Following the usual conventions, editions of standard classical works are not cited in the bibliography; most are found in translation in either or both of the Loeb and Penguin Classics series. All Christian authors are available, if sometimes in outdated form, in Patrologia Latina or Patrologia Graeca editions. More recent (sometimes competing) editions of most of the texts cited in the Introduction and notes can be found in GCS (Die Griechischen Christlichen Schriftsteller der ersten Jahrhunderte), CSEL (Corpus Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum Latinorum), CC (Corpus Christianorum), and SC (Sources Chrétiennes). Many are translated in the Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, and Library of the Fathers collections. Otherwise, the following editions and translations of late Roman sources have been used; where no translation is cited, the translation in the text is my own

Agathias History: ed. Keydell (1967); trans. Frendo (1975)

Ammianus Marcellinus Res Gestae: in Rolfe, ed. and trans. (1935–9)

The Annals of Ravenna: ed. Bischoff and Koehler (1952)

Book of the History of the Franks: ed. Krusch (1888)

Cedrenus: ed. Bekker (1838–9)

Chron. Gall. 452: in Mommsen, ed. (1892)

Chron. Gall. 511: in Mommsen, ed. (1892)

Chronicon Paschale: ed. Dindorf (1832); trans. Whitby and Whitby (1989)

Claudian Works: ed. and trans. Platnauer (1922)

Codex Justinianus: in Kreuger, ed. (1877)

Eunapius History: ed. and trans. Blockley (1982)

Eutropius: ed. Santini (1979); trans. Bird (1993)

Gregory of Tours Histories: ed. Krusch and Levison (1951); trans. Thorpe (1974)

Hydatius Chronicle: in Mommsen, ed. (1894); trans. Burgess (1993)

John of Antioch: in Mueller, ed. (1851–70); trans. Gordon (1966)

John Lydus On the Months: ed. Wuensch (1898)

John Lydus On the Magistrates: ed. and trans. Bandy (1983)

Jordanes Getica: ed. Mommsen (1882); trans. Mierow (1915)

Jordanes Romana: ed. Mommsen (1882)

Julian Works: ed. and trans. Wright (1913)

Letter of Auxentius: in Gryson, ed. (1980); trans. Heather and Matthews (1991)

Libanius Works: ed. Foerster (1903–27); Letters: partial trans. Bradbury (2004)

Life of St Epiphanius: in Vogel, ed. (1885)

Life of Severinus: ed. Noll and Vetter (1963); trans. Bieler (1965)

Malalas: ed. Dindorf (1831); trans. Jeffreys et al. (1986)

Malchus: ed. and trans. Blockley (1982)

Marcellinus Comes: in Mommsen, ed. (1894)

Miracles of St Demetrius: ed. Lemerle (1979–81)

Olympiodorus of Thebes: ed. and trans. Blockley (1982)

Passion of St Saba: in Delehaye, ed. (1912); trans. Heather and Matthews (1991)

Paulinus of Pella Eucharisticon: in Evelyn White, ed. and trans. (1961)

Priscus: ed. and trans. Blockley (1982)

Procopius Works: ed. and trans. Dewing (1914–40)

Prosper Tiro Chronicle: in Mommsen, ed. (1892)

Sidonius Poems and Letters: ed. and trans. Anderson (1936–65)

Symmachus Works: ed. Seeck (1883); Relationes: trans. Barrow (1973)

Synesius of Cyrene: ed. Garzya (1989)

Themistius Orationes: ed. Schenkl et al. (1965–74); partial trans. Heather and Moncur (2001)

Theophanes Chronographia: ed. Niebuhr (1839–41); trans. Mango and Scott (1997)

Theophylact Simocatta History: ed. De Boor and Wirth (1972); trans. Whitby and Whitby (1986)

Victor of Vita History of the Persecution in Africa: ed. Kalm (1879); trans. Moorhead (1992)

Zosimus History: ed. Paschoud (1971–81); trans. Ridley (1982)


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Anderson, W. B. (ed. and trans.) (1936–65). Sidonius Apollinaris Poems and Letters (London)

Arnheim, M. T. W. (1972). The Senatorial Aristocracy in the Later Roman Empire (Oxford)

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Baldwin, B. (1980). ‘Priscus of Panium’, Byzantion 50, 18–61

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Bischoff, B., and Koehler, W. (1952). ‘The Annals of Ravenna’, Studi Romagnoli iii, 1–17

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Chastagnol, A. (1960). La Préfecture urbaine sous le bas-empire (Paris)

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Clover, F. M. (1971). ‘Flavius Merobaudes. A Translation and Historical Commentary’, Transactions of the American Philological Society 61, 1

———– (1972). ‘Geiseric and Attila’, Historia 22, 104–17

———– (1978). ‘The Family and Early Career of Anicius Olybrius’, Historia 27, 169–96

Cornell, T., and Matthews, J. F. (1982). Atlas of the Roman World (London)

Courcelle, P. (1964). Histoire littéraire des grandes invasions germaniques (Paris)

Courtois, C. (1955). Les Vandales et l’Afrique (Paris)

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———– and Rowley, T. (eds) (1976). Oppida, the Beginnings of Urbanisation in Barbarian Europe: Papers Presented to a Conference at Oxford, October 1975 (Oxford)

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Dahn, F. (1861–99). Die König der Germanen: Das Wesen des ältesten Königthums der germanischen Stämme und seine Geschichte bis auf die Feudalzeit (Munich)

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Dauge, Y. A. (1981). Le Barbare: recherches sur la conception romaine du barbare et de la civilisation, Collection Latomus 176 (Brussels)

De Boor, C., and Wirth, P. (eds) (1972). The History of Theophylact Simocatta (Stuttgart)

Delehaye, H. (1912). ‘Saints de Thrace et de Mésie’, Analecta Bollandia 31, 161–300

Demandt, A. (1984). Der Fall Roms: die Auflösung des römischen Reiches im Urteil der Nachwelt (Munich)

Demougeot, E. (1951). De l’Unité à la division de l’Empire romain 395–410: Essai sur le gouvernement impérial (Paris)

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Dewing, H. B. (ed. and trans.) (1914–40). The Works of Procopius (London)

Diesner, H.-J. (1976). Die Völkerwanderung (Leipzig)

Dill, S. (1899). Roman Society in the Last Age of the Western Empire (London)

Dindorf, L., (ed.) (1831). Malalas Chronographia (Bonn)

———– (ed.) (1832). Chronicon Paschale (Bonn)

Dodgeon, M. H., and Lieu, S. N. C. (1991). The Roman Eastern Frontier and the Persian Wars (AD 226–363): A Documentary History (London)

Drew, K. Fischer (trans.) (1972). The Burgundian Code: Book of Constitutions or Law of Gundobad (Philadelphia)

Drinkwater, J. F. (1987). The Gallic Empire: Separatism and Continuity in the Northwestern Provinces of the Roman Empire, AD 260–274 (Stuttgart)

———– (1992). ‘The Bacaudae of Fifth-century Gaul’, in Drinkwater and Elton (1992), 208–17

———– and Elton, H. (eds) (1992). Fifth-century Gaul: A Crisis of Identity? (Cambridge)

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———– (1990). Les finances publiques de Dioclétien aux Carolingiens (284–889) (Sigmaringen)

Dvornik, H. (1966). Early Christian and Byzantine Political Philosophy: Origins and Background, Dumbarton Oaks Center for Byzantine Studies (Washington D

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Ennabli, E. A. (1992). Pour Sauver Carthage: Exploration et conservation de la cité punique, romaine et byzantine (Tunis)

Esmonde Cleary, A. S. (2000). The Ending of Roman Britain (London)

Evelyn White, H. (1961). The Works of Ausonius, vol. 2 (London)

Fantham, E. (2004). The Roman World of Cicero’s De Oratore (Oxford)

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Ferguson, N. (2001). The Cash Nexus: Money and Power in the Modern World, 1700–2000 (London)

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Friedrichsen, G. W. S. (1926). The Gothic Version of the Gospels: A Study of Its Style and Textual History (Oxford)

———– (1939). The Gothic Version of the Epistles: A Study of Its Style and Textual History (Oxford)

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———– (1981). ‘Rome, Constantinople, and the Barbarians in Late Antiquity’, American Historical Review 76, 275–306

———– (1988). The Narrators of Barbarian History (AD 550–800): Jordanes, Gregory of Tours, Bede, and Paul the Deacon (Princeton)

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———– et al. (1962). Völker zwischen Germanen und Kelten: Schriftquellen, Bodenfunde und Namengut zur Geschichte des nördlichen Westdeutschlands um Christi Geburt (Neumünster)

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———– (1879). Victoris Vitensis Historia persecutionis africanae provinciae sub Geiserico et Hunrico regibus Wandalorum, MGH, auctores antiquissimi 2 (Berlin)

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———– (1988). ‘The Anti-Scythian Tirade of Synesius’ De Regno’, Phoenix 42, 152–72

———– (1989). ‘Cassiodorus and the Rise of the Amals: Genealogy and the Goths under Hun Domination’, Journal of Roman Studies 79, 103–28

———– (1991). Goths and Romans 332–489 (Oxford)

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———– (1996). The Goths (Oxford)

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———– (forthcoming a). ‘Law and Identity in the Burgundian Kingdom’, in Ausenda (forthcoming b)

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———– (1988). Corruption and the Decline of Rome (New Haven, Conn.)

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