Further Reading

Abbreviations used:

JARCE = Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt

JEA = Journal of Egyptian Archaeology

MDAI = Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Insituts, Abteilung Kairo

General Reading

Arnold, D., The Encyclopedia of Ancient Egyptian Architecture (London and Princeton, 2003).

Aufrère, S., and J-C. Golvin, L’Égypte Restituée (3 vols; Paris, 1991–97).

Badawy, A., Egyptian Architecture I–III (Giza & Berkeley, 1954–68).

Baines, J., and J. Malek, Cultural Atlas of Ancient Egypt (Oxford and New York, 2000).

Bietak, M., (ed.), Haus und Palast im Alten Ägypten. Internationales Symposium 8. bis 11. April 1992 in Kairo (Vienna, 1996).

Bietak, M., E. Czerny and I. Forstner-Müller (eds), Cities and Urbanism in Ancient Egypt: Papers from a Workshop in November 2006 at the Austrian Academy of Sciences (Vienna, 2010).

Fairman, H. W., ‘Town Planning in Pharaonic Egypt.’ Town Planning Review 20 (1949), 32–51.

Hassan, F., ‘Town and Village in Ancient Egypt: Ecology, Society and Urbanization’. in T. Shaw, P. Sinclair, B. Andah and A. Okpoko, The Archaeology of Africa: Food Metals and Towns (London and New York, 1993), 551–69.

Kees, H., Ancient Egypt: A Cultural Topography (London and Chicago, 1961).

Kemp, B. J., Ancient Egypt: Anatomy of a Civilisation (2nd edn; London and New York, 2006).

Lacovara, P., The New Kingdom Royal City (London and New York, 1997).

O’Connor, D., ‘Urbanism in Bronze Age Egypt and Northeast Africa’ in T. Shaw, P. Sinclair, B. Andah and A. Okpoko, The Archaeology of Africa: Food Metals and Towns (London and New York, 1993), 570–86.

Soulié, D., Villes et citadins au temps des pharaons (Paris, 2002).

Trigger, B., A. B. Lloyd, D. B. O’Connor and B. J. Kemp, Ancient Egypt: A Social History (Cambridge and New York, 1983).

Tomlinson, R. A., From Mycenae to Constantinople: The Evolution of the Ancient City (London and New York, 1992).

Uphill, E., Egyptian Towns and Cities (Princes Risborough, 1988).

Texts in Translation

Lichtheim, M., Ancient Egyptian Literature I: The Old and Middle Kingdoms (Berkeley, 1975; London 1976).

Lichtheim, M., Ancient Egyptian Literature II: The New Kingdom (Berkeley and London, 1976).

Lichtheim, M., Ancient Egyptian Literature III: The Late Period (Berkeley and London, 1980).

McDowell, A. G., Laundry Lists and Love Songs: Village Life in Ancient Egypt (Oxford and New York, 1999).

Wente, E., Letters from Ancient Egypt (Atlanta, 1990).

Part I – The Rise of the City

Origins of Urbanism

Adams, B., Ancient Hierakonpolis (Warminster, 1974).

Adams, B., Ancient Nekhen: Garstang in the City of Hierakonpolis (New Malden, 1987).

Hoffman, M. A., Egypt before the Pharaohs (New York and London, 1979).

Hoffman, M. A., ‘A Rectangular Amratian House from Hierakonpolis and Its Significance for Predynastic Research.’ Journal of Near Eastern Studies 39 (1980), 119–37.

Hoffman, M. A., ‘A Model of Early Development for the Hierakonpolis Region from Predynastic though Old Kingdom Times.’ JARCE 23 (1986), 175–87.

Kemp, B. J., ‘The Early Development of Towns in Egypt.’ Antiquity 51 (1977) 185–200.

Wengrow, D., The Archaeology of Early Egypt: Social Transformations in North-East Africa, 10,000 to 2650 BC (Cambridge and New York, 2006).

Wilkinson, T., Early Dynastic Egypt (London and New York, 1999).

Location of Cities

Bietak, M., ‘Urban Archaeology and the “Town Problem” in Ancient Egypt’ in K. Weeks (ed.), Egyptology and the Social Sciences (Cairo, 1979), 97–144.

Graham, A., ‘Islands in the Nile: A Geoarchaeological Approach to Settlement Location in the Egyptian Nile Valley and the Case of Karnak’ in M. Bietak, E. Czerny and I. Forstner-Müller (eds), Cities and Urbanism in Ancient Egypt: Papers from a Workshop in November 2006 at the Austrian Academy of Sciences (Vienna, 2010), 125–43.

Hauser, P. M., and L. F. Schnore (eds), The Study of Urbanization (New York and London, 1965).

Joffe, A. H., ‘Disembedded Capitals in Western Asian Perspective.’ Comparative Studies in Society and History 40 (1998), 549–80.

Kemp, B. J., ‘The City of el-Amarna as a Source for the Study of Urban Society in Ancient Egypt.’ World Archaeology 9 (1977), 123–39.

Lichtheim, M., ‘The Praise of Cities in the Literature of the Egyptian New Kingdom’ in S. M. Burstein and L. A. Okin (eds), Panhellenica: Essays in Ancient History and Historiography in Honor of Truesdall S. Brown (Lawrence, 1980), 15–23.

O’Connor, D. B., ‘Political Systems and Archaeological Data in Egypt: 2600–1780 BC.’ World Archaeology 6 (1974), 15–38.

Shaw, I., ‘Egyptian Patterns of Urbanism: A Comparison of Three New Kingdom Settlement Sites’ in C. J. Eyre (ed.), Proceedings of the 7th International Congress of Egyptologists (Leuven, 1998), 1049–60.

Smith, H. S., ‘Society and Settlement in ancient Egypt’ in P. J. Ucko, R. Tringham and G. W. Dimbleby (eds), Man, Settlement and Urbanism (London and Cambridge, MA, 1972), 705–19.

Tisdale, H., ‘The Process of Urbanization.’ Social Forces 20/3 (1942), 311–16.

Trigger, B., ‘Determinants of Urban Growth in Pre-industrial Societies’ in P. J. Ucko, R. Tringham and G. W. Dimbleby (eds), Man, Settlement and Urbanism (London and Cambridge, MA, 1972), 575–99.

Wilson, J. A., ‘Egypt through the New Kingdom: Civilization without Cities’ in C. H. Kraeling and R. M. McAdams (eds), City Invincible: Urbanism and Cultural Development in the ancient Near East (Chicago, 1960), 124–36.

Building the City

Arnold, D., Building in Egypt: Pharaonic Stone Masonry (New York and Oxford, 1991).

Arnold, D., The Encyclopaedia of Ancient Egyptian Architecture (London and Princeton, 2003).

Fathy, H., Gourna, a Tale of Two Villages (Cairo, Chicago and London, 1969).

Fathy, H., Architecture for the Poor (Chicago and London, 1973).

Kemp, B. J., ‘Soil (including mud-brick architecture’ in P. T. Nicholson and I. Shaw, Ancient Egyptian Materials and Technology (Cambridge and New York, 2000), 78–103.

Kitchen, K. A., ‘Building the Ramesseum.’ Cahiers de Recherches de l’Institut de Papyrologie et Egyptologie de l’Université de Lille 13 (1990), 85–93.

Klemm, R., and D. D. Klemm, Stones and Quarries in Ancient Egypt (London, 2008).

Simpson, W. K., Papyrus Reisner I: The Records of a Building Project in the Reign of Sesostris I (Boston, 1963).

Spencer, A. J., Brick Architecture in Ancient Egypt (Warminster, 1979).

Egyptian Words for Towns and Cities

Brugsch, H., Dictionnaire Géographique de l’ancienne Égypte (Leipzig, 1879).

Erman, A., and H. Grapow, Wörterbuch der ägyptischen Sprache I–V (Leipzig, 1926–31).

Gauthier, H., Dictionnaire des noms géographiques contenus dans les Texts Hieroglyphiques (7 vols; Cairo 1925–31).

Gardiner, A. H., Ancient Egyptian Onomastica I–II (Oxford, 1947).

Goelet, O., ‘“Town” and “Country” in Ancient Egypt’ in M. Hudson and A. B. Levine (eds), Urbanization and Land Ownership in the Ancient Near East 2 (Cambridge, Mass., 1999), 65–114.

Montet, P., Géographique de l’Égypte Ancienne (2 vols; Paris, 1957–61).

Redford, D. B., ‘The Ancient Egyptian “City”: Figment or Reality?’ in W. E. Aufrecht, N. A. Mirau and S. W. Gauley (eds), Aspects of Urbanism in Antiquity: From Mesopotamia to Crete (Sheffield, 1997), 210–20.

Zibelius, K., Ägyptische Siedlungen nach Texten des Alten Reiches (Wiesbaden, 1978).

Estimating Population

Butzer, K. W., Early Hydraulic Civilization in Egypt: A Study in Cultural Ecology (Chicago and London, 1976).

Kemp, B. J., ‘Temple and Town in Ancient Egypt’ in P. J. Ucko, R. Tringham and G. W. Dimbleby (eds), Man, Settlement and Urbanism (London and Cambridge, MA, 1972), 657–80.

Kemp, B. J., ‘Middle Kingdom Granary Buildings.’ MDAI 113 (1986), 120–36.

Miller, R. L., ‘Counting Calories in Egyptian Ration Texts.’ Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 34/4 (1991), 257–69.

Peet, T. E., The Great Tomb-robberies of the Twentieth Egyptian Dynasty (Oxford, 1930; Mansfield, CT, 2005).

Valbelle, D., ‘Eléments sur la démographie et le paysage urbains d’après les papyrus documentaires d’époque pharaonique.’ Cahiers de Recherches de l’Institut de Papyrologie et Egyptologie de l’Université de Lille 7 (1985), 75–87.

Part II – Cities for Kings and Gods

Palaces

Gundlach, R., and J. Taylor (eds), Egyptian Royal Residences: Structure and Function (Wiesbaden, 2009).

Kemp, B. J., ‘The Window of Appearance at el-Amarna and the Structure of the City.’ JEA 62 (1976), 81–99.

Kemp, B. J., ‘The Harim-Palace at Medinet el-Ghurab.’ Zeitschrift für Ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde 105 (1978), 122–33.

Lacovara, P., ‘Gurob and the New Kingdom “Harim” Palace’ in J. Phillips (ed.), Ancient Egypt, the Aegean and the Near East: Studies in Honour of Martha Rhoads Bell (San Antonio, 1997), 297–306.

O’Connor, D., ‘Mirror of the Cosmos: The Palace of Merenptah’ in R. E. Freed and E. Bleiberg (eds), Fragments of a Shattered Visage: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Ramesses the Great (Memphis, 1973), 167–98.

O’Connor, D., ‘City and Palace in New Kingdom Egypt.’ Cahiers de Recherches de l’Institut de Papyrologie et Egyptologie de l’Université de Lille 11 (1989), 73–87.

O’Connor, D.,‘The King’s Palace at Malkata and the Purpose of the Royal Harem’ in Z. Hawass and J. Houser Wegner, Millions of Jubilees: Studies in Honor of David P. Silverman (Cairo, 2010), 55–82.

Reiser, E., Der königliche Harim im alten Ägypten und seine Verwaltung (Vienna, 1972).

Shaw, I., ‘Seeking the Ramesside Royal Harem: New Fieldwork at Medinet el-Gurob’ in M. Collier and S. Snape (eds), Ramesside Studies in Honour of K. A. Kitchen (Bolton, 2011), 453–63.

Stadelmann, R., ‘Temple Palace and Residential Palace’ in M. Bietak (ed.), Haus und Palast im Alten Ägypten. Internationales Symposium 8. bis 11. April 1992 in Kairo (Vienna, 1996), 225–30.

Fortified Cities

Dunham, D., Second Cataract Forts II: Uronarti, Shalfak, Mirgissa (Boston, 1967).

Dunham, D. and J. M. A. Janssen, Second Cataract Forts I: Semna-Kumma (Boston, 1960).

Emery, W. B., H. S. Smith and A. Millard, The Fortress of Buhen: The Archaeological Report (London, 1979).

Kemp, B. J., et al., ‘Egypt’s Invisible Walls.’ Cambridge Archaeological Journal 14: 2 (2004), 271–76.

Morris, E. F., The Architecture of Imperialism: Military Bases and the Evolution of Foreign Policy in Egypt’s New Kingdom (Leiden, 2005).

Vogel, C., The Fortifications of Ancient Egypt: 3000–1780 BC (Oxford and Long Island City, 2010).

Temple and City

Lacau, P., and H. Chevrier, Une chapelle de Sésostris Ier à Karnak (2 vols; Cairo, 1956–69).

Routledge, C., ‘Temple as the Center in Ancient Egyptian Urbanism’ in W. E. Aufrecht, N. A. Mirau and S. W. Gauley (eds), Aspects of Urbanism in Antiquity: From Mesopotamia to Crete (Sheffield, 1997), 221–35.

Part III – Cities for People

City Government

Helck, W., Die altägyptischen Gaue (Wiesbaden, 1974).

The Middle Kingdom

David, A. R., The Pyramid Builders of Ancient Egypt: A Modern Investigation of Pharaoh’s Workforce (London and Boston, 1986).

O’Connor, D., ‘The Elite Houses of Kahun’ in J. Phillips (ed.), Ancient Egypt, the Aegean and the Near East: Studies in Honour of Martha Rhoads Bell (San Antonio, 1997), 389–400.

Petrie, W. M. F., Kahun, Gurob and Hawara (London, 1890).

Petrie, W. M. F., Illahun, Kahun and Gurob 1889–90 (London, 1891).

Wegner, J., ‘Excavations at the Town of Enduring-are-the-places-of-Khakaure-maa-kheru-in-Abydos: A Preliminary report on the 1994 and 1997 Seasons.’ JARCE 35 (1998), 1–44.

Wegner, J., ‘The Town of Wah-Sut at South Abydos: 1999 Excavations.’ MDAI 57 (2001), 281–308.

Winlock, H., Models of Daily Life in Ancient Egypt (Cambridge, MA, 1955).

The New Kingdom

Bierbrier, M., Tomb-builders of the Pharaohs (London and New York, 1982).

Bomann, A. H., The Private Chapel in Ancient Egypt (London and New York, 1991).

Borchardt, L., and H. Ricke, Die Wohnhäuser in Tell El-Amarna (Berlin, 1980).

Bruyère, B., Rapports sur les fouilles de Deir el-Médineh (Cairo, 1924–53).

Černý, J., A Community of Workmen of the Ramesside Period (Paris, 2001).

Davies, N. de G., ‘The Town House in Ancient Egypt.’ Metropolitan Museum Studies 1/2 (1929), 233–55.

Kemp, B. J., ‘Amarna Workmen’s Village in Retrospect.’ JEA 73 (1987), 21–50.

Lesko, L. H., (ed.), Pharaoh’s Workers: The Villagers of Deir el-Medina (Ithaca and London, 1994).

Ricke, H., Der Grundriss des Amarna-Wohnhauses (Leipzig, 1932).

Roik, E., Das altägyptische Wohnhaus (Frankfurt, 1988).

Samuel, D., ‘Bread Making and Social Interactions at the Amarna Workmen’s Village, Egypt.’ World Archaeology 31 (1999), 121–44.

Spence, K., ‘The Three-dimensional Form of the Amarna House.’ JEA 90 (2004), 123–52.

Spence, K., ‘Settlement Structure and Social Interaction at el-Amarna’ in M. Bietak, E. Czerny and I. Forstner-Müller (eds), Cities and Urbanism in Ancient Egypt: Papers from a Workshop in November 2006 at the Austrian Academy of Sciences (Vienna, 2010), 289–98.

Traunecker, C., ‘Les Maisons du domaine d’Aton à Karnak.’ CRIPEL 10 (1988), 73–93.

Valbelle, D., Les ouvriers de la tombe: Deir el-Médineh à l’époque ramesside (Cairo, 1985).

Feeding and Supplying the City

van den Boorn, G. P. F., The Duties of the Vizier (London and New York, 1988).

Bowman, A. K., and E. Rogan (eds), Agriculture in Egypt. From Pharaonic to Modern Times (Oxford, 1999).

Eyre, C. J., ‘The Market Women of Pharaonic Egypt’ in N. Grimal and B. Menu, Le Commerce en Égypte ancienne (Cairo, 1998), 173–91.

Gardiner, A. H., and R. O. Faulkner, The Wilbour Papyrus I–IV (Brooklyn and London, 1941–52).

Hodkinson, A. K., ‘Mass-Production in New Kingdom Egypt’ in J. Corbelli, D. Boatright and C. Malleson (eds), Current Research in Egyptology IX (Oxford, 2011), 81–98.

Ikram, S., Choice Cuts: Meat Production in Ancient Egypt (Leuven, 1995).

Janssen, J. J., Commodity Prices from the Ramessid Period (Leiden, 1975).

Janssen, J. J., Grain Transport in the Ramesside Period: Papyrus Baldwin (BM EA 10061) and Papyrus Amiens (London, 2004).

Kemp, B. J., ‘Large Middle Kingdom Granary Buildings (and the Archaeology of Administration).’ Zeitschrift für Ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde 113 (1986), 120–36.

Miller, R. L., ‘Calorie Counting in Egyptian Ration Texts.’ Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 34 (1991), 257–69.

O’Connor, D., ‘The Geography of Settlement in Ancient Egypt’ in P. J. Ucko, R. Tringham and G. W. Dimbleby (eds), Man, Settlement and Urbanism (London and Cambridge, MA, 1972), 681–98.

Working Life

Davies, N. de G., The Tomb of Rekh-mi-re at Thebes (New York, 1935).

Eyre, C. J., ‘Work and the Organisation of Work in the Old Kingdom’. In Powell, M. A. (ed.) Labor in the Ancient Near East (New Haven, 1987), 5–47.

Eyre, C. J., ‘Work and the Organisation of Work in the New Kingdom’ in M. A. Powell (ed.), Labor in the Ancient Near East (New Haven, 1987), 167–221.

Water and Sanitation

Dixon, D. M., ‘The Disposal of Certain Personal, Household and Town Waste in Ancient Egypt’ in P. J. Ucko, R. Tringham and G. W. Dimbleby (eds), Man, Settlement and Urbanism (London and Cambridge, MA, 1972), 647–50.

Franzmeier, H., ‘nm.t, šd.t, ẖw.t, and b‘r: Ancient Egyptian Emic Terms for Wells and Cisterns’ in V. Gashe and J. Finch (eds), Current Research in Egyptology 2008 (Bolton, 2008), 31–42.

Janssen, J. J., ‘The Water Supply of a Desert Village.’ Medelhavsmuseet Bulletin 14 (1979), 9–15.

Morris, J. P., Wells and Water Supply in New Kingdom Egypt (Ph.D thesis, Liverpool University, 2006).

Schools

Baines, J. and C. J. Eyre, ‘Four Notes on Literacy.’ Göttinger Miszellen 61 (1983), 65–96.

Kahl, J., ‘Ein Zeugnis altägyptischer Schulausflüge.’ Göttinger Miszellen 211 (2006), 25–29.

Crime

Eyre, C. J., ‘Crime and Adultery in Ancient Egypt.’ JEA 70 (1984), 92–105.

McDowell, A. G., Jurisdiction in the Workmen’s Community of Deir el-Medineh (Leiden, 1990).

Tyldesley, J. A., Judgment of the Pharaoh: Crime and Punishment in Ancient Egypt (London, 2000).

Death

Dodson, A, and S. Ikram, The Tomb in Ancient Egypt (London and New York, 2008).

Grajetzki, W., Burial Customs in Ancient Egypt: Life in Death for Rich and Poor (London, 2003).

Snape, S., Ancient Egyptian Tombs: The Culture of Life and Death (Chichester, 2011).

Part IV – Towns and Cities of Graeco-Roman Egypt

Alston, R., The City in Roman and Byzantine Egypt (London, 2002).

Bagnall, R. S., and D. W. Frier, The Demography of Roman Egypt (Cambridge and New York, 1994).

Bailey, D. M., Excavations at Ashmunein IV. Hermopolis Magna: Buildings of the Roman Period (London, 1991).

Ball, J., Egypt in the Classical Geographers (Cairo, 1942).

Bingen, J., Hellenistic Egypt: Monarchy, Society, Economy, Culture (Edinburgh and Berkeley, 2007).

Bowman, A., Egypt after the Pharaohs (Oxford and Berkeley, 1990).

Crawford, D., Kerkeosiris: An Egyptian Village in the Ptolemaic Period (Cambridge, 1971).

Donadoni, S., Antinoe (1965–68) (Rome, 1974).

Fraser, P. M., Ptolemaic Alexandria (Oxford, 1972).

Gazda, E. K., (ed.), Karanis: An Egyptian Town in Roman Times (Ann Arbor, 1983).

Goddio, F., The Topography and Excavation of Heracleion-Thomis and East Canopus (1996-2006) (Oxford, 2007).

Husselman, E. M., Karanis Excavations of the University of Michigan in Egypt 1928-1935: Topography and Architecture (Ann Arbor, 1979).

Mckenzie, J., The Architecture of Alexandria and Egypt: 300 BC–AD 700 (London and New Haven, 2011).

Müller, W., ‘Urbanism in Graeco-Roman Egypt’ in M. Bietak, E. Czerny and I. Forstner-Müller (eds), Cities and Urbanism in Ancient Egypt: Papers from a Workshop in November 2006 at the Austrian Academy of Sciences (Vienna, 2010), 217–56.

Tacoma, L. E., Fragile Hierarchies: The Urban Elites of Third Century Roman Egypt (Leiden, 2006).

Part V – Gazetteer

Porter, B., and R. Moss, Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs and Paintings (vols I–VII; 1934–81).

Elephantine to Thebes

von Pilgrim, C., ‘Elephantine – (Festungs)Stadt am Ersten Katarakt’ in M. Bietak, E. Czerny and I. Forstner-Müller (eds), Cities and Urbanism in Ancient Egypt: Papers from a Workshop in November 2006 at the Austrian Academy of Sciences (Vienna, 2010), 257–70.

von Pilgrim, C., Untersuchungen in der Stadt des Mittleren Reiches und der Zweiten Zwischenzeit: Elephantine XVIII (Mainz, 1991).

Seidlmayer, S. J., ‘Town and State in the Early Old Kingdom: A View from Elephantine’ in A. J. Spencer (ed.), Aspects of Early Egypt (London, 1996), 108–27.

Michalowski, K., Tell Edfu 1937 (Cairo, 1937).

Moeller, N., ‘The Archaeological Evidence for Town Administration: New Evidence from Tell Edfu’ in A. Dodson and S. Ikram (eds), Beyond the Horizon: Studies in Egyptian Art, Archaeology and History in Honour of Barry Kemp (Cairo, 2010), 263–74.

Anus, P., and R. Sa’ad, ‘Habitations de prêtres dans le temple d’Amon de Karnak.’ Kêmi 2 (1971), 217–38.

Kemp, B. J., and D. O’Connor, ‘An Ancient Nile Harbor: University Museum Excavations at the “Birket Habu”.’ International Journal of Nautical Archaeology and Underwater Exploration 3 (1974), 101–36.

Nims, C. F., Thebes of the Pharaohs: A Pattern for Every City (New York and London, 1965).

O’Connor, D., ‘The City and the World: Worldview and Built Forms in the Reign of Amenhotep III’ in D. O’Connor and E. H. Cline (eds), Amenhotep III: Perspectives on his Reign (Ann Arbor, 1998), 125–72.

Vandorpe, K., ‘City of Many a Gate, Harbor for Many a Rebel: Historical and Topographical Outlione of Graeco-Roman Thebes’ in S. P. Vleeming (ed), Hundred-Gated Thebes (Leiden, 1995), 203–39.

Ventura, R., Living in the City of the Dead: A Selection of Topographical and Administrative Terms in the Documents of the Theban Necropolis (Freiburg, 1986).

Coptos to Amarna

Petrie, W. M. F., Koptos (London, 1896).

Adams, M. D., ‘The Abydos Settlement Site Project: Investigation of a Major Provincial Town in the Old Kingdom and First Intermediate Period’ in C. J. Eyre (ed.), Proceedings of the 7th International Congress of Egyptologists (Leuven, 1998), 19–30.

O’Connor, D., Abydos: Egypt’s First Pharaohs and the Cult of Osiris (London and New York, 2009).

el-Masry, Y. S., ‘Seven Seasons of Excavation at Akhmim’ in C. J. Eyre (ed.), Proceedings of the 7th International Congress of Egyptologists (Leuven, 1998), 759–65.

Kahl, J., Ancient Asyut: The First Synthesis after 300 Years of Research (Wiesbaden, 2007).

Davies, N. de G., The Rock Tombs of Amarna I–VI (London and Boston, 1903–8).

Frankfort, H. and J. D. S. Pendlebury, The City of Akhenaten II: The North Suburb and the Desert Altars (London, 1933).

Kemp, B. J., ‘The Character of the South Suburb at Tell el-’Amarna.’ Mitteilungen der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft zu Berlin 113 (1981), 81–97.

Kemp, B. J., The City of Akhenaten and Nefertiti (London and New York, 2012).

Kemp, B. J., et al., Amarna Reports I–VI (London, 1984–95).

Kemp. B. J., and S. Garfi, A Survey of the Ancient City of El-’Amarna (London, 1993).

Kemp, B. J., and A. Stevens, Busy Lives at Amarna: Excavations in the Main City (Grid 12 and the House of Ranefer, N.49.18) (London, 2010).

Murnane, W. J., and C. C. van Siclen, The Boundary Stelae of Akhenaten (London and New York, 1993).

Peet, T. E., and C. L. Woolley, The City of Akhenaten I: Excavations of 1921 and 1922 at El-’Amarneh (London, 1923).

Pendlebury, J. D. S., et al., The City of Akhenaten III: The Central City and the Official Quarters (London, 1951).

Spence, K., ‘The Palaces of el-Amarna: An Architectural Analysis’ in R. Gundlach and J. Taylor (eds), Egyptian Royal Residences: Structure and Function (Wiesbaden, 2009), 165–87.

Tietze, C., ‘Amarna: Analyse der Wohnhäuser und soziale Struktur der Stadtbewohner.’ Zeitschrift für Ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde 112 (1985), 48–84.

Hermopolis Magna to the Faiyum

Roeder, G., Hermopolis 1929–39. Ausgrabungen der Deutschen Hermopolis-Expedition in Hermopolis, Öber-Ägypten (Hildesheim, 1959).

Spencer, A. J., Excavations at El-Ashmunein I: The Topography of the Site (London, 1983).

Spencer, A. J., Excavations at El-Ashmunein III: The Town (London, 1993).

Lopez-Grande, M., Quesada Sanz, F. and Molinaro Polo, M. A., Excavaciones en Ehnasya el-Medina (Hercleopolis Magna) II (Madrid, 1995).

Naville, E., Ahnas el-Medina (Heracleopolis Magna) (London, 1894).

Petrie, W. M. F., Ehnasya (London 1904).

Brunton, G. and Engelbach, R., Gurob (London, 1927).

Thomas, A. P., Gurob: A New Kingdom Town (Warminster, 1981).

Memphis and the Memphite Region

Anthes, R., et al., Mit Rahineh 1955 (Philadelphia, 1959).

Anthes, R., et al., Mit Rahineh 1956 (Philadelphia, 1965).

Badawi, A., Memphis als zeite Landeshauptstadt im Neuen Reich (Cairo, 1948).

Giddy, L., Kom Rabi’a: The New Kingdom and Post-New Kingdom Objects (London, 1999).

Jeffreys, D. G., The Survey of Memphis I – The Archaeological Report (London, 1985).

Jeffreys, D. G., The Survey of Memphis V – Kom Rabi’a: The New Kingdom Settlement (Levels II-V) (London, 2006).

Jeffreys, D. G., and A. Tavares, ‘The Historic landscape of Early Dynastic Memphis.’ MDAI 50 (1994), 143–73.

Kitchen, K. A., ‘Towards a Reconstruction of Ramesside Memphis’ in R. E. Freed and E. Bleiberg (eds), Fragments of a Shattered Visage: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Ramesses the Great (Memphis, 1973), 87–104.

Malek, J., ‘The Temples at Memphis’ in S. Quirke (ed.), The Temple in Ancient Egypt (London, 1997), 90–101.

Martin, G. T., ‘Memphis: The Status of a Residence City in the Eighteenth Dynasty’ in M. Barta and J. Krejci (eds), Abusir and Saqqara in the Year 2000 (Prague, 2000),  99–120.

Petrie, W. M. F., Memphis I (London, 1909).

Thompson, D. J., Memphis under the Ptolemies (Princeton, 1988).

Zivie, A. P., (ed), Memphis et ses necropoles au nouvel empire (Paris, 1988),

Arnold, F., ‘Die Priesterhauser der Chentkaues in Giza.’ MDAI 54 (1998), 1–18.

Lehner, M., and Wetterstrom, W. (eds) Giza Reports: The Giza Mapping Project 1 – Project History, Survey, Ceramics and the Main Street and Gallery III.4 Operations (Boston, 2007).

Lehner, M., and Tavares, A., ‘Walls, Ways and Stratigraphy: Signs of Social Control in and Urban Footprint at Giza’ in M. Bietak, E. Czerny and I. Forstner-Müller (eds), Cities and Urbanism in Ancient Egypt: Papers from a Workshop in November 2006 at the Austrian Academy of Sciences (Vienna, 2010), 171-216.

The Delta

van den Brink, E. C. M., (ed.), The Archaeology of the Nile Delta: Problems and Priorities (Amsterdam, 1988).

Leclère, F., Les villes de Basse Égypte au 1er millénaire av. J.-C. (2 vols; Cairo, 2008).

The Canopic Branch

Cagle, A., The Spatial Structure of Kom el-Hisn: An Old Kingdom Town in the Western Nile Delta (Oxford, 2003).

Kirby, C. J., ‘Preliminary Report on the Survey of Kom el-Hisn, 1996.’ JEA 84 (1998), 36–37.

Wenke, R., et al., ‘Kom el-Hisn.’ JARCE 25 (1988), 5–34.

Coulson, W. D. E., and A. Leonard, Cities of the Delta I: Naukratis (Malibu, 1981).

Villing, A., and U. Schlotzauer (eds), Naukratis: Greek Diversity in Egypt (London, 2006).

Spencer, N. A., Kom Firin I: The Ramesside Temple and the Site Survey (London, 2008).

Thomas, S. C. E., ‘Chariots, Cobras and Canaanites: A Ramesside Miscellany from Tell Abqa’in’ in M. Collier and S. Snape (eds), Ramesside Studies in Honour of K. A. Kitchen (Bolton, 2011), 519–31.

The Rosetta Branch

el-Sayed, R., Documents relatifs à Sais et ses divinités (Cairo, 1975).

Wilson, P., The Survey of Sais (Sa el-Hagar) 1997–2002 (London, 2006).

The Damietta Branch

Mysliwiec, K., and Z. Sztetyllo (eds), Tell Atrib 1985–95 (Warsaw, 2000).

Redford, D. B., City of the Ram-Man: The Story of Ancient Mendes (Princeton, 2010).

Swan Hall, E., and B. V. Bothmer (eds), Mendes I (Cairo, 1980).

Spencer, A. J., Excavations at Tell el-Balamun 1991–1994 (London, 1996).

Spencer, A. J., Excavations at Tell el-Balamun 1995–1998 (London, 1999).

Spencer, A. J., Excavations at Tell el-Balamun 1999–2001 (London, 2003).

Vernus, P., Athribis (Cairo, 1978).

The Pelusiac Branch

Quirke, S., The Cult of Ra: Sun-worship in Ancient Egypt (London and New York, 2001).

Saleh, A., Excavations at Heliopolis I–II (Cairo, 1981-83).

Naville, E., and F. Ll. Griffith, The Mound of the Jew and the City of Onias (London 1890).

Habachi, L., Tell Basta (Cairo, 1957).

Lange, E., ‘Die Ka-Anlage Pepis I. in Bubastis im Kontext königlicher Ka-Anlagen des Alten Reiches.’ Zeitschrift für Ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde 133 (2006), 121–40.

Naville, E., Bubastis (1887–1889) (London, 1891).

Petrie, W. M. F., Hyksos and Israelite Cities (London, 1906).

Snape, S., Six Archaeological Sites in Sharqiyeh Province (Liverpool, 1986).

Bietak, M., Tell el-Dab’a II. Der Fundort im Rahmen einer archäologisch-geographischen Untersuchung über das ägyptische Ost-delta (Vienna, 1975).

Bietak, M., and I. Forstner-Müller, ‘The Topography of New Kingdom Avaris and Per-Ramesses’ in M. Collier and S. Snape (eds), Ramesside Studies in Honour of K. A. Kitchen (Bolton, 2011), 23–50.

Habachi, L., Tell el-Dab’a and Qantir I: The Site and its Connection with Avaris and Piramesse (Vienna, 2001).

Pusch, E., H. Becker and J. Fassbinder, ‘Wohnen und Lebe. Oder: Weitere Schritte zu einen Stadtplan der Ramsesstadt.’ Ägypten und Levante 9 (1999), 155–70.

Uphill, E., The Temples of Per Ramesses (Warminster, 1984).

Montet, P., La Nécropole Royale de Tanis I–III (Paris, 1947–60).

Yoyotte, J., ‘Le Tell de San el-Hagar. Une montagne d’origine humaine.’ Bulletin de la Societé Française des Fouilles de Tanis 6 (1992), 103–21.

Petrie, W. M. F., ‘Nebeshe (Am) and Defenneh (Tahpanhes)’ in W. M. F. Petrie, Tanis II (London, 1888).

Fortress Towns of the Eastern Delta and Wadi Tumilat

Holladay, J. S., Cities of the Delta III: Tell el-Maskhuta (Malibu, 1982).

Northern Sinai

Abd el-Maksoud, M., Tell Hebuoa (1981–1991) (Paris, 1998).

Hoffmeier, J., ‘The Gate of the Ramesside Fort at Tell el-Borg, North Sinai’ in M. Collier and S. Snape (eds), Ramesside Studies in Honour of K. A. Kitchen (Bolton, 2011), 207–17.

Oren, E., ‘The “Ways of Horus” in North Sinai’ in A. F. Rainey (ed.), Egypt, Israel, Sinai: Archaeological and Historical Relationships in the Biblical Period (Tel Aviv, 1987), 69–119.

The Oases

Giddy, L.L., Egyptian Oases (Warminster, 1987).

Hope, C. A., and O. E. Kaper, ‘Egyptian Interest in the Oases in the New Kingdom and a New Stela for Seth from Mut el-Kharab’ in M. Collier and S. Snape (eds), Ramesside Studies in Honour of K. A. Kitchen (Bolton, 2011), 219–36.

Marchand, S., and G. Soukiassian, Balat 8: Un habitat de XIIIe dynastie – 2e periode intermédiaire à Ayn Asil (Cairo, 2010).

Soukiassian, G., M. Wuttmann and L. Pantalacci, Balat 6: Le palais des gouverneurs de l’époque de Pépy II: Les sanctuaires de ka et leurs dépendances (Cairo, 2002).

The Mediterranean Coast

Habachi, L., ‘The Military Posts of Ramesses II on the Coastal Road and the Western Part of the Delta.’ Bulletin de l’Institut Français d’Archéologie Orientale 80 (1980), 13–30.

Snape, S., and P. Wilson, Zawiyet Umm el-Rakham I: The Temple and Chapels (Bolton, 2007).

Snape, S., ‘Vor der Kaserne: External Supply and Self-Sufficiency at Zawiyet Umm el-Rakham’. In Müller, W., ‘Urbanism in Graeco-Roman Egypt’ in M. Bietak, E. Czerny and I. Forstner-Müller (eds), Cities and Urbanism in Ancient Egypt: Papers from a Workshop in November 2006 at the Austrian Academy of Sciences (Vienna, 2010), 271–88.

Nubia

Blackman, A. M., ‘Preliminary Report on the Excavations at Sesebi, Northern Province, Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, 1936–37’ JEA 23 (1937), 145–51.

Kemp, B. J., ‘Fortified Towns in Nubia’ in P. J. Ucko, R. Tringham and G. W. Dimbleby (eds), Man, Settlement and Urbanism (London and Cambridge, MA, 1972), 651–56.

Spence, K., et al., ‘Fieldwork at Sesebi 2009.’ Sudan and Nubia (2009), 38–46.

Spencer, N., ‘Cemeteries and a late Ramesside Suburb at Amara West.’ Sudan and Nubia (2009), 47–61.

Spencer, P. A., Amara West 1: The Architectural Report (London, 1997).

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