011) 331–40, chronology (most, 1st/2nd centuries AD). See also now http://claude.rapin.free.fr/5Gandhara7%20images_fichiers/5GandharaCLR7.htm for a largely ‘new’ private collection of 17 pieces.

295 Francfort, no. 6; Crossroads no. 154.

296 Francfort, no. 14; Gandhara 166, fig. 24; an apparently abbreviated version, ibid., 167, fig. 25.

297 J. Boardman, The World of Ancient Art (2006) pl. 142.

298 Lotus no. 17.

299 Francfort, no. 1; also Lotus no. 18.

300 Francfort, no. 3, and compare the erotic nos. 4, 10, 11, 18.

301 Francfort, no. 15.

302 Gandhara no. 21; and Paris, Guimet Museum.

303 Lotus no. 26; Czuma 1985, no. 71.

304 Francfort, no. 8; Crossroads no. 153.

305 Galli 2011, 297, fig. 4c.

306 Francfort, no. 2. He pulls at the dress of a woman on a clay relief vase in Lahore Museum, LIMC IV, Herakles no. 1546.

307 Lotus no. 24; Gandhara 168, fig. 27, and probably a drunken Herakles again on fig. 28, and Francfort, no. 13.

308 DCAA 117, fig. 4.51.

309 Francfort, no. 17.

310 Francfort, no. 49; the female version, Rahman Dar 1984,, no. 133 (in Tokyo).

311 Ancient Orient Museum.

312 Lotus no. 19.

313 Francfort, no. 16.

314 Francfort, no. 1.

315 L’Or des Amazones (ed. V. Schiltz, Musée Cernuschi, 2001) nos. 216 ff. And the dish in a Sarmatian context, Antiquity 37 (1963) pl. 23.

316 Francfort, nos. 41 (replica, Czuma 1985, no. 70), 42; cruder, nos. 43, 44.

317 Los Angeles Museum of Art 2003.70; accompanied by an Eros.

318 Rapin, op. cit., no. 1, and compare the harpist, Francfort, no. 7.

319 Gandhara 156, fig. 1.

320 Francfort, no. 9.

321 And without the Eros, Gandhara 156, fig. 3; a winged Greek female, and a naked boy as rider, ibid., 158, figs. 8, 9. Cf. Francfort, no. 53; Christies, NY Sale 1640, lot 12.

322 Francfort, no. 12; Berlin, Ind.Mus.: M. Hallade, The Gandhara Style (1968) 25, pl. 19.

323 Internet photo.

324 Francfort, no. 24. With a ram’s head and ridden by a boy, Francfort, no. 23. Lion’s head and boy riders, Francfort, nos. 33–36.

325 Internet photo.

326 Lotus no. 22. On the possible local heroic character of the ‘Nereid’ figures, M.L. Carter, BAI 6 (1992) 67–78.

327 Rapin, op. cit., no. 5.

328 BAI 10 (1996) 273. Private.

329 BAI 10 (1996) 272–3; they are male, wearing tunics. Oxford EA 1996.82. A youth riding a hippocamp appears on one found in far-off Tajikistan (Oxus no. 45)

330 Lotus no. 21, with Eros.

331 Francfort, pls. 28–32. On Parthian belt plaques see V.S. Curtis, Iranica Antiqua 36 (2001) 299–328.

332 Oxford EA 1977.22, 204. Cf. Crossroads no. 142, and O.M. Dalton, The Treasure of the Oxus (London, 1964) nos. 199, 200, with elephants. On her see E. Knauer, Coats, Queens and Cormorants (2009) ‘The Queen Mother of the West’ 435–67, fig. 47 (= pp. 62–115 in V.H. Mair (ed.), Contact and Exchange (Hawaii, 2006) fig. 45). Later, cf. the clay roundel from Afrasiab, L. Albaum and B. Brentjes, Wächter des Goldes (1972) pl. 107.

333 GGFR 320–2. On Greco-Persian in Bactria see E.E. Kuz’mina, Colloques CNRS 567, 201–14.

334 GGFR pls. 965, 974.

335 GGFR pl. 986.

336 GGFR 320–1, fig. 309; properly explained in Sherwin-White/Kuhrt 1993, 32.

337 Lotus no. 16.

338 In Kuwait. Publication by S. Middleton forthcoming.

339 G. Fussmann, Rev.Num. 6 (1972) pl. 1.1.

340 GGFR 318–8, the Taxila Group, figs. 303–5; the Alexander [pl. viii], ibid., pl. 998 (also Boardman/Vollenweider, Oxford I, no. 280). DCAA 118–9. Peshawar Museum houses several examples in the Greco-Persian tradition, including scaraboids. For a lapidary hoard at Taxila, M. Treister and S. Yatsenko, SRAA 5 (1998) 74–5. For classicizing gems from NW India see also Cambridge History of India 1 (1922) 647, pl. 33; J. Marshall, Taxila 2 (1951) ch. 31.

341 TT figs. 69–73, 74 (Greco-Persian), 108. CII no. 89bis.

342 DCAA 79, fig. 4.5 (Missouri Univ.). Another, M. Henig, The Content Cameos (1990) no. 141.

343 British Museum.

344 London, V&A 14.1948.408A.

345 A. Sen-Gupta, East and West 54 (2004) 65–7, fig. 1.

346 P. Callieri, Seals and Sealings from the north-west of the Indian Subcontinent and Afghanistan (4th century BC-11th century AD (Naples, 1997); ‘Seals from Gandhara’ in BCH Suppl. 29 (1996) 413–22. The finds of seals and sealings go far back to early days of exploration; cf. A. Stein, in Geographical Journal July/Sept. 1909, 20, in On Ancient Central Asian Tracks (1932), 89, 104, in Prel. Rept. Chinese Turkestan (1901) pls. 9 (sealings), 13, in Ancient Khotan (1907) pls. 71–2 (sealings), in Innermost Asia (1928 ) pls. 10, 111; B. Brentjes in Baghd.Mitt. 20 (1989) 315–35; Camb.Hist.India I (1922) 647–8, pl. 33; E.E. Kuzmina, Le Plateau Iranien (1977) 201ff.; Taxila pls. 197–8, 207–8. It is still debatable whether there is any western influence on the shapes of some pre-Han seals in China.

347 Crossroads nos. 151–2.

348 J.C. Harle, in South Asian Archaeology 1983; Ist.Univ. Or.Napoli, Series Minor XXIII (1985), 641–52. The group recurs in a more Indian style on a stone weight (New York, Met.Mus.) and elsewhere where it clearly signifies Krishna and the horse-demon Kesin, including the apparent thrusting of an arm in its mouth which is no more than suggested by Greek scenes.

349 A Golden Treasury (V&A, 1988) nos. 11, 12, 14.

350 F. Widemann in T. Hacken (ed.), Technology and analysis of ancient gemstones (PACT 23, 1987) 175, fig. 1; inscribed ‘of Shaura’.

351 Cf. A.D.H. Bivar, Numismatic Society of India Golden Jubilee issue 23 (1961) 309–27.

352 P. Bernard, O. Bopearachchi, ‘Deux bracelets grecs’, Journal des Savants 2002, 237–78. CII nos. 154–5.

353 DCAA 87, fig. 4.19. B. Litvinsky, JIAAA 1 (2006) 85–8. On Eros earrings, P. Calmeyer, Fest. Van den Berghe 605ff.

354 Crossroads no. 140; DCAA 118; CII no. 156; Boardman in GAC 11–15, comparing a gold earring from the Punjab in Berlin (fig. 7); a similar one from near Dushanbe, Oxus no. 23; and Shirley Day Ltd. (91B Jermyn St.), East of the Oxus (1995) no. 6. Classical figure types on earrings in the east: B. Mussche, Vorderasiatischer Schmuck (1988) 65–8, pl 11; C. Fabrègues, JIAAA 1 (2006) 71–87 – and Persian.

355 Jewellery Studies 5 (1991) 91–2. IAW pl. 9 (K. Fischer). For jewels of this type in the Sarmatian world see M. Treister in Iranica Antiqua 39 (2004) 297–321.

356 DCAA 118, fig. 4.52 (Taxila); 146, fig. 4.92; TTG figs. 13, 14.

357 Crossroads no. 138; cf. no. 137 for the dressed goddess with a mirror, from Taxila.

358 Crossroads no. 159.

359 Crossroads no. 97; Galli 2011, 305–6. On Hellenistic silver in the east, M. Carter, BAI 9 (1995) 257–66; M. Pfrommer, Metalwork from the Hellenized East (Malibu, 1993).

360 Crossroads no. 99.

361 For the rest of the hoard and inscriptions, F. Baratte, Journal des Savants 2001, 249–319. Cups from Gandhara inscribed in both Greek and Kharoshti, CII nos. 88bis,ter.

362 Crossroads no. 101; London, BM OA 1937.3–19.1.

363 J.-C. Gardin in Aus dem Osten des Alexander-reiches (Fest. K. Fischer, 1984) 110–26.

364 Idem, Berlin Kongress 1988 , 187–97; Litvinsky Festschrift 423; in de l’Indus aux Balkans (Recueil J. Deshayes; ed. J.-C. Huot, 1985) 447–60. On the dating of Hellenistic pottery in Central Asia, B. Lyonnet, ACSS 18 (1912) 143–77.

365 For the full publication see J. Hackin et al., Recherches arch. à Begram (1939); Nouvelles rech. à Begram (1954). S. Mehendale, Cahiers d’Asie Centrale 1/2 (1996) 47–64.

366 D. Whitehouse, J. Roman Archaeology 2 (1989) 93–100.

367 DCAA 123, fig. 4.60. A case has been made for dating the ivories earlier, 1st-century BC, but there is nothing else at Begram really to support this: J.L. Davidson, in Aspects of Indian Art (ed. P. Pal, 1972) 1–14. He also notes the rinceaux which he traces to Bharhut and Sanchi rather than the west (pp. 8–9) but they also had a long Greek history. For a relatively early date, L. Nehru in SRAA 10 (2004) 97–150.

368 DCAA 123, fig. 4.61.

369 Afghanistan (NY) nos. 147–9.

370 Cf. DCAA 120, fig. 4.58; M. Menninger, Würzburger Forschungen zur Altertumskunde 1 (1996); Untersuchungen zu den Gläsen und Gipsabgüssen…Begram). D. Whitehouse, AJA 102 (1998) 639–41.

371 DCAA 120, fig. 4.57.

372 Dossiers d’Archéologie 341 (2010) 43, at Khalchayan, with Greek Victories overhead.

373 Ball 2000 gives an excellent, detailed and well illustrated conspectus of Roman influence and construction especially in the near-Near East. Also, on the historical perspective, F. Millar, The Roman Near East (Cambridge, 1993); and Eastern Frontiers of the Roman Empire (eds D. French, C. Lightfoot, Oxford BAR 553, 1989).

374 On the survival of Hellenistic styles see M. Waelkens in S. Walker and A. Cameron (eds) The Greek Renaissance in the Roman Empire (London, ICS Bull. Supl. 55, 1989) 77–88. On Roman emperors visiting the east, A. Horstein and S. Lalance (eds), Les voyages des Empereurs dans l’Orient Romain (Arles, 2012).

375 J. Freely, Children of Achilles. The Greeks in Asia Minor (London, 2010) gives a useful account.

376 V. Dehija, ‘India’s Visual Narratives’ in G.H.R. Tillotson (ed.), Paradigms of Indian Architecture (Richmond, 1998) 80–106.

377 Best on the Roman effects is H. Buchthal’s good essay, ‘The Western aspects of Gandharan Sculpture’, Proc.Brit.Acad. 21 (1945), 151–76. And see A.C. Soper, ‘The Roman Style in Gandhara’, AJA 55 (1951) 301–19. B. Rowland, ‘Gandhara, Rome and Mathura; The Early Relief Style’, Archives of the Chinese Art Society of America 10 (1956) 8–17. M. Wheeler, Rome beyond the Imperial Frontiers (Penguin, 1955) Part Three; he subsumes Asian Greeks with Romans for this period, so has ‘Romano-Buddhist art’. His excavating style has come under some criticism, as by W.A. Fairservis in Iosephi Tucci Mem. Dedicata (1987) 343–54. Ball 2000, 139–48 (‘no journeymen craftsmen’). A good and well-illustrated general account – S.L. Huntington, The Art of Ancient India (1985). H.C. Ackermann, Narrative Stone Reliefs from Gandhara in the V&A (Rome, 1975) also studies the ‘Roman’ effects and suggests that illustrated book scrolls might have been a source.

378 E.g., those from Nihavand: R. Ghirshman, CRAI 1948, 335; Parthes et Sassanides (1962) 18, fig. 23.

379 On the coinage, Rahman Dar 1984, ch. 6. Some hundred Roman coins have been found in Kushan India. To suggest that thousands of others must have been melted down seems desperate.

380 H. Dodge in Architecture and architectural sculpture in the Roman Empire (ed. M. Henig, 1990) 108–20.

381 Cf. L. Casson, The Periplus Maris Erythraei (1989); DCAA 332, n. 138; Xinru Liu, The Silk Road in World History (Oxford, 2010), 34–41. Rome and India. The Ancient Sea Trade (eds V. Begley, R de Puma, Univ. Wisconsin, 1991). J.-F. Salles, Topoi 3 (1993) 493–510. The Yemen en route had its share of trade, as in classical bronzes, cf. R. Fleischer and R. Schulz, Arch.Ber.aus dem Yemen 13 (2012) 1–90.

382 Pliny, Nat.Hist. 6.101. F. Warmington, The Commerce between the Roman Empire and India (1928). P. Turner, Roman Coins from India (1989). J. Puskas in IAW 141–56 on trade contacts. For Ceylon, there were imports from as early as the Hellenistic period – seals (see above), and pottery: J. Bouzek, Berlin Kongress 1988, 316–7. On external contacts in Ceylon, Archiv Orientalni 61 (1993) 13–28. A Rhodian architect Amphilochos seems to have gained a reputation for working in India (Warmington, 61–2). A good short account of Rome and south India in R.E.M. Wheeler, Rome beyond the Imperial Frontiers (1954) ch. 12. Essays in Rome and India (eds V. Begley, P. de Puma, 1991), on routes and trade. http://oxrep.classics.ox.ac.uk/bibliographies/ has a good bibliography on Indo-Roman trade.

383 H. Harrauer and P.J. Sijpesteijn, Anz.Österr.Akad. Wiss. 122 (1985) 124–55. Dio Chrysostom, Disc. 32, 40 ‘I behold among you not only Greeks and Italians and peoples from neighbouring Syria, Libya, Cilicia, not merely Ethiopians and Arabs from more distant regions, but even Bactrians and Scythians and Persians and a few Indians’.

384 Harle 1986, 82, fig. 62.

385 B.N. Mukherjee, Marg 38 (1986) 81–2. H. P. Ray, Topoi 3 (1993) 455–80. Indo-Greek Buddhists, J.D. Lerner, AJA 102 (1998) 393.

386 Envoys from Bactria to Hadrian and Antoninus: A.C. Soper, AJA 55 (1951) 305. D.F. Graf, ‘The Roman East from the Chinese perspective’, Les Annales Arch. Arabes Syriennes 42 (1996) 1–18.

387 Crossroads no. 197. The obverse shows Kanishka I in the traditional Asian frontal pose: DCAA 124, fig. 4.62. On use of Greek script, Mairs 2011, 43.

388 S.M. Burstein, AWE 9 (2010) 181–92.

389 N. Sims-Williams and J. Cribb, SRAA 4 (1995/6) 75–142.

390 On which J.D.M Derrett, J. of the Royal Asiatic Soc. 2 (1992) 47–57.

391 Ball 2000, 139–48.

392 Basic sources are: Nehru, OGS. Czuma 1985. J. Marshall, The Buddhist Art of Gandhara (1960). E. Errington, SAA 1987, 765–81. Gandharan Art in Context (eds R. Allchin et al., New Delhi, 1997). K. Walton Dobbins gives an illustrated account of Gandharan art from stratified excavations (correlated with coins) in East and West 23 (1973) 279–94. Also for coin dating, E. Errington in SRAA 6 (1999/2000). Bibliography 1950–93, P. Guenée, Bibl. Analytique (Paris, 1998). On the question of ‘Orientalised Hellenism’ or the ‘Hellenised Orient’, A. Filigenzi, ACSS 18 (2012) 111–41.

393 A.D.H. Bivar, ‘The Historical Origins of the Art of Gandhara’ in Pakistan Archaeology 26 (1991) 61–72. On Parthian associations of the dynastic styles, in some detail, K. Weidemann, JRGZM 18 (1971) 146–78.

394 Nehru, OGS pls. 39–43, 46–7; SRAA 6 (1999/2000) 217–39; G. Frumkin, Archaeology in Soviet Central Asia (1970) 114ff.

395 Notably in essays by Facenna et al. in ACSS 9 (2003) 277–380.

396 ACSS 9 (2003) 373, fig. 54. D. Faccenna, Butkara I.2 (1962) pl. 289–90, no. 3215.

397 J. Boardman in GAC 3, fig. 1 (London); cf. 5, fig. 2 (Peshawar), 6, fig. 3. Crossroads no. 131, cf. no. 130.

398 Ars Asiatica 15 (1930) pl. 34b. Cf. Huntington (n. 377) 84, fig. 5.34; 87, fig. 5.38, 119, fig. 7.10

399 See especially M.L. Carter, ‘Dionysiac aspects of Kushan art’, Ars Orientalis 7 (1968) 121–46. Galli 2011, 302–21. Also, with the theatrical aspects in view, P. Brancaccio and Xinru Liu in Journal of Global History 4 (2009)227–44.

400 DCAA 127, fig. 4.66 (Paris, Guimet Museum, from Hadda).

401 J. Boardman, The Archaeology of Nostalgia (2002) 124, fig. 92; The Triumph of Dionysos (Oxford BAR, 2014).

402 Carter, op. cit., 121–3, fig. 1; fig. 5 for a wine-making scene not Greek in inspiration.

403 Ibid., fig. 6.

404 Bull. Cleveland Museum of Art Oct. 1982, 254, fig. 14. Lahore Museum 1914.

405 DCAA 127, fig. 4.65 (London); and the bronze monster, ibid., 141, fig. 4.85, much later.

406 DCAA 130, fig. 4.68 (London). Crossroads no. 132. A useful view of Roman sarcophagi of the eastern world in G. Koch, Sarkophage des römischen Kaiserzeit (Darmstadt, 1993) chs. 5, 8, 9. And more fully, G. Koch and H. Sichtermann, Römische Sarkophage (Munich, 1982) Part V.

407 DCAA 132–3, figs. 4.71 (London), 4.72a (Boston).

408 Crossroads no. 193.

409 DCAA 130, fig. 4.68. And Taxila pl. 216.72–3. C.A. Bromberg, BAI 2 (1988) 67–85 on the putti with garlands in Asia. Several at Jamalgarhi, Errington, pl. 87.

410 DCAA 136, fig. 4.78 (London). Crossroads no. 133.

411 N.A. Khan, in East and West 40 (1990) 315–9.

412 Crossroads no. 128 (London). Cf. Carter, fig. 7, a pair of drinking hippo-centaurs, the female winged. A good selection with various animal heads at Andandheri, A.H. Dani, Ancient Pakistan 4 (1968–9), pls. 21–3.

413 Crossroads no. 134 (London).

414 Dr Sen-Gupta kindly told me about this. It is from the same complex as reliefs published by M. Taddei in Marakanda (Essays… James Harle, 1990). On his further appearances north and east see J.-U. Hartmann in Jb.Bayerische Akad. der Wiss. 2004, 107–29.

415 F.B. Flood, ‘Herakles and the ‘Perpetual Acolyte’ of the Buddha’ in SAS 5 (1989) 17–27.

416 Aus dem Osten des Alexanderreiches (Fest. K. Fischer, eds J. Ozols, V. Thewalt, 1984) 159, fig. 9; Stanco, 24.

417 A.D.H. Bivar, ‘Cosmopolitan Allusions in the Art of Gandhara’ in Actes, Colloque, Strasbourg 17–18 Mars 2000 (eds Z. Tarzi, D. Vaillancourt, 2005) 15–18.

418 M. Taddei, East and West 14 (1963) 38–55. The motif with a trophy appears on the Gemma Augustea.

419 DCAA 131, fig. 4.69 (London).

420 ACSS 3 (1996) 293, fig. 1 (B.Ya. Stavisky; also in East and West 23 (1973) 265–77, on capitals in Bactria, and GAC 49–50). There is a reclining satyr with a drinking horn and a wreathed hydria on a capital fragment on the Swiss market (1995). Cf. Berlin Kongress 1988 63, fig. 1, capital with lion foreparts. From Ananderi, Ancient Pakistan4 (1968–9) pl. 23c, a man’s bust. The idea probably comes from the west, e.g., Parthia,. a capital from Warka, J. Curtis (ed.), Mesopotamia and Iran… (London, 2000) 29, pl. 6, stucco capital with male bust; or even Greek as at Aphrodisias: K.T. Erim, Aphrodisias de Carie (Lille Coll. III, 1987) 31, fig. 23; idem, Aphrodisias (London, 1986) 61; and in Colchis, DCAA 221, fig. 6.50.

421 ACSS 9 (2003) 290, fig. 7; 292, fig. 8. With a Bodhisattva from Jamalgarhi, Majumbar (Errington) II, pl. 13b. On Bactrian capitals, J. Staviskij, East and West 23 (1978) 265–77.

422 Sotheby, London, 7 July 1986, nos. 160–2.

423 DCAA 132–3, fig. 4.72a,b.

424 DCAA 125, fig. 4.63 (once Mardan) – rather ‘improved’ with boot polish in an English officers’ mess.

425 G. Ortiz, The Ortiz Collection (London 1994) no. 173; O. Bopearachchi, in On the Cusp of an Era (ed. D.M. Srinavasan (2007) 119–32.

426 New York 1986.2, with garnet inlay.

427 M.L. Carter, Marg 39.4 (1988), 22

428 Crossroads no. 135 (London). DCAA 134, fig. 4.73. Further on hair styles, J.C. Harle in Orientalia Iosephi Tucci Mem. Dicata: Serie Orientale Roma LVI.2 (1987) 569–72.

429 Crossroads no. 136 (London). DCAA 134, fig. 4.74; cf. fig. 4.75 for a more complete rendering of a Greek Tyche.

430 Classical types of children in Gandharan art: A. Provenzali, Parthica 7 (2005) 155–76; the Greek gesture of hand to chin, K.Tanabe, Parthica 12 (2010) 81–94.

431 Thus, DCAA 140, figs. 4.83–4, the ever popular Herakles and Tyche/Fortuna.

432 Crossroads nos. 102–5 (Herakles), no. 107 (Eros), no. 108 (Dionysos or a symposiast), no. 110 (Demeter), no. 111 (Tyche), and compare the Indian and classicized versions of a naked woman, nos. 113–4.

433 New York: A. Herakles. B. wrestlers, one lifting the other, a common Greek motif: Galli 2011, 293, fig. 1a,b. Czuma 1985, no. 81 (Krishna and horse).

434 DCAA 142, figs. 4.87–8. On the Hadda sculptures, M.Z. Tarzi, CRAI 1976, 381–410. P. Cambon, MonPiot 83 (2004) 131–84 for Hadda sculpture in the Musée Guimet, including a splendidly classical male nude, 152, fig. 44, and a very classical, dressed figure, 158, fig. 55. C. Mustamandy in Fest. K. Fischer (1984) 176–80 (and for other Hadda sculpture).

435 DCAA 138, fig. 4.81 (Calcutta).

436 DCAA 135, fig. 4.77 (Karachi).

437 DCAA 138, fig. 4.79 (London, from Jamalgarhi). Pictures of Atlas figures in Ingholt, figs. 381–6.

438 Crossroads no. 126 (London); q.v. for centaurs. Statuettes: Czuma 1985, nos. 97 (winged), 98.

439 E.g., the famous bronze rhyton from the Northwest Frontier [pl. xxx]. One carries an Indian rider on Sanchi stupa 2, and they appear holding flowers and bowls on stone reliefs at Lucknow, from Mathura. They survive even into Sasanian art – a splendid centauress with flowers on a gilt silver dish: Schätze des Orients (Meisterwerke…Miho Museum, Vienna, 1999) no. 49.

440 The device beside him is unexplained.

441 DCAA 138, fig. 4.81.

442 P. Brancaccio and Xinru Liu, ‘Dionysus and drama in the Buddhist art of Gandhara’, Journal of Global History 4 (2009) 219–244, esp. 239–44. Dionysos in India, A. Dihle, in India and the Ancient World (ed. G. Pollet, 1987) 47–58.

Chapter 7

443 DCAA 81, figs. 4.7,8.

444 Defence of the Roman Byzantine East (eds D. Freeman, P. Kennedy; Oxford BAR 279, 1986).

445 See Colledge ch.7 for a good account of Parthian architecture. And in general, J. Wiesehöfer (ed.) Das Partherreich und seine Zeugnisse (1998). On Roman arts in Parthia, the interpretatio romana, M. Colledge, in M. Henig and A. King (eds) Pagan Gods (Oxford 1986) 221–30. From Persepolis to the Punjab (eds E. Errington, V.S. Curtis, British Museum, 2007) for valuable essays on the period. Herrmann 1977 for arts and sites.

446 A.M. Smith, Roman Palmyra (Oxford, 2013).

447 After Alexander 24, fig. 16; British Museum.

448 DCAA 84, fig. 4.13 (Teheran Museum); Persica 16 (2000) 33.

449 DCAA 84, fig. 4.12 (Teheran Museum); Cambridge Hist.Iran 3.2, pl. 65. CII no. 3.

450 CII nos. 18–27; ibid., nos. 73–4 for slightly later parchment records from Media recording sales of vineyards, in Greek, and no. 75, a ‘Herakles lives here; let no evil enter’ on a base.

451 Herrmann 1977, 55, below; Baghdad Museum.

452 A. Invernizzi, Parthica 1 (1999) 107–17 (a dying Amazon figure); R. Menegazzi, Parthica 7 (2005) 81–91, figures of women.

453 DCAA 85–6, fig. 4.15. Herrmann 1977, 67–72. E. J. Keall, M.A. Leveque and N. Willson, Iran 18 (1980) 1–41.

454 Colledge, pl. 64. On such figures, J.-M. Dentzer in Annales arch. arabes syriennes 21 (1971) 39–50. On Allat/Athena see J. Starcky in Mythologies Périphériques (eds, L. Kahil, C Augé, Paris, 1981) 119–130; ibid., 107–12, A. Bounni on Apollo at Palmyra.

455 Colledge, 157–9 and in Pagan Gods (see n. 135) 224, fig. 2 [fig. 136]; 227, fig, 6 [fig. 135, Allat]. Cf. S. Downey, AJA 72 (1968) 211–7. For Herakles figures at Hatra and Palmyra and their relationship to Nergal see T. Kaizer, Iraq 62 (2000) 219–32.

456 Los Angeles M.76.97.592. For the pairs, Crossroads no. 145; A. Post, Boreas 18 (1995) 247–54.

457 Latest work on the archaeology of Sasanian Persia: Persia’s Imperial Power in Late Antiquity (eds E.W. Sauer et al., 2013). A good overview, but not for art, is T. Daryaee, Sasanian Persia (London, 2009). On the conflict with Rome, P.M. Edwell, Between Rome and Persia (2008) ch. 5. On classical elements in Sasanian art, E. Will, BCH Suppl.XIV (1985), 433–45.

458 For the rock reliefs see Herrmann 1977, 87–94. The Emperor Gordian may also be trampled by the Sasanian king. The cameo – H. von Gall, Das Reiterkampfbild (1990) 56–9. Paris, Cabinet des Medailles (Babelon no. 360).

459 On the techniques, W.T. Chase, Ars Orientalia 7 (1968) 75ff.; shapes, R. Ghirshman, Ars Orientalis 2 (1957) 77–82, and ibid., 56–7, 68,

460 Afghanistan no. 179; Lukonin, fig. 216; P. Denwood, Iran 11 (1973) 121–6. A cup in Cleveland (66.369) carries a scroll containing wingless erotes-musicians.

461 The silver cups, here figs. 139–43 are DCAA 90–96, figs. 4.23–6. K. Weitzmann, The Art Bulletin 25 (1943) 289–324 on the Euripidean aspect. A good discussion in A.C. Gunter and P. Jett, Ancient Iranian Metalwork in the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery (1992) 148–54. On ‘Kushano-Sassanian bowls’ P. Harper in Misc. Van den Berghe (1989) 847–66, and cf. 915, pl. 2b.

462 The technique is well described by Jett, ibid., 49–60.

463 P.O. Harper, Mesopotamia 22 (1987) 341–55.

464 I discuss these in DCAA 94–7, figs. 4.27–9; Classical Art in Eastern Translation (17th J.L. Myres Memorial Lecture; Oxford, Leopard Press, 1993); and The Triumph of Dionysos (Oxford, 2014) 22–4). Also now, M. Compareti in Parthica 9 (2007) 216–9.

465 A.S. Melikian-Chirvani, ‘Rustam and Herakles, a Family Resemblance’ in BAI 12 (1998) 171–99.

466 The figures are taken for Dionysos and Ariadne in Gunter and Kett, op. cit., 121, and the satyr/countryman for Herakles. Ettinghausen, BSI 4, also takes the main figure for male; it is certainly more fully dressed than most Sasanian women.

467 Observed too by M.M. Kouhpar and T. Taylor, in Current Res. in Sas. Archaeology (Oxford, BAR 2008) 127–135. P. Callieri, ibid., 115–126, on Dionysiac themes in Sasanian architecture.

468 G. Ortiz, The Ortiz Collection (1994) no. 243.

469 British Museum. And cf. (wingless) on the cup, Dalton, no. 208, pl. 38, and p. 64 where the ‘genie’ is discussed.

470 Lukonin, fig. 146.

471 Schätze des Orients (Meisterwerke. Miho Museum, Vienna, 1999) no. 45.

472 Lukonin II, fig. 37 (Hermitage).

473 Lukonin II, fig. 195 (Hermitage).

474 B. Brentjes in J. Davis-Kimball et al. (eds), Kurgans, Ritual Sites and Settlements. Eurasian Bronze and Iron Age (Oxford BAR Int. series 890, 2000) 259–68. A.D.H. Bivar, Art et archéologie des monastères gréco-buddhistes (Colloq. int. du Crpoga, 2000, eds Tarzi and Vaillancourt) 10–23; and in Pakistan Archaeology 26.1 (1991) 68–9.

475 They appear on another dish, heads lowered, without their attendants: Ettinghausen, BSI, fig. 40; idem., ch.2, thinks the winged-horse motif is of some importance in Sasanian art.

476 Ettinghausen, BSI, figs. 49–57.

477 Thus, Ettinghausen, BSI, ch. 1. On festal scenes in Sasanian art, M.L. Carter, Acta Iranica 1 (1974) 171–202.

478 G. Azarpay, Iranica Antiqua 23.1 (1988) 349–60, also for the Dioskouroi.

479 CRAI 2007, 563, fig. 17; Cabinet des Medailles, Paris, 1975.251.12.

480 At Taq-I Bustan.

481 Corduba – in the V&A. Faras, British Museum.

482 See J. Boardman in Festschrift Vincent Megaw (2015), and AWE (forthcoming).

Epilogue

483 J. Boardman, RA 1972, 57–72.

484 J. Boardman, The Archaeology of Nostalgia (London, 2002), 160–2.

485 E. Benjamin, Classical Quarterly 51 (2001) 115–26. On Greek views on Amazons and nomad women, T. David, Artibus Asiae 32 (1970) 203–25; and Ars Asiatiques 32 (1976) 203–25.; J. Davis-Kimball, SRAA 5 (1998) 1–50.

486 J. Boardman, The Archaeology of Nostalgia (London, 2002), 127–32.

487 Ibid., 106–7.

488 Strabo 688. In general on Greek sources about Herakles and Dionysos in India see P.A. Brunt in the Loeb Arrian II, 435–42.

489 A. Furtwängler-K. Reichhold, Griechische Vasenmalerei (Munich, 1904–32) pl. 72.3. In general on Dionysos and the east see J. Boardman, The Triumph of Dionysos (Oxford BAR, 2014).

490 For the iconography of Astarte, much studied, see L.A. Cakmak in Gandhara 76–9. Z. Bahrani writes about the hellenization of Ishtar in Oxford Art Journal 19.2 (1996) 3–16, but fails to take the point about the utter realism of Greek statuary and its probable effect – remembering of course that it was realistically coloured. Eastern arts were coloured but ‘unreal’, and were even quick to abandon any of the ideas about real portraiture introduced by Greek coinage, coming to rely on inscriptions, pose, attributes or dress for identification.

491 Ebba Koch, Shah Jahan and Orpheus (Graz, 1988), pls. 15–23.

492 Oxford, Ashmolean Museum EA 1995.3. Cf. I. Weber, Deutsche, niederlandische… Renaissance Plaketten (Munich, 1976) no. 698.

Addenda

There are several relevant articles in Indian Historical Review 32.1 (2005): Arora on Onesikritos (pp. 35–102); Bopearachchi on new art evidence (pp. 103–25); Davaras on interesting parallels between Bronze Age Greece and early India (pp. 126–39); Gupta on Indo-Roman ocean trade (pp. 140–64); a review article by Holt on studies of Greeks in India (pp. 288–97). The volume is shortly being reissued with some new articles. A. Mayor, The Amazons (Princeton, 2014) has much of relevance. L. Nehru, The Arts of Western Central Asia, 6th century BC to 4th century AD (Oxford, 2015) will also have much of relevance, especially for the Parthian period. On palettes, H. Falk in BAI 24 (2010) 89–113.

If you find an error please notify us in the comments. Thank you!
Previous
Page
Next
Page