Ancient History & Civilisation

Notes

INTRODUCTION

1. Karl Jaspers, The Origin and Goal of History, trans. Michael Bullock (London, 1953), pp. 1–70.

2. Mircea Eliade, Myths, Dreams and Mysteries: The Encounter Between Contemporary Faiths and Archaic Realities, trans. Philip Mairet (London, 1960), pp. 172–78; Wilhelm Schmidt, The Origin of the Idea of God (New York, 1912).

3. Walter Burkert, Homo Necans: The Anthropology of Ancient Greek Sacrificial Ritual and Myth, trans. Peter Bing (Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London, 1983), pp. 16–22; Joseph Campbell with Bill Moyers, The Power of Myth (New York, 1988), pp. 72–74.

4. Eliade, Myths, Dreams and Mysteries, pp. 80–81; Mircea Eliade, The Myth of the Eternal Return, or, Cosmos and History, trans. Willard R. Trask (Princeton, 1959), pp. 17–20.

5. Eliade, Myth of the Eternal Return, pp. 1–34.

6. Huston Smith, The World’s Religions: Our Great Wisdom Traditions (San Francisco, 1991), p. 235.

7. Eliade, Myth of the Eternal Return, pp. 34–35.

8. Jaspers, Origin and Goal of History, p. 40.

1. THE AXIAL PEOPLES

1. Mary Boyce, Zoroastrians: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices, 2nd ed. (London and New York), p. 2; Peter Clark, Zoroastrians: An Introduction to an Ancient Faith (Brighton and Portland, Ore., 1998), p. 18.

2. Mircea Eliade, Patterns of Comparative Religion, trans. Rosemary Sheed (London, 1958), pp. 66–68.

3. Boyce, Zoroastrians, pp. 9–11.

4. Ibid., p. 8.

5. Yasht 48:5.

6. Boyce, Zoroastrians, pp. 11–12.

7. Thomas J. Hopkins, The Hindu Religious Tradition (Belmont, Calif., 1971), p. 14.

8. Gavin Flood, An Introduction to Hinduism (Cambridge and New York, 1996), p. 44; John Keay, India: A History (London, 2000), p. 32.

9. Boyce, Zoroastrians, pp. 12–15.

10. Eliade, Patterns of Comparative Religion, pp. 188–89; Norman Cohn, Cosmos, Chaos and the World to Come: The Ancient Roots of Apocalyptic Faith (New Haven and London, 1993), pp. 94–95; Boyce, Zoroastrians, pp. xiv–xv, 19.

11. Rig Veda 4.42.5, in Ralph T. H. Griffith, trans., The Rig Veda (New York, 1992).

12. Cohn, Cosmos, Chaos and the World to Come, p. 77; Boyce, Zoroastrians, p. xiii; Clark, Zoroastrians, p. 19.

13. Yasna 43.

14. Clark, Zoroastrians, pp. 4–6.

15. Yasna 19:16–18. Quotations from the Zoroastrian scriptures are taken from Mary Boyce, ed. and trans., Textual Sources for the Study of Zoroastrianism (Chicago, 1984).

16. Boyce, Zoroastrians, pp. 20–23; Cohn, Cosmos, Chaos and the World to Come, p. 81.

17. Yasna 46:2, 11; 50:1.

18. Yasna 29:1–10.

19. Yasna 30.

20. Yasna 30:6.

21. Yasna 46:4.

22. Jamsheed K. Choksy, Purity and Pollution in Zoroastrianism: Triumph over Evil (Austin, 1989), pp. 1–5.

23. Boyce, Zoroastrians, p. 32.

24. Yasna 44:15; 51:9.

25. Yasna 43:3.

26. Yasna 29, 33.

27. Yasna 33.

28. Boyce, Zoroastrians, pp. 23–24.

29. Ibid., p. 30; Cohn, Cosmos, Chaos and the World to Come, p. 78.

30. Edwin Bryant, The Quest for the Origins of Vedic Culture: The Indo-Aryan Debate (Oxford and New York, 2001); S. C. Kak, “On the Chronology of Ancient India,” Indian Journal of History and Science 22, no. 3 (1987); Colin Renfrew, Archaeology and Language: The Puzzle of Indo-European Origins (London, 1987).

31. Keay, India, pp. 5–18; Hopkins, Hindu Religious Tradition, pp. 3–10; Flood, Introduction to Hinduism, pp. 24–30.

32. Shatapatha Brahmana (SB) 6.8.1.1, in J. C. Heesterman, The Broken World of Sacrifice: An Essay in Ancient Indian Ritual (Chicago and London, 1993), p. 123.

33. Mircea Eliade, A History of Religious Ideas, trans. Willard R. Trask, 3 vols. (Chicago and London, 1978, 1982, 1985), I:200–201; J. C. Heesterman, “Ritual, Revelation and the Axial Age,” in S. N. Eisenstadt, ed., The Origins and Diversity of Axial Age Civilizations (Albany, 1986), p. 404.

34. Louis Renou, Religions of Ancient India (London, 1953), p. 20.

35. J. C. Heesterman, The Inner Conflict of Tradition: Essays in Indian Ritual, Kingship and Society (Chicago and London, 1985), pp. 85–87.

36. Jan Gonda, The Vision of the Vedic Poets (The Hague, 1963), pp. 14–23.

37. Renou, Religions of Ancient India, pp. 10, 16–18; Michael Witzel, “Vedas and Upanishads,” in Gavin Flood, ed., The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism (Oxford, 2003), pp. 70–71; Heesterman, “Ritual, Revelation and the Axial Age,” p. 398.

38. Rig Veda 9.10.6, as translated in Gonda, Vision of the Vedic Poets, p. 17.

39. Heesterman, Inner Conflict of Tradition, pp. 118–24.

40. SB 7.2.1.4, in Mircea Eliade, The Myth of the Eternal Return, or, Cosmos and History, trans. Willard R. Trask (Princeton, 1959), p. 21.

41. Taittiriya Brahmana (TB) 1.5.9.4, ibid.

42. Heesterman, Inner Conflict of Tradition, p. 206; Heesterman, “Ritual, Revelation and the Axial Age,” pp. 396–98; Keay, India, pp. 31–33; Romila Thapar, Early India: From the Origins to ad 1300 (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 2002), pp. 126–30.

43. Jaiminiya Brahmana (JB) 2.297; Heesterman, Broken World of Sacrifice, p. 52.

44. Heesterman, Broken World of Sacrifice, pp. 2, 27, 76–79.

45. JB 2.297–99, in Heesterman, Broken World of Sacrifice, p. 52; Heesterman, “Ritual, Revelation and the Axial Age,” p. 397.

46. Rig Veda 10.33.2–3. Griffith translation.

47. Hermann Kulke, “The Historical Background of India’s Axial Age,” in Eisenstadt, Origins and Diversity of Axial Age Civilizations, p. 376; Flood, Introduction to Hinduism, pp. 67–68; Keay, India, pp. 37–40, 50–53.

48. Heesterman, Broken World of Sacrifice, pp. 136–37.

49. Arthashastra 6.13–15, in Heesterman, Inner Conflict of Tradition, p. 149.

50. TB 1.8.4.1, in Heesterman, “Ritual, Revelation and the Axial Age,” p. 403.

51. SB 5.5.2.5, ibid.

52. Mantra in Taittiriya Samhita (TS) 1.3.3, in Heesterman, Broken World of Sacrifice, p. 126.

53. Maitrayani Samhita 4.2.1.23:2, ibid., pp. 23–24, 134–37.

54. SB 2.2.2.8–10, ibid., p. 24.

55. Hopkins, Hindu Religious Tradition, pp. 17–18.

56. Kathaka Samhita (KS) 8.9.92–3; TS 4.1.2.2, in Heesterman, Broken World of Sacrifice, p. 113.

57. SB 7.1.1.1–4, in Eliade, Myth of the Eternal Return, pp. 10–11.

58. Rig Veda 10.119.1, 7–8. Griffith translation.

59. Heesterman, Broken World of Sacrifice, pp. 171–73.

60. Louis Renou, “Sur la notion de brahman,Journal asiatique 237 (1949).

61. Jan Gonda, Change and Continuity in Indian Religion (The Hague, 1965), p. 200.

62. Heesterman, Inner Conflict of Tradition, pp. 70–72, 126.

63. Rig Veda 10.129.

64. Rig Veda 10.129:6–7. Griffith translation.

65. Rig Veda 10.90.

66. Classic of Odes 253, in Arthur Waley, ed. and trans., The Book of Songs (London, 1937).

67. Jacques Gernet, A History of Chinese Civilization, 2nd ed., trans. J. R. Foster and Charles Hartman (Cambridge and New York, 1996), pp. 39–40.

68. Sima Qian, Records of the Grand Historian 1.101; Marcel Granet, Chinese Civilization, trans. Kathleen Innes and Mabel Brailsford (London and New York, 1951), pp. 11–16; Henri Masparo, China in Antiquity, 2nd ed., trans. Frank A. Kierman Jr. (Folkestone, 1978), pp. 15–19.

69. D. Howard Smith, Chinese Religions (London, 1968), pp. 1–11; Gernet, History, pp. 41–50; Jacques Gernet, Ancient China: From the Beginnings to the Empire, trans. Raymond Rudorff (London, 1968), pp. 37–65; Wm. Theodore de Bary and Irene Bloom, eds., Sources of Chinese Tradition, vol. I, From Earliest Times to 1600, 2nd ed. (New York, 1999), pp. 3–23.

70. Gernet, History of Chinese Civilization, pp. 45–46; Gernet, Ancient China, pp. 50–53; Marcel Granet, The Religion of the Chinese People, trans. and ed. Maurice Freedman (Oxford, 1975), pp. 37–54.

71. Eliade, Myth of the Eternal Return, pp. 46–47.

72. Michael J. Puett, To Become a God: Cosmology, Sacrifice, and Self-Divinization in Early China (Cambridge, Mass., and London, 2002), pp. 32–76.

73. De Bary and Bloom, Sources of Chinese Tradition, pp. 10–23.

74. Oracle 38. De Bary and Bloom translation.

75. Oracle 15a–b.

76. Oracle 22a. De Bary and Bloom translation.

77. Oracle 23. De Bary and Bloom translation.

78. De Bary and Bloom, Sources of Chinese Tradition, p. 12.

79. Gernet, Ancient China, p. 62.

80. The Book of Mozi, 3.25, in Gernet, Ancient China, p. 65.

81. Classic of Documents, “The Shao Announcement,” in de Bary and Bloom, Sources of Chinese Tradition, pp. 35–37. Some scholars believe that this speech was given by the duke of Shao, but de Bary and Bloom, in common with many others, assign it to Dan, duke of Zhou.

82. Ibid., p. 37.

83. Edward L. Shaughnessy, “Western Zhou Civilization,” in Michael Loewe and Edward L. Shaughnessy, eds., The Cambridge History of Ancient China (Cambridge, U.K., 1999), pp. 313–17.

84. Ibid., p. 317.

85. Israel Finkelstein and Neil Asher Silberman, The Bible Unearthed: Archaeology’s New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Texts (New York and London, 2001), pp. 89–92.

86. Ibid., pp. 103–7; William G. Dever, What Did the Biblical Writers Know and When Did They Know It? What Archaeology Can Tell Us About the Reality of Ancient Israel (Grand Rapids, Mich., and Cambridge, U.K., 2001), pp. 110–18.

87. Gosta W. Ahlström, The History of Ancient Palestine (Minneapolis, 1993), pp. 234–35, 247–48.

88. George W. Mendenhall, The Tenth Generation: The Origins of Biblical Tradition (Baltimore and London, 1973); N. P. Lemche, Early Israel: Anthropological and Historical Studies on the Israelite Society Before the Monarchy (Leiden, 1985); D. C. Hopkins, The Highlands of Canaan (Sheffield, 1985); James D. Martin, “Israel as a Tribal Society,” in R. E. Clements, ed., The World of Ancient Israel: Sociological, Anthropological and Political Perspectives (Cambridge, 1989), pp. 94–114; H. G. M. Williamson, “The Concept of Israel in Transition,” in Clements, World of Ancient Israel, pp. 141–63.

89. Dever, What Did the Biblical Writers Know, pp. 121, 124, 267.

90. Joshua 9:15; 4:11; 1 Samuel 27:10; 30:29; Judges 1:16; 4:11; Exodus 6:15; Mark S. Smith, The Early History of God, Yahweh and the Other Deities in Ancient Israel (New York and London, 1990), p. 4; Frank Moore Cross, Canaanite Myth and Hebrew Epic: Essays in the History of the Religion of Israel (Cambridge, Mass., and London, 1973), pp. 49–50.

91. Joshua 9; Judges 8:33; 9:4, 46; Joshua 24.

92. Cross, Canaanite Myth, p. 69; Peter Machinist, “Distinctiveness in Ancient Israel,” in Modechai Cogan and Israel Ephal, eds., Studies in Assyrian History and Ancient Near Eastern Historiography (Jerusalem, 1991).

93. Genesis 29:14; 2 Samuel 5:1; cf. Judges 9:1–4.

94. Frank Moore Cross, From Epic to Canon: History and Literature in Ancient Israel (Baltimore and London, 1998), pp. 3–6.

95. Mendenhall, The Tenth Generation, p. 177.

96. Cross, From Epic to Canon, p. 13.

97. Numbers 10:35. A very ancient text. Unless otherwise stated, all biblical quotations are taken from The Jerusalem Bible.

98. Cross, Canaanite Myth, pp. 41–84; Smith, Early History of God, pp. 7–12.

99. Exodus 6:3.

100. Psalms 89:10–13; 93:1–4; Isaiah 27:1; Job 7:12; 9:8; 26:12; 38:7–11; Isaiah 51:9–11.

101. Ugaritic hymn quoted in Cross, Canaanite Myth, pp. 148–50.

102. Ibid.

103. Ibid., pp. 162–63.

104. Judges 5:4–5.

105. Habakkuk 3:4–8.

106. David S. Sperling, The Original Torah: The Political Intent of the Bible’s Writers (New York and London, 1998), pp. 89–90.

107. Joshua 3:1–5:15; Cross, From Epic to Canon, p. 44; Cross, Canaanite Myth, pp. 103–5, 138.

108. Joshua 3:15.

109. Joshua 5:1.

110. Joshua 4:10–12.

111. Joshua 5:13–15.

112. Joshua 6:21.

113. Cross, Canaanite Myth, pp. 103–24.

114. Exodus 15:1–18.

115. Exodus 15:15–16.

116. Cross, Canaanite Myth, pp. 133–34.

117. Ibid., pp. 112–24.

118. Exodus 15:3, 6–7.

119. Exodus 15:8.

120. Deuteronomy 32:8–9.

121. R. A. Di Vito, Studies in Third Millennium Sumerian and Akkadian Personal Names: The Designation and Conception of the Personal God (Rome, 1993), pp. 93–96.

122. Finkelstein and Silberman, The Bible Unearthed, pp. 124–42; Dever, What Did the Biblical Writers Know, pp. 124–64.

123. Psalm 2:7.

124. See, for example, Psalms 77 and 89.

125. Psalm 24.

126. Psalm 29:8–10.

127. Ugaritic hymn quoted in Smith, Early History of God, p. 46.

2. RITUAL

1. Walter Burkert, Greek Religion, trans. John Raffan (Cambridge, Mass., 1985), p. 47.

2. Ibid., pp. 10–16; Oswyn Murray, Early Greece, 2nd ed. (London, 1993), pp. 10–11; Jacob Burckhardt, The Greeks and Greek Civilization, trans. Sheila Stern; rev. ed. by Oswyn Murray (New York, 1998), pp. 13–16.

3. Robert Parker, Athenian Religion: A History (Oxford and New York, 1996), pp. 10–16.

4. Murray, Early Greece, pp. 69–74.

5. Burkert, Greek Religion, pp. 49–50.

6. Walter Burkert, Savage Energies: Lessons of Myth and Ritual in Ancient Greece, trans. Peter Bing (Chicago and London, 2001), p. 91; Walter Burkert, Homo Necans: The Anthropology of Ancient Greek Sacrificial Ritual and Myth, trans. Peter Bing (Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London, 1983), pp. 27–34; Walter Burkert, Structure and History in Greek Mythology and Religion (Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London, 1980), pp. 50–52.

7. Hesiod, Theogony 116–32, in Dorothea Wender, trans., Hesiod and Theognis (London and New York, 1976).

8. Ibid., 118–22. Wender translation.

9. Homer, Odyssey, 1:31–32.

10. Anthony Gottlieb, The Dream of Reason: A History of Philosophy from the Greeks to the Renaissance (London, 2000), pp. 123–25; Burkert, Greek Religion, pp. 134–35.

11. Gottlieb, Dream of Reason, pp. 138–40; Burkert, Greek Religion, p. 200.

12. Burkert, Greek Religion, pp. 237–42; Burkert, Homo Necans, pp. 213–35.

13. Israel Finkelstein and Neil Asher Silberman, The Bible Unearthed: Archaeology’s New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Texts (New York and London, 2001), pp. 158–59.

14. 1 Kings 11:5, 7–8; Mark S. Smith, The Early History of God: Yahweh and the Other Deities in Ancient Israel (New York and London, 1990), pp. xxiii–xxv.

15. Smith, The Early History of God, pp. 44–49.

16. Mark S. Smith, The Origins of Biblical Monotheism: Israel’s Polytheistic Background and the Ugaritic Texts (New York and London, 2001), pp. 41–79.

17. Ibid., pp. 47–48, 96, 148–51.

18. Psalm 89:5–8.

19. Smith, Origins of Biblical Monotheism, p. 9.

20. 1 Kings 18:3, 10, 19.

21. 1 Kings 18:20–46.

22. S. David Sperling, “Israel’s Religion in the Near East,” in Arthur Green, ed., Jewish Spirituality, 2 vols. (London and New York, 1986, 1988), I: 27–28.

23. Exodus 33:17–23; 34:6–8.

24. 1 Kings 19:11–13. This translation is suggested by Frank Moore Cross in Canaanite Myth and Hebrew Epic Essays in the History of the Religion of Israel (Cambridge, Mass., and London, 1973), p. 194.

25. 1 Kings 19:18.

26. Cross, Canaanite Myth, pp. 190–91.

27. Psalm 82.

28. 1 Kings 21:19.

29. F. Charles Fensham, “Widow, Orphan and the Poor in Ancient Near Eastern Legal and Wisdom Literature,” in Frederick E. Greenspahn, ed., Essential Papers on Israel and the Ancient Near East (New York and London, 1991), pp. 176–82.

30. W. G. Lambert, Babylonian Wisdom Literature (London, 1960), pp. 134–35.

31. Anastasi II.6:5; Papyrus Harris I.

32. Norman Cohn, Cosmos, Chaos and the World to Come: The Ancient Roots of Apocalyptic Faith (New Haven and London, 1993), p. 120.

33. John Dominic Crossan, The Birth of Christianity: Discovering What Happened in the Years Immediately After the Execution of Jesus (New York, 1998), pp. 198–99.

34. 1 Kings 17:8–16; 2 Kings 4:1–7.

35. S. David Sperling, “Joshua 24 Re-examined,” Hebrew Union College Annual 58 (1987).

36. Joshua 24:19–20, 23.

37. S. David Sperling, The Original Torah: The Political Intent of the Bible’s Writers (New York and London, 1998), pp. 68–72; John Bowker, The Religious Imagination and the Sense of God (Oxford, 1978), pp. 58–68.

38. Jacques Gernet, A History of Chinese Civilization, trans. J. R. Foster and Charles Hartman, 2nd ed. (Cambridge, U.K., and New York, 1996), pp. 54–65.

39. Marcel Granet, The Religion of the Chinese People, trans. and ed. Maurice Freedman (Oxford, 1975), pp. 56–82; Henri Masparo, China in Antiquity, trans. Frank A. Kierman Jr. (Folkestone, 1978), pp. 134–59; D. Howard Smith, Chinese Religions (London, 1968), pp. 12–31.

40. Classic of Odes 151, in Arthur Waley, ed. and trans., The Book of Songs (London, 1934).

41. Michael J. Puett, The Ambivalence of Creation: Debates Concerning Innovation and Artifice in Ancient China (Stanford, Calif., 2001), pp. 28–36.

42. Classic of Odes 270. Waley translation.

43. Huston Smith, The World’s Religions: Our Great Wisdom Traditions (San Francisco, 1991), pp. 183–85; Gernet, History of Chinese Civilization, pp. 31–32.

44. Smith, Chinese Religions, p. 24.

45. Marcel Granet, Festivals and Songs of Ancient China, trans. E. D. Edwards (London, 1932), p. 75.

46. Granet, Chinese Civilization, pp. 11–12; Granet, The Religion of the Chinese People, pp. 66–68.

47. Sima Qian, Records of a Master Historian 1.56, 79, cited in Granet, Chinese Civilization, p. 12.

48. Sima Qian, Records of a Master Historian 38, cited ibid.

49. Edward L. Shaughnessy, “Western Zhou Civilization,” in Michael Loewe and Edward L. Shaughnessy, eds., The Cambridge History of Ancient China (Cambridge, U.K., 1999), pp. 323–34.

50. Classic of Odes 199. Waley translation.

51. Ibid.

52. Benjamin I. Schwartz, The World of Thought in Ancient China (Cambridge, Mass., and London, 1985), pp. 49–50.

53. Classic of Odes 235, in Wm. Theodore de Bary and Irene Bloom, eds., Sources of Chinese Tradition, Vol. 1: From Earliest Times to 1600 (New York, 1999), p. 38.

54. The Book of Xunzi 20, “A Discussion of Music,” in Xunzi: Basic Writings, ed. and trans. Burton Watson (New York, 2003).

55. Schwartz, World of Thought, p. 49.

56. Classic of Odes 254. Waley translation.

57. Classic of Odes 258, in Bernhard Karlgren, trans., The Book of Odes (Stockholm, 1950), p. 214.

58. Louis Renou, “Sur la notion de brahman,Journal asiatique 237 (1949).

59. J. C. Heesterman, “Ritual, Revelation and the Axial Age,” in S. N. Eisenstadt, ed., The Origins and Diversity of Axial Age Civilizations (Albany, 1986), pp. 396–97.

60. Ibid., p. 403.

61. J. C. Heesterman, The Inner Conflict of Tradition: Essays in Indian Ritual, Kingship and Society (Chicago and London, 1985), p. 91.

62. Taittiriya Brahmana (TB) 3.7.7.14, quoted in J. C. Heesterman, The Broken World of Sacrifice: An Essay in Ancient Indian Ritual (Chicago and London, 1993), p. 34.

63. Taittiriya Samhita (TS) 6.4.8.1., ibid., p. 209.

64. Pancavimsha Brahmana (PB) 7.7.9–10, ibid., p. 62.

65. Jaiminiya Brahmana (JB) 1.135; TS 6.3.1.1.; Shatapatha Brahmana (SB) 36.1.27–29; ibid., p. 67.

66. SB 6.8.1.4, cited in Heesterman, “Ritual, Revelation and the Axial Age,” p. 402.

67. JB 2.60–70, in Heesterman, Broken World of Sacrifice, p. 54.

68. SB 10.5.2.23; 10.6.5.8, ibid., p. 57.

69. SB 11.2.2.5, ibid., p. 34; cf. Brian K. Smith, Reflections on Resemblance, Ritual and Religion (Oxford and New York, 1989), p. 103.

70. JB 2.70, cited in Heesterman, Broken World of Sacrifice, pp. 54, 57.

71. R. C. Zaehner, Hinduism (London, New York, and Toronto, 1962), pp. 59–60; Smith, Reflections on Resemblance, pp. 30–34, 72–81.

72. Louis Renou, Religions of Ancient India (London, 1953), p. 18.

73. PB 24.11.2, cited in Smith, Reflections on Resemblance, p. 59.

74. PB 7.10.15; JB 3.153; SB 7.1.22, ibid., p. 61.

75. SB 10.4.2.3, ibid., p. 60.

76. SB 7.4.2.11; 6.1.2.17; PB 24.11.2; 21.2.3, ibid., pp. 64–65.

77. SB 4.2.2.16, ibid., p. 68; cf. Mircea Eliade, Yoga, Immortality and Freedom, trans. Willard R. Trask (London, 1958), p. 109; Mircea Eliade, A History of Religious Ideas, trans. Willard R. Trask, 3 vols. (Chicago and London, 1978, 1982, 1985), I:228–29; Thomas J. Hopkins, The Hindu Religious Tradition (Belmont, Calif., 1971), p. 33.

78. Eliade, Yoga, pp. 109–11; Jan Gonda, Change and Continuity in Indian Religion (The Hague, 1965), pp. 316–39; Hopkins, Hindu Religious Tradition, pp. 31–32.

79. AB 1.3, cited in Hopkins, Hindu Religious Tradition, pp. 31–32.

80. Smith, Reflections on Resemblance, pp. 104–12.

81. SB 11.2.6.13, cited ibid., p. 101.

82. Smith, Reflections on Resemblance, pp. 116–18.

83. TB 3.10.11.1–2, ibid., p. 117; my italics.

84. SB 11.2.3.6; 2.2.2.8, in Heesterman, Broken World of Sacrifice, pp. 97, 140; cf. pp. 215–18.

85. Hopkins, Hindu Religious Tradition, pp. 36–37.

86. SB 2.2.2.15, cited in Heesterman, Broken World of Sacrifice, p. 216.

87. SB 11.2.6.3, cited ibid.

88. SB 1.1.1.4; 3.3.2.2, cited in Gonda, Change and Continuity, pp. 338–39; Heesterman, Broken World of Sacrifice, p. 216.

3. KENOSIS

1. Israel Finkelstein and Neil Asher Silberman, The Bible Unearthed: Archaeology’s New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Texts (New York and London, 2001), pp. 206–12.

2. G. Lenski, Power and Privilege: A Theory of Social Stratification (New York, 1966), pp. 161–217, 273; Andrew Mein, Ezekiel and the Ethics of Exile (Oxford and New York, 2001), pp. 20–38.

3. Amos 7:14–15.

4. Amos 3:8.

5. Michael Fishbane, “Biblical Prophecy as a Religious Phenomenon,” in Arthur Green, ed., Jewish Spirituality, 2 vols. (London and New York, 1986, 1988), I:63–68.

6. Psalms 63:1–2; 84:2; C. F. Whitley, The Prophetic Achievement (London, 1963), pp. 16–17.

7. Amos 9:1.

8. Amos 7:17.

9. Amos 1:3–2:3; 6:14; 2:4–16.

10. Amos 5:21–24.

11. Amos 3:1–2; 9:7–8.

12. Fishbane, “Biblical Prophecy,” p. 70.

13. Abraham J. Heschel, The Prophets, 2 vols. (New York, 1962), I:22–38.

14. Hosea 1:2; Heschel, The Prophets, I:52–57.

15. Hosea 3:1–5.

16. Hosea 4:2

17. Hosea 4:4–6, 12–14, 17; 5:13–14; 10:4–11; 14:4.

18. Heschel, The Prophets, I:57–59.

19. Hosea 6:6.

20. Hosea 11:3–4.

21. William M. Schniedewind, How the Bible Became a Book: The Textualization of Ancient Israel (Cambridge, U.K., 2004), pp. 24–34.

22. William G. Dever, What Did the Biblical Writers Know and When Did They Know It? What Archaeology Can Tell Us About the Reality of Ancient Israel (Grand Rapids, Mich., and Cambridge, U.K., 2001), p. 280.

23. Frank Moore Cross, From Epic to Canon: History and Literature in Ancient Israel (Baltimore and London, 1998), pp. 41–42.

24. R. E. Clements, Abraham and David (London, 1967).

25. Peter Machinist, “Distinctiveness in Ancient Israel,” in Mordechai Cogan and Israel Ephal, eds., Studies in Assyrian History and Ancient Near Eastern Historiography (Jerusalem, 1991), p. 434; Michael Fishbane, Text and Texture: Close Readings of Selected Biblical Texts (New York, 1979), pp. 64, 124–25.

26. Exodus 24:1–2, 9–11.

27. Numbers 11:11, 14–15.

28. Exodus 21:1–27; 22:1–30; 23:1–33.

29. Exodus 24:9, 11.

30. Exodus 33:16–23; Mark S. Smith, The Origins of Biblical Monotheism: Israel’s Polytheistic Background and the Ugaritic Texts (New York and London, 2001), p. 86.

31. Genesis 3:8–9; 6:6; 8:21; 18:1–15.

32. Exodus 3:13–15.

33. Genesis 18:1–15.

34. Genesis 18:3.

35. Genesis 22:1–10.

36. Genesis 22:1–2.

37. Mircea Eliade, The Myth of the Eternal Return, or, Cosmos and History, trans. Willard R. Trask (Princeton, 1959), pp. 108–10.

38. Isaiah 6:1–9.

39. Isaiah 6:11–12.

40. E. A. W. Budge and L. W. King, Annals of the Kings of Assyria (London, 1902), p. 31.

41. 1 Kings 16; Isaiah 7.

42. Psalm 46:5–6.

43. Isaiah 9:8; 10:12; 14:12; 16:6; 23:9.

44. Isaiah 14:30–32.

45. Isaiah 10:5–7.

46. Isaiah 2:10–13.

47. Psalm 46:9; cf. Isaiah 9:1; Psalm 76:1–3.

48. Isaiah 2:2–4.

49. Psalm 131; cf. Psalms 9:10–13; 10; Ben C. Ollenburger, Zion, the City of the Great King: A Theological Symbol of the Jerusalem Cult (Sheffield, 1987), pp. 58–69.

50. Finkelstein and Silberman, Bible Unearthed, pp. 239, 243–46.

51. 2 Kings 18:3–7.

52. 2 Kings 19:35.

53. Finkelstein and Silberman, Bible Unearthed, pp. 263–64.

54. Oswyn Murray, Early Greece, 2nd ed. (London, 1993), pp. 62–65.

55. Charles Freeman, The Greek Achievement: The Foundation of the Western World (New York and London, 1999), pp. 49–50, 116–21.

56. Odyssey 6:262.

57. Christian Meier, “The Emergence of Autonomous Intelligence Among the Greeks,” in S. N. Eisenstadt, ed., The Origins and Diversity of Axial Age Civilizations (Albany, 1986), pp. 71–73.

58. Iliad 2:273; 18:105, 252; Freeman, Greek Achievement, p. 89.

59. Jean Pierre Vernant, Myth and Society in Ancient Greece, 3rd ed., trans. Janet Lloyd (New York, 1996), p. 90.

60. Ibid., pp. 29–32.

61. Walter Burkert, Greek Religion, trans. John Raffan (Cambridge, Mass., 1985), pp. 44–49.

62. Iliad 23.

63. Walter Burkert, Homo Necans: The Anthropology of Ancient Greek Sacrificial Ritual and Myth, trans. Peter Bing (Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London, 1983), pp. 94–103.

64. Walter Burkert, The Orientalizing Revolution: Near Eastern Influence on Greek Culture in the Early Archaic Age, trans. Margaret E. Pinder and Walter Burkert (Cambridge, Mass., and London, 1992), pp. 65–67; Burkert, Greek Religion, 199–208; Robert Parker, Athenian Religion: A History (Oxford and New York, 1996), pp. 34–41.

65. Pindar, Nemean Ode 7:44–47. In some versions of the myth, Apollo kills Pyrrhus himself.

66. Burkert, Homo Necans, pp. 117–30; Meier, “Emergence of the Autonomous Intellect,” pp. 79–81.

67. Burkert, Greek Religion, p. 116; Murray, Early Greece, pp. 102–14; Freeman, Greek Achievement, pp. 65–72.

68. Burkert, Orientalizing Revolution, pp. 56–67.

69. Robert A. Segal, “Adonis: A Greek Eternal Child,” in Dora C. Pozzi and John M. Wickersham, eds., Myth and the Polis (Ithaca and London, 1991); Anthony Gottlieb, The Dream of Reason: A History of Philosophy from the Greeks to the Renaissance (London, 2000), pp. 105–10; Pierre Vidal-Naquet, “The Black Hunter and the Origin of the Athenian Ephebia,” in R. L. Gordon, ed., Myth, Religion and Society (Cambridge, U.K., 1981).

70. S. L. Schein, The Mortal Hero: An Introduction to Homer’s Iliad (Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London, 1984), p. 1.

71. Burkert, Greek Religion, p. 121.

72. Schein, Mortal Hero, p. 80.

73. Ibid., p. 70; Jean Pierre Vernant, “Death with Two Faces,” in Seth L. Schein, ed., Reading the Odyssey: Selective Interpretive Essays (Princeton, 1996), pp. 58–60.

74. Odyssey 11:500, in Walter Shewring, trans., Homer: The Odyssey (Oxford and New York, 1980).

75. Iliad 4:482–89, in Richard Lattimore, trans., The Iliad of Homer (Chicago and London, 1951).

76. Schein, Mortal Hero, pp. 98–128.

77. Iliad 9:629. Lattimore translation.

78. Iliad 9:629–52.

79. Iliad 22:345–48.

80. Iliad 24:39–54. Lattimore translation.

81. Iliad 24:479–81. Lattimore translation.

82. Iliad 24:507–16. Lattimore translation.

83. Iliad 24:629–32. Lattimore translation.

84. Iliad 24:634. Lattimore translation.

85. Iliad 22:158–66.

86. Iliad 5:906.

87. Iliad 21:385–513; 20:56–65.

88. Burkert, Greek Religion, pp. 114, 152; Schein, Mortal Hero, pp. 57–58.

89. Vernant, Myth and Society, pp. 102–4.

90. Ibid., p. 113; Burkert, Greek Religion, pp. 216–17.

91. Burkert, Greek Religion, pp. 219–25.

92. Iliad 20:48–53; 15:110–42; 21:391–433.

93. Jacques Gernet, Ancient China: From the Beginnings to the Empire, trans. Raymond Rudorff (London, 1968), pp. 71–75.

94. Remarks of Jacques Gernet, reported in Vernant, Myth and Society, pp. 80–82.

95. Ibid., p. 81.

96. Huston Smith, The World’s Religions: Our Great Wisdom Traditions (San Francisco, 1991), pp. 161–62.

97. Marcel Granet, Chinese Civilization, trans. Kathleen Innes and Mabel Brailsford (London and New York, 1951), pp. 97–100.

98. Marcel Granet, The Religion of the Chinese People, trans. and ed. Maurice Freedman (Oxford, 1975), pp. 97–99.

99. Ibid., pp. 99–102.

100. Fung Yu-Lan, A Short History of Chinese Philosophy, ed. Derk Bodde (New York, 1978), pp. 32–37.

101. “The ‘Canon of Yao’ and the ‘Canon of Shun,’ ” in Wm. Theodore de Bary and Irene Bloom, eds., Sources of Chinese Tradition, vol. I: From Earliest Times to 1600, 2nd ed. (New York, 1999), p. 29.

102. Ibid., p. 30.

103. Paul Dundas, The Jains, 2nd ed. (London and New York, 2002), p. 17; Steven Collins, Selfless Persons: Imagery and Thought in Theravada Buddhism (Cambridge, U.K., 1982), p. 64; L. Dumont, Homo Hierarchicus: The Caste System and Its Implications (Chicago and London, 1980), p. 46.

104. Gavin Flood, An Introduction to Hinduism (Cambridge, U.K., and New York, 1996), p. 91; Patrick Olivelle, “The Renouncer Tradition,” in Gavin Flood, ed., The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism (Oxford, 2003), p. 271.

105. Mircea Eliade, Yoga, Immortality and Freedom, trans. Willard R. Trask (London, 1958), p. 186.

106. J. C. Heesterman, The Inner Conflict of Tradition: Essays in Indian Ritual, Kingship and Society (Chicago and London, 1985), pp. 39–40.

107. Patrick Olivelle, Samnyasa Upanisads: Hindu Scriptures on Asceticism and Renunciation (Oxford and New York, 1992).

108. Rig Veda 10:136; 1:114, in Ralph T. H. Griffith, trans., The Rig Veda (New York, 1992).

109. Flood, Introduction to Hinduism, pp. 79–80; Eliade, Yoga, pp. 103–4.

110. Dundas, Jains, p. 17.

111. Heesterman, Broken World of Sacrifice, pp. 164–74; Jan Gonda, Change and Continuity in Indian Religion (The Hague, 1965), pp. 228–35, 285–94.

112. Manara Gryha Sutra 1.1.6, cited in Heesterman, Broken World of Sacrifice, p. 170.

113. Shatapatha Brahmana (SB) 2.2.2.6; Taittiriya Samhita (TS) 1.7.3.1, cited in Gonda, Change and Continuity, p. 229.

114. SB 11.3.3:3–6; 11.5.4; 5.7.10; 11.5.6:3, ibid.

115. Gonda, Change and Continuity, pp. 289–90.

116. Collins, Selfless Persons, pp. 48–49; Flood, Introduction to Hinduism, pp. 87–88; Heesterman, Inner Conflict, pp. 42–43.

117. Gonda, Change and Continuity, pp. 380–84.

118. Ibid., pp. 381–82; Olivelle, “The Renouncer Tradition,” pp. 281–82.

119. Collins, Selfless Persons, pp. 56–60; Heesterman, Inner Conflict, p. 42.

120. Gautama Dharma Sutra 3:26–25, in Olivelle, “The Renouncer Tradition,” p. 272.

121. Aitirya Aranyaka 3.2.3; Thomas J. Hopkins, The Hindu Religious Tradition (Belmont, Calif., 1971), p. 50; Mircea Eliade, A History of Religious Ideas, trans. Willard R. Trask, 3 vols. (Chicago and London, 1978, 1982, 1985), I:232.

122. Olivelle, Samnyasa Upanisads, p. 21.

4. KNOWLEDGE

1. Chandogya Upanishad (CU) 2.23.3. All quotations from the Upanishads are taken from Patrick Olivelle, ed. and trans., Upanisads (Oxford and New York, 1996).

2. CU 2.4.4–5.

3. Brhadaranyaka Upanishad (BU) 2.4.4–5.

4. Klaus K. Klostermaier, A Survey of Hinduism, 2nd ed. (Albany, 1994), p. 196.

5. BU 2.5.19.

6. CU 6.8.7.

7. BU 4.5.15.

8. Olivelle, Upanisads, p. xxix.

9. Ibid., p. xxxix; Michael Witzel, “Vedas and Upanisads,” in Gavin Flood, ed., The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism (Oxford, 2003), pp. 85–86.

10. Olivelle, Upanisads, pp. xxxiv–xxxvi; Witzel, “Vedas and Upanisads,” pp. 83–84; BU 3.5.8; 2.4.1.

11. Olivelle, Upanisads, p. xxxvii.

12. BU 3.4.

13. BU 3.5.1.

14. BU 4.5.13–15.

15. BU 4.1.1–7.

16. BU 4.3.

17. BU 4.3.21.

18. BU 4.4.23–35.

19. BU 4.4.5–7.

20. BU 3.2.13.

21. BU 4.5.15.

22. CU 8.15.

23. CU 6.1.2.

24. CU 6.2.

25. CU 6.8.7. My italics.

26. CU 6.13. My italics.

27. CU 6.11; 6.12.

28. CU 6.10. My italics.

29. Klostermaier, Survey of Hinduism, p. 522.

30. CU 6.7.

31. CU 3.7.

32. CU 6:9.

33. CU 1.12.

34. CU 8.7.1.

35. CU 8.7.2.

36. CU 8.8.3.

37. CU 8.11.1.

38. CU 8.12.4–5.

39. CU 8.11.3.

40. CU 8.12.3.

41. Charles Freeman, The Greek Achievement: The Foundation of the Western World (New York and London, 1999), p. 72.

42. Oswyn Murray, Early Greece, 2nd ed. (London, 1993), pp. 173–85; Christian Meier, Athens: A Portrait of the City in Its Golden Age, trans. Robert and Rita Kimber (London, 1999), p. 41.

43. Freeman, Greek Achievement, p. 101; Meier, Athens, pp. 54–56; Walter Burkert, The Orientalizing Revolution: Near Eastern Influence on Greek Culture in the Early Archaic Age, trans. Margaret E. Pinder and Walter Burkert (Cambridge, Mass., and London, 1992), pp. 76–77.

44. Burkert, Orientalizing Revolution, p. 90.

45. Murray, Early Greece, p. 18.

46. Theogony 31–35, in Dorothea Wender, trans., Hesiod and Theognis (London and New York, 1973).

47. Works and Days 248–49; 68–70. Wender translation.

48. Works and Days 258–67.

49. Works and Days 106–201. Wender translation.

50. Works and Days 116–18. Wender translation.

51. Works and Days 184. Wender translation.

52. Jean-Pierre Vernant, “At Man’s Table,” in Marcel Detienne and Jean-Pierre Vernant, The Cuisine of Sacrifice Among the Greeks, trans. Paula Wissing (Chicago and London, 1989), pp. 30–37.

53. Mircea Eliade, Patterns in Comparative Religion, trans. Rosemary Sheed (London, 1958), pp. 75–77; Burkert, Orientalizing Revolution, pp. 87–90; Walter Burkert, Greek Religion, trans. John Raffan (Cambridge, Mass., 1992), pp. 122–23; Jean-Pierre Vernant with Pierre Vidal-Naquet, Myth and Tragedy in Ancient Greece, trans. Janet Lloyd (New York, 1990), pp. 95–101.

54. Theogony 535–616; Works and Days 60–104.

55. Vernant, “At Man’s Table,” pp. 22–86.

56. Freeman, Greek Achievement, pp. 98–192; Murray, Early Greece, pp. 137–45.

57. Aristotle, Politics 5.13.10b.

58. Murray, Early Greece, pp. 124–37; Freeman, Greek Achievement, pp. 91–95; Jean-Pierre Vernant, Myth and Society in Ancient Greece, trans. Janet Lloyd, 3rd ed. (New York, 1996), pp. 39–53.

59. Fragment 12.13–19, in Murray, Early Greece, p. 133.

60. Mary Douglas, Leviticus as Literature (Oxford and New York, 1999), pp. 26–29.

61. Murray, Early Greece, pp. 164–86; Vernant, Myth and Society, p. 47.

62. Marcel Granet, Chinese Civilization, trans. Kathleen Innes and Mabel Brailsford (London and New York, 1951), pp. 259–60, 308–9.

63. Record of Rites 1:704, in James Legge, trans., The Li Ki (Oxford, 1885).

64. Record of Rites 1:719.

65. Record of Rites 1.720. Legge translation.

66. Confucius, Analects 15:4, in Arthur Waley, trans., The Analects of Confucius (New York, 1992).

67. Granet, Chinese Civilization, pp. 261–79; Jacques Gernet, Ancient China: From the Beginnings to the Empire, trans. Raymond Rudorff (London, 1968), p. 75; Holmes Welch, The Parting of the Way: Lao Tzu and the Taoist Movement (London, 1958), p. 18; Huston Smith, The World’s Religions: Our Great Wisdom Traditions (San Francisco, 1991), p. 160.

68. Zuozhuan (“The Commentary of Mr. Zuo”) 2:29–30, in James Legge, trans., The Ch’un Ts’ew and the Tso Chuen, 2nd ed. (Hong Kong, 1960).

69. Zuozhuan 2:412.

70. Classic of Odes 35, 167, 185.

71. Zuozhuan 2:18.

72. Zuozhuan 2.132.

73. Zuozhuan 1.627. Legge translation.

74. Zuozhuan 1.320. Legge translation.

75. Zuozhuan 3.340. Legge translation.

76. Zuozhuan 2.234. Legge translation.

77. Zuozhuan 1.509. Legge translation.

78. Zuozhuan 1.635. Legge translation.

79. Granet, Chinese Civilization, pp. 287–309.

80. Classic of Odes 55, cited ibid., p. 288.

81. Record of Rites 2.263. Legge translation.

82. Record of Rites 1.215. Legge translation.

83. Record of Rites 2.359. Legge translation.

84. Record of Rites 2.627; Granet, Chinese Civilization, pp. 288–90.

85. Granet, Chinese Civilization, pp. 297–308.

86. Ibid., pp. 310–43; Marcel Granet, The Religion of the Chinese People, trans. and ed. Maurice Freedman (Oxford, 1975), pp. 82–83; Granet, Chinese Civilization, pp. 311–27.

87. Granet, Chinese Civilization, pp. 328–43.

88. Granet, Religion of the Chinese People, pp. 83–89.

89. Gernet, Ancient China, p. 75.

90. Jacques Gernet, A History of Chinese Civilization, trans. J. R. Foster and Charles Hartman, 2nd ed. (Cambridge, U.K., and New York, 1996), p. 60; Gernet, Ancient China, pp. 77–83.

91. Zuozhuan 2.272; text of a treaty made in 592. Legge translation.

92. Zuozhuan 2.453. Legge translation.

93. H. G. Creel, Confucius: The Man and the Myth (London, 1951), p. 19.

94. Israel Finkelstein and Neil Asher Silberman, The Bible Unearthed: Archaeology’s New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Texts (New York and London, 2001), pp. 264–73.

95. 2 Kings 21:2–7; 23:11; 23:10; Ezekiel 20:25–26; 22:30; Andrew Mein, Ezekiel and the Ethics of Exile (Oxford and New York, 2001), p. 105.

96. Psalms 68:18; 84:12; Gosta W. Ahlström, The History of Ancient Palestine (Minneapolis, 1993), p. 734.

97. Finkelstein and Silberman, Bible Unearthed, pp. 264–73.

98. 2 Kings 21, 23.

99. 2 Kings 22:1; William M. Schniedewind, How the Bible Became a Book: The Textualization of Ancient Israel (Cambridge, U.K., 2004), pp. 107–8.

100. 2 Chronicles 34:1–2.

101. 2 Kings 22:8.

102. Exodus 24:3, 7. My italics.

103. Exodus 31:18.

104. Exodus 24:9–31:18; Schniedewind, How the Bible Became a Book, pp. 121–34.

105. Exodus 24:4–8; this is the only other place in the Bible where the phrase sefer torah is found. Schniedewind, How the Bible Became a Book, pp. 121–26.

106. 2 Kings 22:11–13.

107. Nehemiah 8:1–9.

108. 2 Kings 22:16.

109. 2 Kings 22:11.

110. 2 Kings 23:4–20.

111. Deuteronomy 6:4–6.

112. Deuteronomy 6:14.

113. Deuteronomy 7:2–6.

114. Bernard M. Levinson, Deuteronomy and the Hermeneutics of Legal Innovation (Oxford and New York, 1998), pp. 148–49.

115. Deuteronomy 12–26.

116. Deuteronomy 11:21; 12:5.

117. Deuteronomy 12:20–24.

118. Levinson, Deuteronomy, p. 50.

119. Deuteronomy 16:18–20; 17:8–13; Levinson, Deuteronomy, pp. 114–37.

120. Levinson, Deuteronomy, pp. 138–43; Schniedewind, How the Bible Became a Book, p. 110.

121. Deuteronomy 17:18–20.

122. 1 Kings 13:1–2; 2 Kings 23:15–18; 2 Kings 23:25.

123. Finkelstein and Silberman, Bible Unearthed, pp. 283–84.

124. Judges 2:7.

125. R. E. Clements, God and Temple (Oxford, 1965), pp. 89–95; S. David Sperling, The Original Torah: The Political Intent of the Bible’s Writers (New York and London, 1998), pp. 146–47; Margaret Barker, The Gate of Heaven: The History and Symbolism of the Temple in Jerusalem (London, 1991), pp. 7–8.

126. 1 Kings 8:27.

127. Deuteronomy 15:3.

128. Deuteronomy 15:7–8, in Everett Fox, trans., The Five Books of Moses (New York, 1983); cf. Deuteronomy 14:29; 23:21; 24:17–18.

129. Deuteronomy 21:15–17; 24:14–15; 15:12–15.

130. Levinson, Deuteronomy, pp. 11–95.

131. Jeremiah 29:1–3; 36:110; 39:14; 40:6; Richard Eliott Friedman, Who Wrote the Bible? (New York, 1987), pp. 125–27.

132. Jeremiah 8:8–9; Schniedewind, How the Bible Became a Book, pp. 114–17.

133. Haym Soloveitchik, “Rupture and Reconstruction: The Transformation of Contemporary Orthodoxy,” Tradition 28 (1994).

134. Deuteronomy 12:3.

135. Joshua 8:24–25.

136. Levinson, Deuteronomy, pp. 53–97.

137. 2 Kings 21:21–23.

138. 2 Kings 23:29.

5. SUFFERING

1. 2 Kings 24:16. These numbers are disputed.

2. Jeremiah 52:28–30.

3. Elias J. Bickerman, The Jews in the Greek Age (Cambridge, Mass., and London, 1988), pp. 46–47; Thomas L. Thompson, The Bible in History: How Writers Create a Past (London, 1999), pp. 217–25.

4. Ephraim Stern, Archaeology of the Land of the Bible, vol. 2: The Assyrian, Babylonian and Persian Periods (732–332) (New York, 2001), p. 303.

5. Lamentations 1:8–9.

6. Jeremiah 7:1–15; 26:1–19.

7. Jeremiah 20:7–9; 17–18.

8. Jeremiah 2:31–32; 5:7–9, 28–29.

9. Jeremiah 29:4–20.

10. Jeremiah 31:33–34.

11. Psalm 137:9.

12. Daniel L. Smith, The Religion of the Landless: The Social Context of the Babylonian Exile (Bloomington, 1989), pp. 39–52; Jonathan Z. Smith, Map Is Not Territory: Studies in the History of Religions (Chicago and London, 1978), p. 119.

13. William M. Schniedewind, How the Bible Became a Book: The Textualization of Ancient Israel (Cambridge, U.K., 2004), p. 152.

14. Ezekiel 3:15.

15. Ezekiel 8:1; 20:1, 3.

16. Andrew Mein, Ezekiel and the Ethics of Exile (Oxford and New York, 2001), pp. 66–74.

17. Isaiah 45:14; 52:2; Psalms 149; 107:14; Nahum 3:10.

18. Bickerman, Jews in the Greek Age, pp. 47–48.

19. Job 1:6.

20. Job 1:12.

21. Ezekiel 1:1–2:15.

22. Ezekiel 2:12–15.

23. Ezekiel 2:3.

24. Ezekiel 8–12.

25. Ezekiel 8:12.

26. Ezekiel 9:9; 11:6.

27. Ezekiel 7:23; 16:38; 18:10; 22:3.

28. Ezekiel 37:10–11.

29. Ezekiel 11:18–20.

30. Ezekiel, 40:2; 48:35; Mein, Ezekiel, p. 142.

31. Ezekiel 47:11–12.

32. Mein, Ezekiel, p. 254.

33. Mary Douglas, Natural Symbols: Explorations in Cosmology (London, 1970), pp. 59–64; Smith, Religion of the Landless, pp. 84, 145.

34. Frank Moore Cross, Canaanite Myth and Hebrew Epic: Essays in the History of the Religion of Israel (Cambridge, Mass., and London, 1973), pp. 321–25.

35. Leviticus 17–26.

36. Exodus 25–27; 35–38; 40.

37. Genesis 1, in Everett Fox, trans., The Five Books of Moses (New York, 1983).

38. Psalm 137:8–9. Jerusalem Bible translation.

39. Mark S. Smith, The Origins of Biblical Monotheism: Israel’s Polytheistic Background and the Ugaritic Texts (New York and London, 2001), pp. 167–71.

40. Genesis 1:31. Fox translation; my italics.

41. Michael Fishbane, Text and Texture: Close Readings of Selected Biblical Texts (New York, 1979).

42. Exodus 35:2. Jerusalem Bible translation.

43. Exodus 39:43.

44. Ackroyd, Exile and Restoration, pp. 91–96.

45. Exodus 29:45–46.

46. Cross, Canaanite Myth and Hebrew Epic, pp. 298–300; R. E. Clements, God and Temple (Oxford, 1965), pp. 114–21.

47. Exodus 40:34, 36–38. Fox translation.

48. Cross, Canaanite Myth and Hebrew Epic, p. 321.

49. Numbers 1–4; Ackroyd, Exile and Restoration, p. 100.

50. Exodus 15:24; 17:3; cf. Exodus 16:2, 7–9, 12; Numbers 14:2, 27, 36.

51. Ackroyd, Exile and Restoration, pp. 254–55; Mein, Ezekiel, p. 137.

52. Leviticus 19:2.

53. Leviticus 26:27; David Damrosch, “Leviticus,” in Robert Alter and Frank Kermode, eds., The Literary Guide to the Bible (London, 1987).

54. Leviticus 26:12; trans. Cross, Canaanite Myth, p. 298.

55. Leviticus 25.

56. Leviticus 19:34. Jerusalem Bible translation.

57. Mary Douglas, In the Wilderness: The Doctrine of Defilement in the Book of Numbers (Oxford and New York, 2001), pp. 24–25, 42–43; Mein, Ezekiel, pp. 148–49.

58. Numbers 19:11–22.

59. Douglas, In the Wilderness, pp. 25–26.

60. Leviticus 1:9, 13, 17.

61. Leviticus 1:1–3; Exodus 20:8; Mary Douglas, Leviticus as Literature (Oxford and New York, 1999), pp. 68–69, 135–36.

62. Leviticus 11:31–39, 43–44.

63. Numbers 11:31–33; Psalm 78:26–27.

64. Douglas, Leviticus as Literature, pp. 150–73.

65. Christian Meier, Athens: A Portrait of a City in Its Golden Age, trans. Robert and Rita Kimber (London, 1999), pp. 150–52.

66. Oswyn Murray, Early Greece, 2nd ed. (London, 1993), pp. 195–97.

67. Meier, Athens, pp. 70–71.

68. Robert Parker, Athenian Religion: A History (Oxford and New York, 1996), pp. 71–72.

69. Ibid., pp. 75–91; Murray, Early Greece, p. 270.

70. Walter Burkert, Homo Necans: The Anthropology of Ancient Greek Sacrificial Ritual and Myth, trans. Peter Bing (Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London, 1983), pp. 152–68; Walter Burkert, Greek Religion, trans. John Raffan (Cambridge, Mass., 1985), pp. 232–344; Parker, Athenian Religion, pp. 89–91; Louise Bruitt Zaidman and Pauline Schmitt Pantel, Religion in the Greek City, trans. Paul Cartledge (Cambridge, U.K., 1992), pp. 105–6.

71. Parker, Athenian Religion, pp. 97–100; Walter Burkert, Ancient Mystery Cults (Cambridge, Mass., and London, 1986), pp. 7–95; Burkert, Homo Necans, pp. 248–97.

72. Aristotle, Fragment 15, cited in Burkert, Ancient Mystery Cults, pp. 69, 89.

73. Aristotle, Fragments, cited ibid., p. 90.

74. Plutarch, Fragment 168, cited ibid., pp. 91–92.

75. Cited ibid., p. 114.

76. Burkert, Ancient Mystery Cults, p. 37; Joseph Campbell, Transformations of Myth Through Time (New York, 1990), pp. 191–93.

77. Zaidman and Pantel, Religion in the Greek City, pp. 198–218; Burkert, Greek Religion, pp. 160–66; Jean-Pierre Vernant with Pierre Vidal-Naquet, Myth and Tragedy in Ancient Greece, trans. Janet Lloyd (New York, 1990), pp. 384–90.

78. Zaidman and Pantel, Religion in the Greek City, pp. 199–200; Burkert, Greek Religion, pp. 290–93.

79. Marcel Detienne, “Culinary Practices and the Spirit of Sacrifice,” in Marcel Detienne and Jean-Pierre Vernant, eds., The Cuisine of Sacrifice Among the Greeks, trans. Paula Wissing (Chicago and London, 1989), pp. 7–8; Zaidman and Pantel, Religion in the Greek City, pp. 158–75; Anthony Gottlieb, The Dream of Reason: A History of Philosophy from the Greeks to the Renaissance (London, 2000), pp. 25–26; Burkert, Greek Religion, pp. 296–303.

80. William K. Freist, “Orpheus: A Fugue on the Polis,” in Dora C. Pozzi and John M. Wickerstein, eds., Myth and the Polis (Ithaca and London, 1991), pp. 32–48.

81. Gottlieb, Dream of Reason, pp. 4–20; Burkert, Greek Religion, pp. 305–11; Murray, Early Greece, pp. 247–51; Charles Freeman, The Greek Achievement: The Foundation of the Western World (New York and London, 1999), pp. 149–52; Richard Tarnas, The Passion of the Western Mind: Understanding the Ideas That Have Shaped Our World View (New York and London, 1991), pp. 19–25.

82. Samkhya Sutras 3:47.

83. Samkhya Sutras 3:47, in Mircea Eliade, Yoga: Immortality and Freedom, trans. Willard R. Trask (London, 1958), p. 12.

84. Samkhya Sutras 3:61, ibid., p. 30.

85. Samkhya Karita 59, ibid.

86. Eliade, Yoga, passim; Edward Conze, Buddhist Meditation (London, 1956).

87. Yoga Sutra 2.42, in Eliade, Yoga, p. 52.

88. Jacques Gernet, Ancient China: From the Beginnings to the Empire, trans. Raymond Rudorff (London, 1968), pp. 83–84.

89. James Legge, trans., The Ch’un Ts’ew and the Tso Chuen, 2nd ed. (Hong Kong, 1960), p. 109.

6. EMPATHY

1. A. C. Graham, Disputers of the Tao: Philosophical Argument in Ancient China (La Salle, Ill., 1989), p. 9.

2. Confucius, Analects 5:6; cf. 16:2. Quotations from the Analects are taken from Arthur Waley, trans. and ed., The Analects of Confucius (New York, 1992), unless otherwise stated.

3. Analects 7:8.

4. Analects 7:33.

5. Benjamin I. Schwartz, The World of Thought in Ancient China (Cambridge, Mass., and London, 1985), p. 62; Fung Yu-Lan, A Short History of Chinese Philosophy, ed. Derk Bodde (New York, 1976), p. 12.

6. Analects 12:7.

7. Analects 7:1.

8. Analects 7:19.

9. Analects 2:11.

10. Analects 5:12.

11. Analects 11:11.

12. Analects 17:19.

13. Classic of Odes 55, in Arthur Waley, ed. and trans., The Book of Songs (London, 1937); Analects 1:15.

14. Analects 12:1. Translation suggested in Schwartz, World of Thought, p. 77.

15. Ibid.

16. Analects 2:7.

17. Jacques Gernet, Ancient China: From the Beginnings to the Empire, trans. Raymond Rudorff (London, 1968), p. 116.

18. Analects 2:8.

19. Ibid.

20. Tu Wei-ming, Confucian Thought: Selfhood as Creative Transformation (Albany, 1985), pp. 115–16.

21. Analects 6:28, as translated ibid., p. 68.

22. Tu Wei-ming, Confucian Thought, pp. 57–58; Huston Smith, The World’s Religions: Our Great Wisdom Traditions (San Francisco, 1991), pp. 180–81.

23. Analects 4:15, as translated in Graham, Disputers of the Tao, p. 21.

24. Analects 15:23.

25. Analects 5:11.

26. Graham, Disputers of the Tao, p. 19.

27. Tu Wei-ming, Confucian Thought, p. 84.

28. Analects 12:3.

29. Analects 12:2.

30. Analects 6:28.

31. Ibid.

32. Analects 6:20; 16:2.

33. Analects 7:29.

34. Analects 6:20; Herbert Fingarette, Confucius: The Secular as Sacred (New York, 1972), pp. 51–56.

35. Analects 8:7.

36. Analects 9:10.

37. Analects 11:8–9.

38. Analects 5:8.

39. Analects 9:8.

40. Analects 7:5.

41. Isaiah 44:28.

42. Isaiah 41:1–4.

43. Isaiah 51:9–10.

44. Isaiah 42:1–4; 49:1–6; 50:4–9; 52:13–53:12.

45. Isaiah 42:2–3.

46. Isaiah 50:5–6, 9.

47. Isaiah 52:13–53:5.

48. Isaiah 49:6.

49. Isaiah 41:12, 16; 51:23.

50. Isaiah 45:3.

51. Isaiah 41:17–24

52. Isaiah 44:6–20; 46:1–9.

53. Isaiah 5:7.

54. Isaiah 42:13.

55. Isaiah 42:17.

56. Isaiah 40:5; 51:3.

57. Isaiah 54:11–17.

58. Ezra 2:64.

59. Josephus, The Antiquities of the Jews 11:8.

60. Margaret Barker, The Older Testament: The Survival of Themes from the Ancient Royal Cult in Sectarian Judaism and Early Christianity (London, 1987), p. 186.

61. Haggai 1:9–11; 2:4–8.

62. Ezra 3:12–13.

63. Zechariah 8:23.

64. Zechariah 2:8.

65. Zechariah 7:1–7; 8:20.

66. Frank Moore Cross, From Epic to Canon: History and Literature in Ancient Israel (Baltimore and London, 1998), p. 170.

67. 2 Chronicles 30:1–14.

68. Ezra 3:13.

69. Christian Meier, Athens: A Portrait of the City in Its Golden Age, trans. Robert and Rita Kimber (London, 1999), pp. 157–86; Charles Freeman, The Greek Achievement: The Foundation of the Western World (New York and London, 1999), pp. 167–69; Oswyn Murray, Early Greece, 2nd ed. (London, 1993), pp. 274–81.

70. Murray, Early Greece, pp. 279–80.

71. Meier, Athens, p. 158; Jean-Pierre Vernant, Myth and Society in Ancient Greece, trans. Janet Lloyd, 3rd ed. (New York, 1996), pp. 92–96.

72. Heraclitus B17, in Jonathan Barnes, ed. and trans., Early Greek Philosophy (London and New York, 1987), p. 110.

73. Heraclitus B61, ibid., p. 104.

74. Heraclitus B125; B12; B49a; B26, ibid., pp. 117, 120, 124.

75. Heraclitus B60, ibid., p. 103.

76. Heraclitus B101, ibid., p. 113.

77. Heraclitus B119, ibid., p. 124.

78. Xenophanes B14; B12; B15, ibid., p. 95.

79. Xenophanes B23, ibid.

80. Xenophanes B26; B25, ibid., p. 97.

81. Fragment 1.22, in Anthony Gottlieb, The Dream of Reason: A History of Western Philosophy from the Greeks to the Renaissance (London and New York, 2000), p. 52.

82. Barnes, Early Greek Philosophers, pp. 129–43.

83. Gottlieb, The Dream of Reason, p. 52.

84. Meier, Athens, pp. 10–18.

85. Murray, Early Greece, pp. 281–83; Meier, Athens, pp. 219–25.

86. Murray, Early Greece, pp. 236–46; Meier, Athens, pp. 3–33.

87. Murray, Early Greece, pp. 281–83; Meier, Athens, pp. 219–25.

88. Herodotus, Histories 6.21, in Jean-Pierre Vernant with Pierre Vidal-Naquet, eds., Myth and Tragedy in Ancient Greece, trans. Janet Lloyd (New York, 1990), p. 244.

89. Simon Goldhill, “The Great Dionysia,” in J. J. Winckler and F. Zeitlin, eds., Nothing to Do with Dionysos? Athenian Drama in Its Social Context (Princeton, 1990).

90. Freeman, Greek Achievement, p. 169.

91. John Gould, “Tragedy and Collective Experience,” in M. S. Silk, ed., Tragedy and the Tragic: Greek Theatre and Beyond (Oxford, 1996), pp. 219–24; Simon Goldhill, “Collectivity and Otherness: The Authority of the Greek Chorus,” in Silk, Tragedy, pp. 245–60.

92. Charles Segal, “Catharsis, Audience and Closure in Greek Tragedy,” in Silk, Tragedy, pp. 149–66.

93. Aeschylus, The Persians 179–84, in Philip Vellacott, trans., Aeschylus: Prometheus Bound and Other Plays (London and New York, 1961).

94. The Persians 826–29. Vellacott translation.

95. Meier, Athens, pp. 207–8.

96. Vernant, Myth and Society, pp. 133–35.

97. Aeschylus, Agamemnon 1592, in Robert Fagles, trans., Aeschylus: The Oresteia (New York and London, 1975).

98. Segal, “Catharsis,” pp. 157–58; Oliver Taplin, “Comedy and the Tragic,” in Silk, Tragedy, pp. 198–99.

99. Vernant, Myth and Tragedy, p. 277; Michael Trapp, “The Fragility of Moral Reasoning,” in Silk, Tragedy, pp. 76–81.

100. Antigone 348–70, in E. F. Watling, trans., Sophocles: The Theban Plays (London and New York, 1957).

101. Thomas J. Hopkins, The Hindu Religious Tradition (Belmont, Calif., 1971), pp. 50–51.

102. Katha Upanishad 1.26, in Patrick Olivelle, Upanisads (Oxford and New York, 1996).

103. Katha Upanishad 3:2–4, 6, 8; 6:11. Olivelle translation.

104. John Keay, India: A History (London, 2000), pp. 47–73; Olivelle, Upanisads, pp. xxviii–xxvix; Gavin Flood, An Introduction to Hinduism (Cambridge, U.K., and New York), pp. 80–81; Hermann Kulke, “The Historical Background of India’s Axial Age,” in S. N. Eisendstadt, ed., The Origins and Diversity of Axial Age Civilizations (Albany, 1986), p. 109.

105. Kulke, “Historical Background,” p. 384.

106. Mircea Eliade, Yoga: Immortality and Freedom, trans. Willard R. Trask (London, 1958), pp. 139–40, 158.

107. Trevor Ling, The Buddha: Buddhist Civilization in India and Ceylon (London, 1973), pp. 78–82.

108. Eliade, Yoga, pp. 189–91; Hopkins, Hindu Religious Tradition, p. 54.

109. Paul Dundas, The Jains, 2nd ed. (London and New York, 2002), pp. 28–30.

110. Ibid., p. 27; Hopkins, Hindu Religious Tradition, pp. 54–55.

111. Dundas, Jains, pp. 106–7.

112. Acaranga Sutra (AS) 2.15.25.

113. AS 1.5.6.3, in Dundas, Jains, p. 43.

114. AS 1.4.1.1–2, ibid., pp. 41–42.

115. AS 1.2.3, ibid.

116. Dasavairtaklika 4.10, ibid., p. 160.

117. AS 1.21; 1.1.3.2.

118. Dundas, Jains, pp. 34–35.

119. Ibid., pp. 170–71.

120. Avashyaksutra 32, in Dundas, Jains, p. 171.

7. CONCERN FOR EVERYBODY

1. Margaret Barker, The Older Testament: The Survival of Themes from the Ancient Royal Cult in Sectarian Judaism and Early Christianity (London, 1987), pp. 201–16.

2. Isaiah 65:16–25.

3. Isaiah 56:7.

4. Nehemiah 2:14; 4:11–12.

5. Gosta W. Ahlström, The History of Ancient Palestine (Minneapolis, 1993), pp. 880–83; Elias J. Bickerman, The Jews in the Greek Age (Cambridge, Mass., 1988), pp. 29–32; W. D. Davies and Louis Finkelstein, eds., The Cambridge History of Judaism, 2 vols. (Cambridge, U.K., 1984), I:144–53.

6. Ezra 7:6.

7. Ezra 7:21–26; Bickerman, Jews in the Greek Age, p. 154.

8. Nehemiah 8.

9. Ezra 10.

10. Isaiah 63:10–19.

11. Jonah 4:11.

12. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of the Philosophers 9.72, in Jonathan Barnes, trans. and ed., Early Greek Philosophy (London and New York, 1987), p. 157.

13. Plato, Parmenides 127a–128d.

14. Anthony Gottlieb, The Dream of Reason: A History of Philosophy from the Greeks to the Renaissance (London, 2000), pp. 65–71.

15. Ibid., p. 78.

16. Plato, Apology 26d; Gottlieb, Dream of Reason, p. 84.

17. G. B. Kerferd, The Sophistic Movement (Cambridge, U.K., 1981); Gottlieb, Dream of Reason, pp. 109–28; Walter Burkert, Greek Religion, trans. John Raffan (Cambridge, Mass., 1985), pp. 311–17; Richard Tarnas, The Passion of the Western Mind: Understanding the Ideas That Have Shaped Our World View (New York and London, 1991), pp. 26–31; Christian Meier, Athens: A Portrait of the City in Its Golden Age (London, 1999), pp. 440–45.

18. Gorgias, Fragment 3.

19. Meier, Athens, pp. 405–12.

20. Antiphon, Fragment 44, in Gottlieb, Dream of Reason, p. 125.

21. Protagoras, Fragment 1, ibid., p. 119.

22. Protagoras, Fragment 4, in Tarnas, Passion of the Western Mind, p. 28.

23. Euripides, “On the Nature of the Gods.” Quoted in Meier, Athens, p. 443.

24. Heracles 1307; 1341–46, in Philip Vellacott, trans., Euripides: Medea and Other Plays (London and New York, 1963).

25. Fragment 1018, in Burkert, Greek Religion, p. 319.

26. Trojan Women 884–88, in John Davie, trans., Euripides: Electra and Other Plays (London and New York, 1998).

27. Medea 1021–80; Bernard Seidensticker, “Peripeteia and Tragic Dialectic in Euripidean Tragedy,” in M. S. Silk, ed., Tragedy and the Tragic: Greek Theatre and Beyond (Oxford, 1996), pp. 387–88.

28. Aristotle, Rhetoric 1385b.11–1386b.7, in Richard McKeon, ed., The Basic Works of Aristotle (New York, 2001).

29. Seidensticker, “Peripeteia and Tragic Dialectic,” pp. 402–3.

30. Heracles 1233–38; 1398–1428. Vellacott translation.

31. Cf. Odyssey 11:275–76.

32. Charles Segal, “Catharsis, Audience and Closure in Greek Tragedy,” in Silk, Tragedy and the Tragic, pp. 166–68; Claude Calame, “Vision, Blindness and Mask: The Radicalization of the Emotions,” in Silk, Tragedy and the Tragic, pp. 19–31; Richard Buxton, “What Can You Rely on in Oedipus Rex?,” in Silk, Tragedy and the Tragic, pp. 38–49.

33. King Oedipus 1297; 1312; 1299; 1321, in E. F. Watling, trans., Sophocles: The Theban Plays (London and New York, 1947).

34. Jean Pierre Vernant with Pierre Vidal-Naquet, Myth and Tragedy in Ancient Greece, trans. Janet Lloyd (New York, 1990), pp. 113–17.

35. Plato, Symposium 220c; 174d; 175b, in W. Hamilton, trans., The Symposium (Harmondsworth, 1951).

36. Plato, Laches 187e, in Benjamin Jowett, trans., with M. J. Knight, The Essential Plato (Oxford, 1871); reprinted with introduction by Alain de Boton (London, 1999).

37. Plato, Laches, “On Courage.” Jowett translation.

38. Plato, Apologia 38a5–6. Jowett translation.

39. Plato, Crito 47e. Jowett translation.

40. Plato, Crito 49a.

41. Plato, Symposium 215de. Hamilton translation.

42. Charles Segal, Dionysiac Poetics and Euripides’ Bacchae, 2nd ed. (Princeton, 1997); Richard Seaford, “Something to Do with Dionysus: Tragedy and the Dionysiac,” in Silk, Tragedy and the Tragic, pp. 284–92; Oliver Taplin, “Comedy and the Tragic,” in Silk, Tragedy and the Tragic, pp. 284–92; George Steiner, “Tragedy, Pure and Simple,” in Silk, Tragedy and the Tragic, pp. 538–89; Vernant, Myth and Tragedy, pp. 381–412; Meier, Athens, pp. 575–78.

43. Euripides, The Bacchae 1168–1231, in Philip Vellacott, trans., Euripides: The Bacchae and Other Plays (London and New York, 1973).

44. Euripedes, Bacchae 1075–95.

45. Plato, Apologia 37e. Jowett translation.

46. Jacques Gernet, A History of Chinese Civilization, trans. J. R. Foster and Charles Hartman, 2nd ed. (Cambridge, U.K., and New York, 1996), p. 62.

47. Jacques Gernet, Ancient China: From the Beginnings to the Empire, trans. Raymond Rudorff (London, 1968), pp. 93–94, 96–101; Gernet, History of Chinese Civilization, pp. 65–67.

48. Zuozhuan (“The Commentary of Mr. Zuo”) 2:30, in James Legge, trans., The Ch’un Ts’ew and the Tso Chuen (Hong Kong, 1960).

49. Marcel Granet, Chinese Civilization, trans. Kathleen Innes and Mabel Brailsford (London and New York, 1951), pp. 32–33.

50. Sima Qian, Records of the Grand Historian 124, in Fung Yu-Lan, A Short History of Chinese Philosophy, ed. and trans. Derk Bodde (New York, 1976), p. 50.

51. Fung Yu-Lan, Short History of Chinese Philosophy, pp. 50–52.

52. The Book of Huainan 20. The Huainanzi is a collection of twenty-one essays compiled in the second century.

53. A. C. Graham, Later Mohist Logic, Ethics and Science (Hong Kong, 1978), p. 4; Gernet, Ancient China, pp. 116–17.

54. The Book of Mozi 26:4. Quotations from the Mozi are from Burton Watson, trans. and ed., Mo-Tzu: Basic Writings (New York, 1963), unless otherwise stated.

55. A. C. Graham, Disputers of the Tao: Philosophical Argument in Ancient China (La Salle, Ill., 1989), p. 34; Benjamin I. Schwartz, The World of Thought in Ancient China (Cambridge, Mass., and London, 1985), p. 137.

56. Mozi 26:4.

57. Mozi 6:17–18.

58. Gernet, Ancient China, p. 116.

59. Mozi 3:16, trans. Fung Yu-Lan, Short History of Chinese Philosophy, p. 55.

60. Graham, Disputers of the Tao, p. 41.

61. Mozi 15:11–15.

62. Graham, Disputers of the Tao, pp. 47–48.

63. Schwartz, World of Thought, p. 157.

64. Mozi 8.

65. Mozi 15.

66. Graham, Later Mohist Logic, p. 256.

67. Mozi 4, in Schwartz, World of Thought, p. 145.

68. Mozi 16.

69. Ibid.

70. Majjhima Nikaya (MN) 26, 85,100; Jataka 1.62. The Pali scriptures include four collections of the Buddha’s sermons (Majjhima Nikaya, Digha Nikaya, Anguttara Nikaya, and Samyutta Nikaya) and an anthology of minor works, which include the Udana, a collection of the Buddha’s maxims, and the Jataka, stories about the past lives of the Buddha and his companions. The quotations from the Pali Canon given here are my own version of the texts cited.

71. MN 26.

72. Udana 8:3.

73. MN 26, 36, 85, 100.

74. MN 12, 36, 85, 200.

75. MN 36.

76. Joseph Campbell, Oriental Mythology: The Masks of God (New York, 1962), p. 236.

77. MN 36.

78. Anguttara Nikaya (AN) 9:3; MN 38, 41.

79. Vinaya: Mahavagga 1.6. This text is part of the Vinaya Pitaka, the Book of Monastic Discipline, which codifies the rule of the Buddhist order.

80. Udana 3:10.

81. MN 38.

82. Hermann Oldenberg, Buddha: His Life, His Doctrine, His Order, trans. William Hoey (London, 1882), pp. 299–302; Edward Conze, Buddhism: Its Essence and Development (Oxford, 1951), p. 102.

83. AN 8.7.3.

84. Richard F. Gombrich, How Buddhism Began: The Conditioned Genesis of the Early Teachings (London and Atlantic Highlands, N.J., 1996), pp. 60–61.

85. Michael Carrithers, The Buddha (Oxford and New York, 1993), pp. 75–77.

86. AN 8.20.

87. MN 36; Samyutta Nikaya 12.65.

88. MN 36.

89. AN 10.95.

90. MN 29.

91. Karen Armstrong, A History of God: The 4,000 Year Quest of Judaism, Christianity and Islam (London and New York, 1993).

92. Sutta-Nipata 43:1–44. The Sutta-Nipata is an anthology of early Buddhist poetry.

93. Vinaya: Mahavagga 1.5.

94. Ibid.

95. Vinaya: Mahavagga 1.6.

96. Vinaya: Mahavagga 1.11.

97. Vinaya: Mahavagga 1.6; SN 22:59.

98. Vinaya: Mahavagga, 1.6.

99. MN 1.

100. MN 22.

101. Samyutta Nikaya 53:31.

102. MN 63.

103. AN 3.65.

104. Sutta-Nipata 118.

105. AN 3.65.

106. Samyutta Nikaya 3.1–8.

107. MN 89.

108. Karl Jaspers, The Great Philosophers: The Foundations, ed. Hannah Arendt, trans. Ralph Manheim (London, 1962), pp. 99–105.

109. AN 4.36.

8. ALL IS ONE

1. Jacques Gernet, A History of Chinese Civilization, trans. J. R. Foster and Charles Hartman, 2nd ed. (Cambridge, U.K., and New York, 1996), pp. 67–81; Jacques Gernet, Ancient China: From the Beginnings to the Empire, trans. Raymond Rudorff (London, 1968), pp. 89–114.

2. Benjamin I. Schwartz, The World of Thought in Ancient China (Cambridge, Mass., and London, 1985), pp. 238–39.

3. Marcel Granet, Chinese Civilization, trans. Kathleen Innes and Mabel Brailsford (London and New York, 1951), p. 32.

4. Analects 14:39, 41; 18:6.

5. The Book of Zhuangzi, 15:1, in Martin Palmer with Elizabeth Brenilly, trans., The Book of Chuang Tzu (London and New York, 1996).

6. A. C. Graham, Disputers of the Tao: Philosophical Argument in Ancient China (La Salle, Ill., 1989), pp. 64–74.

7. The Book of Zhuangzi 15:5.

8. Fung Yu-Lan, A Short History of Chinese Philosophy, ed. and trans. Derk Bodde (New York, 1976), pp. 60–66.

9. Annals of Spring and Autumn 1.3.

10. Annals of Spring and Autumn 21.4, in Graham, Disputers of the Tao, p. 251.

11. The Book of Mencius 3B9, in D. C. Lau, trans., Mencius (London 1970).

12. The Book of Mencius 7A 26. Lau translation.

13. The Book of Huainan, 13.

14. The Book of Mencius 3B9.

15. Inward Training 2.100, in Graham, Disputers of the Tao, pp. 100–105.

16. Inward Training 2.102. Graham translation.

17. The Book of Zhuangzi 17:34. Palmer translation.

18. Graham, Disputers of the Tao, pp. 76–82; Schwartz, World of Thought, pp. 223–24; Fung Yu-Lan, Short History of Chinese Philosophy, pp. 83–94.

19. The Book of Zhuangzi 33. Palmer translation.

20. Schwartz, World of Thought, p. 224.

21. Fung Yu-Lan, Short History of Chinese Philosophy, p. 91.

22. Graham, Disputers of the Tao, pp. 172–203; Schwartz, World of Thought, pp. 215–36; Fung Yu-Lan, Short History of Chinese Philosophy, pp. 104–17; Mark Elvin, “Was There a Transcendental Breakthrough in China?,” in S. N. Eisenstadt, ed., The Origins and Diversity of Axial Age Civilizations (Albany, 1986), pp. 342–46.

23. The Book of Zhuangzi 17.

24. The Book of Zhuangzi 20:61–68. Palmer translation.

25. The Book of Zhuangzi 18:15–19. Palmer translation.

26. The Book of Zhuangzi 6.53, in David Hinton, trans., Chuang Tzu: The Inner Chapters (Washington, D.C., 1998).

27. The Book of Zhuangzi 5:84.

28. The Book of Zhuangzi 6:29–31.

29. Elvin, “Was There a Transcendental Breakthrough in China?,” p. 343.

30. The Book of Zhuangzi 4:26–28. Hinton translation.

31. The Book of Zhuangzi 2:29–31. Palmer translation.

32. The Book of Zhuangzi 17:3.

33. The Book of Zhuangzi 19:19–21; 13:70–75. Palmer translation.

34. The Book of Zhuangzi 2:1–3. Hinton translation.

35. The Book of Zhuangzi 6:93. Hinton translation.

36. The Book of Zhuangzi 6:19.

37. The Book of Zhuangzi 6:20. Palmer translation.

38. The Book of Zhuangzi 1:21. Palmer translation.

39. The Book of Zhuangzi 6:80. Palmer translation.

40. The Book of Zhuangzi 7:32; 13:2–6; 33:56.

41. The Book of Zhuangzi 6:11.

42. Graham, Disputers of the Tao, pp. 111–32; Elvin, “Was There a Transcendental Breakthrough in China?,” pp. 340–42; Schwartz, World of Thought, pp. 255–90; Fung Yu-Lan, Short History of Chinese Philosophy, pp. 68–79; Tu Wei-ming, Confucian Thought: Selfhood as Creative Transformation (Albany, 1985), pp. 61–109.

43. Mencius 2A 1; 2B 13; quotations from Mencius are taken from Lau, Mencius.

44. Mencius 2A 3.

45. Mencius 1A 5–6.

46. Mencius 1A 7.

47. Mencius 3A 4.

48. Mencius 3B 9.

49. Mencius 2A 6.

50. Mencius 3A 5.

51. Mencius 1A 7.

52. Ibid.

53. Mencius 2A 6.

54. Ibid.

55. Mencius 6A 8.

56. Ibid.

57. Mencius 6A 11.

58. Mencius 7A 1.

59. Mencius 2A 2; Fung Yu-Lan, Short History of Chinese Philosophy, p. 78.

60. Mencius 7A 4.

61. Mencius 7A 13.

62. E. Washington Hopkins, The Great Epic of India (New York, 1902); Thomas J. Hopkins, The Hindu Religious Tradition (Belmont, Calif., 1971), pp. 87–89; Klaus K. Klostermeier, Hinduism: A Short History (Oxford, 2000), pp. 58–62; John Brockington, The Sanskrit Epics (Leiden, 1998); John Brockington, “The Sanskrit Epics,” in Gavin Flood, ed., The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism (Oxford, 2003), pp. 116–23; R. C. Zaehner, Hinduism (London, New York, and Toronto, 1962), pp. 84–120; Alf Hiltebeitel, The Ritual of Battle: Krishna in the Mahabharata (Ithaca and London, 1976); David Shulman, “Asvatthaman and Brhannada: Brahmin and Kingly Paradigms in the Sanskrit Epics,” in S. N. Eisenstadt, ed., The Origins and Diversity of Axial Age Civilizations (Albany, 1986), pp. 407–25.

63. Mahabharata 5.70.40–66.

64. Mahabharata 6.103.71:82–90.

65. Mahabharata 7.164.63, in K. M. Ganguli, trans., Mahabharata, 12 vols. (Calcutta, 1883–96).

66. Mahabharata 7.164.98–99. Ganguli translation.

67. Mahabharata 7.164.41–42.

68. Taittiriya Samhita 3.1.10.3; Shatapatha Brahmana 4.2.2.4.

69. Mahabharata 9.60.62. Ganguli translation.

70. Mahabharata 5.70.66. Ganguli translation.

71. Mahabharata 10.3.33. Ganguli translation.

72. Mahabharata 10.14.6–7.

73. Mahabharata 10.15.1–10.

74. Mahabharata 10.18.9cd–12, quoted in Hiltebeitel, Ritual of Battle, p. 334.

75. Richard Tarnas, The Passion of the Western Mind: Understanding the Ideas That Have Shaped Our World View (New York and London, 1991), pp. 4–54; Bernard Williams, “Plato: The Invention of Philosophy,” in Frederic Raphael and Ray Monk, eds., The Great Philosophers (London, 2000), pp. 41–75; Anthony Gottlieb, The Dream of Reason: A History of Philosophy from the Greeks to the Renaissance (London, 2000), pp. 169–219; Walter Burkert, Greek Religion, trans. John Raffan (Cambridge, Mass., and London, 1992), pp. 321–37.

76. Seventh Letter 326a, quoted in Gottlieb, Dream of Reason, p. 176.

77. Williams, “Plato,” p. 47; Tarnas, Passion of the Western Mind, p. 13.

78. Cratylus 386e, trans. C. D. C. Reeve in John M. Cooper, ed., Plato: Complete Works (Indianapolis, 1997).

79. Mircea Eliade, The Myth of the Eternal Return, or, Cosmos and History, trans. Willard R. Trask (Princeton, 1959), pp. 34–35.

80. Meno 82 b–c.

81. Quoted in Gottlieb, Dream of Reason, p. 170.

82. Meno 81c–d, trans. G. M. A. Grube in Cooper, ed., Plato: Complete Works.

83. Meno 82b–c.

84. Gottlieb, Dream of Reason, p. 174.

85. Ibid., p. 207.

86. Symposium 210e, in W. Hamilton, trans., The Symposium (Harmondsworth, 1951).

87. Symposium 201e. Hamilton translation.

88. Symposium 210e. Hamilton translation.

89. Republic 504d–509d.

90. Republic 520c, trans. G. M. A. Grube and C. D. C. Reeve, in Cooper, ed., Plato: Complete Works.

91. Republic 517a. Grube and Reeve translation.

92. Republic 520c. Grube and Reeve translation.

93. P. E. Easterling, “The End of an Era: Tragedy in the Early Fourth Century,” in A. H. Sommerstein, ed., Tragedy, Comedy, and the Polis (Bari, 1993).

94. P. J. Wilson, “The Use of Tragedy in the Fourth Century,” in M. S. Silk, ed., Tragedy and the Tragic: Greek Theatre and Beyond (Oxford, 1996), pp. 314–16.

95. Republic 606d. Grube and Reeve translation.

96. Republic 603e–606b; Stephen Halliwell, “Plato’s Repudiation of the Tragic,” in Silk, Tragedy and the Tragic.

97. Timaeus 28c, trans. Donald J. Zeyl, in Cooper, ed., Plato: Complete Works.

98. Timaeus 39–41. Zeyl translation.

99. Timaeus 90a. Zeyl translation.

100. Symposium 202e–203a; Laws 834a; 729e; 941a.

101. Laws 771d.

102. Laws 653b; 654a, trans. Trevor J. Saunders, in Cooper, ed., Plato: Complete Works.

103. Laws 717b.

104. Burkert, Greek Religion, pp. 333–34.

105. Laws 716c. Saunders translation.

106. Laws 888b; 885b. Saunders translation.

107. Laws 907d; 909d.

108. Nichomachean Ethics 1178a, in Richard McKeon, ed., The Basic Works of Aristotle (New York, 2001).

109. Nichomachean Ethics 1177a, ibid.

110. Gottlieb, Dream of Reason, pp. 270–72.

111. Burkert, Greek Religion, p. 331.

112. Nichomachean Ethics 1099b11; 1179a24.

113. Politics 1335b.15; 1314b39; 1331a27; 1336b6; Rhetoric 1391b1.

114. Karen Armstrong, A History of God: The 4,000 Year Quest of Judaism, Christianity and Islam (London and New York, 1993), pp. 171–208.

115. Fragment 15, quoted in Walter Burkert, Ancient Mystery Cults (Cambridge, Mass., and London, 1987), pp. 69, 89.

116. Gottlieb, Dream of Reason, p. 277.

117. Poetics 6, 1449b28.

9. EMPIRE

1. A. C. Graham, Disputers of the Tao: Philosophical Argument in Ancient China (La Salle, Ill., 1989), pp. 267–76; Benjamin I. Schwartz, The World of Thought in Ancient China (Cambridge, Mass., and London, 1985), pp. 321–45; Fung Yu-Lan, A Short History of Chinese Philosophy, ed. and trans. Derk Bodde (New York, 1976), pp. 155–65.

2. Schwartz, World of Thought, pp. 321–23.

3. The Book of Guanzi 67.3.55, quoted in Graham, Disputers of the Tao, p. 274. The Guanzi was attributed to the seventh-century statesman Guan Zhong, but is actually of a much later date.

4. Shanqiunshu (“The Book of Lord Shang”) 2:7, quoted in Fung Yu-Lan, Short History of Chinese Philosophy, p. 159.

5. Shanqiunshu 9:1.

6. Shanqiunshu 8:8, quoted in Schwartz, World of Thought, p. 328.

7. Shanqiunshu 20, quoted in Mark Elvin, “Was There a Transcendental Breakthrough in China?,” in S. N. Eisenstadt, ed., The Origins and Diversity of Axial Age Civilizations (Albany, 1980), p. 352.

8. Shanqiunshu 20, quoted in Graham, Disputers of the Tao, p. 290.

9. Shanqiunshu 20, in Schwartz, World of Thought, pp. 342–43.

10. Han Feizi (“The Book of Han Fei”) 54, in Graham, Disputers of the Tao, p. 290.

11. Han Feizi 5, ibid., p. 288.

12. Graham, Disputers of the Tao, pp. 235–67; Schwartz, World of Thought, pp. 299–320; Fung Yu-Lan, Short History of Chinese Philosophy, pp. 143–54; Elvin, “Was There a Transcendental Breakthrough in China?,” pp. 348–51.

13. Xunzi (“The Book of Master Xan”) 9, in Burton Watson, ed. and trans., Xunzi: Basic Writings (New York, 2003).

14. Xunzi 16.

15. Xunzi 16, in Schwartz, World of Thought, p. 305.

16. Xunzi 8, quoted in Graham, Disputers of the Tao, p. 238.

17. Xunzi 15:72. Watson translation.

18. Xunzi 17:44. Watson translation.

19. Ibid. Watson translation.

20. Xunzi 23:1–4. Watson translation.

21. Ibid. Watson translation.

22. Ibid.

23. Xunzi 21:28–30.

24. Xunzi 19:63. Watson translation.

25. Xunzi 19:17–79. Watson translation.

26. Xunzi 19, passim. The sentence is repeated throughout the chapter like a refrain. Watson translation.

27. Xunzi 21:34–39. Watson translation.

28. Ibid. Watson translation.

29. Ibid. Watson translation.

30. Graham, Disputers of the Tao, p. 215; Elvin, “Was There a Transcendental Breakthrough in China?,” p. 352; Huston Smith, The World’s Religions: Our Great Wisdom Traditions (San Francisco, 1991), p. 197; Max Kaltenmark, Lao Tzu and Taoism, trans. Roger Greaves (Stanford, Calif., 1969), p. 14.

31. Schwartz, World of Thought, pp. 186–215; Elvin, “Was There a Transcendental Breakthrough in China?,” pp. 352–54; Kaltenmark, Lao Tzu and Taoism; Fung Yu-Lan, Short History of Chinese Philosophy, pp. 93–103; Graham, Disputers of the Tao, pp. 170–231; Holmes Welch, The Parting of the Way: Lao Tzu and the Taoist Movement (London, 1958).

32. Daodejing (“Classic of the Way and Its Potency”) 1, in D. C. Lau, trans., Tao Te Ching (London and New York, 1963).

33. Daodejing 25. Lau translation.

34. Daodejing 59.

35. Daodejing 21; 6.

36. Daodejing 16. Lau translation.

37. Ibid.

38. Daodejing 11, in Kaltenmark, Lao Tzu and Taoism, p. 43.

39. Ibid.

40. Daodejing 16.

41. Daodejing 37. Lau translation.

42. Graham, Disputers of the Tao, pp. 223–24.

43. See Xunzi 17:51; Spring and Autumn Annals 17:7.

44. Daodejing 78. Lau translation.

45. Daodejing 43.

46. Daodejing 7. Lau translation.

47. Daodejing 31, in Kaltenmark, Lao Tzu and Taoism, p. 56.

48. Daodejing 30. Lau translation.

49. Daodejing 68, in Kaltenmark, Lao Tzu and Taoism, p. 56.

50. Ibid.

51. Daodejing 22, in Wm. Theodore de Bary and Irene Bloom, Sources of Chinese Tradition from Earliest Times to 1600 (New York, 1999), p. 85.

52. Daodejing 49. Lau translation.

53. Daodejing 18; 19.

54. Daodejing 13, in de Bary and Bloom, Sources of Chinese Tradition, pp. 83–84.

55. Schwartz, World of Thought, p. 211.

56. Robin Lane Fox, Alexander the Great (London, 1973), p. 331.

57. John Keay, India: A History (London, 2000), p. 71.

58. Charles Freeman, The Greek Achievement: The Foundation of the Western World (New York and London, 1999), pp. 362–65.

59. Anthony Gottlieb, The Dream of Reason: A History of Philosophy from the Greeks to the Renaissance (London, 2000), pp. 283–345; Richard Tarnas, The Passion of the Western Mind: Understanding the Ideas That Have Shaped Our World View (New York and London, 1991), pp. 73–85.

60. Epicurus, Letter to Menoeceus 125, in Gottlieb, Dream of Reason, p. 296.

61. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of the Philosophers 19.61, ibid., p. 329.

62. Sextus Empiricus, Outlines of Pyrrhonism 1.29, ibid., p. 335.

63. Robert Parker, Athenian Religion: A History (Oxford and New York, 1996), p. 280.

64. Thirteenth Major Rock Edict, quoted in Romila Thapar, Asoka and the Decline of the Mauryas (Oxford, 1961), p. 256.

65. Dhamma is the Pali form of the Sanskrit dharma.

66. Keay, India, pp. 91–94.

67. Ibid., p. 88.

68. Ibid., pp. 94–100; Romila Thapar, Early India: From the Origins to ad 1300 (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 2002), pp. 202–4.

69. Thapar, Ashoka, p. 254.

70. Ibid., p. 255.

71. Thomas J. Hopkins, The Hindu Religious Tradition (Belmont, Calif., 1971), p. 72.

72. Shvetashvatara Upanishad 1:8, 10, in Patrick Olivelle, trans., Upanisads (Oxford and New York, 1996).

73. Shvetashvatara Upanishad 2:15. Olivelle translation.

74. Shvetashvatara Upanishad 3:7. Olivelle translation.

75. Shvetashvatara Upanishad 3:13. Olivelle translation.

76. Shvetashvatara Upanishad 6:23. Olivelle translation.

77. Klaus K. Klostermaier, A Survey of Hinduism, 2nd ed. (Albany, 1994), pp. 221–37.

78. Bhagavad-Gita 1:30–37. All quotations from the Bhagavad-Gita are taken from Barbara Stoler Miller, trans., The Bhagavad-Gita: Krishna’s Counsel in Time of War (New York, 1986).

79. Bhagavad-Gita 1:47.

80. Bhagavad-Gita 2:9.

81. Bhagavad-Gita 2:47–48.

82. Bhagavad-Gita 4:20.

83. Bhagavad-Gita 4:6.

84. Bhagavad-Gita 4:8.

85. Bhagavad-Gita 9:9.

86. Bhagavad-Gita 11:15–16.

87. Bhagavad-Gita 9:18.

88. Bhagavad-Gita 11:32–33.

89. Bhagavad-Gita 11:55.

90. Bhagavad-Gita 18:63–66.

91. Bhagavad-Gita 9:32.

92. Bhagavad-Gita 13:7.

10. THE WAY FORWARD

1. Karl Jaspers, The Origin and Goal of History, trans. Michael Bullock (London, 1953), p. 51.

2. Sima Qian, Records of the Grand Historian 6:21, in A. C. Graham, Disputers of the Tao: Philosophical Argument in Ancient China (La Salle, Ill., 1989), p. 370.

3. Benjamin I. Schwartz, The World of Thought in Ancient China (Cambridge, Mass., and London, 1985), pp. 350–82; Fung Yu-Lan, A Short History of Chinese Philosophy, ed. and trans. Derk Bodde (New York, 1976), pp. 130–202; Graham, Disputers of the Tao, pp. 325–58.

4. A. C. Graham, Later Mohist Logic, Ethics and Science (Hong Kong, 1978), p. 411.

5. Sima Qian, Records of the Grand Historian 6:237, in Graham, Disputers of the Tao, p. 371.

6. Holmes Welch, The Parting of the Way: Lao Tzu and the Taoist Movement (London, 1958), pp. 89–98.

7. Sima Qian, Records of the Grand Historian 6:87, in Fung Yu-Lan, Short History of Chinese Philosophy, p. 204.

8. Ibid.

9. Schwartz, World of Thought, pp. 237–53.

10. The Book of Zhuangzi 33, in Martin Palmer, trans., with Elizabeth Brenilly, The Book of Chuang Tzu (London and New York, 1996).

11. Ibid.

12. Fung Yu-Lan, Short History of Chinese Philosophy, pp. 205–16; Graham, Disputers of the Tao, pp. 313–77; Schwartz, World of Thought, pp. 383–406.

13. Sima Qian, Records of the Grand Historian 8:1, in Fung Yu-Lan, Short History of Chinese Philosophy, p. 215.

14. Hanshu (“History of the Former Han”) 130, in Graham, Disputers of the Tao, pp. 379–80.

15. Huston Smith, The World’s Religions: Our Great Wisdom Traditions (San Francisco, 1991), p. 189.

16. Fung Yu-Lan, Short History of Chinese Philosophy, p. 215.

17. Louis Renou, Religions of Ancient India (London, 1953), pp. 46–47.

18. Brian K. Smith, Reflections on Resemblance, Ritual and Religion (Oxford and New York, 1989), pp. 195–202.

19. Baudhayana Dharma Sutra 2.6.11:2–6, in Smith, Reflections on Resemblance, p. 196.

20. The Law of Manu 3:68–69, ibid., p. 198.

21. Gavin Flood, An Introduction to Hinduism (Cambridge, U.K., and New York, 1996), p. 61.

22. L. Dumont, Homo Hierarchicus: The Caste System and Its Implications (Chicago and London, 1980), p. 54.

23. The Law of Manu 10.51.

24. Quoted in Klaus K. Klostermaier, A Survey of Hinduism, 2nd ed. (Albany, 1994), p. 222.

25. Bhagavad-Gita 12:8–10, in Barbara Stoler Miller, trans., The Bhagavad-Gita: Krishna’s Counsel in Time of War (New York, 1986).

26. Bhagavata Purana (c. 800 CE), in Klostermaier, Survey of Hinduism, p. 229.

27. Bhagavad-Gita 6.32. Miller translation.

28. Freda Matchett, Krsna: Lord or Avatara? The Relationship Between Krsna and Visnu (Richmond, U.K., 2001), pp. 1–4.

29. Ibid., p. 5.

30. Rig Veda 1.155.4, in Ralph T. Griffith, trans., The Rig Veda (New York, 1992).

31. Rig Veda 7.100.2; 8.25.2.

32. Klaus K. Klostermaier, Hinduism: A Short History (Oxford, 2000), pp. 135–78; Klostermaier, Survey of Hinduism, pp. 262–69.

33. Klostermaier, Survey of Hinduism, pp. 307–19.

34. Astasahasrika 15:293, quoted in Edward Conze, Buddhism: Its Essence and Development (Oxford, 1951), p. 125.

35. Shabbat 31a, in A. Cohen, ed., Everyman’s Talmud (New York, 1975), p. 65. Some scholars believe that this story should be attributed to another rabbi, some two hundred years later.

36. Aboth de Rabbi Nathan 1. N, 11a, in C. G. Montefiore and H. Loewe, eds., A Rabbinic Anthology (New York, 1976), pp. 430–31.

37. Mekhilta de Rabbi Simon on Exodus 19:6, in J. Abelson, The Immanence of God in Rabbinical Literature (London, 1912), p. 230.

38. Song of Songs Rabbah 8:12, ibid., p. 231.

39. Yakult on Song of Songs 1:2.

40. Sifre on Leviticus 19:8, in Samuel Belkin, In His Image: The Jewish Philosophy of Man as Expressed in Rabbinic Tradition (London, 1960), p. 241.

41. Makhilta on Exodus 20:13, ibid., p. 50.

42. Sanhedrin 4:5.

43. Baba Metziah 58b.

44. Arakim 15b.

45. Midrash Rabbah, Numbers 19:6, in Gerald L. Bruns, “Midrash and Allegory,” in Robert Alter and Frank Kermode, eds., The Literary Guide to the Bible (London, 1987), p. 632.

46. Midrash Rabbah 1.10.2, ibid., p. 627.

47. Baba Metziah 59b, Deuteronomy 30:12, in Cohen, Everyman’s Talmud, pp. 40–41.

48. Exodus Rabbah 34:1; Hagigah 13b, in Abelson, Immanence of God, pp. 115–16.

49. Matthew 12:18–21.

50. Matthew 7:12; Luke 6:31.

51. Matthew 22:34–40; Mark 12:29–31; Luke 10:25–28.

52. Philippians 2:6–11.

53. Philippians 2:5.

54. Philippians 2:2–4.

55. Romans 6:1–11.

56. Romans 8:14–39.

57. Galatians 2:20.

58. 1 Corinthians 13:4–8.

59. Matthew 7:1.

60. Matthew 25:31–46.

61. Matthew 19:16–22; Mark 10:13–16; Luke 18:18–23.

62. Matthew 6:1–6.

63. Matthew 5:39–40.

64. Matthew 26:53.

65. Luke 22:34.

66. Matthew 5:43–48.

67. Qur’an 3:58–62; 2:129–32.

68. Qur’an 29:46. Quotations from the Qur’an are taken from Muhammad Asad, trans., The Message of the Qur’an (Gibraltar, 1980).

69. Qur’an 55:10.

70. Qur’an 2:217; 2:190.

71. Qur’an 22:39–40.

72. Qur’an 2:292.

73. Qur’an 16:125–26.

74. Qur’an 48:1.

75. Qur’an 48:26.

76. Qur’an 48:29.

77. Gregory Palamas, Theophanes, in J. P. Migue, ed., Patrologia Graeca (Paris, 1864–84), 9.932D.

78. Matthew 7:5.

Footnotes

* 1Unless otherwise specified, all dates are BCE.

* 2In Sanskrit, the Avestan ahura became asura.

* 3A prophet is not a person who foretells the future. The word comes from the Greek prophetes, one who speaks on behalf of the deity.

* 4In Sanskrit, the Pali nibbana becomes nirvana.

* 5In Pali, the Sanskrit dharma becomes dhamma.

* 6In his text, Lau uses the old Wade-Giles system of transliteration of Chinese characters rather than the Pinyin system used in this book. Hence qi is rendered ch’i.

* 7The Greek aggelos and Latin angelus meant “messenger,” ministering spirit, a spiritual being superior to humans, who were the attendants of the deity.

* 8Al-lah simply means “God” in Arabic.

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