Ancient History & Civilisation

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BOOKS OF THE DEAD OF THE GRAECO-ROMAN PERIOD.

THE BOOK OF BREATHINGS.
PART I.

[From the Papyrus of Kerāsher (Brit. Mus. No. 9995. sheet 2).]

I. HERE BEGINNETH THE BOOK OF BREATHINGS.

(1) “Hail, Osiris imageerāsher, the son of imageashenātit! “Thou art pure, and thy heart is pure. The fore-parts “of thee are pure, (2) thy hind-parts are cleansed, and “thy interior is made clean with beimage incense and “natron; no member of thine hath any defect whatsoever”. The Osiris imageerāsher, (3) the son of imageashen-” atit, hath been cleansed by means of the waters of “Sekhet-h·etep (i.e., Field of Peace) which is situated “to the north of Sekhet-Saneāem (i.e., Field of the “Grasshoppers). (4) The goddesses Uatchit and Nekh-” ebet make thee to be pure at the eighth hour of the “night and at the [eighth] hour of the day. Come, “then, O Osiris (5) imageerāsher, the son of imageashenātiimage, “and enter into the Hall of Maāti. Thou art pure “from all offence and from (6) defect of every kind; “” ‘Stone of Right and Truth’ is thy name.”

“Hail, [Osiris] imageerāsher, the son of imageashenātiimage! Thou “enterest the imageuat (i.e., underworld) (7) as one mighty “in purity. Thou art purified by the two Maāt goddesses” in the Great Hall. A libation hath been made “for thee in the Hall of Seb, and thy body hath been “made pure (8) in the Hall of Shu. Thou lookest “upon Rā when he setteth as Tem at eventide. Åmen “is nigh unto thee to give thee air, (9) and Ptah· likewise” to mould into form thy members, thou enterest “the horizon along with Rā. They receive thy soul in “the Neshem boat of Osiris, (10) they make thy soul “divine in the House of Seb, and they make thee to “be triumphant for ever and for ever.”

“[Hail] Osiris imageerāsher, the son of imageashenātiimage! (11) “Thy name is made to endure, thy material body is “stablished, and thy spiritual body is made to ger-” minate; thou art turned back neither in heaven nor “upon earth. Thy face shineth before (12) Rā, thy “soul liveth before Åmen, and thy material body is “renewed before Osiris. Thou breathest for ever and “for ever, thy soul maketh offerings unto thee (13) “of cakes, and ale, and beasts, and feathered fowl, “and cool water in the course of each day; thou “comest, and it is triumphant. The flesh is upon “thy bones, (14) and thy form is even as it was upon “earth. Thou takest drink into thy body, thou eatest “with thy mouth, and thou receivest bread along with “the souls (15) of the gods. The god Anubis pro-” tecteth thee, and he maketh himself thy protector;

“thou art not turned away from the gates of the imageuat “(i.e., underworld). Thoth, the most mighty (16) god, “the lord of Khemennu, cometh to thee, and he “writeth for thee the BOOK OF BREATHINGS with “his own fingers. [Then] doth thy soul breathe for “(17) ever and ever, and thy form is made anew with “life upon earth; (18) thou art made divine along with “the souls of the gods, thy heart is the heart of Rā, “and thy members (19) are the members of the great “god.”

“Hail, Osiris imageerāsher, the son of imageashenātiimage! “Åmen is nigh unto thee (20) to make thee to live “again. And the god Åp-uat (i.e., the Opener of the “ways) hath opened up for thee a prosperous path. “Thou seest with thine eyes, thou hearest with thine “ears, thou speakest with thy mouth, (21) and thou “walkest with thy legs. Thy soul hath been made “divine in the imageuat so that it may make every trans-” formation; at thy will thou breathest with delight “[the odours] of (22) the holy Persea tree of Ånnu “(i.e., Heliopolis). Thou wakest each day and seest “the rays of Rā. Åmen cometh to thee (23) having “the breath of life, and he causeth thee to draw thy “breath within thy funeral house. Thou appearest “upon the earth each day, and the BOOK OF BREATH-” INGS of Thoth (24) is a protection unto thee, for “thereby dost thou draw thy breath each day, and “thereby do thine eyes behold the beams of the divine “Disk. The goddess of Right and Truth maketh “speech on thy behalf before Osiris, (25) and her “writings are upon thy tongue. Horus, the avenger “of his father, protecteth thy body, he maketh thy soul “to be divine like those of all the gods.”

II. (1) “The god Rā vivifieth thy soul, and the soul “of Shu uniteth the passages of thy nostrils.”

“Hail, Osiris imageerāsher, (2) the son of imageashenātiimage! “Thy soul draweth its breath in the place which thou “lovest. Thou art even as Osiris. Osiris the Governor “of those in Åmentet is thy name. (3) The water-flood “of the Prince cometh unto thee from imageaimageimagebu (Elephantine”), and it filleth thy table of offerings with tchefau “food.”

“[Hail] Osiris imageerāsher, (4) the son of imageashenātiimage! “The gods of the South and of the North come unto “thee, and thou art led by them to the ends of the “countries of (5) millions of years. Thy soul liveth, “thou art in the following of Osiris, and thou drawest “thy breath in Re-stau; the strength which protecteth “thee (6) is hidden in the lord of Setet and [in] the “great god. Thy material body liveth in imageat·t·u [and “in] Nifurtet, and thy soul liveth in heaven (7) each “day.”

“[Hail] Osiris imageerāsher, the son of imageashenātiimage! the “goddess Sekhet hath gained the mastery over what “is baleful to thee, imageeru-āā-(8)åbu protecteth thee, “imageeru-seshet·-h·rå maketh thy heart, and imageeru-masti “protecteth thy body,” or as others say, (9) “thy “tongue. Thou art stablished with life, and strength, “and health, and thou art firmly seated upon thy “throne in Ta-tchesertet. Come, then, Osiris imageerāsher, “(10), the son of imageashenātiimage, thou risest in thy form, “thou art arrayed in thine ornaments, thou hast firm “hold upon life, thou passest thy days (11) in health, “thou journeyest hither and thither, and thou drawest “thy breath in every place whatsoever. Rā riseth “upon thine abode even as Osiris; thou drawest thy “breath, (12) and thou livest through his rays. Åmen-” Rā-imageeru-khuti vivifieth thy ka (i.e., double), and he “maketh thee to flourish by means of the BOOK OF “BREATHINGS. Thou (13) art in the following of “Osiris-Horus, the lord of the imageennu Boat; thou art “like the great god at the head of the gods. Thy face “liveth, O thou whose births are lovely; thy name “(14) blossometh each day. Thou goest into the most “mighty and divine Hall in imageat·t·u; thou seest him “that is head of those in Åmentet during the Uāa “festival. The odour of thee (15) is sweet like that of “the venerable ones [therein], and thy name is magni-” fied like those of the divine spiritual bodies.”

“Hail, Osiris, imageerāsher, the son of (16) imageashenātiimage! “Thy soul liveth through the BOOK OF BREATHINGS, “thou art united through the BOOK OF BREATHINGS, “(17) thou enterest into the imageuat and hast no enemy “therein. Thou art as a living soul in imageat·t·u and “thou hast thine heart, which hath not departed “from thee. Thou hast (18) thine eyes, and they “open daily.”

The gods who are in the train of Osiris speak unto Osiris imageerāsher, the son of imageashenātiimage, (19) saying:—

“Thou followest Rā and thou followest Osiris, and “thy soul doth live for ever and ever.”

The gods who dwell in the imageuat (20) of Osiris, the Governor of those in Åmentet, speak unto Osiris imageerāsher, the son of imageashenātiimage, saying:—

“The gates of the imageuat are opened unto him, (21) “let him show himself in Neter-khertet. Verily, his “soul shall live for ever, he shall build habitations for “himself in (22) Neter-khertet, the god thereof shall “show favour unto his ka, and he shall receive the “BOOK OF BREATHINGS, and verily he shall (23) draw “his breath.”

“May Osiris, the Governor of those in Åmentet, the “great god, the lord of Abydos, grant a royal oblation; “may he give offerings of cakes, (24) and ale, and oxen, “and wine, and åqet drink, and bread, and tchefau food, “and all beautiful things to the ka of Osiris imageerāsher, “(25) the son of imageashenātiimage. Thy soul doth live, and “thy material body doth germinate by the command of “Rā himself; thou shalt never perish and thou shalt “never suffer diminution, III. (1) [but shalt be] like “Rā for ever and for ever.”

“Hail, Usekh-nemtet, who comest forth from Ånnu, “the Osiris imageerāsher, the son of (2) imageashenātiimage, hath “not committed sin.”

“Hail, Ur-at, who comest forth from Kher-āh·a, the “Osiris imageerāsher, the son of imageashenātiimage, (3) hath not “done deeds of violence.”

“Hail, Fenti, (4) who comest forth from Khemennu, “the Osiris imageerāsher, the son of imageashenātiimage, (5) hath “not committed slaughter (?).”

“Hail, Åmam-maat, who comest forth from the two “Qerti, the Osiris imageerāsher (6), the son of imageashenātiimage, “hath not plundered the possessions of the dead.”

“Hail, Neāa-h·rå, (7) who comest forth from Re-stau, “the Osiris imageerāsher, the son of imageashenātiimage, (8) hath “not inflicted injury.”

“Hail, Rereti, who comest forth from heaven, the “Osiris (9) imageerāsher, the son of imageashenātiimage, hath not “committed sins of…. of the heart.”

“Hail, Maati-em-khet, (10) who comest forth from “Sekhem, the Osiris imageerāsher, the son of imageashenātiimage, “(11) hath not made revolt.”

“Hail, ye gods who are in the imageuat, hearken ye “unto the voice of Osiris imageerāsher, the (12) son of “imageashenātiimage, and let him come before you, for there “is neither any evil whatsoever, nor any sin whatso-” ever (13) with him, and no accuser can stand [before “him]. He liveth upon Maāt, he feedeth upon Maāt, “and he hath satisfied (14) the heart of the gods by “all that he hath done. He hath given food to the “hungry, and water to the thirsty, and clothes (15) to “the naked. He hath made offerings to the gods, and “to the Khus, and no (16) report whatsoever hath been “made against him before the gods. O come, let him “enter the imageuat and not be repulsed; (17) come, let “him follow Osiris with the gods of the Qerti. Let “him be a favoured being among the favoured ones, “(18) and let him be divine among the perfect ones. “Come, let him live; come, let his soul live. Let his “soul (19) be received in whatsoever place it pleaseth, “and let him receive the BOOK OF BREATHINGS. (20) “Come, let him draw breath with his soul in the imageuat, “and let him perform (21) whatsoever transformations “he will along with those who are in Åmentet. Come, “let his soul go into every place where it would be, and “let it live upon earth for ever, and for ever, and for “ever.”

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