BIBLIOGRAPHY

PRIMARY SOURCES

Following the usual conventions, editions of standard classical works are not cited in the bibliography; most are found in translation in either or both of the Loeb and Penguin Classics series. All Christian authors are available, if sometimes in outdated form, in Patrologia Latina or Patrologia Graeca editions. More recent (sometimes competing) editions of most of the texts cited in the Introduction and notes can be found in GCS (Die Griechischen Christlichen Schriftsteller der ersten Jahrhunderte), CSEL (Corpus Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum Latinorum), CC (Corpus Christianorum), and SC (Sources Chrétiennes). Many are translated in the Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, and Library of the Fathers collections. Otherwise, the following editions and translations of late Roman sources have been used; where no translation is cited, the translation in the text is my own

Agathias History: ed. Keydell (1967); trans. Frendo (1975)

Ammianus Marcellinus Res Gestae: in Rolfe, ed. and trans. (1935–9)

The Annals of Ravenna: ed. Bischoff and Koehler (1952)

Book of the History of the Franks: ed. Krusch (1888)

Cedrenus: ed. Bekker (1838–9)

Chron. Gall. 452: in Mommsen, ed. (1892)

Chron. Gall. 511: in Mommsen, ed. (1892)

Chronicon Paschale: ed. Dindorf (1832); trans. Whitby and Whitby (1989)

Claudian Works: ed. and trans. Platnauer (1922)

Codex Justinianus: in Kreuger, ed. (1877)

Eunapius History: ed. and trans. Blockley (1982)

Eutropius: ed. Santini (1979); trans. Bird (1993)

Gregory of Tours Histories: ed. Krusch and Levison (1951); trans. Thorpe (1974)

Hydatius Chronicle: in Mommsen, ed. (1894); trans. Burgess (1993)

John of Antioch: in Mueller, ed. (1851–70); trans. Gordon (1966)

John Lydus On the Months: ed. Wuensch (1898)

John Lydus On the Magistrates: ed. and trans. Bandy (1983)

Jordanes Getica: ed. Mommsen (1882); trans. Mierow (1915)

Jordanes Romana: ed. Mommsen (1882)

Julian Works: ed. and trans. Wright (1913)

Letter of Auxentius: in Gryson, ed. (1980); trans. Heather and Matthews (1991)

Libanius Works: ed. Foerster (1903–27); Letters: partial trans. Bradbury (2004)

Life of St Epiphanius: in Vogel, ed. (1885)

Life of Severinus: ed. Noll and Vetter (1963); trans. Bieler (1965)

Malalas: ed. Dindorf (1831); trans. Jeffreys et al. (1986)

Malchus: ed. and trans. Blockley (1982)

Marcellinus Comes: in Mommsen, ed. (1894)

Miracles of St Demetrius: ed. Lemerle (1979–81)

Olympiodorus of Thebes: ed. and trans. Blockley (1982)

Passion of St Saba: in Delehaye, ed. (1912); trans. Heather and Matthews (1991)

Paulinus of Pella Eucharisticon: in Evelyn White, ed. and trans. (1961)

Priscus: ed. and trans. Blockley (1982)

Procopius Works: ed. and trans. Dewing (1914–40)

Prosper Tiro Chronicle: in Mommsen, ed. (1892)

Sidonius Poems and Letters: ed. and trans. Anderson (1936–65)

Symmachus Works: ed. Seeck (1883); Relationes: trans. Barrow (1973)

Synesius of Cyrene: ed. Garzya (1989)

Themistius Orationes: ed. Schenkl et al. (1965–74); partial trans. Heather and Moncur (2001)

Theophanes Chronographia: ed. Niebuhr (1839–41); trans. Mango and Scott (1997)

Theophylact Simocatta History: ed. De Boor and Wirth (1972); trans. Whitby and Whitby (1986)

Victor of Vita History of the Persecution in Africa: ed. Kalm (1879); trans. Moorhead (1992)

Zosimus History: ed. Paschoud (1971–81); trans. Ridley (1982)

GENERAL

Adcock, F. E. (1956). Caesar as Man of Letters (Cambridge)

Alexander, P. J. (1958). The Patriarch Nicephorus of Constantinople: Ecclesiastical Policy and Image Worship in the Byzantine State (Oxford)

Amory, P. (1993). ‘The Meaning and Purpose of Ethnic Terminology in the Burgundian Laws’, Early Medieval Europe 2.1, 1–21

———– (1997). People and Identity in Ostrogothic Italy 489–554 (Cambridge)

Alfoldy, G. (1974). Noricum (London)

Anderson, W. B. (ed. and trans.) (1936–65). Sidonius Apollinaris Poems and Letters (London)

Arnheim, M. T. W. (1972). The Senatorial Aristocracy in the Later Roman Empire (Oxford)

Ausenda, G. (forthcoming a). The Burgundians: An Ethnographic Perspective (London)

———– (forthcoming b). The Vandals: An Ethnographic Perspective (London)

Bachrach, B. S. (1973). The Alans in the West (Minneapolis)

Baldwin, B. (1980). ‘Priscus of Panium’, Byzantion 50, 18–61

Bandy, A. C. (ed. and trans.) (1983). John Lydus de Magistratibus Populi Romani (Philadelphia)

Baradez, J. (1949). Fossatum Africae: recherches aériennes sur l’organisation des confins sahariens à l’époque romaine (Paris)

Barnes, T. D. (1995). ‘Statistics and the Conversion of the Roman Aristocracy’, Journal of Roman Studies 85, 135–47

Barnish, S. J. B. (1986). ‘Taxation, Land and Barbarian Settlement in the Western Empire’, Papers of the British School at Rome 54 (1986), 170–95

Barrow, R. H. (ed. and trans.) (1973). Prefect and Emperor: The Relationes of Symmachus, AD 384 (Oxford)

Bartholomew, P. (1976). Aspects of the Notitia Dignitatum(Oxford)

Bassett, S. (1989). The Origins of Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms (Leicester)

Baynes, N. H. (1943). ‘The Decline of the Roman Empire in Western Europe: Some Modern Explanations’, Journal of Roman Studies 33, 29–35

Bekker, I. (1838–9). Georgius Cedrenus Ioannis Scylitzæ, 2 vols (Bonn)

Bieler, L. (1965). Eugippius: The Life of Saint Severin (Washington DC)

Bierbrauer, V. (1980). ‘Zur chronologischen, soziologischen und regionalen Gliederung des ostgermanischen Fundstoffs des 5. Jahrhunderts in Sudosteuropa’, in Wolfram and Daim (1980), 131–42

———– (1989). ‘Ostgermanische Oberschichtsgräber der römischen Kaiserzeit und des frühen Mittelalters’, in Peregrinatio Gothica 2, Archaeologia Baltica VIII (Lodz), 40–106

Bird, H. W. (trans.) (1993). Eutropius Breviarium (Liverpool)

Bischoff, B., and Koehler, W. (1952). ‘The Annals of Ravenna’, Studi Romagnoli iii, 1–17

Blockley, R. C. (1972). ‘Dexippus and Priscus and the Thucydidean Account of the Siege of Plataea’, Phoenix 26, 18–27

———– (1982). (ed. and trans.) The Fragmentary Classicising Historians of the Later Roman Empire: Eunapius, Olympiodorus, Priscus and Malchus, vol. 2 (Liverpool)

———– (1992). East Roman Foreign Policy: Formation and Conduct from Diocletian to Anastasius (Leeds)

Boissier, G. (1891). La Fin du paganisme, vol. 2 (Paris)

Bona, I. (1991). Das Hunnenreich (Stuttgart)

Boulnois, L. (1966). The Silk Road, trans. D. Chamberlin (London)

Bowman, A., and Woolf, G. (eds) (1994). Literacy and Power in the Ancient World (Cambridge)

Bradbury, S. A. (1994). ‘Constantine and Anti-pagan Legislation in the Fourth Century’, Classical Philology 89, 120–39

———– (trans.) (2004). Selected Letters of Libanius from the Age of Constantius and Julian (Liverpool)

Braund, D. C. (1984). Rome and the Friendly King: The Character of Client Kingship (London)

Brown, P. R. L. (1967). Augustine of Hippo: A Biography (London)

———– (1981). The Cult of the Saints: Its Rise and Function in Latin Christianity (London)

———– (1995). Authority and the Sacred: Aspects of the Christianisation of the Roman World (Cambridge)

———– (1996). The Rise of Western Christendom: Triumph and Diversity, AD 200–1000 (Oxford)

Browning, R. (1953), ‘Where Was Attila’s Camp?’, Journal of Hellenic Studies, 143–5

Bruggisser, P. (1993). Symmaque, ou, Le rituel épistolaire de l’amité littéraire: recherches sur le premier livre de la correspondance (Fribourg)

Burgess, R. (trans.) (1993). The Chronicle of Hydatius and the Consularia Constantinopolitana (Oxford)

Bury, J. B. (1928). The Invasion of Europe by the Barbarians (London)

Callu, J. P. (1972–2002). Symmaque Lettres: texte établi, traduit et commenté (Paris)

Calo Levi, A. (1952). Barbarians on Roman Imperial Coinage and Sculpture, Numismatic Notes and Monographs 123 (New York)

Cameron, A. D. E. (1967). ‘Rutilius Namatianus, St Augustine, and the Date of the De Reditu’, Journal of Roman Studies 57, 31–9

———– (1970). Claudian: Poetry and Propaganda at the Court of Honorius (Oxford)

———– and Long, J. (1993). Barbarians and Politics at the Court of Arcadius (Berkeley)

Cameron, Averil, et al. (eds) (2000). The Cambridge Ancient History 2nd edn, vol. 14 (Cambridge)

Campbell, J. (1982). The Anglo-Saxons (London)

Casson, L. (1982). ‘Belisarius’ Expedition Against Carthage’, in J. H. Humphrey (ed.), Carthage VII: Excavations at Carthage 1978 Conducted by the University of Michigan (Ann Arbor), 23–8

Champion, T. C. (1989). Centre and Periphery: Comparative Studies in Archaeology (London)

Chastagnol, A. (1960). La Préfecture urbaine sous le bas-empire (Paris)

Childe, V. G. (1926). The Aryans: A Study of Indo-European Origins (London)

———– (1927). The Dawn of European Civilization (London)

Christiansen, A. (1944). L’Iran sous les Sassanides 2nd edn (Copenhagen)

Clover, F. M. (1971). ‘Flavius Merobaudes. A Translation and Historical Commentary’, Transactions of the American Philological Society 61, 1

———– (1972). ‘Geiseric and Attila’, Historia 22, 104–17

———– (1978). ‘The Family and Early Career of Anicius Olybrius’, Historia 27, 169–96

Cornell, T., and Matthews, J. F. (1982). Atlas of the Roman World (London)

Courcelle, P. (1964). Histoire littéraire des grandes invasions germaniques (Paris)

Courtois, C. (1955). Les Vandales et l’Afrique (Paris)

Crawford, M. (1975). ‘Finance, Coinage and Money from the Severans to Constantine’, Aufsteig und Niedergang der antiken Welt 2. 2, 572–5

Cribb, R. J. (1991). Nomads in Archaeology (London)

Croke, B. (1977). ‘Evidence for the Hun Invasion of Thrace in AD 422’, Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies xviii, 347–67

Cunliffe, B. (1997). The Ancient Celts (Oxford)

———– and Rowley, T. (eds) (1976). Oppida, the Beginnings of Urbanisation in Barbarian Europe: Papers Presented to a Conference at Oxford, October 1975 (Oxford)

Dagron, G. (1974). Naissance d’une capitale: Constantinople et ses institutions de 330 à 451 (Paris)

Dahn, F. (1861–99). Die König der Germanen: Das Wesen des ältesten Königthums der germanischen Stämme und seine Geschichte bis auf die Feudalzeit (Munich)

———– (1877). Ein Kampf um Rom (Leipzig)

Dauge, Y. A. (1981). Le Barbare: recherches sur la conception romaine du barbare et de la civilisation, Collection Latomus 176 (Brussels)

De Boor, C., and Wirth, P. (eds) (1972). The History of Theophylact Simocatta (Stuttgart)

Delehaye, H. (1912). ‘Saints de Thrace et de Mésie’, Analecta Bollandia 31, 161–300

Demandt, A. (1984). Der Fall Roms: die Auflösung des römischen Reiches im Urteil der Nachwelt (Munich)

Demougeot, E. (1951). De l’Unité à la division de l’Empire romain 395–410: Essai sur le gouvernement impérial (Paris)

———– (1979). La Formation de l’Europe et les invasions barbares: II. De l’avènement de Dioclétien (284) à l’occupation germanique de l’Empire romain d’Occident (début du VIe siècle) (Paris)

Dewing, H. B. (ed. and trans.) (1914–40). The Works of Procopius (London)

Diesner, H.-J. (1976). Die Völkerwanderung (Leipzig)

Dill, S. (1899). Roman Society in the Last Age of the Western Empire (London)

Dindorf, L., (ed.) (1831). Malalas Chronographia (Bonn)

———– (ed.) (1832). Chronicon Paschale (Bonn)

Dodgeon, M. H., and Lieu, S. N. C. (1991). The Roman Eastern Frontier and the Persian Wars (AD 226–363): A Documentary History (London)

Drew, K. Fischer (trans.) (1972). The Burgundian Code: Book of Constitutions or Law of Gundobad (Philadelphia)

Drinkwater, J. F. (1987). The Gallic Empire: Separatism and Continuity in the Northwestern Provinces of the Roman Empire, AD 260–274 (Stuttgart)

———– (1992). ‘The Bacaudae of Fifth-century Gaul’, in Drinkwater and Elton (1992), 208–17

———– and Elton, H. (eds) (1992). Fifth-century Gaul: A Crisis of Identity? (Cambridge)

Dunbabin, J. (1985). France in the Making, 843–1180 (Oxford)

Duncan-Jones, R. (2003). ‘Economic Change and the Transition to Late Antiquity’, in S. Swain and M. Edwards (eds), Approaching Late Antiquity: The Transformation from Early to Late Empire (Oxford), 20–52

Durliat, J. (1988). ‘Le salaire de la paix sociale dans les royaumes barbares (Ve-VIe siècles)’, in H. Wolfram and A. Schwarcz (eds), Anerkennung und Integration: Zu den wirtschaftlichen Grundlagen der Völkerwanderungszeit (400–600), Denkschriften der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Phil.–Hist. Kl. 193 (Vienna), 21–72

———– (1990). Les finances publiques de Dioclétien aux Carolingiens (284–889) (Sigmaringen)

Dvornik, H. (1966). Early Christian and Byzantine Political Philosophy: Origins and Background, Dumbarton Oaks Center for Byzantine Studies (Washington D

Elton, H. (1996a). Warfare in Roman Europe, AD 350–425 (Oxford) ———– (1996b). Frontiers of the Roman Empire (London)

Ennabli, E. A. (1992). Pour Sauver Carthage: Exploration et conservation de la cité punique, romaine et byzantine (Tunis)

Esmonde Cleary, A. S. (2000). The Ending of Roman Britain (London)

Evelyn White, H. (1961). The Works of Ausonius, vol. 2 (London)

Fantham, E. (2004). The Roman World of Cicero’s De Oratore (Oxford)

Favrod, J. (1997). Histoire politique du royaume burgonde (443–534) (Lausanne)

Ferguson, N. (2001). The Cash Nexus: Money and Power in the Modern World, 1700–2000 (London)

Ferris, I. M. (2000). Enemies of Rome: Barbarians through Roman Eyes (Stroud)

Foerster, R. (ed.) (1903–27). Libanii opera (Leipzig)

Frendo, J. D. (trans.) (1975). Agathias: History (Berlin)

Friedrichsen, G. W. S. (1926). The Gothic Version of the Gospels: A Study of Its Style and Textual History (Oxford)

———– (1939). The Gothic Version of the Epistles: A Study of Its Style and Textual History (Oxford)

Galliou, P., and Jones, M. (1991). The Bretons (Oxford)

Garzya, A. (ed. and Italian trans.) (1989). Opere di Sinesio di Cirene: epistole, operette, inni (Turin)

George, J. W. (1992). Venantius Fortunatus: A Latin Poet in Merovingian Gaul (Oxford)

Gibbon, E. (1897). The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, ed. J. B. Bury, vol. 4 (London)

Gibson, M., and Nelson, J. (1981). Charles the Bald: Court and Kingdom (Oxford)

Goffart, W. (1980). Barbarians and Romans AD 418–584: The Techniques of Accommodation (Princeton)

———– (1981). ‘Rome, Constantinople, and the Barbarians in Late Antiquity’, American Historical Review 76, 275–306

———– (1988). The Narrators of Barbarian History (AD 550–800): Jordanes, Gregory of Tours, Bede, and Paul the Deacon (Princeton)

Gonzalez, J. (1986). ‘The Lex Irnitana: A New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law’, Journal of Roman Studies 76, 147–243

Gordon, D. C. (trans.) (1966). The Age of Attila (Ann Arbor)

Green, R. P. H. (1991). The Works of Ausonius (Oxford)

Gryson, R. (ed.) (1980). Littérature Arienne Latine (Louvain)

Haarnagel, W. (1979). Die Grabung Feddersen Wierde: Methode, Hausbau, Siedlungs- und Wirtschaftsformen sowie Sozialstruktur (Wiesbaden)

Hachmann, R. (1971). The Germanic Peoples (London)

———– et al. (1962). Völker zwischen Germanen und Kelten: Schriftquellen, Bodenfunde und Namengut zur Geschichte des nördlichen Westdeutschlands um Christi Geburt (Neumünster)

Haldon, J. F. (1990). Byzantium in the Seventh Century: The Transformation of a Culture (Cambridge)

Hallam, E. M. (1980). Capetian France, 987–1328 (London)

Halm, C. (1879). MGH, auctores antiquissimi 2 (Berlin)

———– (1879). Victoris Vitensis Historia persecutionis africanae provinciae sub Geiserico et Hunrico regibus Wandalorum, MGH, auctores antiquissimi 2 (Berlin)

Halsall, G. (1993). ‘The Origins of the Reihengraberzivilisation: Forty Years On’, in Drinkwater and Elton (1992), 196–207

Hanson, R. P. C. (1988). The Search for the Christian Doctrine of God (Edinburgh)

Harhoiu, R. (1977). The Treasure from Pietroasa, Romania (Oxford)

Härke, H. (1990). ‘ “Warrior Graves?” The Background of the Anglo-Saxon Weapon Burial Rite’, Past and Present 126, 22–43

Harmatta, J. (1951). ‘The Golden Bow of the Huns’, Acta Archaeologica Hungaricae 1, 114–49

Harries, J. (1994). Sidonius Apollinaris and the Fall of Rome (Oxford)

Haubrichs, W. (forthcoming). ‘Burgundian Names – Burgundian Language’, in Ausenda (forthcoming b)

Heather, P. J. (1986). ‘The Crossing of the Danube and the Gothic Conversion’, Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies 27, 289–318

———– (1988). ‘The Anti-Scythian Tirade of Synesius’ De Regno’, Phoenix 42, 152–72

———– (1989). ‘Cassiodorus and the Rise of the Amals: Genealogy and the Goths under Hun Domination’, Journal of Roman Studies 79, 103–28

———– (1991). Goths and Romans 332–489 (Oxford)

———– (1993). ‘The Historical Culture of Ostrogothic Italy’, in Teoderico il grande e i Goti d’Italia, Atti del XIII Congresso internazionale di studi sull’Alto Medioevo (Spoleto, 1993), 317–53

———– (1994a). ‘Literacy and Power in the Migration Period’, in Bowman and Woolf (1994), 177–97

———– (1994b). ‘New Men for New Constantines? Creating an Imperial Elite in the Eastern Mediterranean’, in P. Magdalino (ed.), New Constantines: The Rhythm of Imperial Renewal in Byzantium, 4th–13th Centuries (London), 11–33

———– (1995). ‘The Huns and the End of the Roman Empire in Western Europe’, English Historical Review 110, 4–41

———– (1996). The Goths (Oxford)

———– (2000). ‘State, Lordship and Community in the West (c. AD 400–600)’, in Averil Cameron et al. (2000), 437–68

———– (2001). ‘The Late Roman Art of Client Management and the Grand Strategy Debate’, in W. Pohl and I. N. Wood (eds), The Transformation of Frontiers from Late Antiquity to the Carolingians, Proceedings of the Second Plenary Conference, European Science Foundation Transformation of the Roman World Project (Brill), 15–68

———– (forthcoming a). ‘Law and Identity in the Burgundian Kingdom’, in Ausenda (forthcoming b)

———– (forthcoming b). Emperors and Barbarians: Migration and State Formation in First-millennium Europe.

———– and Matthews, J. F. (1991). The Goths in the Fourth Century, Translated Texts for Historians (Liverpool)

———– and Moncur, D. (trans.) (2001). Politics, Philosophy and Empire in the Fourth Century: Select Orations of Themistius, Translated Texts for Historians (Liverpool)

Hedeager, L. (1978). ‘A Quantitative Analysis of Roman Imports in Europe North of the Limes (0–400 AD), and the Question of Roman-Germanic Exchange’, New Directions in Scandinavian Archaeology, ed. K. Kristiansen and C. Paludan-Muller (Copenhagen), 191–216

———– (1987). ‘Empire, Frontier and the Barbarian Hinterland. Rome and Northern Europe from AD 1 to 400’, in Rowlands et al. (1987), 125–40

Hendy, M. F. (1985). Studies in the Byzantine Monetary Economy, c. 300–1450 (Cambridge)

Higham, N. (1992). Rome, Britain and the Anglo-Saxons (London)

Hoddinott, R. F. (1975). Bulgaria in Antiquity: An Archaeological Introduction (London)

Hoffmann, D. (1969). Das spätrömische Bewegungsheer und die Notitia Dignitatum (Düsseldorf)

Homes Dudden, F. (1935). The Life and Times of St Ambrose (Oxford)

Honoré, A. M. (1978). Tribonian (London)

———– (1994). Emperors and Lawyers, 2nd rev. edn (Oxford)

Hopkins, K. (1980). ‘Taxes and Trade in the Roman Empire’, Journal of Roman Studies 70, 101–25

Howard Johnson, J. D. (1995). ‘The Two Great Powers of Late Antiquity: A Comparison’, in Averil Cameron (ed.), The Byzantine and Early Islamic Near East vol. 3: States, Resources and Armies (Princeton), 123–78

Hussey, J. M. (1990). The Orthodox Church in the Byzantine Empire (Oxford)

Innes, M. (forthcoming). ‘On the Social Dynamics of Barbarian Settlement: Land, Law, and Property in the Burgundian Kingdom’, in Ausenda (forthcoming b)

Isaac, B. (1992). The Limits of Empire: The Roman Army in the East (Oxford)

James, E. (1988). The Franks (Oxford)

Jeffreys, E., et al. (trans.) (1986). The Chronicle of John Malalas (Melbourne)

Jones, A. H. M. (1964). The Later Roman Empire: A Social, Economic and Administrative Survey, 3 vols (Oxford)

Kagan, D. (1992). The End of the Roman Empire, 3rd edn (Lexington, Mass.)

Kaegi, W. (1968). Byzantium and the Decline of Rome (Princeton)

Kaster, R. A. (1988). Guardians of Language: The Grammarian and Society in Late Antiquity (Berkeley)

Kazanski, M. (1991). Les Goths (Ier–VIIe siècles après J.-C.) (Paris)

Keay, S., and Terrenato, N. (eds) (2001). Italy and the West: Comparative Issues in Romanization (Oxford)

Keegan, J. (1988), The First World War (London)

Keene, C. H., and Savage-Armstrong, G. F. (1907). The Home-coming of Rutilius Claudius Namatianus from Rome to Gaul in the Year 416 AD (London)

Kelly, C. M. (1994). ‘Later Roman Bureaucracy: Going through the Files’, in Bowman and Woolf (1994), 161–76

Keydell, R. (ed.) (1967). Agathias Historiae, Corpus Fontium Historiae Byzantinae (Berlin)

Klopsteg, P. E. (1927). Turkish Archery and the Composite Bow (Evanston, Ill.)

Klöse, J. (1934). Roms Klientel-Randstaaten am Rhein und an der Donau: Beiträge zu ihrer Geschichte und rechtlichen Stellung im 1. und 2. Jhdt n. Chr. (Breslau)

Kooi, B. W. (1991). ‘On the Mechanics of the Modern Working-recurve Bow’, Computational Mechanics 8, 291–304

———– (1994). ‘The Design of the Bow’, Proceedings Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen 97(3), 283–309

Kopecek, T. A. (1979). A History of Neo-Arianism (Philadelphia)

Kossinna, G. (1928). Ursprung und Verbreitung der Germanen in vor- und frühgeschichtlicher Zeit (The Origin of the Germani) (Leipzig)

Krautheimer, R. (1980). Rome: Profile of a City, 312–1308 (Princeton)

Kreuger, P. (ed.) (1877). Corpus Iuris Civilis (Berlin)

Krusch, B. (ed.) (1888). Liber Historiae Francorum, MGH, scriptores rerum merovingicarum 2 (Berlin)

———– and Levison, W. (eds) (1951). Gregory of Tours Historiae, MGH, scriptores rerum merovingicarum 1. 1 (Berlin)

Laszlo, Gy (1951). ‘The Golden Bow of the Huns’, Acta Archaeologica Hungaricae 1, 91–106

Lattimore, O. (1940). Inner Asian Frontiers of China (Oxford)

Leeman, A. D. (1963). Orationis Ratio: The Stylistic Theories and Practice of the Roman Orators, Historians and Philosophers (Amsterdam)

Lemerle, P. (1971). Le premier humanisme byzantin (Paris)

———– (ed. and French trans.) (1979–81). Les plus anciens recueils des miracles de Saint Démétrius (Paris)

Lengyel, A., and Radan, G. T. B. (eds) (1980). The Archaeology of Roman Pannonia (Budapest)

Lenski, N. (1995). ‘The Gothic Civil War and the Date of the Gothic Conversion’, Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies 36, 51–87

———– (2002). Failure of Empire: Valens and the Roman State in the Fourth Century AD (Berkeley)

Lepelley, C. (1979–81). Les Cités de l’Afrique romaine au Bas-Empire (Paris)

Lewitt, T. (1991). Agricultural Production in the Roman Economy AD 200–400 (Oxford)

Liebeschuetz, J. H. W. G. (1972). Antioch: City and Imperial Administration in the Later Roman Empire (Oxford)

———– (1990). Barbarians and Bishops: Army, Church and State in the Age of Arcadius and John Chrysostom (Oxford)

———– (1997). ‘Cities, Taxes and the Accommodation of the Barbarians: The Theories of Durliat and Goffart’, in W. Pohl (ed.), Kingdoms of the Empire: The Integration of Barbarians in Late Antiquity (Leiden), 135–52

Lindner, R. (1981). ‘Nomadism, Huns and Horses’, Past and Present 92, 1–19

Linebaugh, P. (1991). The London Hanged: Crime and Civil Society in the Eighteenth Century (London)

Lomanto, V. (1983). A Concordance to Symmachus (Hildesheim)

Lot, F. (1939). Les invasions germaniques: La pénétration mutuelle du monde barbare et du monde romain (Paris)

Lotter, F. (1976). Severinus von Noricum, Legende und historische Wirklichkeit: Unters. zur Phase d. Übergangs von spätantiken zu mittelalterl. Denk-u. Lebensformen (Stuttgart)

McAdams, R. (1965). Land behind Baghdad: A History of Settlement on the Diyala Plains (Chicago)

MacCormack, S. A. (1981). Art and Ceremony in Late Antiquity (Los Angeles and Berkeley)

McCormick, M. (1986). Eternal Victory: Triumphal Rulership in Late Antiquity, Byzantium and the Early Medieval West (Cambridge)

MacGeorge, P. (2002). Late Roman Warlords (Oxford)

McLynn, N. (1994). Ambrose of Milan (Berkeley)

MacMullen, R. (1963). Soldier and Civilian in the Later Roman Empire (Cambridge, Mass.)

———– (1988). Corruption and the Decline of Rome (New Haven, Conn.)

Maenchen-Helfen, O. J. (1945). ‘Huns and Hsiung-Nu’, Byzantion 17, 222–43

———– (1973). The World of the Huns (Berkeley)

Mango, C. (1985). Le Développement urbain de Constantinople (IVe–VIIe siècles), Travaux et Mémoires, Monographies 2 (Paris)

———– and Scott, R. (trans.) (1997). Chronographia, The Chronicle of Theophanes Confessor (Oxford)

Manton, E. L. (1988). Roman North Africa (London)

Markus, R. A. (1990). The End of Ancient Christianity (Cambridge)

———– (1997). Gregory the Great and his World (Cambridge)

Matthews, J. F. (1970 ). ‘Olympiodorus of Thebes and the History of the West (AD 407–425)’, Journal of Roman Studies 60, 79–97 (Matthews (1985), no. III)

———– (1971). ‘Gallic Supporters of Theodosius’, Latomus 30, 1073–99 (= Matthews (1985), no. IX)

———– (1974). ‘The Letters of Symmachus’, in J. W. Binns (ed.), Latin Literature of the Fourth Century (London), 58–99 (= Matthews (1985), no. IV)

———– (1975). Western Aristocracies and the Imperial Court AD 364–425 (Oxford)

———– (1985). Political Life and Culture in Late Roman Society (London)

———– (1986). ‘Symmachus and His Enemies’ in F. Paschoud et al. (eds), Colloque genevois sur Symmaque: à l’occasion du mille-six-centième anniversaire du conflit de l’autel de la Victoire (Paris), 160–75

———– (1989). The Roman Empire of Ammianus (London)

———– (2000). Laying Down the Law: A Study of the Theodosian Code (New Haven, Conn.)

Mattingly, D. J. (2002). ‘Vulgar and weak “Romanization”, or Time for a Paradigm Shift?’, Journal of Roman Archaeology 15, 163–7

———– and Hitchner, R. B. (1995). ‘Roman Africa: An Archaeological Review’, Journal of Roman Studies 85, 165–213

Mattingly, G. (2002). The Defeat of the Spanish Armada (London)

Meiggs, R. (1973). Roman Ostia (Oxford)

Menghin, W. et al. (1987). Germanen, Hunnen und Awaren: Schätze der Völkerwanderungszeit (Nuremberg)

Mierow, C. C. (trans.) (1915). Jordanes Getica (New York)

Millar, F. (1992). The Emperor in the Roman World, 2nd edn (London)

———– (1993). The Roman Near East 31 BCAD 337 (Harvard)

Mocsy, A. (1974). Pannonia and Upper Moesia (London)

Moderan, Y. (forthcoming). ‘The Notitia of the Province of Africa 484 and Huneric’s Persecution’, in Ausenda (forthcoming a)

Momigliano, A. (1955). ‘Cassiodorus and the Italian Culture of His Time’, Proceedings of the British Academy 41, 215–48

Mommsen, Th. (ed.) (1882). Jordanes Romana et Getica, MGH, auctores antiquissimi 5. 1 (1882)

———– (ed.) (1892). Chronica Minora 1, MGH, auctores antiquissimi 9 (Berlin)

———– (ed.) (1894). Chronica Minora 2, MGH, auctores antiquissimi 11 (Berlin)

———– (1901). ‘Aetius’, Hermes lxxvi, 516–47

———– (1910). ‘Das römische Militarwesen seit Diocletian’, in Gesammelte Schriften, vol. 6 (Berlin), 206–83

———– and Kreuger, P. (eds) (1905). Codex Theodosianus (Berlin)

Moorhead, J. (trans.) (1992). Victor of Vita: History of the Persecution in Africa (Liverpool)

Mueller, K. (ed.) (1851–70). Fragmenta Historicorum Graecorum, vols 4–5 (Paris)

Musset, L. (1965). Les invasions: Les vagues germaniques (Paris)

Niebuhr, B. G. (ed.) (1839–41). Theophanes Chronographia (Bonn)

Nixon, C. E. V., and Rogers, B. S. (ed. and trans.) (1994). In Praise of Later Roman Emperors: The Panegyrici Latini (Berkeley)

Noble, T. F. X. (1990). ‘Literacy and the Papal Government’, in R. McKitterick (ed.), The Uses of Literacy in Early Mediaeval Europe (Cambridge), 82–108

Noll, R., and Vetter, E. (eds) (1963). Eugippius Vita Sancti Severini, Schriften und Quellen der Alten Welt 11 (Berlin)

Norman, A. F. (trans.) (1992). Libanius: Autobiography and Select Letters, 2 vols, Loeb (Cambridge, Mass.)

O’Flynn, J. M. (1983). Generalissimos of the Western Roman Empire (Edmonton, Alta)

Oost, S. (1968). Galla Placidia Augusta: A Biographical Essay (Chicago)

Ørsnes, M. (1968). Der Moorfund von Ejsbøl bei Hadersleben. Deutungsprobleme der grossen nordgermanischen Waffenopferfunde, Abhandlung der Akademie der Wissenschaft in Göttingen (Göttingen)

Paschoud, F. (ed. and French trans.) (1971–81). Zosimus Historia Nova (Paris)

Pearson, A. (2002). The Roman Shore Forts: Coastal Defences of Southern Britain (Stroud)

Percival, J. (1976). The Roman Villa (London)

Petrovic, P. (ed.) (1996). Roman Limes on the Middle and Lower Danube (Belgrade)

Pharr, C. (1952). The Theodosian Code and Novels, and the Sirmondian Constitutions (New York)

Platnauer, M. (ed. and trans.) (1922). The Works of Claudian (London)

Pohl, W. (1980). ‘Die Gepiden und die Gentes an der mittleren Donau nach dem Zerfall des Attilareiches’, in Wolfram and Daim (1980), 239–305

———– (1988). Die Awaren: Ein Steppenvolk im Mitteleuropa, 567–822 n. Chr. (Beck)

Poulter, A. G. (1995). Nicopolis ad Istrum: A Roman, Late Roman, and Early Byzantine City: Excavations 1985–1992 (London)

———– (1999). ‘The Transition to Late Antiquity on the Lower Danube: An Interim Report (1996–8)’, Antiquaries Journal 79, 145–85

Prakash, G., et al. (1994). ‘American Historical Review Forum: Subaltern Studies as Postcolonial Criticism’, American Historical Review 99, 5

Ramsay, A. M. (1925). ‘The Speed of the Imperial Post’, Journal of Roman Studies 15, 60–74

Rau, G. (1972). ‘Körpergraber mit Glasbeigaben des 4. nachschristlichen Jahrhunderts im Oder-Wechsel-Raum’, Acta praehistorica et archaeologica 3, 109–214

Raven, S. (1993) Rome in Africa, 3rd edn (London)

Rawson E. (1975). Cicero: A Portrait (London)

Renfrew, C., and Bahn, P. (1991). Archaeology: Theories, Methods and Practice (London)

Reuter, T. (1985). ‘Plunder and Tribute in the Carolingian Empire’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 5th ser. 35, 75–94

———– (1990). ‘The End of Carolingian Military Expansion’, in P. Godman and R. Collins (eds), Charlemagne’s Heir: New Perspectives on the Reign of Louis the Pious (Oxford), 391–405

Riché, P. (1976). Education and Culture in the Barbarian West, Sixth through Eighth Centuries, trans. J. J. Contreni (Columbia)

Ridley R. T. (trans.) (1982). Zosimus New History (Canberra)

Roberts, C. H., and Turner, E. G. (eds) (1952). Catalogue of the Greek and Latin Papyri in the John Rylands Library, Manchester, vol. 4 (Manchester)

Roberts, M. (1989). The Jeweled Style: Poetry and Poetics in Late Antiquity (Ithaca)

———– (1992), ‘Barbarians in Gaul: The Response of the Poets’, in Drinkwater and Elton (1992), 97–106

Robinson, O. F. (1992). The Sources of Roman Law (London)

Roda, S. (1981). ‘Una nuova lettera di Simmaco ad Ausonio? (a proposito di Symm. Ep. IX, 88)’, Revue des Études Anciennes 83, 273–80

Rolfe, J. C. (ed.) (1935–9). Ammianus Marcellinus, Loeb (London)

Rostovtzeff, M. (1957) The Social and Economic History of the Roman Empire, 2nd edn, rev. P. Fraser (Oxford)

Roueché, C. (1989). Aphrodisias in Late Antiquity: The Late Roman and Byzantine Inscriptions (London)

Rowlands, M., et al. (eds) (1987). Centre and Periphery in the Ancient World (Cambridge)

Rubin, Z. (1986). ‘The Mediterranean and the Dilemma of the Roman Empire in Late Antiquity’, Mediterranean Historical Review 1, 13–62

Runciman, S. (1929). The Emperor Romanus Lecapenus and His Reign: A Study of Tenth-century Byzantium (Cambridge)

St Croix, G. de (1981). The Class Struggle in the Ancient Greek World (London)

Salway, P. (1981). Roman Britain (Oxford)

Santini, C. (ed.) (1979). Eutropius Breviarium ab urbe condita (Stuttgart)

Schenkl, H., et al. (eds) (1965–74). Themistii Orationes (Leipzig)

Schutz, H. (1983). The Prehistory of Germanic Europe (New Haven, Conn.)

Scorpan, C. (1980). Limes Scythiae: Topographical and Stratigraphical Research on the Late Roman Fortifications on the Lower Danube (Oxford)

Shaw, B. (1995a). Environment and Society in North Africa: Studies in History and Archaeology (Aldershot)

———– (1995b). Rulers, Nomads and Christians in North Africa (Aldershot)

Shchukin, M. B. (1989). Rome and the Barbarians in Central and Eastern Europe: 1st Century BC–1st Century AD (Oxford)

Seeck, O. (ed.) (1876). Notitia Dignitatum omnium tam civilum quam militarum (Berlin)

———– (ed.) (1883). Symmachus quae supersunt (Berlin)

Sinor, D. (1977). Inner Asia and Its Contacts with Medieval Europe (London)

Sivan, H. (1985). ‘An Unedited Letter of the Emperor Honorius to the Spanish Soldiers’, Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik lxi, 273–87

Smith, R. (1999). ‘Telling Tales: Ammianus’ Narrative of the Persian Expedition’, in J. W. Drijvers and D. Hunt (eds), The Late Roman World and Its Historian: Interpreting Ammianus Marcellinus (London), 89–104

Stallknecht, B. (1969). Untersuchungen zur römischen Aussenpolitik in der Spätantike (Bonn)

Stein, E. (1959). Histoire du Bas Empire, trans. J. R. Palanque (Paris)

Stevens, C. E. (1933). Sidonius Apollinaris and His Age (Oxford)

Stickler, T. (2002). Aetius: Gestaltungsspielraume eines Heermeisters im ausgehenden Weströmischen Reich, Vestigia 54 (Beck)

Tate, G. (1989). ‘Les campagnes de la Syrie du Nord a l’époque proto-Byzantine’, in C. Morrisson and J. Lefort (eds), Hommes et richesses dans l’antiquité byzantine (Paris), 63–77

Tchalenko, G. (1953–8). Villages antiques de la Syrie du Nord (Paris)

Tejral, J., et al. (eds) (1999). L’Occident romain et l’Europe centrale au début de l’époque des Grandes Migrations (Brno)

Thompson, E. A. (1945). ‘Priscus of Panium, Fragment 1b’, Classical Quarterly 39, 92–4

———– (1946). ‘The Isaurians under Theodosius II’, Hermathena 48, 18–31

———– (1950). ‘The Foreign Policy of Theodosius II and Marcian’, Hermathena 76, 58–78

———– (1956). ‘The Settlement of the Barbarians in Southern Gaul’, Journal of Roman Studies 46, 65–75

———– (1982a). ‘The End of Noricum’, in Thompson (1982c), 113–35

———– (1982b). ‘Hydatius and the Invasion of Spain’, in Thompson (1982c), 137–60

———– (1982c). Romans and Barbarians: The Decline of the Western Empire (Wisconsin)

———– (1996). The Huns (Oxford)

Thorpe, L. (trans.) (1974), Gregory of Tours: The History of the Franks (London)

Tjäder, J.-O. (1972). ‘Der Codex argenteus in Uppsala und der Buchmeister Viliaric in Ravenna’, in U. E. Hagberg (ed.), Studia Gotica (Stockholm), 144–64

Todd, M. (1975). The Northern Barbarians 100 BCAD 300 (London)

———– (1992). The Early Germans (Oxford)

Toynbee, A. (1973). Constantine Porphyrogenitus and His World (London)

Trout, D. E. (1999). Paulinus of Nola: Life, Letters, and Poems (Berkeley)

Twitchett, D., and Loewe, M. (1986). Cambridge History of China, vol. 1 (Cambridge)

Urbancyzk, P. (1997). ‘Changes of Power Structure During the 1st Millennium AD in the Northern Part of Central Poland’, in P. Urbancyzk (ed.), Origins of Central Europe (Warsaw), 39–44

Van Dam, R. (2003). Becoming Christian: The Conversion of Roman Cappadocia (Philadelphia)

Van Es, W. A. (1967). Wijster: A Native Village beyond the Imperial Frontier 150–425 AD (Gröningen)

Várady, L. (1969). Das Letzte Jahrhundert Pannoniens: 376–476 (Amsterdam)

Vasiliev, A. A. (1936). The Goths in the Crimea (Cambridge)

Viereck, H. D. L. (1975). Die Römische Flotte (Herford)

Vogel, F. (ed.) (1885). Ennodius Opera, MGH, auctores antiquissimi 7 (Berlin)

Von Salis, L. R. (ed.) (1892). Liber Constitutionum, MGH, leges nationum germanicarum 2.1 (Hanover)

Walbank, F. W. (1969). The Awful Revolution: The Decline of the Roman Empire in the West (Liverpool)

Wallace-Hadrill, J. M. (1961). ‘Gothia and Romania’, Bulletin of the John Rylands Library, Manchester 44/1

Wanke, U. (1990). Die Gotenkriege des Valens: Studien zu Topographie und Chronologie im unteren Donauraum von 366 bis 378 n. Chr. (Frankfurt am Main)

Ward Perkins, B. (2000). ‘Land, Labour and Settlement’, in Averil Cameron et al. (eds) (2000), 315–45

Wells, P. S. (2003). The Battle That Stopped Rome (New York)

Whitby, L. M. (2002). Rome at War AD 229–696 (Oxford)

———– and Whitby, J. M. (trans.) (1986). The History of Theophylact Simocatta (Oxford)

———– and Whitby, J. M. (trans.) (1989). The Chronicon Paschale (Liverpool)

Whittaker, C. R. (1976). ‘Agri Deserti’, in M. I. Finley (ed.), Studies in Roman Property, 137–65, 193–200

———– (1994). Frontiers of the Roman Empire: A Social and Economic Study (Baltimore)

———– and Garnsey, P. (1998). ‘Rural Life in the Later Roman Empire’, in Averil Cameron and P. Garnsey (eds), The Cambridge Ancient History, 2nd edn, vol. 13 (Cambridge), 277–311

Whittow, M. (1996). The Making of Orthodox Byzantium, 600–1025 (London)

Wickham, C. (1992). ‘Problems of Comparing Rural Societies in Early Medieval Western Europe’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 6th ser. 2, 221–46

———– (1993). ‘La chute de Rome n’aura pas lieu. À propos d’un livre récent’, Le Moyen Age 99, 107–26

Wightman, E. M. (1967). Roman Trier and the Treveri (London)

Wilkes, J. J. (1969). Dalmatia (London)

Wolfram, H. (1967). Intitulatio 1: Lateinische Königs- und Fürstentitel bis zum Ende des 8. Jahrhunderts, Mitteilungen des Instituts für österreichische Geschichtsforschung, Erganzungsband 21 (Vienna)

———– (1985). Treasures on the Danube: Barbarian Invaders and Their Roman Inheritance (Vienna)

———– (1988). History of the Goths, trans. T. J. Dunlap (Berkeley)

———– and Daim, F. (eds) (1980). Die Völker an der mittleren und unteren Donau im fünften und sechsten Jahrhundert, Denkschriften der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Phil.-Hist. Kl. 145 (Vienna)

Wood, I. N. (1994). The Merovingian Kingdoms (London)

Woolf, G. (1998). Becoming Roman: The Origins of Provincial Civilization in Gaul (Cambridge)

Wormald, P. (1999). The Making of English Law: King Alfred to the Twelfth Century, vol. 1 (Oxford)

Wright, W. C. (1913). The Works of the Emperor Julian, 3 vols (London)

Wuensch, R. (ed.) (1898). Ioannis Laurentii Lydi Liber de mensibus (Leipzig)

Yarshater, E. (ed.) (1984–2004, ongoing). Encyclopaedia Iranica (London)

Zecchini, G. (1983). Aezio: l’ultima difesa dell’Occidente romano (Rome)

Zeumer, K. (ed.) (1902). Leges Visigothorum (Hanover)

If you find an error please notify us in the comments. Thank you!