Ancient History & Civilisation


I AND II: HISTORY. The fundamental works in English are Cambridge Ancient History, XI (1936), XII (1959), and A. H. M.Jones, The Later Roman Empire (1964), summarised in The Decline of the Ancient World (1966). Other convenient books include R. Rémondon, La Crise de l’Empire Romain de Marc-Aurèle à Anastase (1964), H. M. D. Parker, A History of the Roman World A.D. 138–337 (2nd ed. 1958), A. Piganiol, Histoire de Rome (5th ed., 1962), F. Altheim, Niedergang der Alten Welt (1952), S. Mazzarino,The End of the Ancient World (1966), C. G. Starr, Civilization and the Caesars (1954), A. Alföldi, Insignien und Tracht der römischen Kaiser (Röm. Mitt. L, 1935), J. Vogt, The Decline of Rome (1967), L. White (ed.), The Transformation of the Roman World(1967). On special aspects: M. Hammond, The Antonine Monarchy (Mem.Am.Ac.Rome, 1959); R. MacMullen, Soldier and Civilian in the later Roman Empire (1963), A. Passerini, Dizionario Epigrafico, IV (1949), s.v. Legione, G. Forni, ibid., Limes; M. Rostovtzeff, Social and Economic History of the Roman Empire, 2nd ed. (P. M. Fraser), 1957; Reports of Excavations at Dura-Europos, on many subjects; F. W. Walbank, The Awful Revolution (1968); F. Altheim-R. Stiehl, Finanzgeschichte der Spätantike (1957); Pauly-Wissowa etc. (ed.), Realencyclopädie für Altertumswissenschaften, XXII (1954), ss. w. princeps civitatis (L. Wickert), praefectus praetorio (W. Ensslin); R. Ghirshman, Iran (1956), M. Sprengling, Third Century Iran (1953); H. Mattingly, Roman Coins (2nd ed., 1960), M. Grant, Roman Imperial Money (1954), Roman History from Coins (1958), J. M. C. Toynbee, Roman Medallions (1944); F. Millar, A Study of Cassius Dio (1965). Bibliographies in C. A. H., Piganiol, and G. Walser and T. Pekáry, Die Krise des romischen Reiches (1962).

III: ARTISTS, ARCHITECTS, NOVELISTS, PHILOSOPHERS. J. M. C. Toynbee, The Art of the Romans (1965), G. M. A. Hanfmann, Roman Art (1965), R. E. M. Wheeler, Roman Art and Architecture (1964), M. Borda, La Pittura Romana (1958), D. E. Strong, Roman Imperial Sculpture (1961), H. P. L’Orange, Art Forms and Civic life in the late Roman Empire (1965), H. Kähler, Rome and her Empire (1963), M. Gough, The Early Christians (1961), R. Krautheimer, Early Christian and Byzantine Architecture (1965), A. Grabar, The Beginnings of Christian Art (1967).

The state of our knowledge of the Greek novel, after recent papyrus discoveries, is summed up by A. Lesky, History of Greek Literature (1966, translation of German second edition, 1963), cf. L. Perry, The Ancient Romance (1967). On the educational background see H. I. Marrou, The History of Education in Antiquity (1962), W. Stahl, Roman Science (1962). On Marcus Aurelius see A. S. L. Farquharson, The Meditations of Marcus Antoninus (1944), Marcus Aurelius: His Life and his World (2nd ed., 1952), A. Birley, Marcus Aurelius (1966). On Plotinus, H. R. Schwyzer in Pauly-Wissowa etc., Realencycl. XXI (1951), s.v. Plotin, A. H. Armstrong, Plotinus (1953) and introduction to Loeb ed. of Plotinus (Vol. I, 1966), and other references there, P. Hadot, Plotin ou la Simplicité de Regard (1963), J. M. Rist, Plotinus: the Road to Reality (1967); S. Spencer, Mysticism in World Religion (1963), etc.

IV: FROM PAGANISM TO CHRISTIANITY. For religion in this period see A. D. Nock, Conversion (1933), E. R. Dodds, Pagan and Christian in an Age of Anxiety (1965), A. Momigliano (ed.), The Conflict between Paganism and Christianity in the Fourth Century (1963), M. Sordi, Il Cristianesimo e Roma (1965). On special aspects, R. O. Fink, A. S. Hoey, W. F. Snyder, The Feriale Duranum (rale Classical Studies VII, 1940), F. Cumont on Sun worship, etc. – bibliography in Mélanges F. Cumont (1936)– and Lux Perpetua (1949); E. H. Kantorowicz, Oriens Augusti (Dumbarton Oaks Papers, no. 17, 1963), M.J. Vermaseren, Mithras, the Secret God(1963), G. Widengren, Mani and Manichaeanism (1965), K. Grobel, The Gospel of Truth (1960), J. Doresse, The Secret Books of the Egyptian Gnostics (1960), H. Lewy, Chaldaean Oracles and Theurgy (1956).

On the Jews: L. Finkelstein, The Jews, I (1949), M. Avi-Yonah, Geschichte der Juden im Zeitalter des Talmud (1962, Hebrew ed. 1946).

On Christianity: H. Lietzmann, Geschichte der alten Kirche, II (2nd ed., 1953), P. Carrington, The Early Church (1957), J. G. Davies, The Early Christian Church (1965), J. Danielou-H. Marrou, Nouvelle Histoire de l’Eglise (I, 1963), R. M. Grant, Gnosticism and Early Christianity (1959), J. Moreau, Les Persécutions du Christianisme dans l’Empire romain (1956), W. H. C. Frend, Martyrdom and Persecution in the Early Church (1965), J. M. C. Toynbee and J. Ward-Perkins, The Shrine of St Peter and the Vatican Excavations (1956), A. Alföldi, The Conversion of Constantine and Pagan Rome (1948), N. H. Baynes, Constantine the Great and the Christian Church (Proc. Brit. Ac. 1929), A. H. M. Jones, Constantine and the Conversion of Europe (1948) H. Chadwick, Early Christian Thought and the Classical Tradition (1966).

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