3. THE OBJECT AND CONTENTS OF THE THEBAN RECENSION OF THE BOOK OF THE DEAD.

THOUGH the Chapters of the Book of the Dead represent beliefs belonging to various periods of the long life of the Egyptian nation, from the Pre-dynastic Period downwards, and opinions held by several schools of thought in Egypt, the object of them all was to benefit the deceased. They were intended to give him the power to have and to enjoy life everlasting, to give him everything which he required in the Other World, to ensure his victory over his foes, to procure for him the power of ingratiating himself with friendly beings in the Other World, and of going whithersoever he pleased and when and how he pleased, to preserve his mummified remains intact and uninjured, and finally to enable his soul to reach the Kingdom of Osiris, or to enter into the “Boat of Millions of Years,” or into any and every abode of felicity which had been conceived of by him.

The various sections of the Book of the Dead, to which the name of “Chapters” was given by the scribes of the XIIth and following dynasties, were originally independent compositions, the greater number of which were written long before the Canon of the Book of the Dead was formed. Of the exact purpose of many of them the ancient scribes were as ignorant as we are, and the titles which now stand above them in papyri contain many proofs of this fact. In the oldest Recension of the Book of the Dead, i.e., the Heliopolitan, the fullest copies of which are found on the walls of the Pyramids of Unås, Tetå, Pepi I., &c.. at Sakkârah, the sections rarely have titles, and the greater number of them follow each other in unbroken succession, the reader being supposed to know for himself where one section ends and the next begins. We may assume that in the early days of dynastic civilization the number of such compositions was very large, and that a certain number, probably selected without much thought by the scribes, or priests, were copied and recited for the benefit of each king and member of the royal family, and of persons of high rank. From the sarcophagi and coffins of the XIth or XIIth Dynasty we learn that the custom of calling such funerary compositions “Chapters” was in use when they were made, but it is not always clear from the actual compositions that their titles have very much connection with their contents. The names of the learned men who composed the sections of the Book of the Dead are never given. The brief descriptions of the contents of the “Chapters” here given will, it is hoped, make clearer the general meaning of the translations printed in the following pages.

In the best papyri of the first half of the XVIIIth Dynasty, e.g., the Papyrus of Nebseni and the Papyrus of Nu, the Chapters are preceded by a large Vignette, in which we see a figure of the great god Osiris seated upon his throne. He is in the form of a mummy, wears the White Crown, and holds a crook and a flail or whip in his hands. Before him is a table loaded with offerings of all kinds, and, in cases where this end of the papyrus is complete, a figure of the person for whom the papyrus was written is seen standing in adoration before the god. Immediately following this Vignette comes the text of the Chapters, whether with or without Vignettes. In the papyri which belong to the period of the end of the XVIIIth Dynasty and the beginning of the XIXth Dynasty, the Chapters are preceded by two or more Hymns and by a large Judgment Scene. Thus in the Papyrus of Ani we have a Hymn to RĀ at sunrise and a Hymn to Osiris; in the Papyrus of Qenna we have two Hymns to RĀ at sunrise, but in the Papyrus of Hu-Nefer there is one Hymn only. In all three papyri the Hymns, or Hymn, to RĀ are followed by elaborately-painted Judgment Scenes. Now, strictly speaking, the Judgment Scene belongs to Chapter CXXV., where it actually occurs, though in a very simple form. In the Papyrus of Ani (see Negative Confession, Chapter CXXV.) the heart of the deceased is being weighed against the feather of Maāt by Anubis, who scrutinizes the tongue of the balance with great care; close to the pillar of the scales is the monster A¯m-mit, who is ready to devour the heart in the event of its being found light. At the beginning of the Papyrus of Ani the Judgment Scene is much developed. The scales are represented as before, with the heart in one pan and the feather in the other, and Anubis conducts the operation of weighing. A¯m-mit is also present, but he now appears to be associated with Thoth, the Scribe of the Gods, who is noting on his writing palette with a long reed pen the result of the weighing of the heart. The heart of Ani is now accompanied by his soul, and by Shai, the god of destiny, or perhaps his own destiny, or luck, and by the two goddesses Renenet and Meskhenet. Moreover, twelve deities are seated near the scales, and these await the report of Thoth, their righteous scribe. Ani himself is also present, with his wife, and he addresses to his heart the words of Chapter XXXB. In some papyri two Companies of Gods, the Great and the Little, are represented as being present at the weighing of the heart of the deceased, and in others Maāt, the goddess of Truth, superintends the operation instead of Anubis. Altogether the scales appear in three places in the Book of the Dead, i.e., in the Vignettes of Chapters XXXB. and CXXV., and in the introductory Vignette to the whole work described above.

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CHAPTER I.

This is the first of the Chapters of PERT EM HRU, image, i.e., of “The Coming Forth by Day,” or perhaps “into the Day,” as some authorities would render the words image, the allusion being to the well-known belief of the ancient Egyptians that the journey to the Other World occupied the deceased the whole night of the day of his death, and that he did not emerge into the realms of the blessed until the following morning at sunrise. This Chapter was recited by the priest who accompanied the funeral procession to the tomb, and as he walked at its head he declared to the dead man that he was Thoth, and the Great God, and that he had the power to do on his behalf all that he and Horus did for Osiris, to slaughter all his enemies in the Other World, to perform all the symbolic ceremonies which were performed for Osiris at his burial, and to obtain for him a regular and never-failing supply of offerings in the tomb.

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CHAPTER I.B.

The object of this Chapter was to enable the Sāhu, or spiritual form of the deceased, which appears to have consisted of one or more of his souls, his intelligence, and his vital power, to enter into the Tuat, or Other World, immediately after his body was laid in its tomb. It contains a prayer to the dweller in the Holy Mountain for deliverance from the “worms which are in Re-stau,” i.e., the serpents which guarded the corridors in the kingdom of the god Seker, situated near the modern district called Sakkârah, “which lived upon the bodies of men and of women, and fed upon their blood,” and the “Lord of light” is entreated to swallow them up. In the Papyrus of Iuåu, which was recently discovered by Mr. Theodore M. Davis at Thebes, we find a form of this Chapter in which the names of the “worms” are given, and a Vignette wherein they are depicted.1 They are nine in number, and are called:—

1. NĀrti-A¯nkh-em-sen-f, image.

2. Her-f-em-qeb-f, image.

3. A¯nkh-em-fentu, image.

4. SĀm-em-qesu, image.

5. Ha-huti-Åm-sau, image.

6. Shep-thmesu, image.

7. Åm-sāhu, image.

8. SĀm-em-snef, image.

9. A¯nkh – em – betu – mit, image.

According to the Rubric this Chapter established the deceased in the Other World, and ensured his admission into the Boat of RĀ.

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CHAPTER II.

In this Chapter he who shines from the Moon, i.e., Horus or Osiris, is entreated to give the deceased power to leave the Other World, and to appear upon the earth again to do his will among the living.

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CHAPTER III.

Of similar import to the preceding. Temu, the primeval god of the night sun, who appears in the form of his children the Twin-gods, i.e., Shu and Tefnut, is entreated to let the deceased enter into the assembly of the gods. For he is re-born day after day, like RĀ, the Sun-god, he lives again, and the gods shall rejoice in his appearances on earth just as they rejoice when Ptah appears in Het-Ser, the great temple of Heliopolis.

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CHAPTER IV.

This Chapter contains the words of power which enabled the deceased to pass through that portion of the sky wherein the Two Combatants, i.e., Horus and Set, contended for victory. They were separated by Thoth, who gave to the former power over the Day, and to the latter power over the Night.

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CHAPTER V.

This Chapter is a formula which enabled the deceased to “lift up the hand of the inert one,” and to make him do work for him.

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CHAPTER VI.

Throughout a large portion of Africa it was, and still is, the custom to bury alive with dead kings a number of slaves, whose souls were intended to go into the Other World, and to wait upon the soul of their king as they waited upon his body in this world. In dynastic times the Egyptians dropped this barbarous custom, and substituted figures (ushabtiu) of men and women made of stone, wood, faïence, &c., on which they at first only cut the names of the persons for whom they were made. Subsequently they cut on thefigures a formula, in which they called upon them to do any work which might require to be done in the Other World, especially in connection with agriculture. When called upon by the deceased the figures inscribed with his name turned into full-grown men or women, who followed their master, and did all that he commanded them to do. The number of ushabtiu figures found in a tomb is sometimes very large; some 700 were taken from the tomb of Seti I. In another tomb 365 were found, and from the inscriptions on some of these it is clear that each figure was intended to do all the work required on one day in the year. The word shabti is probably derived from a primitive African word for a funerary human sacrifice.

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CHAPTER VII.

The path of RĀ and of all good spirits on their way from darkness into light, or from night to day, was obstructed by several monster serpents; the chief of these was A¯pep, image. This Chapter contains a spell which, when recited properly by the deceased, made A¯pep powerless to block his progress, and enabled him to use the body of A¯pep as a road whereby he could reach his destination. In the text A¯pep is addressed as a “creature of wax,” and these words contain an allusion to the wax figures of the monster which were burned at regular intervals in a fire of khesau grass by a priest, who recited appropriate spells whilst the figures were being consumed (see my Egyptian Magic, pp. 81 ff.).

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CHAPTER VIII.

This Chapter enabled the deceased to obtain the power of Thoth and Horus, to identify himself with Osiris, and to pass through Åmentet as did that god, and to renew his life like the Moon.

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CHAPTER IX.

This Chapter enabled the deceased to pass through Åmentet and to enter the light of day, having seen Osiris his father, and having stabbed Set. He then addressed the great Soul-god, who had the form of a ram, and having become a spiritual being (sāhu) and akhu-soul, he was in a fit state to greet every god and every fellow khu.

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CHAPTER X.

This Chapter caused the deceased to be taken in charge by the great Khu-soul of the Other World, and to be identified with him. He was thereby enabled to cleave the horizon and the heavens, to pass through the earth, and to eat food again. In the Papyrus of Ani the Vignette shows us the deceased in the act of spearing a serpent, the typical form of the enemies of the dead, but in the Papyrus of Iuåu (pl. xi.) the deceased is seen driving a short spear into the back of the neck of a human foe, who is kneeling before him and has his hands tied at the elbows behind his back.

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CHAPTER XI.

In this Chapter the deceased declares himself to be RĀ, and by means of it he obtained the power of walking and talking; being endued with the attributes of Horus and Ptah, and the might of Thoth and the strength of Tem, he was able to destroy all his enemies.

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CHAPTER XII.

This Chapter assisted the deceased to go into and out of the Other World, and to pass through the secret gates which stood between the Åmentet and this world. The gates stood hard by the Balance of RĀ in which Truth was used as the testing weight daily. The previous Chapters gave the deceased new life and the full use of his limbs, and this Chapter gave him the power to prolong his life into old age.

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CHAPTER XIII.

Through this Chapter the deceased identifies himself with the hawk of Horus and the Bennu bird, which later Greek tradition pronounced to be the fabulous bird the Phœenix. He was henceforth able to go to the estate of Horus and hunt with his greyhounds, and so enjoy the pleasures of the chase. The Rubric associates this Chapter with two rings, which were to be fastened to the right ear of the deceased on the day of his burial.

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CHAPTER XIV.

This Chapter contains a prayer that the god who dwells among mysteries may remove from him sin, wickedness, and transgressions, so that he may be at peace with him, and feel no shame of him in his hear.

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CHAPTER XV.

This section of the Book of the Dead contains Hymns and Praisings to the Sun-god, some of which were sung in the morning and some in the evening. The Papyrus of Ani includes in it a very interesting Litany to Osiris of nine verses, each of which is addressed to one of the forms of the god; this is found in no other papyrus. The Vignettes are interesting, for they represent the solar disk, supported on “life,” rising on the Mountain of Sunrise out of the Tet, image, the symbol of Osiris, and descending in the form of a hawk into the Mountain of the Sunset. With him are the holy apes who sing praises to him, and represent the spirits who were created daily to praise the god at his rising. Isis, a spirit of dawn, and Nephthys, a spirit of twilight, and the Lion-gods of the Morning and Evening are also represented. In these Hymns the glory and power and majesty of the Sun-god are dwelt upon at length, and the words employed make it certain that the Egyptians fully realized the might of the great luminary of day. The Hymns to the Sun-god were written by the priests of Heliopolis, where the cult of the Sun in Egypt originated. African peoples in general do not worship the sun, and it is probable that they have never paid the same degree of homage to it as to the moon. Many African tribes view sunrise with horror, and take pains to hide themselves from the heat of the sun.

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CHAPTER XVI.

This Chapter is, strictly speaking, no Chapter, for the section contains only the Vignettes which illustrate the Hymns that form Chapter XV.

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CHAPTER XVII.

This is one of the most valuable and important Chapters of the Book of the Dead, for it contains a statement of the doctrines which the beatified spirit of the deceased was expected to know. Like many other sections of the Book of the Dead this Chapter was composed by the priests of Heliopolis, and it represented their views about the nature of the gods. The earliest copies of the Chapter date from the XIth Dynasty, but they are much shorter than those which appear in the Theban papyri; the Chapter is the only known example of an ancient Egyptian exegetical work, and it proves that various opinions as to the meaning of passages in it existed among the learned. A note in the title declares that the knowledge of its contents was most beneficial to a man even whilst still upon the earth. The opening passage is: “I am Tem in rising “I am the only One. I came into being in Nu. I am “RĀ who rose in the beginning, the ruler of what he “made.”

On this comes the question: “Who is this?” i.e., “What does this mea?”

The answer is: “It is RĀ who rose in the city of “Suten-Henen in primeval time crowned like a king. “He was on the height of the Dweller in Khemennu “before the pillars of Shu (i.e., the pillars of heaven) “were made.”

This passage was intended to show that RĀ was the oldest of the gods, and that he was identical with Temu, an indigenous solar god of Egypt. Other examples are:—

I. “I am purified in my great double nest which is “in Suten-henen on the day of the offerings of the “followers of the great god who is therein.”

Question: “What is this?”

Answer: “The name of one nest is 1. ‘Millions of “years,’ and of the other, ‘ Great Green Lake,’ “or,

2. “‘Traverser of Millions of years,’ and “‘Great Green Lake,’ or,

3. “‘Begetter of Millions of years,’ and “‘Great Green Lake.’”

“The god who dwelleth therein is RĀ himself.”

II. “I am the divine Soul which dwelleth in the divine Twin-gods.”

Question: “Who is this?”

Answer: “It is Osiris. He goeth to imageat·t·u, and “findeth there the Soul of RĀ, each god em-” braceth the other, and the divine Souls “spring into being within the divine Twin-” gods.”

The Twin-gods are:—

Heru-netch-hrå-tef-f and Heru-khent-Ånmaati.

The double divine Soul is:—

1. The Soul of RĀ, and the Soul of Osiris, or,

2. The Soul of Shu and the Soul of Tefnut.

III. “Hail, Kheperå in thy boat ! Deliver thou the “Osiris from the Watchers who give judgment…… “I have never done the things which the gods hate, for “I am pure in the Mesqet. Cakes and saffron have “been brought unto him in Tanenet.”

Question: “Who is this?”

Answer: “It is Kheperå in his boat. It is RĀ “himself.

“The Watchers are Isis and Nephthys.

“The things which the gods hate are wickedness “and falsehood.

“He to whom cakes are brought is Osiris.

“The saffron cakes are:—

1. “Heaven and earth, or,

2. “Shu, or,

3. “The Eye of Horus.

“Tanenet is the burial-place of Osiris,”

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CHAPTER XVIII.

In the Introduction to this Chapter in the Papyrus of Ani the deceased is presented to the gods of the great cities of Egypt by the priest Ån-mut-f, and by a priest who assumes the character of the Sa-mer-f, or the “son who loveth him.” The former states that Ani has committed no sin, and the latter asks that water, air, and an estate in the Field of Peace (or of Offerings) may be given to him. Each priest wears a leopard-skin, the tail of which hangs down between his legs. The title Ån-mut-f, image, means “pillar of his mother,” but this may be a later corruption of the older title “Å-kenemet,” image, the “pillar of kenemet,” i.e., the “pillar of the ape.” It is interesting to note that in one place1 the priestly title An-mut-f, image, has for its determinative the figure of a priest wearing a leopard-skin and holding one of the forepaws of an ape, which stands on its hind legs. Through a similarity in sound between kenemet, “ape,” and mut, “mother,” the latter word in later times took the place of the former, and had reference to the ape referred to in the earlier title. What exactly is to be understood by the words “pillar of his mother,” or what part the ape played in connection with the priest, cannot at present be said.

The Chapter proper contains ten addresses to Thoth, in which that god is entreated to make the deceased victorious over his enemies as he made Osiris to be victorious over his enemies in the presence of the groups of gods of the ten chief mythological localitiesin Egypt, on ten important occasions in the history of Osiris. The ten localities are:—

1. Ånnu (Heliopolis).

2. imageat·t·u (Busiris).

3. Sekhem (Latopolis).

4. Pe-Tep (Buto).

5. The Rekhti lands.

6. Åbtu (Abydos).

7. The place of judgment.

8. imageat·t·u (Mendes).

9. Ån-rut-f.

10. Re-stau.

The gods of these localities are:—

1. Tem, Shu, Tefnut.

2. Osiris, Isis, Nephthys, Heru-netch-hrå-tef-f.

3. Heru-khenti-Ån-maati, Thoth.

4. Horns, Isis, Kesthå,1 HÅpi.

5. Horus, Isis, Kesthå.

6. Osiris, Isis, Åp-uat.

7. Thoth, Osiris, Anubis, Åstennu

8. Three gods unnamed.

9. RĀ, Osiris, Shu, Bebe.

10. Horus, Osiris, Isis.

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CHAPTER XIX.

In late times this Chapter, which is a repetition of the preceding with a few additions, was recited twice at dawn, whilst the priest laid a “beautiful crown of victory which was woven by Tem” upon the brow of the deceased, and whilst incense was cast into the fireon his behalf. The Chapter was regarded as a spell of great and never-failing power, and it was declared that when Horus recited it four times, “all his enemies fell headlong, and were overthrown and cut to pieces.”

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CHAPTER XX.

This Chapter is a shortened form of Chapter XVIII. arranged as a Litany, and its recital by a man who had cleansed himself in water wherein natron had been dissolved, enabled him to take any form he pleased, and to escape injury by fire.

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CHAPTER XXI.

The recital of this Chapter gave to the “pure spirit” the use of his mouth and the power to speak with his lips, and brought back to him his heart.

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CHAPTER XXII.

The object of this Chapter is the same as the preceding, i.e., to give back to the deceased his mouth that he might speak therewith in the presence of the Great God (Osiris). Its Vignette is of considerable interest, for in it the “guardian of the Scales,” image, is represented in the act of touching the lips of the deceased with the fingers of his right hand, instead of with the instrument Ur-heka. The god on the top of the steps is, no doubt, Osiris. The earliest representation of the god on the top of the steps is found on a wooden plaque in the British Museum (Fourth Egyptian Room, Table-case L, No. 124), which belongs to the period of the reign of king Ten (Semti-Hesepti). The god is also figured on the sarcophagus of Seti I.1

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CHAPTER XXIII.

This Chapter also deals with the “opening of the mouth” of the deceased, who is supposed to be in the state of a mummy with swathings around his head, which press upon and cover up his mouth. These hindrances to speech are attributed to the operation of Set, the foe of Horus and Osiris, and the deceased beseeches Thoth, the arch-magician, to unloose the swathings, and entreats Tem to hurl them in the faces of those who would fetter him with them. Ancient legends asserted that Ptah untied the swathings which fettered the mouths of the gods, and that Shu opened their mouths with an iron knife. The ceremonies connected with the “opening the mouth” are very ancient, and were certainly performed for the benefit of the dead under the Vth Dynasty. At first they were performed on the dead body, but subsequently a statue of the deceased was substituted for it. In the Vignette in the Papyrus of Ani a priest is seen performing the ceremonies on a statue of Ani. The Book of Opening the Mouth was discovered by Schiaparelli, who was the first to call the attention of scholars to it.1

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CHAPTER XXIV.

The object of this Chapter was to provide the deceased with hekau image, “words of power,” that is to say, with magical formulae, the recital of which will enable him to carry out all his wishes and supply all his needs. The deceased demands the words of power which Osiris knew and used, because he has become identified with Tem-Kheperå, the self-produced god.

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CHAPTER XXV.

The recital of this Chapter gave back to the deceased his memory and the faculty of remembering not only his own name, but the name of any god whom he met. It was associated with a ceremony in which a priest held up before the face of the deceased a figure of him so that he might give it his name. The soul without a name was in a terrible plight in the Other World, for its name was an integral part of its being, and if it had forgotten its name, and there was no one there to remind it what it was, it could not be presented to the Great God. No greater harm could be done to the deceased than the erasing of his name from his monuments, for the destruction of his name was equivalent to the destruction of his individuality.

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CHAPTER XXVI.

With the opening of the mouth and the restoration of the memory was closely associated the “giving of a heart” to the deceased. The heart was one of the most important organs of the body, not only from a physical point of view, but because it was the seat of one of the members of the dual soul which the Egyptian believed he possessed. The relation between the heart and the soul is well illustrated by the Vignettes to this Chapter, for in one the god Anubis is seen giving a heart to the deceased, and in the other the deceased is addressing a human-headed hawk, which was the corporeal form taken by the heart-soul. Hundreds of passages in the texts prove that it was the heart-soul which partook of offerings placed in the tomb, and in the text of this Chapter it is said, “May my heart be with me, and “may it rest there, [or] I shall not eat of the cakes of “Osiris on the eastern side of the Lake of Flowers.” So soon as the heart was restored to his body, the deceased recovered the use of all his limbs, and the heart-soul was free to leave the body at the gates of the Other World.

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CHAPTER XXVII.

This Chapter was written to give the deceased the means of preventing his heart from being stolen from him in the Other World. It is a common belief all through Equatorial Africa and the Sûdân that the heart-soul of a man can be bewitched out of him by magical ceremonies, and that once this soul has left him the heart itself will quickly die, and his body also. It is said that every medicine man is acquainted with means by which these disastrous results can be effected, and the belief in the possibility of human beings being injured in this way is so widespread in the Sûdân that we are justified in assuming that the practice of bewitching the heart is one of very great antiquity. In this Chapter the deceased beseeches the “stealers and crushers of hearts” not to take into account in their dealing with his heart the things which he did, and the “lords of eternity” are entreated not to let evil words rise up against it. In the older Vignette the deceased stands by the side of his heart, which is placed on a pedestal, image, in the presence of four gods, who are seated on the symbol of Truth; in the later Vignette from the Turin Papyrus these four gods are identified with the Four Sons of Horus. The heart being restored to him, the deceased becomes master of his own body and of its members.

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CHAPTER XXVIII.

This chapter is addressed to a monster in human form, with a tail, who grasps a large knife in his right hand, and holds his tail by its root in his left; the deceased is seated before him in a deprecating attitude, and clasps his heart to his breast with his left hand. The monster has a shaggy mane and whiskers round his face, and his general appearance suggests that he was intended to represent a gorilla or chimpanzee with a tail, though the deceased addresses him as the “Liongod.” The beings who the deceased fears will carry off his heart are the “fighting gods in Ånnu (Heliopolis),” and Set, the god of evil.

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CHAPTER XXIX., XXIX.A AND B.

This chapter, which is extant in three forms, contains other formulae for preventing the heart of the deceased from being carried away from him, and in the longest form he identifies himself with the “Lord of “hearts, the slayer of the heart,” and with Horus, the dweller in hearts. The third form was associated with an amulet of the heart made of carnelian, and in it the deceased identifies himself with the Bennu bird, who, like Thoth, was believed to be the heart of RĀ. The mention of the kau, or doubles, of the gods proves that the heart was believed to be closely connected with the ka as well as with one of the souls of man.

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CHAPTER XXX., XXX.A AND XXX.B..

This Chapter is one of the most important in the Book of the Dead, and it is unquestionably one of the oldest. It is found in all great papyri which have not been mutilated, and is cut upon hundreds of hard green stone scarabs; the commonest form is that which is called XXXB. The text consists of an address by the deceased to his heart, in which he entreats that:—

1. No one may oppose him in the Judgment before the Tchatcha, or Divine Taskmasters.

2. His heart may not leave him.

3. The Sheniu, or chief gods of Osiris, may not cause his name to stink.

4. False witness may not be borne against him.

5. A verdict of righteous may be entered for him after his heart has been weighed.

In the course of his petition he says to the heart, “Thou art my KA, the dweller in me, Khnemu who “knitteth together and strengthened my limbs,” and he asks it to go with him into felicity. This is an important passage, for it proves how intimate was the connection of the heart with the KA. The rubrics to this Chapter are very interesting. They order that the words shall be said over a green stone scarab mounted in silver-gold, and suspended by a ring from the neck of the deceased. This scarab, one side of which was frequently made in the shape of a heart, was placed either inside the body where the heart was before it was removed during the process of mummification, or over the place of the heart on the breast, after the ceremony of “Opening the Mouth” had been performed. As to the origin of the Chapter there are two traditions: according to the one it was “found” cut upon a stone (?) slab under the feet of a statue of the god Thoth in the reign of Semti-Hesepti, a king of the 1st Dynasty, and according to the other it was “found” by Prince Herutātāf, the son of King Khufu. The older tradition states that it had been cut on the slab by Thoth himself. Here, then, is a proof that the text of this Chapter was believed to be of divine origin, and it is certain that the formulae in it were thought to possess very great power. The Vignettes in several papyri connect them with the weighing of the heart in the presence of Osiris, and in the large pictures of the Judgment Scene they are always assumed to be recited by the deceased whilst his heart is actually in the Scales. Now the pictures of the Judgment Scene illustrate beliefs which were universal in Egypt some two thousand years before it became the custom to illustrate the sacred texts, and it is clear that during the whole Dynastic Period, i.e., for a period of about four thousand years, the Egyptian entered the Judgment Hall of Osiris believing implicitly that the words which he was about to utter would secure for him a verdict of righteousness, and, in consequence, everlasting life in felicity.

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CHAPTER XXXI.

By the recital of this Chapter the deceased was able to frustrate the designs of the monster Sui. which came in the forms of three or four crocodiles to carry off from him the words of power which he had obtained, or the heart-amulet on which they were cut. Only by stealing such words of power could Sui live. The recital of this Chapter made the incisor teeth of the deceased like flints, and his molars like the name of Anubis. In the later version of the Chapter the deceased describes the offices which the words of power enabled him to fill. He was the scribe of the offerings of Osiris and priest in the regions above. Moreover, he was born with Osiris, and he opened the month of the gods with the Meskhet (i.e., Thigh) instrument. He was perfect, and strong, and able to avenge wrongs done to him, and he was master of the four quarters of heaven and earth.

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CHAPTER XXXII.

This Chapter enabled the deceased to repulse the four crocodiles of the West, East, South and North, and to assume the attributes of the gods Set, Osiris, Sept, and Uatch-Merti, who presided over the four quarters of the earth respectively. Curiously enough, the opening paragraph mentions the “Eight Crocodiles,” the names of which are known to the deceased, who is therefore able to repulse them, or to render them powerless to do him harm by casting spells on them.

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CHAPTER XXXIII.

Among the foes of the deceased in the Other World serpents formed an important class. This Chapter was directed against the monster serpent Rerek, who was only rendered powerless when the deceased pronounced the names of Seb and Shu. The deceased orders Rerek to stand, promising to give him to eat the “mouse,1 the abomination of RĀ,” and the bones of the “filthy cat,”2

It is difficult to explain the allusion to the “filthy cat,” for usually the cat is connected with RĀ, the Sun-goa.

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CHAPTER XXXIV.

This Chapter is also directed against anakes and snake-bites, and by the recital of it the deceased identifies himself with the animal maftet image. Whether the word maftet means “lynx” or not, it is certain that some animal which was inimical to snakes, and was very skilful in destroying them, is referred to. The true lynx is not a native of Africa,1 and it is probable, as the determinative image suggests, that the maftet was a species of wild or hunting cat, perhaps the felis cerval. The maftet is frequently mentioned in the texts of the Ancient Empire, with allusions to its terrible claws. The kind of serpent mentioned in the text is the arārt, image, or cobra, the oùpaîos of the Greeks.

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CHAPTER XXXV.

This Chapter was directed against the monster serpent called Seksek, and the other serpents of his class. The allusions in it are hard to understand, and suggest that the text was so old when it was copied by the scribes of the XVIIIth Dynasty that parts of it had no meaning for them. This is precisely the case with the formulae against snakes which are found in the Pyramid of Unås (Vth Dynasty).

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CHAPTER XXXVI.

This Chapter contains a spell for keeping away from the dead the insect A¯pshait, image, which is figured correctly in the Vignette to the Chapter in the Papyrus of Nekht. In the Papyrus of Nekhtu-Åmen the Åpshait is depicted in the form of thescarabaeus sacer, but it is clearly an incorrect identification. The creature is undoubtedly a kind of beetle, and I believe it to be the weevil, which is often found crushed between the bandages of mummies, and to belong to the genus Brachycerus. Figures of it are often found in a more or less conventionalized form on the objects made by the Bakuba of the Kasai District in the Congo Free State. According to Mr. T. A. Joyce, of the British Museum, the insect which occurs in a most naturalistic form on a carved wooden cup published by him is called Mutu Jambi, or “the head “of God.”1 A specimen is exhibited in the Department of Ethnography in the British Museum (Tablecase 194). It is quite clear that the scribes of the XVIIIth and XIXth Dynasties did not know what the Åpshaitwas, for whilst one of them thought it was the ordinary scarabaeus sacer, another thought it was a pig, and wrote shaå, and the artist who drew the Vignette actually drew a pig!

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CHAPTER XXXVIL.

The recital of this Chapter enabled the deceased to ward off the attacks of two terrible sister-serpents called MERTI, image. In the Vignettes the deceased is seen either spearing a serpent or threatening two serpents with a knife, but he relied most of all upon the spell which he cast upon them to render them powerless.

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CHAPTER XXXVIII.A AND B.

The formulae of this Chapter were, according to the title, intended to give air to the deceased in the Other World. In form A he identifies himself with Tem, the god of wind and the giver of air, and in form B with the Twin-gods Shu and Tefnut, the gods of the atmosphere. In one Vignette he holds a sail, symbolie of “air,” or “wind,” and in the other a sail and a knife; the presence of the three serpents in the second Vignette is difficult to explain. The allusion to the “lily of green felspar,” image, which blossomed at sunrise under the influence of the cool wind of dawn is peculiarly appropriate to the appearance of the deceased at daybreak in the Other World.

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CHAPTER XXXIX.

The recital of this Chapter was intended to free the deceased from the opposition or attack of the monster serpent Rerek, who lived in the darkest part of the Other World and endeavoured to obstruct the passage of RĀ the Sun-god, and of the souls who were with him, into the kingdom of day. He had many forms and many names, but the most terrible of all his forms was that which was called A¯pep, image. He was endowed with immortality, for, although each day the Maftet tore his breast open, and the beams of the sun stabbed him with myriads of darts, and Serqet fettered him, and Hertit bound him in chains, and the gods held him with ropes, and Rekes overthrew him, and RĀ clove his head in twain, and he was dismembered and his bones crushed, he came to life again daily and continued his nefarious efforts. His master was Set, the god of evil, and it is interesting to note that the deceased identifies himself with Set, the lord of the storm and thunder in the heavens.

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CHAPTER XL.

This Chapter is a formula directed against another monster serpent, which is called “Eater of the Ass,” image, in the title, and Hai, image, in the text. He attacked the Neshmet Boat, and Thoth cut off his head. In the Vignette he is seen in the form of a serpent which has seized an ass by the middle of his back. Now the “Ass” was associated with the Sun-god, and the Eater of the Ass was probably a local form of A¯pep which was destroyed daily. He is said to be an abomination to the god Ahu, image,1 but for what reason is unknown; Ahu appears to have been a “fighting god,” and his original home was probably Syria.

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CHAPTER XLI.

The recital of this Chapter enabled the deceased to avoid slaughter in the Other World, and to obtain air therein at eventide, when he had the power to go and converse with the divine crew who worked the Boat of RĀ across the sky day by day. The contents of the Chapter have very little connection with its title, a fact which shows that titles were given by the scribes to ancient formulae, often without proper regard for their accuracy or suitability.

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CHAPTER XLII.

This Chapter was also intended to enable the deceased to avoid the slaughter which took place in the Other World. It seems clear from the text that a great slaughter of the souls of the dead took place from time to time in Suten-imageenen, and the deceased feared that violent hands might be laid on him, and that he might be dragged back by his arms. His only way of escaping any such treatment was to identify each member of his body with or transform it into the similar member of a god. The names of the gods are duly enumerated in a remarkable passage which is a modification of a text found in the Pyramid of Pepi I. (1. 565 ff.). Thus we read:—

  “My hair is [the hair of] Nu.

  “My face is [the face of] Åten.

  “My eyes are [the eyes of] Hathor,” &c.

In the older text the form is somewhat different, and we read:—

  “The head of Pepi is the [head of a] hawk (Horus);1 “he cometh forth and raiseth himself to “heaven.

  “The skull of Pepi is the [skull of the] Khas bird “of the god; he cometh forth and raiseth “himself to heaven,” &c.

The members and the gods in the Pyramid of Pepi I. are as follows:—

image

The transformations of his members having beer. effected the deceased says, “there is no member of my “body which is not the member of a god,” or, as the text of Pepi I. reads, “Pepi is a god, the son of a god.” The text next identifies the deceased with RĀ, andHorus, and Osiris Un-nefer, and he becomes the “only “One who proceedeth from an only One.” The section of this Chapter which provides for the deification of the members was a very favourite one with the Egyptians, and, in a tabular form, it was copied on papyri down to the Ptolemaîc and Roman Periods.

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CHAPTER XLIII.

This Chapter refers to the dismemberment of the bodies of the dead which took place in ancient times, and its recital prevented the head of the deceased from being cut off in the Other World. The excavations which have been made in recent years on pre-dynastic sites in Egypt prove beyond all doubt that in primitive times the bodies of the dead were cut into pieces before burial, no doubt in accordance with the religious beliefs which were then current. Osiris himself suffered dismemberment, but we learn from the texts in the royal Pyramids at Sakkârah that the goddess Mut gave him back his head, and presented his bones to him, and collected the flesh which had been sliced off him, and brought back his heart and placed it in his body.1 The reconstituting of the body of Osiris was commemorated annually at Abydos by a solemn festival, during which, in a sort of miracle play, every step in the process was acted by priests and their assistants. The crowning scene was the erection of the backbone of Osiris and the placing of the head of the god upon it. The formulae of this Chapter identified the deceased with Osiris, and assured him therefore of the possession of his head. As the cult of Osiris grew and spread in Egypt in early dynastic times the practice of dismembering the body gradually fell into disuse, and at length the only portions of the body which were removed from it during the process of embalming were the viscera, and these were mummified separately.

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CHAPTER XLIV.

This Chapter proves the existence of a very curious belief among the Egyptians, i.e., that it was possible for a being in the Other World to die a second time. The animal soul of the deceased in the Other World lived on the souls of the offerings which were made at regular intervals in the tomb wherein his body was laid, and if for any reason the supply of offerings failed that soul suffered greatly. It was driven by hunger to wander about in the deserts seeking food, and for a time it might prolong its existence by devouring offal and drinking dirty water, but unless the supply of offerings was renewed it certainly starved to death. It seems also that the soul might suffer death in the Other World if it incurred the displeasure of the Tchatcha and Sheniu chiefs who administered the kingdom of Osiris, and that in such a case it was destroyed along with the souls of the wicked. The only beings who were superior to this possibility were RĀ and Osiris, and this Chapter enabled the deceased to identify himself with them; this effected, he declares boldly, “I am “crowned king of the gods, I shall not die a second “time in the Other World.”

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CHAPTER XLV.

The object of this Chapter is made quite clear by the Rubric: if it be known by the deceased he shall not suffer corruption in the Other World. The formula is supposed to be addressed to the god Anubis, and in it the deceased entreats that god to fashion his mummy as if he were fashioning that of Osiris himself. Anubis is often called “Åm-ut,” i.e., “he who is in the place of “embalmment.” To Anubis was attributed the knowledge of the art of embalming, and he was skilled in the use of balms, balsams, unguents and medicaments, and was an expert in the swathing of mummies. It was he who mummified the body of Osiris, and he did his work so well that the body of the god did not crumble away, or decay, or fall to pieces.

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CHAPTER XLVI.

The recital of this Chapter gave to the deceased the power to rise up like the Henmemet, image, or image, a class of beings who are frequently mentioned in religious texts of all periods. Their place of abode was heaven, but some portion of their period of existence may have been passed on earth. The recital of this Chapter also set at liberty the BA, image, or heart-soul of the deceased, which, as we have already seen, could die a second time, and the soul, here represented in the form of a BENNU bird, image, which was immortal.

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CHAPTER XLVII.

The recital of this Chapter prevented the seat and throne of the deceased from being taken away from him in the Other World. In the Vignette we see the heart-soul and the soul in the same forms as in the preceding Chapter, one on each side of a funerary building, from which they appear to have emerged. The text suggests that each soul desired to have reserved for it an abode wherein it might seek shelter if necessary. In the second version of the Chapter the deceased asserts that he is a sA¯h, image, i.e., that he has attained to spiritual existence, and that he is the son of Maāti, image, who hates lies.

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CHAPTERS XLVIII. AND XLIX.

These Chapters have already been discussed as Chapters X. and XI.

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CHAPTER L.A AND L.B.

The recital of this Chapter enabled the deceased to avoid the terrible block of slaughter of the god Osiris, a figure of which is given in the Vignette. From the Book Åm-Tuat and the Book of Gates, as well as from the Book of the Dead, we learn that to certain gods was assigned the duty of destroying the dead and consuming their bodies. Some were cast into a lake of liquid fire or boiling water, and others were first cut in pieces and then burnt.1 Each of the gods who cut the dead in pieces was provided with a block, and they performed their terrible work under the direction of the headsman of Osiris, whose name was Shesmu’ image, or image, as the name is written in the Pyramid Texts. The slaughter of the wicked and the cutting up of their bodies were performed nightly, soon after Osiris had completed the judging of those who had entered the Hall of Maāti.

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CHAPTER LI.

The connection of the title with this Chapter is not clear. In the text the deceased declares that he will not eat what is an abomination to him, and prays that he may not be forced to eat filth in place of the sepulchral cakes which are usually offered to the KAU, or Doubles, in their tombs, or to touch it, or even to walk on it in his sandals.

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CHAPTER LII.

This Chapter is an amplification of the preceding, and in the latter part of it we are told exactly what food the deceased wishes to eat in the Other World, and under what conditions he wishes to live there. He would partake of the seven loaves which Horus eats and of the bread which Thoth eats, seated under the branches of the Sycamore Tree of Hathor (or Nut), at the time when the souls of the beatified have alighted thereon. His bread must be made from white grain, and his beer (the modern marissa) from red grain, he would have the ancestors1 of his father and mother to attend to his domestic affairs, he would watch his crops growing, and enjoy health and strength, and would have plenty of space in which to move about, and be able to dwell where he pleased. A much fuller version of this Chapter will be found in the second edition of the Egyptian text, p. 160 ff., where it is called Chapter LII.B. In the first edition it stood as No. CLXXXIX. For the translation see p. 639.

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CHAPTER LIII.

The recital of this Chapter prevented the deceased from being tripped up during his journeyings in the Other World, and from the necessity of eating filth and drinking urine. The beginning and end of the Chapter are not found in the other Chapters which were written with the same object as this. In this text the deceased states that he will live upon the heavenly food of RĀ and the earthly food of Seb, and that his loaves shall be brought to him by the Sektet and A¯tet Boats in which RĀ sails across the heavens from sunrise to sunset.

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CHAPTER LIV

The recital of this Chapter brought to the deceased the “sweet breath which” dwelt in the nostrils of Tem. He identifies himself with the great Egg, which was created by the earth-god Seb and thrust through the earth in the city of the Great Cackler. As the Egg lives he lives, and as it grows old he grows old.

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CHAPTER LV.

By the recital of this Chapter the deceased identified himself with the “Jackal of jackals,” and with Shu, the god of the atmosphere, and thus was able to roam with the fleetness of the jackal from one end of heaven to the other, and to the ends of the earth, and to the limit of the flight of the Nebeh goose, image.

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CHAPTER LVI.

In this Chapter, as in Chapter LIV., the deceased identifies his life with that of the Egg of the Great Cackler; his birth is its birth, his life is its life, and his breath is its breath.

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CHAPTER LVII.

The recital of this Chapter gave the deceased “dominion” over the water,” that is, enabled him to obtain a full and constant supply from HĀp-ur, “the Great “Nile,” and air from every quarter of the earth. By it also he gained the power to breathe freely in Mendes or Busiris, and a settled abode in the celestial Ånnu (Heliopolis), where he had his house. The plan of the house was made by the goddess image, whose name is read Sesheta or Sefkhet-Åbut, and its walls were built by the god Khnemu.

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CHAPTER LVIII.

This Chapter is also connected, according to the title, with the dominion of the deceased over the water and the air. The text, however, suggests that the deceased is trying to obtain admission into a portion of the Other World, and that he has with him the two Merti goddesses. A being, name unknown, asks him his name, &c., and apparently provides him with a magical boat, which he is allowed to use provided he knows its name and the names of the oars, rudder, rudderpost, &v.

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CHAPTER LIX.

The recital of this Chapter secured for the deceased the air and water which were in the gift of the goddess Nut, who, according to the Vignette, lived in the Sycamore Tree of heaven. The text mentions the Egg of the Great Cackler already noticed, and the first part of the Chapter undoubtedly has reference to the worship of certain trees, which at one time was common in the Sûdân. Such trees were supposed to be the abodes of spirits who, when placated by offerings, bestowed gifts upon those who prayed at their feet.

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CHAPTER LX.

The recital of this Chapter caused the gods Thoth and HĀp (Nile) to open the gates of heaven and let the deceased into the “Land of cool water,” where he was able to drink to his heart’s content.

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CHAPTER LXI.

The connection of the title of this Chapter with the text is not clear. The deceased identifies himself with the god of the celestial water, which appears on this earth in the form of the Nile, and there is no allusion to any attempt being made to snatch away his heartsoul from him. Its departure from him in quest of water may, however, be referred to; this might be a serious matter for the deceased, for the heart-soul might not return, and then his body would die.

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CHAPTER LXII.

The contents of this Chapter resemble those of Chapter LII. In the Vignette we see the deceased washing his hands in a stream preparatory to drinking water out of them, and the allusions to RĀ, the Liongod, and the Bull suggest that the recital of the Chapter gave him the power to wander about in Sekhet-Åaru, and drink from every stream there at will.

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CHAPTER LXIII.A AND B.

In version A of this Chapter the deceased prays not to be burned or destroyed by fire, but it is not clear whether by fire he refers to material fire or boiling water, or to burning thirst, or to scalding by boiling water. The Vignette suggests that the recital of the Chapter was intended to secure for him a regular supply of the cool, fresh water of heaven, which he would drink from a bowl as he sat by the side of a lake. The title of version B, “Of not being scalded,” is more definite than that of A, and it is clear that the Chapter was written to prevent the possibility of the deceased’s drinking boiling water in the Other World. The Book of Gates mentions a “boiling lake,” image, the waters of which were cool and pleasant to the gods who lived on its shores, but which were veritable fire to the wicked when they attempted to drink them, and which destroyed their bodies.1 The idea of this boiling lake was derived from the hot springs of bituminous water which are found in certain places in the Western Desert.

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CHAPTER LXIV.

This very remarkable Chapter occurs in two versions, one long and one short; it is one of the oldest texts in the Book of the Dead, and the two traditions about its antiquity assign it to the 1st and IVth Dynasties. The title of the longer version is “Chapter of Coming “Forth by Day in the Other World,” and the shorter, “Chapter of knowing the Chapters of Coming Forth “by Day in a single Chapter.” Thus it seems that this Chapter was supposed to contain in it the essence of the whole Book of the Dead, and according to the Rubrics it constituted a “great and divine protection” to the deceased. If he knew it he was victorious both upon earth and in heaven, he passed through every gate of the Other World without let or hindrance, he performed successfully every transformation he wished to make, and he obtained everlasting life. The formulae which constitute the Chapter are of a highly mystical character, and the recital of them gave to the deceased the power to identify himself with all the great gods, and to make use of all their attributes as he pleased for his own benefit. It was all-important that the man who recited this Chapter should be ceremonially clean and pure, and the Rubric orders that for some time previous to its recital he was to abstain from the use of meats, and fish, and women; but there is no reason for assuming that he was to observe a strict fast. In connection with this Chapter it is further ordered that the formulae which are now generally known as Chapter XXX.B be recited over a green stone scarab, set in a gold mount and anointed with myrrh, and placed in the breast of a man to perform for him the “Opening of the Mouth.” It is clear from the above that the recital of the LXIVth Chapter was a very solemn matter.

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CHAPTER LXV.

The recital of this Chapter gave the deceased dominion over all his enemies, and enabled him to triumph over Set and his friends and infernal watchers, who lay in wait nightly to destroy RĀ as he was emerging from the Tuat and the souls of the blessed which were in his train. The deceased also declares that if he is not permitted to emerge from the Other World, the Nile shall never rise again, and RĀ shall never again enter its water, and day shall never more appear [on the earth] at its appointed time. In the Saïte Recension of this Chapter the deceased describes his glorious state in the Other World, and says that his enemies shall be led in before him in a state of misery, that his mother’s KA, or double, shall rest because of this, and that he will inflict cuts on their legs with a staff of gold!

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CHAPTER LXVI.

By reciting this Chapter the deceased identified himself with the son of Sekhet and Neith, and with Horus and the goddess Uatchet, and was able to perch on the brow of RĀ in his boat.

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CHAPTER LXVII.

The recital of this Chapter caused passages to be opened for the deceased in heaven and in the air, and enabled him to advance to his throne in the Boat of RĀ, and to sit there securely.

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CHAPTER LXVIII.

In this Chapter the deceased describes the joy and freedom of his life in the Other World. Heaven and earth are open to him, he has gained possession of his members and whole body, he is master of water, air, canal, river, land, furrows, and male and female slaves. He has white bread to eat, beer made from red grain to drink, he sits in a clean place under a date palm and wheresoever he pleases, he stands up or sits down at pleasure, and stands “like a well equipped guide,” free in the air. He has “come forth by day,” and he goes about among the living.

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CHAPTER LXIX.

The title of this composition is merely “Another Chapter,” and the ancient scribes appear to have regarded it as a continuation of Chapter LXVIII., which it undoubtedly is. The deceased identifies himself in it with the Fire-god Aseb, image, with Osiris ithyphallic, Orion, Anubis, Osiris, Horus and Tem. He opens the mouth of the gods, he is a companion of Thoth, and he offers up sacrifices to Ån-heri-ertitsa, image, of whose special attributes nothing is known.

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CHAPTER LXX.

This Chapter is a further continuation of Chapter LXVIII., and the effect of its recital appears to have been to give the deceased the power of seizing the east and north winds by their hair, the west wind by its body, and the south wind by its eye, and travelling about all four sides of heaven.

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CHAPTER LXXI.

This Chapter opens with an address to Nekhen, the lord of the ancient Sky-goddess Meh-urt, who is depicted in the Vignette in the form of a cow with the deceased kneeling in adoration before her. Following this comes a paragraph beginning, “Behold, Neb-hrå “ua, image, is with me,” which was addressed, with modifications, to each of the SEVEN SPIRITS, whose names were:—

1. Netcheh-netcheh.

2. Aatqetqet.

3. Ånertānefbesfkhentihehf.

4. A¯q-her-Åmi-unnut-f.

5. Teshenmaatiamihetånes.

6. Ubestråperemkhetkhet.

7. Maaemkerhånnefemhru.

Or,

1. Kestha.

2. HĀpi.

3. Tuamutef.

4. Qebhsennuf.

5. Maaåteff.

6. Kheribeqf.

7. Herukhentiånmaati.

The knowledge of the names of these terrible beings was of vital importance to the deceased, for it was they who cut off the heads of men, and broke their necks and seized their hearts, and performed slaughters at the Lake of Fire, and it enabled him to come forth from the Other World and shine upon his statue, and gave him a “beautiful tomb” (or, burial) with Osiris. This Chapter was, in fact, a mighty protection for him in the Other World.

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CHAPTER LXXIL.

The recital of this Chapter gave the deceased the power to leave his tomb and to force a path to the place where the gods lived. It supplied him with the name of the god TEKEM, image, and it enabled him to travel through Sekhet-Åaru, and eventually to reach Seket-hetep, i.e., the Field of Peace, or, the Field of Offerings. According to the Rubric, the writing of this Chapter on the coffin of the deceased produced the same effect as the recital of it by him. In line 8 there is an allusion to the Mesqet, image, or chamber inwhich the deceased was reborn, or perhaps annihilated. The Mesqet was originally the skin of a bull in which the deceased was placed, but in later times the word was applied to the Tuat, or Other World, in general. Tradition asserted that Osiris was assisted in preserving his life on one occasion by taking refuge in a bull’s skin, and the skin of this bull is usually seen hanging to a pole before Osiris in his shrine in pictures of the Judgment.

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CHAPTER LXXIII.

See Chapter IX.

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CHAPTER LXXIV.

This Chapter contains formulae addressed to Seker, a very ancient god of the dead whose kingdom formed the Other World of the people of Memphis, and is represented to-day by the great necropolis of Sakkârah. It is possible that the name “Sakkârah” may be derived from the name of the god Seker, image, The Vignette contains a picture of Hennu, the sacred boat on which the shrine containing the god was placed. The recital of this Chapter gave the deceased the power to emerge from his tomb, and to stand on his feet like Seker in his hidden and mysterious abode.

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CHAPTER LXXV.

This Chapter is connected with the preceding, and its recital gave the deceased the power to pass from Sakkârah, on the left bank of the Nile, over, or under, the river to Ånnu (Heliopolis), on the right bank, and to take up his abode in the sanctuary of the great Sungod, whose home was in that ancient city. On his way thither he passed through the region where reposed the souls of the blessed dead who are referred to in the later sections of the Book Åm-Tuat and the Book of Grates, and the gods of that region, Åkhsesef, image, and Remrem, image, or Kemkem, image, afforded him their protection. The magical buckle, image, which carried with it the mystical power of the blood of Isis, caused the goddesses Khebent, image, and Sekseket, image, to be gracious to him, and it placed him in the eastern part of the sky where RĀ rose daily.

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CHAPTER LXXVI.

The recital of this Chapter secured for the deceased the service of the insect abit image, which, on account of the assistance that it rendered to him, may be identified with the mantis. He says, “I have come “into the house of the King through the abitwhich led “me hither.” It is a common belief in many parts of Central and South Africa that the mantis acts as guide to the traveller who has lost his way, and the Hottentots say that the insect leads children who have lost themselves in the bush back to their villages and houses. We find that the mantis, the Goliath beetle, and the bee all play a prominent part in the Book of Opening the Mouth, and when we remember the unknown and difficult roads which the deceased had to travel over in the Other World, it is easy to see how important it was for him to be able to take the form of the mantis at pleasure, and find his way back to a place he knew. According to the title this Chapter enabled the deceased to make any transformation, i.e., take any form he pleased.

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CHAPTER LXXVIL.

The recital of this Chapter enabled the deceased to take the form of a golden hawk, with wings which were like felspar, and had a spread of four cubits. In this form he could fly to the Boat of RĀ and visit any and every part of Sekhet-hetep.

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CHAPTER LXXVIII.

The recital of this Chapter enabled the deceased to take the form of the divine hawk, i.e., the hawk which possessed the powers of RĀ himself, and to fly from one end of Egypt to another, and to visit all the great sanctuaries of RĀ and Osiris. In this form all the gods of heaven, earth, and the Tuat regarded him with awe, for he possessed the soul of Horus, the Hawk-god par excellence. All the mysteries of the gods were laid bare before him, for, the soul of Horus being in him, he became the son of Osiris. the King of the Other World.

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CHAPTER LXXIX.

In this Chapter the deceased identifies himself with the “great god who created himself,” the lord of life and maker of the gods, and becomes therefore the Ruler of the Tchatcha, or chief administrators of the Kingdom of Osiris. The Tchatcha kept the registers of Osiris and the lists of all who were in his kingdom, and they had the power to give rewards to those who performed their appointed tasks and to punish those who did not. They were, in fact, the celestial judges and magistrates under the direct supervision of Osiris, and their power was absolute and their decrees were final.

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CHAPTER LXXX.

By the recital of this Chapter the deceased became the “girdle of the robe of Nu,” and the great luminary of heaven who was able to lighten not only the darkness about himself, but also the darkness of all those who were in the Other World, and to lead away the darkness captive. When storms or eclipse overtook the Eye, i.e., the Sun, he rescued the Sun-god from destruction, he weighed Set in the scales against the Aged One, i.e., RĀ, and sent him to his doom, and he provided Thoth with all that he needed to make the Moon-god shine in the full moon on his fifteenth day. In short, this Chapter enabled the deceased to transform himself into Light.

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CHAPTER LXXXI.A AND B.

In this Chapter the deceased identifies himself with the “pure lily” in the waters of the celestial Ocean out of which RĀ, under the name of Nefer-Tem, rose daily. The lily, or lotus, was the symbol, or image, of Nefer-Tem, who, according to Memphite theology, was the son of Ptah and the goddess Sekhet.

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CHAPTER LXXXII.

In the preceding Chapter the deceased identifies himself with the son of Ptah, and in this he identifies himself with Ptah, the Blacksmith-god of Thebes, thereby obtaining funerary offerings in abundance, and the power to become a living being in Ånnu (Heliopolis), and a partaker of the existence of Temu, the chief god of that city. Many passages in the Chapter relating to offerings of food and drink are already familiar from Chapter LII., &c.

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CHAPTER LXXXIII.

The text of this Chapter does not make clear exactly what advantage would be gained by the deceased from its recital. The Bennu bird, as we have already seen, was regarded as the soul of RĀ, and it no doubt possessed faculties and attributes of a remarkable nature, but what these were is not known. The deceased, by the recital of the words of this Chapter, identifies himself with Khensu, an ancient Moon-god, who was regarded as the “great strider” through the night sky. The words, “I have clothed myself like “the tortoise (or, turtle),” suggest that the deceased wished to clothe himself in apparel as thick and strong as the shell of the tortoise, so that he might be able to withstand the attacks which birds of the Bennu class might make upon him. The existence of the Rubric seems to show that the ancient editors of the Book of the Dead did not know the exact import of this Chapter.

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CHAPTER LXXXIV.

This Chapter appears to have some connection with funerary sacrifices and offerings, and its recital probably enabled the deceased to supply himself with such necessary things. The connection of the heron in the Vignette with the formulae to be recited is not clear.

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CHAPTER LXXXV.

By the recital of this Chapter the deceased identified himself with the Soul of RĀ, the Soul which is God, or is Divine, the Soul of the everlasting gods, and with the body of that Soul, which is eternity itself. As the possessor of that Soul the deceased became the counterpart of Nu and Kheperå and the lord of light, i.e., RĀ, and the substance of his being was identical with that of the gods. Now the eternal Soul of RĀ was also the Soul of Osiris, whose living symbol on earth was the famous Ram-god of Mendes. From the XVIIth Chapter we learn that the Soul of RĀ and the Soul of Osiris met in imageat·t·u, and, having joined themselves together in that sacred city, they became the Twin-souls which were known as the TCHAFUI, image Thus the great god of imageat·t·u possessed a dual soul, one member performing functions which resembled those of the heart-soul (ba) in man, and the other having the characteristics of the spiritual soul (khu) in man. In the Vignettes we see an allusion to a play upon words, for the word ram isba, and the word for the heart-soul is ba.

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CHAPTER LXXXVI.

The recital of this Chapter gave to the deceased some power possessed by the bird, probably the swallow, which is represented in the Vignette. This bird is said to have rendered service to Isis when she was in trouble, by carrying the news of the calamity which had befallen her to the gods, who straightway went to her aid. It is possible that the deceased expected this Chapter to make him to be received everywhere in the Other World with the same cordial welcome which was given to the swallow on this earth as the harbinger of good tidings. For he says, “Let me advance with my “message, for I have come with words to tell. Open “the doors to me and I will declare the things which “have been seen by me.” The news he had to tell was that Horus had risen as the successor of Osiris, and that Set, the god of evil, was bound in the fetters which he had made for the deceased.’ The connection between the Scorpion, the daughter of RĀ, and the swallow is not clear, but to identify himself with the Scorpion-goddess Serqet seems to have been all-important to the deceased.

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CHAPTER LXXXVII.

By transforming himself into the Sata serpent the deceased obtained the power of gliding unharmed through the remote parts of the earth, just as by taking the form of the golden hawk he was able to fly to the uttermost parts of heaven in every direction at will.

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CHAPTER LXXXVIII.

By the recital of this Chapter the deceased was enabled to take the form of the crocodile, and to traverse the Nile from one end to the other, and to penetrate all the great canals which ran from the river to the hills on its east and west banks. The terror which accompanied the appearance of the crocodile among men now became the attribute of the deceased, and he was able to seize his prey when and where he pleased. The crocodile is one of the oldest objects of veneration in Egypt, and until quite recently it was worshipped in some of the islands in Lake Victoria. At the end of the XVIIIth century of our era the king of the crocodiles was believed to live at Armant in Upper Egypt, and a gigantic crocodile was held in veneration at Khartûm during the reign of Muhammad ‘All!1 In certain districts on the Blue Nile the natives believed that by the use of magic men were able to enter crocodiles and to cross the river in them, and to the present day the belief exists in the Sûdan that the eating of a portion of the genitals of a crocodile increases in a man the power of begetting children

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CHAPTER LXXXIX.

The Egyptians of all periods believed that the souls of the blessed would meet again and recognize in the Other World the souls which they had known and loved upon earth, and several spells and prayers were written with the object of bringing about the reunion of families. By the recital of this Chapter over a golden soul, inlaid with precious stones, placed on the oreast of his mummy, the deceased believed he would be able to compel his heart-soul (Ba) to come from any and every place and unite itself to his body. Once the heart-soul had returned it was impossible for the body to crumble away and perish. In the text (1. 4) the deceased prays that he may have possession of his heart-soul (Ba) and his spiritual soul (Khu), and the last line of this very important Chapter proves that theBa joined itself to the material body (khat image), and the Khu to its spiritual body (sāh image). The reunion of souls took place at Ånnu (Heliopolis).

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CHAPTER XC.

The recital of this Chapter enabled the deceased to spit out of his mouth the “recollection” (or, taste) of foul or evil things. In the formulae he adjures the “cutter off of heads and the splitter of skulls” not to cut off his head or split his skull, and not to prevent him from uttering the words of power which he knows by closing his mouth. This evil being attacked Osiris on one occasion, being urged to do so by Set, but Isis cast spells upon him, and frustrated his nefarious design. As the monster retreated before Osiris so, the deceased believed, he would retreat before him when armed with the words of power contained in this Chapter.

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CHAPTER XCI.

This interesting Chapter introduces us to another of the constituent elements of man, namely his shadow, khaibit, which was depicted in the form of a parasol or umbrella, image. In the text it is mentioned in connection with the heart-soul and the spiritual soul, and, in the light of the beliefs current on the subject of the shadow in Central and West Africa at the present day, we may assume that the shadow is to be regarded as a third soul. At all events, the soul and the shadow are so intimately connected that many tribes use only one word for both soul and shadow,1 and it is generally thought that the shadow is one of the four souls of man. A man will take infinite pains in the daytime to avoid losing his shadow, even for a short time; at night he is less careful, for then all shadows lie down in the shadow of the Great God and renew their strength.2 A man may be murdered by the secret stabbing of his shadow, and the man who has lost his shadow necessarily dies. The recital of this Chapter prevented the souls of the deceased from being shut in the tomb or any part of the Other World, and transformed him into a spiritual soul who possessed his heart-soul and his shadow.

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CHAPTER XCII.

This Chapter is one of great importance, for it proves that the heart-soul was intimately connected with the Ka, or double of a man. Its recital enabled the Ka and the Ba to leave the tomb at pleasure, and in one Vignette we see the deceased on one side of the tomb door and his Ka and Ba on the other, having passed through the door. From this and the preceding Chapter it seems clear that the Ka and the Ba and the Khaibit were closely associated in the minds of the Egyptians, and that in early times they represented three phases of that soul in man which could not die.

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CHAPTER XCIII.

This Chapter presents some difficulty. The meaning of the text is on the whole clear, and by its recital the deceased was enabled to avoid going to the East, or being carried there against his will. It is possible that the Egyptians thought that the souls of the dead, when setting out on their journey from the earth to the Other World, might take the wrong turning, and so travel to disaster and annihilation. The being seated in the boat with his face turned round behind him, as seen in the Vignette, is a very old god, and his name, Hrā-f-ha-f, image occurs in the Pyramid Texts; his functions are unknown. The allusion to the phallus of RĀ is not clear. We may note the threat on the part of the deceased that the Eye of the Sun shall become obscured through the suppuration which shall take place in it if he be kept in restraint, or carried off forcibly to the East.

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CHAPTER XCIV.

By the recital of this Chapter the deceased identified himself with Thoth, the righteous scribe of all the gods, and the heart of RĀ, and in this character he became the secretary of Osiris, and understood all the mysteries which were written in the Books of God. As Thoth he knew all the words of power which that god had invented, the secrets of all hearts were open to him, and he became the chief recording angel.

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CHAPTER XCV.

The object of this Chapter is not quite clear, but the text seems to imply that the deceased by reciting it obtained the power of stilling storms and putting an end to strife among the gods who caused rain and thunder, just as Thoth stopped the fight between Horus and Set, and RĀ and A¯pep, and Osiris and Set, when the champions of light and order fought against the powers of darkness, wickedness, and chaos. According to a papyrus in the British Museum (No. 10,009) this Chapter is entitled, “Of making the transformation “into a goose,” and in the Vignette is a picture of a goose.

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CHAPTER XCVI.

The recital of this Chapter placed the deceased near Thoth, and caused him to be identified with RĀ, the “god who dwelt in his eye.” Armed with the intelligence of Thoth and the power of RĀ, he made Set to be at peace with him, and made offerings to the ancient Earth-god Aker and to the Red Devils in the fiery clouds at sunrise and sunset, and did homage to Seb, or Keb.

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CHAPTER XCVII.

By the recital of this Chapter the deceased propitiated the Four Khu, viz., Maa-Åtef-f, Kheribeqf, imageerukhenti[A¯n]maati, and Ånpu, and was enabled to take up his position in the Boat of RĀ, to whom he presented an offering of Maāt, image, having purified himself in the sacred lakes, and in the well of the Eye of the God “which is under the holy Sycamore Tree of “heaven,” in Heliopolis. This has been a holy well from time immemorial, and it is probably the same well as that which the Muslims called “‘Ayn-ash-shems,” i.e., “Eye of the Sun,” and in the waters of which, according to an ancient tradition, the Virgin Mary washed the raiment of Christ. The traditional well is carefully guarded at the present day in a garden at Maāariyah, a few miles from Cairo, and a short distance from the obelisk of Usertsen I., which marks the site of the ancient city of Heliopolis.

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CHAPTER XCVIII.

By the recital of this Chapter the deceased obtained the use of a boat in the Other World, and the services of a god who understood how and where to sail it. From the facts that he addresses the Meskhet, or the constellation of the Great Bear, and that the “stars “which never set,” i.e., the circumpolar stars, put him on his way, it may be assumed that he wished to have the power to sail over the northern heaven. In line 5 there is an allusion to a Ladder, and in the Papyrus of Ani a picture of it is given. This Ladder is referred to in the Pyramid Texts (Unās, l. 579, Pepi, ll. 200 and 471); it was made originally for Osiris, who by means of it ascended into heaven. It was set up by Horus and Set, each of whom held one side, and they assisted the god to mount it; in the tombs of the Ancient and Middle Empires several models of ladders have been found, and in later times, as we have seen, pictures of the Ladder of Heaven were drawn on papyri. This Chapter is of Heliopolitan origin.

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CHAPTER XCIX.

The object of this Chapter was to enable the deceased to work and sail a boat, that is to say, a magical boat, over the canals and lakes of the Sekhet-Åaru, in one portion of which were placed the Sekhet-hetep, or Elysian Fields, where Osiris and the souls of the blessed lived in everlasting felicity. Every part of this boat (mākhent image) possessed a name which identified it with some god or goddess, and the deceased was obliged to declare to each part its name before he was allowed to enter it. This Chapter contained the names of each part, and the knowledge of them made the deceased master of the boat, and enabled him to sail from the east to the west of heaven as RĀ did each day.

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CHAPTER C.

In the preceding Chapter we have seen that the deceased obtained a boat in which to sail over heaven like RĀ, and in this we find that provision was made to enable him to enter into the Boat of RĀ himself, wherein were the great gods in his following. This Chapter was, like the preceding, of Heliopolitan origin, and it is possible that the idea of the solar boat, with the shrine of the god placed in it, was derived from some Asiatic people. The Chapter was to be recited over a picture of a boat, drawn upon a piece of new papyrus with a special kind of ink made of sulphate of copper mixed with a solution of myrrh; the picture was placed on the breast of the deceased. The words and the picture secured for him the entry into the Boat of RĀ, and prevented Thoth, who kept a list of allthose who entered the boat, from omitting to inscribe his name on it.

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CHAPTER CI.

This Chapter is a spell which was written upon a strip of fine byssus and placed round the neck of the deceased on the day of his funeral. It contains an address to RĀ, in which is mentioned the sacred Eye of magical powers, which was seven cubits long and had a pupil three cubits in diameter; the recital of this Chapter strengthened the power of RĀ, and enabled him to resist the attacks of A¯pep and the fiends of darkness. In fact, RĀ himself needed the protection of spells; if RĀ were strong the deceased was strong, and if RĀ lost his strength the deceased perished. The formulae of this Chapter transformed the deceased into a “follower of Horus,” and made him like Sepimage (Sothis), and gave him the company of his kinsfolk, and the goddess Menqet caused plants (i.e., grain) to spring up from his body, and Thoth made light to shine on him.

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CHAPTER CII.

By the recital of this Chapter the deceased caused RĀ to bring his boat to him, and to allow him to enter it, and to sail about with the god among the region of the stars which never set, i.e., the circumpolar stars of the northern sky. He states that he has lived upon the pure food which the solar boats Sektet and A¯t·et (or MĀt·et) have brought to him, and, having eaten of the food of RĀ, he is pure like RĀ, and of like substance. In line 8 appears to be mentioned the curious custom of spitting, as a sign of healing and blessing, which is common among several peoples of Africa at the present day. Thus Mr. Thomson says, “Little “bits of paper were next dipped in the water, and after “I had spat upon them the ceremony was over, and “the pieces were handed round as an infallible cure “warranted not to fail.”1 Among the Masai spitting “expresses the greatest good-will, and the best of “wishes. It takes the place of the compliments of the “season, and you had better spit upon a damsel than “kiss her. You spit when you meet, and you do the “same on leaving. You seal your bargain in a similar “manner.”2 Among the Egyptians spitting was a creative act, for the god Tem spat, and Tefnut came into being.

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CHAPTER CIII.

The recital of this Chapter placed the deceased among the company who followed the goddess Hathor. This goddess was the personification of the sky, and especially of that part of it which was the “house of “Horns”; hence her name, image. Her symbol was in the earliest times a cow, and she represented the great mother of the world and the female power of nature which was perpetually conceiving, creating, bringing forth, and rearing and maintaining all things, both great and small. The Greeks identified her with Aphrodite, and she represented what was true, and good, and all that is best in wife, mother, and daughter.

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CHAPTER CIV.

By the recital of this Chapter the deceased was able to avail himself of the services of the abit1 or mantis, and to pass through the house of the Sehāptet Boat, image, and to take his place among the great gods.

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CHAPTER CV.

It has already been said that the KA, or double, and the heart-soul, existed on the offerings which were made in the tombs by the relatives of the deceased, and it was, naturally, one of the first duties of a man whilst upon earth to provide, as far as possible, an endowment to be expended in supplying the statutory offerings. The recital of this Chapter secured food for the KA similar to that on which the KAU of the gods lived, it enabled the deceased to identify himself with the Ustch Amulet, image, which was on the neck of RĀ, and it prevented his heart from falling away from him.

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CHAPTER CVI.

Among the places which the deceased expected to visit in the Other World was the celestial Memphis, the abode of the spirit of Ptah·. By the recital of this Chapter the deceased would avoid the possibility of being in that place without food, and would secure a supply of bread, &c., which would be brought to him by the boat of the Other World.

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CHAPTER CVII.

The recital of this Chapter gave to the deceased the power to go in and come out from the gate of the gods of the West, and to know these gods in person.

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CHAPTER CVIII.

This Chapter also deals with the knowing of the Souls of the West; these were Temu, Sebek, and Hathor. The place where these Souls lived was the Mountain of Bakhau, or the Mountain of Sunrise, which was 30,000 cubits long and 15,000 cubits broad; its principal god, or “soul,” was Sebek. On this mountain lived a serpent 30 cubits long, and his forepart, for a distance of 8 cubits, was covered with flints and bright metal plates; his name was ÅMI-HEMF, image. When RĀ came to the mountain in his boat, he attacked the serpent with an iron harpoon, and made him vomit, and thus the power of Suti was broken, and he was turned back. The recital of this Chapter enabled the deceased to do what RĀ had done, and to walk boldly over the back of the serpent.

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CHAPTER CIX.

The recital of this Chapter gave to the deceased the knowledge of the Souls of the East, i.e., imageeru-khuti, the Sucking Calf, and the Morning Star, and of the position of the Gate of the East in the sky, and the Two Sycamores between which RĀ appeared daily. It also enabled him to reach that portion of the Sekhet-Åaru where grew wheat with ears two cubits long, and barley with ears three cubits long, which were reaped by the Souls of the Blessed who were nine cubits in height!

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CHAPTER CX.

This is a remarkable Chapter, with a large Vignette wherein are depicted the Elysian Fields of the Egyptians. They were surrounded on all sides by water, and were intersected by numerous canals, like many fertile districts in the Delta at the present time. The god of the region was called imageetep, whose city was also called imageetep, and the soul who had once learned the secret name of the god was able to lead there a life which closely resembled the life he had led upon earth. He sailed at will on the canals, he found there his parents and kinsfolk, he passed from place to place at will, he ploughed, sowed, reaped, ate, drank, married, held converse with the gods, arrayed himself in beautiful apparel, and lived a life of endless happiness. The various Vignettes are explained in detail on pp.319–323.

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CHAPTERS CXI. AND CXII.

By the recital of these Chapters the deceased became acquainted in person with the Souls of the city of Pe in the Delta, whose names were Horus, Kesthå and HĀpi, and learned how to profit by his knowledge of an interesting legend concerning Horus. It seems that in very early times Set, the god of evil, took the form of a black pig, image, which came into the presence of Horus, who looked on the animal. Soon after this Horus found that a serious injury had been done to his eye through looking at the black pig, and he felt as if he had received a blow in it. RĀ ordered him to be placed in a chamber in the city of Pe, and at his request appointed imageesthå and imageA¯pi to keep watch over him. The legend refers, no doubt, to a great storm which swept over Pe, when the whole heaven was obscured by clouds, and thunders roared, and lightnings flashed, and torrents of rain fell. During the storm Horus was struck in the eye by lightning, or smitten by a thunderbolt, and when the storm had passed RĀ appointed two of the sons of Horus to “make the earth blossom,” and destroy the thunderclouds and rain which threatened the city.

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CHAPTER CXIII.

This Chapter contains a legend of Horus when he was in the city of Nekhen, in Upper Egypt The meaning of the text is not very clear in places, but it seems that Horus fell into the papyrus swamp, and Isis ordered Sebek, the god of the papyrus swamp, to find him. Sebek took a net and succeeded in recovering the hands and arms of Horus, and by the orders of RĀ they were placed in the city of Nekhen, and at the request of Horus, imageuamutef and Qebāsennuf were appointed to watch over them. By the recital of thisChapter the deceased was enabled to avoid the disaster which fell upon Horus, and to obtain the protection of those who watched over this god.

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CHAPTER CXIV.

The city of Khemennu, i.e., the city of the Eight Gods, or Hermopolis, was the seat of the god Thoth, the head of the oldest company of gods in Egypt. This company consisted of four gods and four goddesses, viz.:—

image

These were forms of Thoth and were regarded as his Souls. By the recital of this Chapter the deceased obtained the wisdom, and knowledge, and learning of Thoth and his Souls, and the power to use them to his advantage.

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CHAPTER CXV.

By the recital of this CĀapter the deceased obtained the power of passing unharmed through the Åmmehet, image or Åmāh·et, image, and the knowledge of the Souls of Heliopolis, RĀ, Shu and Tefnut in person. The Åmmeh·et was a division or chamber in the kingdom1 of the god Seker, wherein certain souls were kept in restraint at the pleasure of the lord of the region, and it seems that at intervals they were tortured by fire. In the text mention is made of the high-priest of Ånnu, whose official title was “Urmau,” image, and there is an allusion to the origin of a beard or tress of hair, image, in connection with the god åmi-haf, image, but the exact meaning is not clear.

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CHAPTER CXVI.

The purpose for which this Chapter was recited is explained in the Rubric; it prevented the deceased from being obliged to eat offal and drink dirty water. There is probably a mistake in the title which mentions the Souls of Khemennu, whilst the text speaks of the Souls of Ånnu who are here said to be Thoth, Sheta-Saa and Rekh-Tem.

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CHAPTER CXVII.

The recital of this Chapter provided the deceased with a staff and a belt, or girdle, and gave him the knowledge of the paths whereon he would travel in Re-stau, a portion of the Other World, and enabled him to pass safely through the funeral valley and reach the Great Lake.

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CHAPTER CXVIII.

The recital of this Chapter enabled him to pass through Re-stau, and to emerge safely from it in the company of the Såhu who lived near the abode of Osiris.

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CHAPTER CXIX.

This is an interesting Chapter, for it shows how the Egyptians associated the kingdom of Osiris at Abydos with Re-stau, which was in the Other World of Seker near Memphis. Its recital enabled the deceased to identify himself with the SÅh·u (spiritual body) of Osiris, and to enter the presence of RĀ in its company.

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CHAPTERS CXX. AND CXXL

These have already been described as Chapters XII. and XIII.

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CHAPTER CXXII.

The recital of this Chapter enabled the deceased to re-enter Åmenti at pleasure, and to go in like the hawk and come forth like the Bennu bird. The text suggests that he is asking some god to admit him into Åmenti, and in reply to the question “Who art thou?” he recites the names of various parts of the boat in which he is sailing. It seems as if the Chapter represents the belief that the deceased was obliged to return to Åmenti in order to partake of milk, cakes, bread, ale and meat in the Temple of Anubis.

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CHAPTER CXXIII.

In this Chapter the deceased identifies himself with Thoth, who made the Two Combatants, Horus and Set, to cease from fighting and to be at peace; being Thoth, he possesses the knowledge of the words of power which are necessary to make the old gods to perform his commands, and the young gods to follow him. The allusion to the A¯t·u fish, image, is not clear, and little is known about the god Nem-h·rå, or Uh·emh·rå, image.

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CHAPTER CXXIV.

According to one papyrus the formulae of this Chapter were recited to enable the deceased to transform himself into a Bennu bird, and according to another the Chapter contains the speech which he was supposed to make when he entered into the presence of the TCHATCHA, image, or chief ministers of Osiris (i.e., the four sons of Horus), or into the presence of Osiris himself.

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CHAPTER CXXV.

This Chapter is one of the most interesting and remarkable in the Book of the Dead, and it illustrates the lofty moral and spiritual conceptions of the Egyptians in the XVIIIth Dynasty. In the opening section the deceased is supposed to be standing before the doors of the Judgment Hall of Osiris, which are guarded by Anubis, and he describes to this god the journey which he has made from the Delta to Elephantine, and enumerates the shrines and holy places which he has visited. He has conversed with Set, and visited Mendes, the sacred Acacia Tree, Elephantine, the seat of the goddess Sati, Qem-ur, Busiris, the temple of Anubis, Re-stau in the kingdom of Seker, and Ån-rut·-f the kingdom of imageeru-shefi at Herakleopolis. Having told Anubis the magical names of the Hall of Maāti, the god gave him permission to enter. On his arrival in the Hall the deceased then solemnly declared that he knew the name of Osiris, and the names of Forty-two gods who sat there with him to assist him in examining the souls of those who came in before him for judgment, and that he had not committed the sins which he mentioned one by one. According to this confession he 1. had harmed no man; 2. had not injured his family; 3. had committed no evil in a holy place; 4. had not kept evil companions; 5. had done no evil; 6. had not overworked his men; 7. had not sought for honours; 8. or ill-treated his servants; 9. or scorned God; 10. or seized any man’s property; 11. or done what the gods hate; 12. or vilified a servant to his master; 13. or caused pain to any; 14. or let any man go hungry; 15. or made any one weep; 16. or committed murder; 17. or caused murder to be committed; 18. or inflicted pain; 19. had not stolen the offerings in the temple; 20. or the sacred bread; 21. or bread offered to the spirits; 22. had not committed fornication; 23 or polluted himself in the sanctuary of the city god; 24. had not given short measure; 25. or filched land; 26. or encroached on land not his own; 27. had not cheated the seller; 28. or buyer by means of false weights; 29. had not stolen the milk of children; 30. had not raided cattle; 31. or snared sacred birds; 32. or caught fish with bait made of fish of the same kind; 33. had not stopped the flow of water; 34. or cut the bank of a canal; 35. or extinguished a fire which ought to burn; 36. had not defrauded the gods of their meat offerings; 37. or raided sacred cattle; 38. and did not repulse God in his manifestations.

In the second form of the Confession the deceased addresses each negative statement to a god, whose duty it appears to have been to punish all those who committed the particular sin mentioned in connection with his name. The names of the Forty-two gods are:—

1. Usekh-nemmåt.

2. imageept-shet.

3. Fenāi.

4. A¯m-Khaibitu.

5. Neāa-h·A¯u.

6. Ruruti (Twin-gods Shu and Tefnut).

7. Merti-f-em-t·es.

8. Nebå.

9. Set·-qesu.

10. Uatch-nes.

11. Qerti.

12. imageetch-Åbeāu.

13. A¯m-senf.

14. A¯m-besku.

15. Neb-Maāti.

16. Thenemi.

17. A¯aāi.

18. imageuāuf.

19. Uamemti.

20. Maa-Ånu-f.

21. imageeri-seru.

22. Khemi.

23. Shet·-kheru.

24. Nekhen.

25. Ser-kheru.

26. Basti.

27. imageråf-h·af.

28. Ta-ret·.

29. Kenemti.

30. A¯m-h·etep-f.

31. Neb-h·rāu.

32. Serkhi.

33. Neb-A¯bui.

34. Nefer-Tem.

35. Tem-sep.

36. Maa(?)-em-Åb-f.

37. imagei.

38. Utu-rekhit.

39. Neāeb-nefert.

40. Neāeb-kau.

41. Tcheser-t·ep-f.

42. Ån-A¯-f.

The order of the names is not always the same, and there are a few variants in the lists given by the different papyri. It will be noticed that the names of very few of the great gods are contained in the list, and it seems as if the Forty-two gods of the Judgment Hall of Osiris were merely divine ministers of that god whose sole duty was to help the god to examine souls nightly.

The last section of this Chapter contains an address to the gods of the Other World which was spoken after the deceased had passed successfully through the ordeal of the Judgment. The Rubric to the Chapter is also of great interest, and in it the deceased is ordered to make a picture of the Judgment Scene in colour upon a new tile made of earth upon which no pig or any other animal has trodden. If he did this it would have the effect of making him and his family to flourish, his name would never be forgotten, and he would be able to satisfy the hearts of the king and his princes. He lived on the food of the gods, went wherever he pleased in the Other World, and followed in the train of Osiris continually.

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CHAPTER CXXVI.

In this Chapter the deceased entreats the Four Apes who sat each at a corner of the Lake of Fire, or of boiling water, in the Åmmeh·et chamber in the kingdom of Seker, to put away his “evil deeds and sin “which deserved stripes upon earth, and to destroy any “evil which clung to him,” and to let him enter Re-stau, and to grant him sepulchral meals. To this petition the Apes reply that they have granted his prayer.

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CHAPTER CXXVII.A AND B.

The two versions of Chapter CXXVII. contain hymns of praise to the gods of the QERTI, image, i.e., the “Circles” of the Other World, which the deceased sang before he entered into the Great Temple of the Other World.

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CHAPTER CXXVIII.

This Chapter contains a hymn to Osiris, the lord of souls, image, which the deceased sang to the god as he presented his offerings to him. It belongs to a late period, and contains nothing which is not found in older texts.

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CHAPTER CXXIX.

This Chapter has already been described as Chapter C.

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CHAPTER CXXX.

This Chapter was recited on the birthday of Osiris, and the object of its recital by the deceased was to “make perfect his spiritual soul.” The Rubric directs that it shall be recited over a picture of the Boat of RĀ, and that a figure of the deceased be placed in it, with a Sektet Boat on one side and an A¯t·et Boat on the other. In the Vignette the deceased is seen standing between the two boats. The object of the Chapter is clear. The recital of it enabled the deceased to identify himself with RĀ-Osiris, that is to say, with the Day-sun and the Night-sun, and it provided him either with a passage in both boats of RĀ-Osiris, or with two boats in which to follow the god across heaven by day and through the imageuat by nights. This Chapter is probably of Heliopolitan origin. In the Saïte Recension the Rubric contains an interesting statement to the effect that this Chapter was “found” in the large hall of the temple during the reign of the Majesty of Semti-imageesepti, image, having been “found” in a cave in a hill which Horus made for his father Osiris Un-nefer, image. Thus it is clear that in the Ptolemaïc Period the Chapter was believed to have been in existence under the Ist Dynasty.

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CHAPTER CXXXI.

By the recital of this Chapter the deceased identified himself with RĀ, and attained the object of his prayer, i.e., permission to enter the boat of the god and to be in the company of Thoth, who was the heart of RĀ. The deceased refers to the deity Meāen, under whose protection RĀ sailed, and to her everlasting existence, and to the Lake of a Million Years, and he declares that through all these years RĀ is the Lord, and that his path is in the fire. This Chapter also is probably of Heliopolitan origin.

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CHAPTER CXXXII.

The recital of this Chapter enabled the deceased to return to earth and to visit his old house, or perhaps tomb. In one of the Vignettes the form of the deceased is standing at the door, and in the other his heart-soul is alighting on the roof of the building.

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CHAPTER CXXXIII.

This Chapter is to all intents and purposes a hymn to RĀ, and is, no doubt, of Heliopolitan origin. It was intended to be said or sung over a model of the Boat of RĀ, four (or seven) cubits long, made of green porcelain, in which were a figure of RĀ and a figure of the deceased. No one was to look upon the boat except the father, or son, of the man for whose benefit it was made. If these things were done they would cause RĀ to look upon the soul of the deceased as perfect, and the gods would consider him to be an equal, and men and the dead would fall on their faces when they saw him, and in the Other World he would appear as the radiance of RĀ.

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CHAPTER CXXXIV.

This Chapter resembles the preceding, and is also of Heliopolitan origin. It was to be recited over a model of the Boat of RĀ, in which, painted on a plaque, were figures of the deceased, a hawk, Tem, Shu, Tefnut, Seb, Nut, Osiris, Isis, Suti, Nephthys, and the solar disk; this done the deceased enjoyed existence with RĀ daily, and helped to overthrow his enemies.

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CHAPTER CXXXV.

This Chapter was to be recited by the deceased on the day when the new moon appeared in the sky, and its recital helped him to become a perfect soul in the Other World, and to escape a second death. The new moon was the symbol of Osiris risen from the dead, and the Egyptians believed that the knowledge of this Chapter would enable the deceased to pass unharmed through the Other World, and to emerge, unfettered by storm and darkness, into the clear vault of heaven. He would then, like RĀ, enter his boat and sail over the sky. This and the following Chapter were also of Heliopolitan origin.

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CHAPTER CXXXVI.A AND B.

This Chapter is in character similar to the preceding, and was recited with the object of making perfect the soul of the deceased and of securing for it a seat in the Boats of RĀ, where it would live for ever and ever.

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CHAPTER CXXXVIIA.

This Chapter was recited during the performance in the tomb of some interesting ceremonies which are described in the Vignette. Four men assumed the character of the four pillars of Horus, and each had the name of one of the pillars, i.e., sons of Horus, on his shoulder. Each took in his hand a torch made of strips of åimage cloth, which had been dipped in the finest Theāennu unguent, and set fire to it, and after it had been burning some time, that is, during the recital of certain portions of the Chapter, they extinguished them in four earthen vessels containing the milk of a white cow. This ceremony was to be performed daily, with very great secrecy, for it was regarded as a great mystery. If the instructions given in the Rubric were carried out faithfully, the deceased became a “living “soul for ever,” and enjoyed all the powers and attributes of Osiris himself. The formulae are said to have been composed by Thoth in very early times, and copies of them are said to have been “found” by Prince imageeruimageāimageāf, the son of King Khufu, in a hidden chest in Hermopolis. After the lighting of the torches, a crystal imageet·, image, set on a block of crude Nile mud, was inserted in a cavity in the west wall of the tomb; and a figure of Anubis, set on a similar block, was inserted in a cavity in the east wall; another block of crude Nile mud, containing a hollow filled with lighted incense, was inserted in a cavity in the south wall; and another block, with a figure of a palm-tree set in it, was inserted in the cavity in the north wall. On each block was inscribed a formula which was recited by the deceased, and which prevented the approach of any enemy to the wall of the tomb in which was placed the amulet referred to in the formula. Like certain other Chapters this Chapter was to be recited by a man who had eaten neither fish nor meat, and who had not had intercourse with women. A set of mud blocks with the amulets upon them from a tomb of a priestess of Åmen-RĀ at Thebes may be seen in Wall-case No. 73 in the Second Egyptian Room in the British Museum.

In the Vignette of the second and shorter form of the Chapter the Hippopotamus-goddess “Åpit, lady of “amālets,” is seen kindling a lamp set on a stand, and the text makes it clear that the flame is a type of the Eye of Horus, or the Sun-god, the “Pillar of his “mother,” image. It is possible that the ape-goddess mentioned in connection with Ån-mut-f (see above, p. c, Chap. XVIII.) may be a hippopotamus-goddess.

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CHAPTER CXXXVIII.

The recital of this Chapter by the deceased gave him the power to enter into the kingdom of Osiris at Abydos, to become one of the foālowers of the god, and to identify himself with Horus, the son of Osiris, on the day of the great ceremony when the reconstitution of the body of Osiris was commemorated by setting up the imageet·, image, and placing the head of the god on the top of it. The Vignette represents the setting up of the imageet· by Horus and Isis, and grouped about it are the Souls of Pe and Nekhen, the Ram-gods (i.e., Soul-gods), the Lions of Sunrise and Sunset, the Four Utchats of heaven, the Two Fly-flappers, &c.

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CHAPTER CXXXIX.

This Chapter has already been described as Chapter CXXIII.

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CHAPTER CXL.

This Chapter was to be recited on the day of the full moon of the sixth month of the Egyptian year over two Utchat amulets, image, one made of lapis-lazuli and one made of jasper, which were to be placed on the body of the deceased. At the same time four altars were to be dedicated to RĀ-Tem, and four to the full moon, and four to the gods whose names are mentioned in the Chapter, and each altar was to be supplied with offerings, according to the list given in the Rubric.

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CHAPTERS CXLI. AND CXLIL.

These Chapters originally formed one composition, which contained the names of all the gods of heaven, earth, and the Other World, to whom on the ninth day of the festival it was meet and right that the deceased should make offerings on behalf of his father or his son. These names were followed by a list of the forms of Osiris, to which also offerings were to be made. In the Saïte Recension the list of the forms of Osiris comes first, and is fuller than that given in the Theban Recension.

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CHAPTER CXLIII.

This Chapter consists of a series of five Vignettes only.

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CHAPTER CXLIV.

This Chapter was to be recited during the performance of a number of ceremonies which are described in the long Rubric. The first portion of it, which is arranged in tabular form, contains a representation of the SEVEN A¯RITS, i.e., Halls, which formed the abode of Osiris in the Other World. Before each A¯rit stood three beings: one of these guarded the door, another kept a look-out to see when any one was approaching, and the third acted as herald, and announced the name of the comer to the god. No one could gain admission into the A¯rits unless he was able to recite the names of the doorkeepers, watchmen, and heralds. The second portion of the Chapter contains a long address to the A¯rits and their keepers, which the deceased was supposed to recite. The Rubrïc ordered that figures of the gods of the A¯rits were to be painted with their A¯rits, and that a figure of the deceased was to be made to approach each A¯rit in turn. At each A¯rit the Chapter was to be recited, and certain offerings made, among them being four vessels of blood.

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CHAPTER CXLV.

In the preceding Chapter we have seen that the Hall-gates of the Kingdom of Osiris were seven in number, but in this Chapter the Pylons of the Sekhet-Åaru, or Elysian Fields, which also formed a part of the domain of Osiris, were twenty-one in number. Each Pylon was under the care of two gods, whose names had to be proclaimed by the deceased before he was permitted to pass through it. As he came to each Pylon he uttered the names of the gods and told them what acts of purification he had performed. This done he was allowed to proceed. The speech recited before the XXIst Pylon is the longest of all, and in it the deceased enumerates the shrines which he has visited, and the pious acts which he has performed.

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CHAPTER CXLVI.

This Chapter is a version of Chapter CXLV.

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CHAPTER CXLVII.

This Chapter is a version of Chapter CXLIV.

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CHAPTER CXLVIII.

The recital of this Chapter by the deceased enabled him to supply himself with animal food, milk, cream, &c., and gave him the names of the seven divine cows and their bull, the figures of which are seen in the Vignette. In the text he addresses the god of the kine and their bull, and also the animals themselves. Following the prayer for offerings are pictures of the Rudders of the four quarters of heaven, and of the gods who preside over them, and these also are entreated to give food to the deceased. This Chapter is described in the Rubric as the “Book of Un-Nefer,” image, and it is ordered that it be recited by the deceased only when he is quite alone. If the instructions in the Rubric be faithfully carried out, RĀ himself will be the Rudder of the deceased and his protecting power.

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CHAPTER CXLIX.

This Chapter was originally the last of the Chapters of the Book of the Dead, for the words “Here endeth “[the book] in peace,” image, come at the end of it. It contains pictures of the Fourteen Åats, image, of Sekhet-Åaru, or the Elysian Fields, and a series of texts which gives the names of many of the gods who live in them, and descriptions of the Åats. In the Pyramid Texts frequent allusions to the Åats, or Domains, of Horus and SĀt are met with, but the Åats of Sekhet-Åaru were under the rule of Osiris. The Åats and their gods, according to two lists, were:—

 

ÅAT.

GOD.

I.

Åment

… … . .

II.

Sekhet-Åaru

RĀ-imageeru-khuti.

III.

Khu

… … . .

IV.

imageui-qaui-h·A¯A¯ui

… … . .

V.

Khu

… … . .

VI.

Åmmeh·et

Sekher-remu.

VII.

Åses

Rerek or Maft·et (?).

VIII.

Ha-h·etep

Qa-ha-h·etep.

IX.

Åksi

… … . .

X.

Nut-ent-qah·u

… … . .

XI.

Nut-Åmt-neter-khert

… … . .

XII.

Åstchet·et

… … . .

XIII.

UĀrt-ent-mu

… … . .

XIV.

Kher-A¯h·a

… … . .

 

ÅAT.

GOD.

I.

Sekhet-Åaru

RĀ-imageeru-Khuti.

II.

Åpt-ent-shet

Fa-A¯khu.

III.

imageu-qa-A¯at

… … . .

IV.

Åat of the Souls

… … . .

V.

Åmmeh·et

Sekher-remu.

VI.

Åsset

… … . .

VII.

Ha-sert

A¯kh-pet.

VIII.

Åpt-ent-Qah·u

… … . .

IX.

Åt·u

Sept·.

X.

Unt

imageetemet-baiu.

XI.

Åpt-ent-mu

Åa-sekhemu.

XII.

Kher-A¯h·a

imageāp (Nile).

XIII.

Åtru-en-nes-f-shet

… … . .

XIV.

Åksi

Maa-thet-f.

XV.

Åment-nefert

… … . .

         

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CHAPTER CL.

This Chapter contains a list of Fifteen Åats, with a picture of each; it is practically a summary of Chapter CXLIX. in a tabular form.

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CHAPTER CLI.A AND B.

The Vignette of this Chapter is of great interest, for in it are represented the form and decoration of the mummy chamber of a tomb, according to the views of those who were learned in matters concerning the Other World. This chamber was rectangular in shape, and in the centre of it the deceased is seen lying on a bier, with his feet to the south, and with the jars containing his viscera beneath it; by his feet stands Anubis, and Nephthys and Isis kneel at the head and foot of the bier respectively. In each corner is a figure of one of the sons of Horus; these figures may have been painted on the walls. Each wall had in it a cavity. In the cavities of the north and south walls were placed bowls of incense, which is here represented as burning, in the cavity of the east wall is a figure of Anubis, and in that of the west wall a imageet·. A shabti figure stands at the north-east and south-east corners, and a figure of the heart-soul in the north-west and south-west corners. The texts which accompany the gods, amulets, &c., are magical formulae intended to protect the mummy. The text of Chapter CLI.B contains a speech of the god Anubis, in which the beatified state of the deceased is described.

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CHAPTER CLII.

The recital of this Chapter secured for the deceased the possession of a house in this world which he could visit daily. The goddess Sesheta, the mistress of architectural knowledge, drew the plan, and its foundations were laid in Heliopolis, the city of RĀ. To this house beasts for slaughter were brought by the south wind, and grain by the north wind, and his barley came from the ends of the earth.

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CHAPTER CLIII.A AND B.

By the recital of this Chapter the deceased was enabled to avoid capture in the net of “the fowler “whose fingers are hidden,” whether the net were cast on land or in the waters. The net itself, and its ropes, and the instruments with which it was fastened to the ground and worked, had each a magical name, and by the knowledge of all these names the deceased not only avoided capture himself but was enabled to use the net and capture fowl and fish for his own needs. Nets are used for catching game to this day by many African tribes, and the Fân tie them on to trees in two long lines which converge to an acute angle, the bottom part of the net lying on the ground. Then a party of men and women accompanied by their trained dogs, which have bells hung round their necks, beat the surrounding bushes, and the frightened small game rush into the nets, and become entangled.1 The Bible contains several allusions to the net, both as a weapon of evil men and as a hunting instrument. Thus we read of the “wild bull in a net” (Isaiah li. 20), “they “have prepared a net for my steps” (Psalm lvii. 6) and see Psalms ix. 15, x. 9, xxv. 15, xxxi. 4, xxxv. 7; Proverbs xxix. 5; Micah vii. 2, &c. Anthony the Great also spoke of the net of the Enemy.2

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CHAPTER CLIV.

This is a remarkable Chapter, and is one of the most important in the Book of the Dead. It consists of an address to the god Osiris wherein the deceased prays to his “divine father” not to let his body decay or perish. He appeals to Osiris because, like Tem and Kheperå, he was one who never saw corruption, and entreats him to deliver him from decay even as he delivered his own body from the worms and corruption which seize upon the bodies of “every god, and every goddess, and “every animal, and every reptile, as soon as the breath “hath departed from them.” The recital of this Chapter enabled the deceased to identify himself with Kheperå, and at the end of the text he says, “My “members shall have an everlasting existence. I shall “neither decay, nor rot, nor putrefy, nor turn into “worms, nor see corruption. I shall have my being, I “shall live, I shall flourish, I shall wake up in peace.” A version of the text of this Chapter was written upon one of the linen sheets in which the mummy of Thothmes III. was wrapped.

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CHAPTER CLV.

The recital of this Chapter over a imageet·, image, of gold, which was placed on the neck of the deceased on the day of the funeral, gave him the power to rise up like Osiris with strength in his back, shoulders, and neck.

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CHAPTER CLVI.

The recital of this Chapter over a buckle of carnelian, which was placed on the neck of the deceased on the day of the funeral, gave him the protection of the blood of Isis, and the strength of the goddess and the knowledge of her words of power. It caused Horus to rejoice when he saw him, and one hand of the deceased would be towards heaven, and the other towards earth, regularly and continually.

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CHAPTER CLVII.

This Chapter is ordered by the Rubric to be cut upon a figure of a vulture made of gold, which was to be placed on the neck of the deceased on the day of the funeral. This figure and the formula cut on it secured for him the protection and motherly love which Isis lavished upon her son Horus, whom she brought forth in the papyrus swamps of the Delta. According to the legend, Horus who had been left by Isis sleeping in safety was, during her absence, stung to death by a scorpion. Isis, in the form of a vulture, flew about over the swamps, uttering cries as she went, until at length she found the body of her son. Her sister Nephthys cried out to Thoth, who was in the Boat of RĀ, and who stopped the solar boat, and came to earth and gave Isis the words of power which enabled her to restore Horus to life. By the recital of this Chapter the deceased identified himself with Horus who was raised up from the dead.

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CHAPTER CLVIII.

The words of this Chapter were cut upon a pectoral of gold, which was placed on the neck of the deceased on the day of the funeral, and they secured for him the protection of Isis, whom he calls “my father, my “brother, my mother.”

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CHAPTER CLIX.

The words of this Chapter were cut upon an amulet of felspar, made in the form of a papyrus column, which was placed on the neck of the deceased on the day of the funeral. They secured for him the protection of Isis and the strength of Horus.

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CHAPTER CLX.

By the recital of this Chapter the deceased obtained possession of the health and strength which were in the Eye of Horus, and of the Uatch amulet, image, which was bestowed upon the righteous by Thoth.

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CHAPTER CLXI.

By the recital of this Chapter the deceased was enabled to enter each of the four quarters of heaven at will, and to breathe the air in them. Osiris gave him the north wind, RĀ the south wind, Isis the west wind, and Nephthys the east wind. This Chapter was a “greāt “mystery,” and it was only to be recited in the presence of the father or son of the deceased.

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CHAPTER CLXII.

This Chapter was the last of a series which was not originally connected with the Book of the Dead. It was to be recited over a gold figure of a cow, which was to be placed on the neck of the deceased, and to be written on a strip of new papyrus which was to be placed under his head. The object of the Chapter was to keep heat in the body of the deceased until his resurrection, and it is said to have been composed by the Cow-goddess of heaven for the benefit of her son RĀ when he was surrounded by beings of fire. It contains the magic names of the Cow and of the Divine Body in Heliopolis, and is one of the few Chapters which mentions Åmen. Of the god PAR, or PAL, image (l. 1), nothing is known.

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CHAPTER CLXIII.

By the recital of this Chapter the deceased identified himself with the Divine Soul in Åthabu and with the Divine Soul in Saïs, and became the emanations of the eyes of Åmen, the divine Bull-Scarab, the Lord of the Utchats, and the very essence of the pupils of the eyes of the god. By the knowledge of this Chapter he prevented his body from decaying, by it he avoided the devourers of souls and the things which he hated on earth, and vanquished all the “worms” in the Other World. The Rubric is unusually interesting, and illustrates the magical ceremonies which were performed in connection with the Chapters of the Book of the Dead in the late period.

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CHAPTER CLXIV.

This Chapter contains an address to the goddess Sekhet-Bast-RĀ, which was to be recited over a three-headed figure of the goddess Mut and two figures of two-headed dwarfs, and it gives the name by which she was known among the dwellers in the Sûdân, viz., Tekaharesapusaremkakaremet, image. Her father’s name was imagearpuk·akasharushabaiu, image, and the names of the two dwarf-gods were Åtaruāmtcherqemturenuparsheta image, and Panemmå, image. If the instructions given in the Rubric were followed, the flesh and bones of the deceased became like those of one who had never been dead.

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CHAPTER CLXV.

This Chapter was to be recited over two figures, one of which represented the “god of the lifted arm,” and the other a man with a ram’s head above each shoulder. The god of the lifted arm was a form of Åmen, and he had the head, arms, hands, and legs of a man, the body of a beetle, and the tail of an animal; he is ithyphallic. The deceased addresses Åmen by various names, several of which appear to be of Sûdânî origin, and entreats the god to let him comprehend him; by the recital of this Chapter the deceased obtained water in the Other World, and shone like the stars of heaven. The attributes of the god Suk·at·i, image, are unknown.

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CHAPTER CLXVI.

By the recital of this Chapter the head of the deceased was lifted up in heaven by the gods and preserved for ever. He was enabled by it to avoid slaughter in the Other World, and his head was never carried away from him.

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CHAPTER CLXVII.

The recital of this Chapter gave to the deceased the strength which was in the Eye (Utchat) of Horus. Making a play on the words utchat, “eye,” and utcha, “strength,” he says, “I am sound, and it is sound.” The mention of Thoth bringing the Utchat is an allusion to the legend which states that on one occasion Set stole the Eye of Horus and carried it off, whereupon Horus became sick. Thoth went in pursuit of Set, and having found him he took away the Eye of Horus and carried it back to the god; in the struggle between Thoth and Set the latter received a wound in the thigh. On another occasion Set was wandering through the sky on the evening of the new moon, and finding the little crescent there he swallowed it, but Thoth made him vomit, and the moon was restored to the sky. According to another view Set bit a piece off the moon each night after the full moon, and thus the waning of the moon was accounted for.

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CHAPTER CLXVIII.

This section contains a series of prayers to the gods of the Eighth, Tenth, Eleventh, and Twelfth Circles of the Other World, who are entreated to grant to the deceased favours and benefits, in return for which offerings on his behalf are to be made to them. The prayers form a sort of Litany of the Gods.

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CHAPTER CLXIX.

In this Chapter we have a detailed statement of the various benefits which have been conferred on the deceased by the gods, and its recital secured for the deceased everlasting felicity in the Other World. In the text it is assumed that he has performed all ceremonial obligations, he has passed through the Hall of Judgment with credit to himself, none has obstructed his passage or kept him under restraint, he does as the gods do, he eats what they eat, drinks what they drink, lives with them, holds converse with them, rests happily in the haven of the Gap at Abydos, where he is sheltered from the whirlwind and the storm, and death cannot again approach him. The Great God ordered him to be brought to this place of felicity, and he dwells within RĀ.

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CHAPTER CLXX.

This Chapter is a continuation of Chapter CLXIX.; the recital of either was equally beneficial for the deceased. Among the favours which the gods bestowed upon him was the gift of books, written in hieroglyphics, which the god Thoth himself brought to him. Shesmu, the headsman of Osiris, also snared and killed the fowl of heaven, which he brought to him, and thus saved him the trouble of working the net for himself.

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CHAPTER CLXXI.

This Chapter contains a prayer to all the great gods and goddesses, and to all the divine beings who are in heaven and earth, that when the deceased arrayeth himself in the A¯bu apparel, image, he may at the same time be freed from every taint of evil, and may put on all the strength and purity which are the peculiar attributes of all the gods who are mentioned in the text, and may be a pure and undefiled soul for evermore. Among the names of the gods we find the name of Åmen, a fact which suggests that the Chapter is not older than the XVIIIth Dynasty.

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CHAPTER CLXXII.

This Chapter consists of an introductory paragraph, and Nine Houses or Stanzas, wherein the triumph, and beauty, and happiness of the deceased are described in picturesque and highly poetical language. He is wholly identified with every power of heaven, and every god and every goddess share their natures and attributes with him. As bearing upon the question of the efficacy of funerary offerings and sacrifices and ceremonies, it is important to note the words, “Hail, “thou who hast been raised up, thou art raised up by “means of the ceremonies which have been performed “for thee.”

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CHAPTER CLXXIII.

By the recital of this Chapter the deceased identified himself with Horus, the son of Osiris, who came from the A¯bt chamber to see RĀ in the form of Un-Nefer, i.e., Osiris, the Lord of the Holy Land. When Horus met his father Osiris each god embraced the other, and Horus enumerated in forty short statements the things which he had done on his father’s behalf. Each statement opens with the words “I have come,” and it will be remembered that in the famous inscription of Thothmes III., which contains a series of addresses to the king by Åmen-RĀ, Lord of Karnak, and which enumerates all the great things which the god had performed for him, each address opens with the words “I have come.” The recital of this Chapter by the deceased before Osiris caused the god to regard him as his son Horus.

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CHAPTER CLXXIV.

The text forming this Chapter was originally a section of the Heliopolitan Recension of the Book of the Dead which was in use under the Vth and VIth Dynasties; it is found in the Pyramid of Unās, ll. 379—399. The title is a later addition, and the Vignette merely illustrates the title. The “great door” alluded to in both is probably the door of the star-god Sept· (Sothis), image, at which the deceased was brought forth by the goddess Sekhet. The Heliopolitan or Memphite origin of the Chapter is proved by the fact that in the text the deceased identifies himself with Nefer-Tem, the son of Ptah· and Sekhet, the great gods of Memphis. The symbol of Nefer-Tem was the lily, or lotus, seshen image, and with this the deceased identifies himself.

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CHAPTER CLXXV.

This Chapter is of very great interest, but is full of difficulties. The text as it stands in the Papyrus of Ani shows that the deceased is supposed to have become dissatisfied with the actions of the divine children of Nut, who have brought wickedness and trouble into everything. In his difficulty he appeals to Thoth, the righteous scribe of Osiris. Next, the deceased is supposed to find himself in a region of unfathomable depth and darker than the darkest night, where there is neither air nor water. Allusions are made to Horus, and the throne of the Dweller in the Lake of Fire, the Boat of Millions of Years, &c., but it is impossible to fit these together in a connected fashion with the prayers of the deceased. Immortality is assured to the deceased, for in answer to his question, “How long have I to live?” he is told, “Thou shalt “live for millions of millions of years, a life of millions “of years.” In the longer but sadly mutilated version of the Chapter given in a papyrus at Leyden, M. Naville sees the remains of a Heracleopolitan legend of the Flood. The great god Tem informs the deceased that he is about to destroy all that he has made by a flood which he will bring on the earth. Everything will be destroyed except Osiris and himself, and he (Tem) will take the form of a very small serpent which no man shall know of and no god shall see. Osiris will then be left in possession of the earth, and in due time he shall transfer his rule and his throne to his successor Horus.

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CHAPTER CLXXVI.

By the recital of this Chapter the deceased became a “perfect soul” in the Other World, and he passed through the Mesqet Chamber and avoided the place where the slaughtering of the enemies of RĀ and Osiris was carried out. And he attained to such a state of perfection that he could never die again.

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CHAPTER CLXXVII.

By the recital of this Chapter the deceased’s soul was raised up, and his heart-soul was made to live in the Other World. This Chapter was originally a section of the text in the Heliopolitan Recension of the Book of the Dead, and its ancient form is found in the Pyramid of Unās, l. 361 ff. It mentions some of the gods of the older mythology, e.g., the four Uaipu cow-goddesses, image, and the blue-eyed Horus, image, and the red-eyed Horus, image.

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CHAPTER CLXXVIII.

By the recital of this Chapter the head of the deceased was established, he gained the sight of his eyes, the hearing of his ears, and protection for his face. The Chapter consists chiefly of extracts from the Heliopolitan Recension of the Book of the Dead; their original forms are found in the Pyramid of Unās, ll. 166 ff., 199, 200, and 399 ff.

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CHAPTER CLXXIX.

By the recital of this Chapter the deceased advanced from yesterday, and came forth by day, and obtained food in the Other World. His enemy was delivered into his hands, and the God of the Red Eye gave him the shadow and form of the living gods.

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CHAPTER CLXXX.

This Chapter is a hymn of praise to RĀ and Osiris, and when it had been sung to these gods by the deceased he became like unto the divine and holy Soul-god who is in the Other World. He was thus enabled to travel through heaven with long strides, to go where he pleased, and to perform all his transformations.

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CHAPTER CLXXXI.

This Chapter is also a hymn of praise to Osiris, Governor of Åmentet, and to his counterpart, RĀ.

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CHAPTER CLXXXII.

By the recital of this Chapter the deceased identified himself with Thoth; it contains eight paragraphs in which he describes all the things which he has done for Osiris as Thoth, and a hymn to Osiris, Prince and Governor of Åmentet.

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CHAPTER CLXXXIII.

This Chapter is a really fine Hymn to Osiris, in which the deceased, who identifies himself with Thoth, declares all the things which he has done to vivify the Still-Heart, i.e., Osiris. In the form in which it is here given it belongs to the reign of Seti I., B.C. 1370.

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CHAPTER CLXXXIV.

By the recital of this Chapter the deceased obtained the power of being near Osiris, and in the Vignette he is seen standing near the god. The text of this Chapter is much mutilated, and from the remains of it, which are found in one papyrus only, it is impossible to make a connected translation.

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CHAPTER CLXXXV.

This Chapter is a short hymn to Osiris.

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CHAPTER CLXXXVI.

This Chapter contains a short hymn to Hathor, the Lady of Åmentet, and a prayer to her by the deceased that he may join those who follow in her train, and may receive funerary offerings in Åmentet.

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CHAPTER CLXXXVII.

This Chapter contains a short prayer addressed by the deceased to the company of the gods of RĀ, and by its recital he was enabled to join that company, and to make his way among them.

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CHAPTER CLXXXVIII.

This is an interesting Chapter. The deceased is supposed to have entered into the Utchat, i.e., the Eye of Horus, and to have gained possession of his soul, and heart-soul, and shadow; but according to the title he longed for his heart-soul to have the power to build habitations for itself upon earth, and to come forth by day on earth among men.

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CHAPTER CLXXXIX.

This Chapter appears to be an amplification of Chapter LII., many passages in the texts of both being identical; it appears to represent an attempt on the part of a scribe to collect under one heading all the important formulae, the recital of which enabled the deceased to avoid eating filth and drinking urine in the Other World. In the first paragraph the deceased prays for an allowance of seven cakes [daily?], four cakes of Horus and three of Thoth; these he would eat under the Sycamore of Hathor, and would have his maternal and paternal ancestors to look after his estate and house. In the second paragraph he holds a conversation with the god Pen-imageeseb (?), image, concerning his supply of food, and he tells the Åukhemu beings, image, his wishes in respect of those who are to bring him his food, to watch over his estate, to plough his fields, and to reap his harvest. The last-named work shall be done by Suti, or Set, the god of evil.

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CHAPTER CXC.

This section, although it has a long title stating that the text, or “Book,” has the power of making perfect the soul of the deceased before RĀ, Tem, and Osiris, and of making it mighty before the gods, is practically only a Rubric, which may really belong to Chapter CLXXXIX. or Chapter CXLVIII. The recital of the Chapter to which it belonged gave the deceased the power to pass through the Other World in safety, it destroyed the “deafness of his face,” and made “a way “for his face with the god.” The formula was held to be most solemn and holy, and the Rubric orders it to be said by a man in the strict privacy of a cloth tent decorated with stars. It was also a “great mystery,” and none of the dwellers in the papyrus swamps of the Delta was to be allowed to look upon it.

From the above brief analysis of the Chapters which I have included in the Theban Recension of the Book of the Dead, the reader will see that there is in many of them much overlapping of subject-matter, and may think that the Egyptian revelled in texts full of repetitions both of words and ideas. It must, however, be remembered that the Chapters and formulae do not all belong to the same period, and that collectively they cover a period of some two thousand years. These formulae represent a number of different and, in some cases, diametrically opposite opinions, and the influences of many schools of thought are manifest in them. The oldest formulae were composed, no doubt, by the priests of Heliopolis, and in their original forms were very different from those in which we find them in the Theban Papyri. This is fully proved by Chapters CLXXIV., CLXXVII., and CLXXVIII., where it is clear that, owing to the want of an adequate number of determinatives, the scribes wholly misunderstood the meaning of certain passages, and that they altered and modified the texts of several passages to suit modern views, or to make them mean what they thought they ought to mean. And sometimes passages of a coarse nature were omitted, probably because they offended the susceptibilities of the men of a more refined time. Thus in the passage from the text of Unās (l. 166 ff.; see infra, p. 603) we have a reference to the love-making1 of the deceased which is entirely omitted from the later copy of it given in the Papyrus of Nebseni; and it seems as if the ideas expressed in it found no favour with the cultured mind of Nebseni, the great designer, draughtsman, and artist, who was attached to the Temple of Ptah· at Memphis. In a similar manner most of the coarse expressions and ideas which are found in the religious books of the old period have no counterparts in the Theban Recension of the Book of the Dead. Moreover, as the balance of power moved southwards after the fall of the VIth Dynasty, the beliefs of the Heracleopolitans were grafted on to those of Memphis and Heliopolis, and they found expression in many interpolated passages. The doctrines also of the priests of Abydos were duly incorporated, those of the priests of Heliopolis were made to harmonize with them, and still later the priests of Åmen-RĀ at Thebes succeeded in obtaining recognition of the power of their god in a few Chapters. Over and above all this the natural evolution and development of religious thought must be taken into account, and, if it did not overthrow the old religious literature entirely, it must certainly have influenced priests and others in making the selection of texts which were written on their funerary papyri. The Egyptian masses were intensely conservative, and they clung to precedent and tradition to a remarkable degree; the older the text the more they reverenced it, and though they were tolerant enough to accept new settings of old thoughts, or new versions of old legends, they did not allow themselves to give up the old, but kept both the old and the new. The Book of the Dead contains beliefs of all periods gathered together from every part of Egypt and the Sûdân, and its gods, though perhaps under different names, were well known throughout the country. The forms of the beliefs and the attributes of the gods changed from time to time, but the principal doctrine which the Book of the Dead, as a whole, was intended to teach, i.e., the belief in immortality, never changed. The fundamentals of the Egyptian religion were:—

I. Belief in the immortality of the soul, and the recognition of relatives and friends after death.

II. Belief in the resurrection of a spiritual body, in which the soul lived after death.

III. Belief in the continued existence of the heart-soul, the ka (the double), and the shadow.

IV. Belief in the transmutation of offerings, and the efficacy of funerary sacrifices and gifts.

V. Belief in the efficacy of words of power, including names, magical and religious formulae, &c.

VI. Belief in the Judgment, the good being rewarded with everlasting life and happiness, and the wicked with annihilation.

All the above appear to be indigenous African beliefs, which existed in the Predynastic Period, and are current under various forms at the present day among most of the tribes of the Sûdân who have any religious belief at all.

Early in the Dynastic Period the cult of Osiris was introduced, and this god, whose mutilated body, tradition asserted, was reconstituted, became the centre round which all the beliefs enumerated above grouped themselves. During the whole Dynastic Period the cult of Osiris was the dominant feature of the Egyptian religion, and the same funerary rites were performed, and the same religious formulae were recited at Memphis during the early centuries of the Christian Era as under the dynasties of the Ancient Empire, in precisely the same way and with precisely the same object. The worship of ancestral spirits in the Pre-dynastic Period gave way to the cult of the deified man Osiris who had risen from the dead, but the ancient beliefs about the dead and their future state remained unchanged. With these morality had nothing to do, for breaches of morals, private or public, were only regarded as offences against Moral Law, which could be atoned for by gifts and offerings.

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