Ancient History & Civilisation



1. Pertinax and Didius Julianus (Rome, 193) Pescennius Niger (east), Clodius Albinus (Gaul)

2. Maximinus I and his son Maximus Caesar, Gordianus I Africanus and his son Gordianus II Africanus (Carthage), Balbinus and Pupienus (Rome)

3. Trebonianus Gallus ruled 251–3, Aemilius Aemilianus 253

4. There were also short reigns of Quintillus (270), Tacitus (275–6), Florian (276)

5. Carinus and Numerian (283–4)

6. Including also Constantius I Chlorus (father of Constantine) (305–6), Severus II (306–7), and Maximian (attempted returns to throne, (306–8, 310)

7. A. H. M. Jones

8. E.g. we learn chiefly about Diocletian from Lactantius, who hated him

9. Johannes Xiphilinus

10. Dio LXXIII, 4, 2

11. Eusebius, V. Const., contains imperial decrees and letters

12. Minutes of town-councils, official correspondence, military activities, tax records, wills, marriages, divorces, lawsuits, sales, leases, private letters and accounts

13. E.g. Uranius (Sulpicius) Antoninus II, Dryantilla, Cornelia Supera

14. H. Mattingly


1. Balbinus and Pupienus (238), Tacitus (275–6)

2. Pertinax, Didius Julianus

3. Macrinus (217–18), Florian (276)

4. Septimius Severus, Pescennius Niger, Clodius Albinus

5. Pacatianus (248–9), Ingenuus (258 or 259), Regalianus (259 or 260)

6. Spain and S. Gaul returned to central allegiance, perhaps under one of Postumus’ successors (Marius, Victorinus, Tetricus)

7. Aelianus, Amandus. These ‘Bagaudae’ continued to rebel down to the fifth century. Revolts under Probus: Proculus, Bonosus. Under Commodus: Maternus (Gaul and Spain), c. 186

8. Carausius was appointed to repel Saxons (spreading West from lower Elbe)

9. Iotapianus (c. 248–9), Uranius (Sulpicius) Antoninus II (c. 253–5), Macrianus and Quietus (260–2)

10. Uranius Antoninus I (time of Severus Alexander), Quartinus (235)

11. Another Roman protégé, the ruler of the Cimmerian Bosphorus, was also habitually called King of Kings

12. Neoplatonists from Rome assembled at Palmyra after the death of Gallienus

13. Cyzicus still coined for the central emperors

14. A. Alföldi. Zenobia’s son was Vaballathus

15. Acts of the Pagan Martyrs (mostly late 2nd century AD). Massacre at Alexandria by Caracalla (215). Revolts: Mussius Aemilianus (261–2), then Memor, Firmus (after Zenobia – prolonged civil war), Domitius Domitianus (Diocletian)

16. There were also recurrent wars on the southern African frontier which reached its furthest extension under Caracalla. From Marcus, desert tribes encroached and even raided Spain. Mauretanian tribes rebelled under Severus Alexander, and they and Blemmyes from the Sudan (where there were powerful Roman client states) raided the empire under Diocletian and Maximian, who retracted the Egyptian frontier northwards

17. Macrinus, Severus Alexander, Gordian III

18. Seleucid military colony c. 300 BC. Inscriptions in Greek, Latin, Pahlavi, Middle Persian, Safaitic, Palmyrene, Syriac and Aramaic

19. Dio LXXV, 3, 3. The garrison at Dura was enlarged at about this time (probably with Palmyrene troops) and served as a starting-point for expeditions

20. Although Septimius had also presented them with many skilled mechanics – who fled across the Tigris

21. Ruling as colleague or rival to his brother Vologeses v: ? also Artavasdes

22. On silver work and jewels Greek influences are gradually Iranised

23. Sumer II, Pt. I, 1955, PP. 39–43 (AD 235–44)

24. Arsacid Pahlavi, Sassanian Middle Persian and Greek. In the ‘Kaaba of Zoroaster’

25. In the House of Frescoes the Persians are shown conquering the Romans or Palmyrenes or both

26. (? 253 ? 259 ? 260/1). Shapur set up the puppet emperor Mareades

27. Bishapur, Darabgird and Naksh-i-Rustam

28. Paikuli inscription: Narses’ triumph, and acts of homage by Roman envoys and Asian vassal kings

29. Antioch and Damascus (also Edessa). Road of Diocletian: Sura, Palmyra, Damascus

30. The Forth–Clyde Antonine Wall in Britain had been broken through under Commodus, and after much of northern England had been overrun and Septimius and his sons fought personally in Scotland (201–11), Caracalla apparently withdrew all Roman garrisons to Hadrian’s Wall (Tyne–Solway) and its forward zone. After Carausius’ revolt Constantius I defeated Pictish invaders and, like Septimius, died at Eburacum (York) (306).

31. The early Middle Ages owed the ‘barbarians’ cloisonné jewellery, felt-making, the ski, soap, butter, tubs and barrels, rye, oats, spelt and hops, fur-coats and trousers, and the heavy plough, stirrup and horseshoe

32. Jazyges

33. Costoboci

34. Avidius Cassius

35. Quadi (east of Marcomanni)

36. E.g. Carpi

37. The island of Gotland, the centre of Baltic trade, remained their link between Baltic and Black Sea

38. Dexipp. fr. 6, 10, 25, 27, 29

39. By Pacatianus

40. The wealthy trading kingdom of the Cimmerian Bosphorus was reduced to Gothic vassalage

41. Gallienus coin, Colonia Agrippina (c. 257): CVM EXER(citu) svo

42. Cf. Niederbieber hoard: advanced line abandoned

43. Syncellus 717 ff., cf. SHA. Gall. Duo XIII, 9, Zon. XII, 24. Sometimes the victory is attributed to Claudius II Gothicus instead

44. Zos. I, 43,2; 45, I

45. Coins of Dacia had ended in 256. Aurelian formed a new province of this name on the Roman bank, with capital at Serdica (Sofia)

46. The Ostrogoths (Ukraine) had conquered widely under Hermanaric, but mostly fell under Hunnish rule

47. E.g. by Severus Alexander and Probus, and law of 313, Cod. Theod. VII, 22, 1

48. Keil-Premerstein, Dritte Reise, p. 87

49. 2 Palestine, I Egypt, I Arabia. Also I Spain, I North Africa.

50. Dig. 50, 10, 6 (Marcus): emperor’s permission needed. W. French group of city walls, e.g. Le Mans, 285–315. Huge gate-tower at Trier (Porta Nigra): cf. Deutz (c. 310). Rome’s Wall of Aurelian – completed by Probus and improved by Maxentius

51. Veg. II, II. E.g. Xanten, Ohrenbacher, Trennfurt, Carrawburgh

52. Herod. III, 8, 4–5. Septimius also introduced off-duty clubs for junior officers

53. Cf. sickles and scythes found at Pfünz, Weissenburg, Great Chesters

54. E.g. Sitifis; Kaua (Mauretania); Burgstall (Czechoslovakia); round Lake Balaton (Hungary); and in Thrace, Asia Minor, Syria

55. Aurelian formed auxiliary units of Vandals, Juthungi and Alamanni

56. Arr. Tact. XXXIII, 2

57. The Sarmatians influenced the Quadi; the Alani influenced the Goths. Similar influences helped to produce the armoured cavalry of China

58. The horseshoe was now in use in the east. Macrinus (217–18) equipped his infantry with long German two-edged sword and lance, against sudden cavalry attacks

59. Later extended to more junior officers; finally a sort of officer cadet force

60. Ingenuus: killed at Mursa

61. Arch of Galerius

62. Pace Joh. Lyd. (435,266). Cavalry and infantry were now separated, and legions (now smaller) increased in number from 39 to 65

63. Galatians, Isaurians; Batavians, Tungrians

64. Under Constantine’s sons an élite central group were known as palatini


1. Commodus may have increased the sum to 375, but this is on the whole unlikely

2. Dio LXXVIII, 10, 4

3. There may have been a change in the relative values of gold and silver after his conquest of the Dacian gold-mines

4. The free Germans found good denarii hard to obtain, and turned increasingly to gold

5. OGIS. 515

6. Probably not 1½ denarii, as has been suggested


8. P. Oxy. 1411 (Macrianus and Quietus)

9. Denomination-mark XX.I probably means: I nummus=20 sestertii (5 denarii). The old brass and copper token coinage had ceased to exist.

10. Gold pieces marked 60 to the pound, silver 96. Carausius had issued a good silver coinage in Britain

11. Mines were perhaps exhausted; cf. Cypr. Ad Dem. I

12. Recently supplemented by fragment found at Sulmo (Sulmona)

13. Lact. De Mort. Pers. 7. In a papyrus a public official of Diocletian writes to a friend asking that all his money be laid out on goods regardless of price

14. The view that this is a mistake for 10,000 is probably wrong

15. P. Oxy. 1430. Perhaps the rise was not so extreme outside Egypt

16. Pertinax, Didius Julianus

17. Three times higher; more in second century

18. SHA. Gall Duo 15, 1–2

19. Dio LXXVIII, 9, 2

20. Caracalla suppressed relatives’ exemptions from death duties. The other principal indirect tax was the portoria (customs)

21. Rations were also found for armourers, animals and feed for the cavalry and postal service, foodstuffs for feeding the population of Rome, materials and labour for public works

22. PSI. 797

23. P. Ryl. 341

24. Chester Beatty Monographs No. 10, 1966 (Panopolis)

25. ? Or already Diocletian. Some regard caput as a unit of value (unité decompte) applicable to various standards. The tax was extended to non-agricultural populations in Italy and a few western provinces. Diocletian’s operation had a dual rhythm, annual and quinquennial

26. P. Cairo Isid. I (tr. A. H. M.Jones)

27. P. Oxy. 2106

28. follis (gleba senatoria), tax on senators; chrysargyron (collatio lustralis) on traders

29. Maximums II Daia and Licinius had made compulsory purchases of bullion from the cities

30. Constantine’s silver coinage was not so abundant or successful as his gold, and before long lapsed

31. Cod. Theod. IV, 22

32. frumentarii, stationarii, colletiones, eirenarchoi, diogmitai. Centurions were especially prominent. Later, the church had its own legal and police officers

33. Eis Bas. 21 (62). Aristocrats’ municipal police led revolution at Thysdrus (238) (for Gordianus I and II)

34. Lact. De Mort. Pers. 22

35. Keil-Premerstein, Dritte Reise, 9, 28, 55

36. IGRR. I. 674; Syll.³ 888

37. OGIS. 519

38. P. Oxy. 1490, 1469 (AD 298), 1477

39. Terra sigillata from Gaul, too, was for a time replaced by local wares from frontier cities (c. 200). Asia Minor still exported woollens, purples, linens; cf. Egyptian textiles. Sea-transport, far cheaper than land-transport (Edict of Diocletian), was increasingly handled by a few Syrian and Jewish shippers. Against declines and obstacles (e.g. the ban on exports of military value to Parthia) and generally feeble technology can be set successes, e. g. the pure white glass made at Colonia Agrippina (Köln); water-wheel emplacements at Barbegal (Provence) turning out 8 times as much flour as neighbouring Arelate; perhaps production of first true steel, by means of improved bellows

40. ILS. 6987 (AD 201)

41. Eventually: bakers, carters, bargees, stevedores, tally clerks (corn-measurers), pork beef and mutton butchers, oil merchants, smiths

42. Mitteis, Chrest. 375, cf. P. Ryl. ii. 75 (2), PSI. 292

43. Petr. 10, 4

44. Cod. Theod. I, 13

45. Corp. Pap. Hermopolitanorum(AD 250–75)

46. Slaves, very expensive in the first and second centuries AD, then became much more numerous and cheaper amid disturbed conditions. Slaves were unknown in Egyptian agriculture, fairly common in Italy

47. Analternative year of fallow was normal, water-mills were rare, most corn was ground in hand-querns, cloth was woven on hand-looms, and the horse-collar had not yet been invented

48. Especially AD 167, spreading from Seleucia on the Tigris (? small-pox or exanthematous typhus or bubonic plague) and AD 250, from Ethiopia (lasting 13–15 years)

49. Marcus, Pertinax, Aurelian, Probus. Peasants and barbarians were brought in to work such lands in Africa, Italy, Greece, Gaul, Danube, etc.

50. A population decline has been argued from the hardships of the time and the sums paid for the manumission of slaves at Delphi. The birth-rate and death-rate was roughly equal to India c. 1900. Women lived for a shorter time than men, and townsmen than countrymen

51. Septimius distinguished between crown property and personal estate, built up by confiscations (later merged)

52. E.g. Marcus, Septimius

53. E.g. Preisigke, Sammelb. 4284 (AD 207). The process started first in second century AD

54. Anthée: foundries, breweries, bronze and enamelled articles, pottery, harness, leather work, Cheragan: 80 smaller buildings

55. Dig. 49.14

56. Constantine’s ruling came to be limited to descendants of tenants originally registered on an estate. End of the fifth century: free tenants tied by a thirty-year prescription.

57. Constantine extended Diocletian’s compulsion of soldiers to officials

58. Under Diocletian and Constantine there were 17 in the west alone

59. A. H. M. Jones

60. Tac. Hist. I, 16; cf. Dial. De Or. 40, 41


1. Also Licinius’ short-lived junior Augustus, Martinianus (324)

2. Ulp. Dig. I, 4, 1; cf. Gains I, 5

3. Paul. Sent. V, 12, 9a, cf. IV, 5,3; Dig. XXII, 23, V, 28, 2; Cod. Just. VI, 23, 3

4. Ulp. Dig. I, 3, 1

5. Herod. IV, 3, 4ff.

6. It had been foreshadowed by a separate eastern administration under Philip

7. Pan. Lat. XI, 6, 3

8. Istanbul

9. SHA. Sev. XI, 8; cf. II Kings, IX, 33

10. Bishapur

11. Cod. Just. IX, 51, I

12. Dio, Herod., and Eis Bas.

13. Dio LXXIII, 17, 3, Herod. I, 14, 8

14. Herod. V, 2, 4–5

15. toga picta, tunica palmata

16. Eus. V. Const. 3

17. From about the time of Marcus they were called viri clarissimi (the knights being viri egregii)

18. Marcus made marriages between senators and freedwomen illegal, Dig. XXIII, 2, 16

19. Africans had been becoming increasingly prominent but Septimius did not markedly favour them. Caracalla admitted the first Alexandrian

20. Elagabalus–Severus Alexander (out of 238): 113, 17, 33, 3, 72. Rest of third century (out of 265): 116, 23, 34, 6, 86

21. The sons of centurions also had equestrian rank

22. Either under Caracalla or Severus Alexander

23. Dio LII, 14, 5

24. The significance of Victor Caes. 33, 34, is disputed

25. Only Africa, Sicily, Achaea and the Italian provinces

26. 2000 by AD 350. A century later, two of the three grades of senator were excused attendance at the capital

27. Cf. the Byzantine empire, in which when there was a bad ruler the civil service worked on under its own momentum

28. Constantine introduced several new ministerial posts

29. Spain included Mauretania Tingitana; Southern Italy included Sardinia, Corsica, Sicily; Northern Italy included the Alpine provinces. Constantine split Moesia into two, and Valens separated Egypt-Libya from the Orient

30. There had been extraordinary deputy prefects before

31. Commodus, Pertinax; Didius Julianus

32. There was no appeal from the praetorian prefect. In Rome, this jurisdiction was transferred to the prefect of the city

33. Tullius Crispinus had commanded for Didius Julianus, the nominee of the praetorians (193)

34. Constantine’s greatest prefect was Ablabius, a Christian whose father was a provincial official in Crete

35. Dig. I, 1, 10

36. Ulpian archaistically asserted the legislative power of the senate

37. The emperor Macrinus (217–18) was also a lawyer, and had become praetorian prefect as such

38. H. Mattingly

39. Ulpian and Paulus freely added annotations to Papinian, rejected by Constantine as distortions

40. Paul. Sent. (not dealt with in Dig.) was given special authority by Constantine. One scholar has seen six layers in it; others deny Paulus’ authorship

41. W. Kunkel

42. The last was Modestinus (Gordian III, of whom there are 300 rescripts)

43. Coll. Lib. Iur. Anteiust. ed. Krueger, iii, 1890, 187f.

44. Codex Gregorianus (291, constitutiones Hadrian–Diocletian) and Hermo-19 genianus (probably 294, almost wholly Diocletian). Both known from later citations

45. In c. 300 the volumen had been replaced by the codex, and legal works reproduced in the new form became canonical

46. Except Gaius’ Institutes

47. The alterations (highly controversial) are often badly executed shortenings by compilers, frequently long before Justinian. Digest (50 books with 432 titles) was drawn from 2000 works. The other components are the Codex (imperial statutes), Institutes(elementary) and Novellae (new laws)

48. Florentinus, Dig. I, 5, 4 (end second or early third century). The slave was still a chattel in Ulpian and Paulus, though Ulpian declared all men equal by natural law

49. Dig. XXXV, 2, 89. Septimius distributed free medicine to the sick under Galen’s supervision, De Antidot. I, 3, De Theriac. I, 2

50. Ulp. Dig. I, 18, 6, 2

51. E.g. Philip, Valerian, Carus

52. M. Aur. Med. I, 14

53. Dio LII, 19, 6

54. Dio LXXVIII, 9, 4f

55. Exceptions: dediticii (P. Giess. 40), much disputed =? freedmen with criminal records, persons belonging to no communal organization, former enemies (barbarian settlers or soldiers) ?

56. But new citizens were favoured at expense of old (Dmeir; Syria, XXIII, I942/3, PP. 173 ff.)

57. Though substitution for local law was not immediate or complete, and Ulpian and Paulus concede force of law to local customs

58. Aem. Macer, Dig. XLVIII, 19, 10 pr. Already in the second century governors sometimes condemned and executed Roman citizens without appeal

59. Dig. XLIX, 1, 25, P. Oxy. 2104. Humiliores could still appeal, but only after sentence

60. E.g. Dig. L, 4: classification of services to state

61. He prohibited married men from keeping concubines

62. R. MacMullen

63. Dig. I, 16, 6, 3; cf. the concern of Constantine. Latitude of appeal was excessive


1. Herod. III, 9, 12

2. E.g. temple of Palmyrene gods at Dura (AD 85), statue of king Uthal from Hatra (Mosul Mus., second century AD)

3. E.g. Luristan bronzes, 8th–7th centuries BC

4. Gandhara, Surkh Kotal, Mathura, Bharhut, Sanchi. ? Via Hellenised Bactria

5. E.g. Shapur I (Indian triumph), Bahram II (frontally enthroned), coins of Ardashir I, and a governor at Dokhtar-e-Nushirvan (painting)

6. Septimius (Mandela), Caracalla (Tarsus), Severus Alexander and Gordian III (medallions). Wholly stylised: Aurelian, Probus; cf. opus sectile mosaic from fourth century, Basilica of Junius Bassus (Rome, Pal. del Drago)

7. Climax in bas-relief of Bahram I, Bishapur (c. 273–6).

8. E.g. the extensive treasure from Chaourse (Aisne), in the Hellenising style of Gallienus and Postumus

9. From the Catacomb of Praetextatus. The figure on the Acilia sarcophagus is probably not Gordian III but of c. 250–60

10. Early battle sarcophagus: Portonaccio (c. 190–200). Crowded coin and medallion designs: from Caracalla, and e.g. VICTORIA GERMANICA of Maximinus I

11. Or Timesitheus, Volusianus (son of Gallus), Claudius II Gothicus?

12. E.g. House of Palace Heralds, Via dei Cerchi, Rome

13. E.g. S. Apollinare Nuovo

14. Diocletian had included sculptors, painters and mosaicists among the ranks of superior craftsmen

15. Particularly significant:– young woman (Kansas City, W. Rockhill Nelson Gall., c.AD 175); cosmetai from Athens; old woman (Tripoli, Castello Mus.); philosopher busts; Christ-like Athens head, probably Gallienic; Miletopolis head (Berlin, c. 260–70); bronze (Allard Pierson Mus.,? Gallienic); stylised Ostia head (c. 280); sarcophagus portraits (Acilia, Balbinus, Ludovisi), local styles at Noviomagus (peasant), Palmyra (Maximus Aristides and Jarhai), Petra, Hatra

16. Herod. X, 5

17. E.g. Postumus’ successor Marius

18. E.g. from Gerasa (Domin. Mon., Jerusalem), Ostia (Indiana Univ., Bloomington). ‘Saint in church’: Plotinoupolis (Didymoteichos, Thrace)

19. Raised eyeballs and lofty hair style already in portraits of Marcus (c. 169). Septimius wears the forelocks of the Egyptian god Serapis.

20. E.g. Cincinnati Art Museum (? Didia Clara [193], d. of Didius Julianus, or probably Julia Domna)

21. E.g. at Prusias ad Hypium; cf. Severus Alexander, Edessa

22. Venice (Mus. Arch.); cf. Philostr. V. Apol. VIII, 7

23. E.g. coins of Diadumenianus (son of Macrinus); Severus Alexander, Apollonia Salbace. Cropped hair with long Antonine beard: Pupienus (Vatican, Braccio Nuovo)

24. Mirror of soul: Polemo in Förster, Script. Physiogn. I, 106–20. Portraits: Plut. Alex. I. Rolling eyes: Via dell’ Impero head (Mus. Nuov. Cap., c. 240), ? Otacilia Severa wife of Philip (Walters Art Gall.). Icon-like wide eyes: Caracalla, coins of Hierapolis

25. Vatican (Braccio Nuovo). Cf. H. P. L’Orange. The realistic detail harks back to the late Republic

26. Plot. Enn.I, 6, I; cf. Philostr. V. Apol. VI, 19, PI. NH. XXXV, 98

27. Decius: Oslo (private collection). Gallus: Florence, New York

28. Cf. also cameos, e.g. his wife Salonina. Not echoed by painting or architecture

29. ‘Plotinus’ (Ostia, Vatican): Acilia sarcophagus (Rome, Mus. Naz., c. 260–70); Manisa (Sardis, c. 260–84); figures on Lateran sarcophagus, then Christians

30. Cf. lapis lazuli (Brit. Mus.), perhaps of Laelianus (c. 268)

31. E.g. Mithridates III (57–54 BC), Ardashir I, Roman imagines clipeatae (coins of Augustus, Tiberius), medallion of Commodus; cf. classical Greek frontal coin-portraits of goddesses

32. Rome (Mus. Conserv.), cf. Probus (Mus. Cap.)

33. G. M. A. Hanfmann

34. E.g. colossal Nicomedia head and early coins of Diocletian, bronze Belgrade head of Constantine, excellent Constantinian female portraits, earliest ivory diptychs

35. From Athribis (Cairo, red porphyry), and Alexandria(? or Maximums II). Cf. Palmyrene work

36. Venice (outside St Mark’s), Vatican, chalcedony cameo of Diocletian and Maximian (Dumbarton Oaks Coll., Washington), and medallions of Licinius, etc.

37. Mam. Genethl. Max. II, Pan. Lat. 9

38. Constantine (probably): Rome, Mus. Conserv. Uncertain successor: Barletta head

39. E.g. Shapur I (in pillar of stone), near Bishapur

40. Acta SS. Abramii et Mariae, Acta Sanctorum, II, p. 933

41. Cf. Constantine formerly at Lateran, with Augustan traditional gesture of command

42. Synes. De Regno 6 (10)

43. Mints of Severan dynasty: Rome, Laodicea ad Mare (later Antioch), Emesa or Samosata, Nicomedia. Bronze city-coinages and a few provincial issues were minted until latter half of third century

44. Mints of central emperors 238–84: Rome, Mediolanum, Verona or Aquileia (?), Viminacium (?), Colonia Agrippina (?), Arelate, Siscia, Antioch, Cyzicus, Ephesus (?), Samosata (?), Serdica, Tripolis, Ticinum, Lugdunum (?) and Augusta Trevirorum (?) The last two and Moguntiacum and Bonna (?) were mints of Postumus and his successors

45. Colonia Agrippina, Lugdunum, Arelate, Siscia

46. New mints were Nicomedia, Heraclea (Perinthus), Thessalonica, Carthage, Londinium; Ostia under Maxentius; Sirmium and Constantinopolis under Constantine

47. FHG. IV, 199

48. Zos. II, 30, I; but cf. earlier rumours for Julius Caesar. Constantine was also believed to have considered Thessalonica and his own birth-place Naissus (Nis)

49. From 332 this was set aside for Constantinople, with Africa to supply Rome

50. Socr. I, 16. Septimius had begun an extensive reconstruction of the city

51. Botticelli in Sistine Chapel (Vatican)

52. Lambaesis, Sabratha (stage), Lepcis Magna

53. SHA. Sev. XXIV, 3. ‘Septizodium’ rather than ‘Septizonium’

54. Michelangelo (Capitoline palaces), Palladio (Loggia del Capitanio, Vicenza)

55. E.g. colonnaded park of Gordianus III (Pincian–Campus Martins)

56. In the hot room of Caracalla’s Baths hollow pots were inserted in the dome to reduce weight

57. E.g. Baths of Severus Alexander (reconstruction of Agrippa’s), Decius, Gordian III (Volubilis)

58. E.g. brick arches of House of Cupid and Psyche

59. Earlier mosaics on vaults, etc: Hadrianic niche at Baths of Seven Sages, Ostia; late second century niche from Ostia (Lateran). On walls: Pompeii, Herculaneum

60. S. Maria degli Angeli, though a large church, is a reconstruction of only about half of this hall

61. E.g. Shaqqa, Hauran (late second century); unusual stone roof

62. Louvre and Teheran Mus.

63. Liban. Or. XI, 203–7; cf. on Arch of Galerius at Thessalonica. Campplan also at Philippopolis (Jebel Druze)

64. Marble and mosaic coverings, atrium and flanking colonnades have disappeared

65. Severan dynasty (violet, white are dominant): Houses in Via dei Cerchi and below SS. Giovannie Paolo, Rome, and Baths of Seven Sages and Pharos, Ostia. Dura. C. 250–80 (red, orange, green; broken, asymmetric): Caseggiato degli Aurighe, etc. Carterius made a memory likeness of Plotinus (Porph.). End third century (important figured scenes): Tomb of Trebius, Via Latina; House of Nymphaeum, Ostia. New fashion of imitating marble. Constantine and after (blue, yellow): Via Livenza; Barberini Roma; Durostorum (Silistra). ‘Neo-Attic’, mainly at Alexandria. Egyptian mummy portraits continue.

66. E.g. Antioch (first to sixth centuries, influenced Sassanians), Edessa, Zliten (c. 200). Lepcis Magna (transition to larger stones), Thysdrus hippodrome (blend of visual and explanatory space), Britain, Ostia (ships in Severan Piazzale delle Corporazioni)

67. Exceptions: group of classicising girl athletes in bikinis

68. E.g. House of Dioscuri

69. But other prefer a middle or late fourth-century or even fifth-century date

70. Cf. Palace of Dux Ripae, Dura (early third century)

71. Inward-looking houses (cf. later Arabs) also at contemporary Ostia: House of the Round Temple

72. Pan. Lat. X. 3

73. E.g. House of Fortune, Pompeii; Villa of Hadrian, Tibur; Severan forum at Lepcis Magna

74. Unlike Palmyra, where the Hall was the central point of the design

75. Cf. columns on Golden Gate, now vanished. Compare other columnar experiments at Ostia: Houses of Cupid and Psyche, Fortuna Annonaria

76. E.g. Pantheon; cf. centralised temples of Romano–Celtic type at Perigueux, Silchester, Caerwent

77. E.g. second-century tomb, Via Nomentana, Rome; and Philadelphia (Kasr-el-Nueijis, Amman), Gerasa, Petra, Sebaste. Squinch (arch[es] in angles instead of pendentive): ? Firuzabad

78. S. Ivo della Sapienza, Rome (Lantern)

79. E.g. Gordian III (Victory ‘Hoplophoros’), Gallus and Volusianus (Juno Martialis). Cf. domed, square Parthian building shown on Arch of Septimius

80. Cf. T. Telesphorus (Asclepieum, Pergamum, second century): Tor de Schiavi sepulchre, Via Praenestina

81. E.g. cruciform martyria (Bin Bir Kilise); rock-cut tombs and centralised churches. Best surviving example, probably c. 350: Mausoleum of Constantia at Rome (S. Costanza), perhaps imitated from Church of Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem (Golgotha) (dome set on masonry drum as in Byzantine churches)

82. The attribution of the church to Constantius II is less probable. It was replaced by Justinian. Constantine may also have laid out the octagonal Lateran baptistery

83. Eus. V, Const. III, 50, etc.

84. SS. Sergius and Bacchus; Palatine Chapel, Aachen; cf. also round cathedrals at Bostra and Gerasa

85. Mechanici and geometrae (surveyors) came above architects. Constantine gave immunities and scholarships and insisted on a liberal education

86. Pre-Constantinian ‘house-churches’ have been identified at Dura and Lullingstone

87. In a third-century temple at Rusucurru (Tigzirt, north Africa) a solid internal wall without architrave had risen straight from columns as in Christian basilicas

88. Later to St John the Baptist and St John the Evangelist. It has recently been questioned whether the Lateran was the Pope’s cathedral. Tyre, Orléansville and Aquileia provide other early examples of basilicas

89. R. Krautheimer

90. S. Paolo fuori le Mura (385), Manaštirine (Dalmatia) (c. 400); S. Denis (775), Centula (S. Riquier) (791–9), Fulda (802)


1. Frag. Vat. 204; cf. Dio LXXVII, Herod. IV, 17, 6

2. Education was to be in the Christian mould, but he encouraged the pagans Nicagoras and Sopater

3. Priscian rates Apollonius as the greatest grammarian. 4 of his 29 works survive, very little by his son

4. Pseudo-Dionysius, Techne; cf. two second century Technai (Pseudo-Aristides), by different authors. ‘Longinus’, On the Sublime, is likely to be Augustan, and not the work of Zenobia’s minister of that name

5. Greg. Thaum. Orat. Paneg. Ad Orig. 5

6. M. P. Nilsson; G. S. Kirk

7. E.g. good Neoplatonist mathematics: especially Iamblichus, Diophantus of Alexandria (c. 250, algebra), Pappus (c. 300, geometry)

8. Pergamum (superior now to Cos), Smyrna, Laodicea ad Lycum, Ephesus

9. Galen, De Fac. Nat. III, 10 (tr. A. J. Brock)

10. Id., De Usu Partium (the hand)

11. C.J. Singer

12. Seven Liberal Arts (Trivium, Quadrivium), (cf. Martian. Capell., fifth century AD) : probably of third-century origin. Physical education did not long survive official Christianity

13. P. Oxy. XII, 1467; Ulp. Dig. L. 5, 2, 8; JHS. XXIX, 1909, 30ff.

14. Hermeneumata Pseudo-Dositheana (one section dated AD 207), Corp. Gl. Lat. III, 381 seq.

15. Fables of Babrius (? second century AD) were also popular

16. Eumenes was sent to Augustodunum: Pan. Lat. IV, 14, 15

17. Commodus-Hercules was identified with Celtic gods. Cf. widespread cults of Belenus, Epona, Atargatis the ‘Syrian goddess’

18. Syria, XXIII, 1942–3, 178f. (AD 216)

19. Aug. CD. XVIII, 18; Ep. 136. 1,138

20. Apul. Apol. 55. Apuleius was a Middle Platonist

21. ‘Milesian Tales’ – Tale of the Tub, Baker’s Wife, Lost Slippers, Fuller’s Wife

22. Cf Catacomb of Domittilla, Rome: paintings of Cupid and Psyche gathering flowers

23. Apul. Met. I, I

24. An attempted identification with Lucian is unlikely

25. P. Berlin 2041 f.

26. The girl’s name does not appear in the surviving fragments

27. Pap. Michaelidae, Aberdeen (1955) no. 1: cf. 156 P.

28. Aegialeus and Thelxinoe

29. Partially echoed by the Story of Apollonius King of Tyre, Latin version of early Byzantine date (model for Shakespeare’s Pericles): from a Greek original, probably early second century AD

30. A. Vogliano, Stud. Ital.fil. class. XV, 1938, 121

31. Ach. Tat. III, 21

32. Ibid., I, ix, 3–4 (tr. S. Gaselee)

33. Ibid., II, XIV, 9–10 (tr. S. Gaselee)

34. Ibid., IV, iv, 7 (tr. S. Gaselee)

35. Lucian, Ver. Hist. (tr. P. Turner; model of Rabelais, Swift, Voltaire), parodying Marvels beyond Thule of Antonius Diogenes (first/second century AD)

36. Longus I, 10 (tr. M. Hadas)

37. Ibid., IV, 37f. (tr. M. Hadas)

38. G. Thornley (1657)

39. Xenophon of Ephesus had at first suggested that his hero Habrocames wished to rise above Eros

40. Longus, II, 6f. (tr. M. Hadas)

41. Michael Psellus (eleventh century). The pagan emperor Julian had forbidden his priests to read novels

42. French: Amyot (1559). English: Day (1587). Cf. Shakespeare’s Winter’s Tale, Corot, Ravel

43. Heliod. Aeth. I, Iff. (tr. W. Lamb)

44. Heliod. Aeth. I, 5f. (tr. W. Lamb)

45. The Egyptians also claimed Aesop. Homer was Syrian according to Meleager.

46. Heliod. Aeth. IV, 3 (tr. W. Lamb)

47. Ibid., VI, 9 (tr. W. Lamb)

48. Aphrodite in Charito, Pan and the nymphs in Longus, Artemis and Isis in Xenophon, Serapis in Achilles Tatius; cf. Isis in Apuleius.

49. Acts of Paul and Thecla, Acts of Xanthippe and Polyxena (? third or fourth century AD). The French roman courtois owed a great deal to Byzantine romantic novels

50. Shakespeare knew Heliodorus (Twelfth Night, V, I, 121f.)

51. P. Lubbock

52. Wilkie Collins; Q. D. Leavis; D. H. Lawrence (against Hugh Walpole)


1. M. Aur. Med. VI, 30; I, 16

2. Ibid., II, 5, III, 12 (tr. M. Staniforth); cf. VIII, 41

3. Ibid., XII, 26, II, 17 (tr. M. Staniforth)

4. Ibid., XII, 28 (tr. M. Staniforth)

5. Ibid., VII, 69

6. Ibid., X, 5 (tr. M. Staniforth)

7. Epict. ap. Arr. Enchir. I, 13

8. M. Aur. Med. VI, 30 (tr. M. Staniforth)

9. Ibid., II, 11; cf. VI, 13

10. Ibid., VII, 69, IV, 49 (tr. M. Staniforth)

11. M. Aur. Ad. Front. Epist. I, p. 216 Loeb

12. M. Aur. Med. VIII, 24 (tr. M. Staniforth): VI, 28

13. Epict. ap. Arr. Enchir. III, 13

14. M. Aur. Med. IV, 48, II, 17, VII, 3 (tr. M. Staniforth)

15. Ibid., II, 17

16. Ibid., IV, 3 (tr. M. Staniforth)

17. Ibid., VII, 28, 59

18. Ibid., IX, 20

19. Ibid., VIII, 59

20. Ibid., IX, I; XI, 21 (tr. M. Staniforth); cf. XII, 20

21. Ibid., XI, 9, etc.

22. Ibid., IV, 29

23. Ibid., I, 17

24. Ibid., VI, 30 (tr. M. Staniforth)

25. Ibid., X, 10

26. Ibid., IX, 36

27. Ibid., II, 17, etc.

28. Ibid., I, 14 (tr. M. Staniforth) – learnt ‘from his brother Severus’

29. Ibid., IV, 4 (tr. M. Staniforth)

30. Ibid., VI, 30, etc.

31. Ibid., XI, 3 (tr. M. Staniforth)

32. Porph. V.Plot.3

33. Plot. Enn. VI, 5, IV, 23

34. Ibid., III, 8 (tr. E. O’Brien)

35. Maximus of Tyre (c. 125–85) blended all systems except Epicureanism. Albinus saw the Platonic Supreme Principle as unmoved, like Aristotle’s, but not as the Mover; he called Plato’s Forms (Ideas) ‘Thoughts of God’

36. Plot. Enn. V, 5, 6

37. Ibid., VI, 9, 6 (tr. A. H. Armstrong)

38. Ibid., VII, I, cf. V, 3, 12, I, 6, 3, V, I, 6, etc.

39. Ibid., VII, 18

40. Ibid., VI, 9 (tr. E. O’Brien)

41. Plato’s Idea of Good becomes immanent in Plotinus’ Universal Mind, which thinks the Ideas and is their location

42. Plot. Enn. III, 1, 4. Contemplation of Soul generates the Forms or Ideas of individuals, which Plato’s Doctrine of Ideas had not envisaged

43. Sometimes Plotinus instead suggests that at our highest we attain Mind itself. Plotinus’ Soul is Plato’s Soul and World Craftsman and more

44. Plot. Enn. IV, 8, 9

45. Ibid., II, 3, 9

46. Ibid., IV, 8, 14; cf. Numenius of Apamea (rational and irrational soul), Plutarch

47. Plot. Enn. I, 8, 3; cf. Aristotle: matter a mere potentiality and receptacle of Form. Aristotle’s greatest commentator, Alexander of Aphrodisias, was active early in the third century

48. Plot. Enn. I, 8, 8

49. Ibid., II, 3, 17f. (tr. A. H. Armstrong). Cf. conflict between Pl. Phaedo and Timaeus-Laws

50. Cf. Ar. EN. x, 7, 8: man, because of inherent divinity, can live as if not mortal

51. Plot. Enn. III, 8, 4

52. Ar. EN. x, 8, 7; cf. Pl. Symp. 211, Phaedr. 24951, Phaedo 67c, 79c, 81A

53. Plot. Enn. VI, 9, 11, 22

54. Ibid., VI, 7, 34, 12 ff., cf. VI, 10, 11

55. Porph. V. Plot. 23 (tr. A. H. Armstrong). Porphyry claimed to have had the same experience once

56. Plot. Enn. VI, 7, 34; IX, 4

57. Ibid., I, 6, 8

58. Ibid., VI, 9, 11 (tr. A. H. Armstrong)

59. Ibid., V, 3, 17, VI, 9, 11 (tr. A. H. Armstrong)

60. Cf. sources in P. Hadot, Plotin ou la Simplicité du Regard, pp. 63 ff.

61. Ibid., VI, 7, 21, 30 ff: cf. Pl. Phaedo, Symposium

62. Ibid., VI, 7, 34 (tr. E. O’Brien)

63. Ibid., VI, 7, 19, 24 ff.

64. Ibid., II, 9, I. Plotinus did not deny magic, but regarded it as a selfish application of the universal sympathy. He saw stars as perhaps indicating but not determining the future

65. Ibid., I, 6 (tr. E. O’Brien)

66. Ibid., I, 6 (tr. E. O’Brien)

67. William James; cf. H. Bergson, C. D. Broad

68. Arthur Koestler

69. E.g. peyote yielding mescalin (Aldous Huxley)

70. First so called by Leibnitz

71. Plot. Enn.V, 3, 17

72. Ibid., III, 2, 9, cf. II, 9, 9

73. Man’s lot also depends upon previous existences (cf. Pythagoreans)

74. Plot. Enn. III, 2, 9

75. Ibid., III, 8, 4

76. Ibid., III, 2, 5

77. Ibid., I, 4, 7; cf. VI, 7, 34: the ‘heresy of the half life’

78. Middle Platonists such as Celsus had not favoured this withdrawal from public life; cf. Angela of Foligno and Zen Buddhism

79. Plot. Enn. V, 3, 17

80. H. F. Amiel (1821–81)

81. Justin, Dial. Tryph. II, 3–6

82. E.g. Plato’s pupil Speusippus

83. The Merkabah (Chariot) Rider rabbis; cf. the later Book of Creation (Sefer Yetsirah)

84. This, however, is to follow, not replace, the practical life

85. Gal. I, 12

86. II Cor. XII, 9

87. Manuel of Discipline, XI, 5, 7

88. Epiphanius, Haer. XXVI, 3, I. The Gospel is of the Ophite sect (dualists who emphasized the serpent)

89. Gospel of Truth, XXII, 3 Grobel; and Revelation of Dositheus. Both from Chenoboskion

90. Hymn of the Soul (Acts of Thomas) (tr. G. R. S. Mead)

91. Corp. Herm. X, 4–6, XI, 20 (tr. E. Dodds). Philostratus suggested that Apollonius of Tyana had had mystic experiences

92. Numenius, fr. II Leemans (tr. E. Dodds)

93. Maitryana and Briharadaranyaka Upanishads

94. Swami Prabhavananda

95. To the Buddhists Nirvana was attainable in this life, but union and metaphysics were repudiated

96. An-isvara-yoga

97. Philostr. V. Apol. III, 18

98. Iambl. 27 (86.4). Plotinus saw mathematics as a means of overcoming the indeterminacy of matter

99. Aug. De Ver. Rel. IV, 7

100. Id., C.Ac. III, 20, 43; cf. 19, 42; 18, 41: from Marius Victorinus’ Latin translation of Plotinus

101. Aug. De Quant. An. 76

102. Id., Conf. VII, 10, 17. He misleadingly identified Plotinus’ Mind with the Word of St John’s Gospel

103. Neoplatonic ideas had passed into theology in E. (St Basil and St Gregory of Nyssa) and W. (through Boethius)

104. Theologia Aristotelis =passages of Plot. Enn. IV–VI; cf. Alfarabi of Baghdad (d. 950) (illumination of Mind by Ideas, fusing with Aristotelianism), Avicebrol (Ibn Gebirol) (doctrine of Creative Reason)

105. Especially Proclus of Constantinople (d. 484)

106. Tauler and Suso tacitly dropped his Neoplatonism. Eckhart’s mysticism is like Sankara’s

107. Maeterlinck. Ruysbroeck’s description of mystic consciousness is close to that of the Mandukya Upanishad

108. Francis Thompson (1859–1907)


1. Arnob. Adv. Nat. I, 24

2. Especially the Quinquatria, Neptunalia, Saturnalia

3. The Arval Brethren

4. Jul. Ad. Theodor. 362

5. Max. Tyr. XXXIX, 5; cf. Plutarch

6. Grant, Roman Imperial Money, p. 229

7. Dio Cass. LII, 35f.; cf. XL, 47, 3

8. ILS. 157

9. The festival was on the day of the Parilia (21st April)

10. CIL. VI. 30738; Porta Argentariorum

11. CRAI. 1930, 208 ff. (Susa). ? Phraates IV

12. Venus Victrix and Fausta Felicitas (9 October)

13. Cn. Cornelius Lentulus Marcellinus, c. 76–74 BC

14. Porta Argentariorum. Coins of AD 68–9; medallic piece of Hadrian

15. The alternative attribution to Aurelian is stylistically less probable

16. Barberini Roma (? c. 326–30)

17. Zos. II, 31

18. Perv. Vigil. (tr. P. Jay). Date disputed (?c. 307?, early second century, ? c. 283–4, ? mid-fourth century)

19. J.W. Mackail; F. L. Lucas

20. Gallienus’ large gold piece with DEO AVGVSTO is exceptional (cf.p. 170

21. The monument of the Secundini (Igel) displays the ascension of Hercules

22. Hungarian finds have suggested an alternative attribution to Gallus (251–3)

23. ILS. 1638

24. Ditt.³ 881

25. Dio LXXVI, 16, 3

26. Dio Chrys. De Regn. III, 125

27. Behistun inscription

28. Hom. Il. II, 205, Plut. Num. 6, Sen. Clem. I, 1, 2, Corp. Herm. XVIII, Orig. C. Cels. VIII, 63

29. A. D. Nock

30. Stat. Silv. III, 3, 48 ff.

31. E.g.head in Mus. Naz., Rome; medallion at Milan (with diadem)

32. Xen. Mem. I, 4; coin-heads of Scipio Africanus (?) and Pompey; third century AD medallions of Alexander the Great

33. FHG. IV, 197

34. Though ILS. 629 calls them gods and the creators of gods

35. Corp. Herm. IX (c.AD 300)

36. E.g. Atarantes (Ethiopia), Mela, De Chor. I 43

37. E. Renan

38. Cens. De Die Nat. 8

39. II Kings, II, 11. Cf. white horses sacrificed to the Sun, Hel. Aeth. X, 36

40. Malachi IV, 2; cf. Zech. III. 8, VI, 12

41. Pseudo-Call. Hist. Alex. Magni I, 36, 2; 38, 2. The term in the Avesta is hvareno. Shubbiluliuma (Hittite) called himself the Sun-god

42. Late fire-temple now discovered at Tang-i-Chak-Chak

43. Philostr. V. Apol. I, 25, Amm. Marc. XVII, 5, 3

44. Plot. Enn. VI, 4, 3 (criticised in VI, 5, 8)

45. Aug. C. Faust. XIV, 11; cf. De Haer. 46

46. Hom. Il. III, 277

47. Cf. Soph. 582 Pearson: Thracians prayed to the Sun

48. CIL. VI, 29954. But Anaxagoras regarded the Sun as a stone

49. Pl. Symp. 220D; cf. Laws 887 E.

50. Cassander’s brother; he founded the City of Heaven (Uranopolis)

51. Ptolemy III Euergetes, Antiochus IV

52. Hom. Hymn. XXXI

53. As Plut. De Is. 6

54. Seleucus of Seleucia on the Tigris (c. 150 BC) was his follower

55. Syncretism by juxtaposition, superposition and pantheistic amalgamation

56. Cf. Tert. Apol. 16

57. Cf. Cic. Somn. Scip. 4, Pl. NH. II, 5

58. Baehrens, Poet. Lat. Min. IV, p. 543

59. E.g. at Talmis (Kalabsha), Preisigke, Sammelb. 4127

60. Jul. Or. IV, 155 D

61. Antony, Augustus; cf. Vespasian, Trajan

62. Dio LXII, 6, 2 (meaning disputed)

63. Tac. Hist. III, 24

64. P. Giess. 20

65. Vienna; cf. Klio, VII, p. 278 (Trajan); and coins

66. Invictus and Discoverer of Light: Guarducci, Rend. P. Acc. Rom. di Arch. 1957/9, 161 ff.

67. The Sun-god is shown with Septimius’ beard (197)

68. E.g. Arringatore (Mus. Arch., Florence)

69. Dio LXXVIII, 10, 3

70. Brendel, Die Antike, 1936, p. 275 (Berlin)


72. Herod. V, 6, 6–8 (tr. E. C. Echols)

73. SHA. Gall. Duo XXIII, 18

74. ILS. 210 etc.

75. ‘Callicrates of Tyre’ ap. SHA. Aurelian., IV, 2

76. Or. Sib. XIV

77. Zos. I, 61

78. Since Aurelian reconquered Gaul as well as the east, his cult of Sun-Apollo may also have echoed the Gallic worship of gods of light and healing identified with Apollo

79. Kantorowicz, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 1961, p. 379, Hatra; cf. Palmyra

80. Eus. V. Const. I, 17

81. Maximinus II imitated this coinage in the east

82. For date, cf. the Montbouy hoard. Licinius likewise claimed to be related to Philip

83. Pan.Lat. VI (VII), 21: salutifer

84. Eus. V. Const. III, 10

85. Lact. De Mort. Pers. 46; cf. for Constantine. Eus, V. Const. IV, 20

86. Melito of Sardis. Clement of Alexandria called Jesus the Sun of Righteousness, after Malachi

87. Orig. In Libr. Ind. Horn. VIII, 1,2

88. Tert. Adv. Nat. I, 13, Apol. 16; Eusebius, Zeno of Verona

89. Jul. Or. IV, 130c, 131C, 134D, 135D, 137D. As mediator the Sun is ‘offspring of Zeus’

90. Macrob. Sat. I, 19, 9 (a Neoplatonist like Julian)

91. Prokypsis Hymns. Cf. St Ephraim the Syrian (d. 373), Fest. Epiph. II, I: joint rule of Semha (? Claritas) and Denha (Sunrise)

92. Probably the second of three, or even four, writers of that name (? c.170–244/9). Perhaps from Lemnos. Others who attended her salon were Oppian (perhaps two), Aelian, the future emperor Gordian I, Sammonicus Serenus, Galen.

93. Philostr. V. Apol. VI, 11; cf. I, 10

94. Ibid., VI, 11; VII, 12. Cf. Pythagoras

95. Dio LXXVIII, 18, 4; SHA. Alex. 2

96. E.g. Porphyry, Hierocles; Soterichus wrote an epic about him

97. Eus. Vs. V. Apol. 31

98. Stat. Theb. I, 719. Perhaps the religion came west via Aquileia

99. M. J. Vermaseren, Corp. Inscr. et Mon. Rel. Mithr. 206 no. 518 (Tiber)

100. ILS. 659

101. Plut. Pomp. 24 (inconclusive). Several Black Sea mints shew a rider-god who is identified with Mithras

102. Nero, Commodus, Diocletian, Julian

103. Orig. C. Cels. I, 9, etc.

104. Firm. Mat. De Err. Prof. Rel. 22 ff.

105. ILS. 4271; cf. 4099, 4152 (taurobolium, cf. criobolium)

106. Exception: gens Cornelia

107. Melfi (Pal. Pubblico), found at Alberi

108. E.g. Sidamara and Seleucia ad Calycadnum (Silifke) sarcophagi (Istanbul mus.)

109. E.g. from Attaleia (Antalya) and Xanthus

110. E.g. Diocletian’s Mausoleum at Salonae

111. Vatican

112. Badminton sarc. (New York); cf. coins of Caracalla

113. Mus. Cap., Rome

114. Alex. Aphrodis., De An. Mant. p. 182, 18 Bruns

115. E.g. Favorinus of Arelate ap., Gell. NA. XIV, I

116. Tert. De An. 47, 2

117. Cypr. Ep. 16, 4; cf. Min. Fel. Oct. 27

118. E.g. The Book of the Dead

119. Lucian, Philopseudes: a mocking collection of ghost stories and enchantments

120. Id., Bis Accus. 27

121. A. Lesky. Lucian was influenced by popular Cynic ‘diatribes’ of Menippus of Gadara

122. Lucian, Icaromenippus ; Juppiter Confutatus; Mortuorum Dialogi; Juppiter Tragoedus; Deorum Concilium

123. Id., De Morte Peregrini; cf. Adv. Indoct. 14, Athenagoras, Leg. 26

124. Lucian, Alexander. The snake was the mouthpiece of Asclepius (Aesculapius)

125. R. M. Rilke (tr. J. B. Leishman)

126. I Chron. XXI; cf. Zech. III, 1–5

127. E.g. Farvardin Yast

128. PI. Rep. 379c; cf. Theaet. 176A, Polit. 269E, Tim. 28c

129. AD 66–70, 115–16, 132–5

130. Eudemius Rhodius (Damascius, De Prim. Princ. ed. Ruelle, I, p. 322)

131. Sext. Emp. Math. VII, 159–65

132. Id. Pyrrh. II, 218–38

133. S. Eitrem

134. Alexander of Lycopolis

135. G. I. Gurdjieff and his followers are the modern successors of the Gnostics

136. Hippol. Philosophumena, Bks. V, VI frs.; Epiphanius

137. Acts VIII, 9 ff. Dr Faustus owes some features to Simon Magus

138. Iren. Adv. Haer. 1, 35, 6 (mid-second century), arising from the sectaries of Carpocrates

139. His followers less subtly identified the Old Testament with Evil.

140. From Chenoboskion; translation from Greek into the Subakhmimic dialect of Coptic

141. E.g. Gospel of Nicodemus (in which there are also Acts of Pilate). Also called Agathodaemon, Baal, Typhon

142. from Zuqnîn; cf. a widely circulating Book of the Cave of Treasures. Seth survived in Shi’ite lore

143. He knew Vologeses I’s new edition of the Avesta, and running commentary in Pahlavi

144. Mani’s Fall is also based on Bardaisan. The overcoming of Primal Mind is told in Turki in the Khuastuanift (Confession)

145. F. C. Burkitt

146. After 1,468 years

147. Theodore bar Konai ap. Pognon, Inscr. Mandaites, p. 193

148. But dualists were also known as bougres, since they believed it better not to propagate the race

149. P. Cair. Isid. 62 (Domitius Domitianus)

150. Aug. In Man. XXIV, 26; cf. Conf. V, 10, VI, 5

151. Manda means something between reason and revelation. The Yezidis of N. Iraq regard the devil as the creative agent of the Supreme God.

152. Byzantine dualists: Messalians or Euchites. Armenians on Euphrates: Paulicians. Bosnia: Patarenes

153. Steven Runciman


1. From Chenoboskion; and 3 MS. strips from Oxyrhynchus

2. St Clement I of Rome, Polycarp

3. Cf. Irenaeus: as natural as the four winds and four quarters of the earth

4. But disputes continued (Eus. EH. III, 25, I) until Athanasius (367)

5. Tert. De Praescr. Her. 8. Cf conquest of evil (lion and boar hunts) on Christian sarcophagi

6. E.g. traditions of Jesus passing on his secret knowledge to James, John and Peter; or to Philip, Matthew and Thomas, twin brother of Jesus. Cf. Pistis Sophia (Apocryphal Acts of John, P. Berlin 8502), Syriac Acts of Philip the Apostle and Evangelist

7. Cf Hebr. II, 10. Irenaeans regard the doctrine of eternal hell as invalidating the Christian explanation of evil

8. Cf. Gen. III; VI, I, 8; and St Paul. Augustine rejected Platonic praise of human intellect

9. Unsuccessful opposition by Arminius in seventeenth century Holland

10. Earlier Apologists: Quadratus to Hadrian, Marcianus Aristides to Antoninus Pius

11. Just. I Apol. (he wrote two Apologies). Justin’s attitude made the prophets unnecessary. He identified St John’s Word with Stoic Mind

12. Clem. Paed. I, 62, 70

13. II Cor. IV, 7; cf Orig. DCB. IV, 119 (and Metrodorus of Lampsacus, fifth century BC, on Homer).

14. He explained evil by adopting the Platonic, Pythagorean view of the soul’s pre-existence, determining man’s fortunes. He accepted Clement’s esotericism, but refused to allow that this élite would continue in the next world.

15. Clement of Alexandria was struck off the list of saints in 1748. Almost all Origen’s works were condemned by Justinian (543), and he inspired a fear of Platonism in tenth-and eleventh-century Byzantines

16. Synods of Arelate and Mediolanum (355, 357). Arius, who denounced his opponents as dualists, had rejected the formula (homoousios, of one substance to the Father) agreed at Nicaea, since it seemed to imply the two Persons’ identity. After c. 350 Arianism asserted that the Holy Spirit was a creature (Tertullian, following Justin, had laid down that the Trinity was one substance, three persons)

17. Tert. denounced philosophers (except Seneca) and professors; cf. Apol. 46, 18, De Test. Anim. I. But Hippolytus’ Apostolic Tradition (c. 215) does not ban the teaching profession

18. Lact. Inst. Div. IV, 22, 30 (tr. Fletcher)

19. Hippol. Philosophumena, IX, 12

20. John XI, 43 ff.

21. Arnob. I, 65

22. Symbolised by peacock and phoenix (cf. on pagan mosaic at Edessa, 235–6). The personal touches, relating to the dead, that are depicted on sarcophagi will be needed at the time of their personal Resurrections

23. Via Salaria sarcophagus; Coemeterium Majus c. 270–5 (female). Cf. PIETAS type on imperial coins

24. Cypr. Ep. 69, 15, Tert. Apol. 46, Min. Fel. 27, Eus. EH. VI, 43, Lact. Inst. Div. IV, 27, I

25. Orig. C. Cels. VII, 4

26. Just. II Apol. 6

27. John XIV, 17, 26, XV, 26, XVI, 7–14

28. Orig. Hom. in Cant. I, 7 (GCS. VIII, 38, 16); preparing the way for the mysticism of Gregory of Nyssa.

29. Tert. De Bapt. I; cf. Paul. Nol. Ep. XIII, II

30. Cypr. Ad Donat. 3

31. The Mass is described by Justin. Origen took a figurative view of the rite

32. E.g. Cat. Praetextatus (third century)

33. Revived in the Great Persecution, discounted by Eusebius and Jerome. The fantastic apocalyptic poetry of Commodian, admired by Huysmans, may be of third, fourth or fifth century

34. Essene origin (?). Cf. parallels with Hercules

35. The Iconoclasts rebelled against this. A series of crude sarcophagi (c. 290) narrate the lives of Jesus and Peter

36. E.g. Cat. Priscilla, mid-second century. Protevangelium: late second or early third century. Sometimes with Balaam (Num. XXIV, 17), who was held to have prophesied the Virgin Birth, and thus linked the two Testaments

37. Cat. Hermes

38. Noah also appears with his Ark on a coin of Phillip at Apamea in Phrygia

39. Jon. I. 17

40. Cf. Sen. Ep. X, I, etc., on the blessings of solitude. Cf. third-century papyri, ‘The Kingdom is within you’

41. Serapis cult (Ptolemy VI Philometor)

42. Regarded with sympathy by the Hellenised Jew Philo

43. Jos. BJ. II, 119. 21

44. Gospel of Thomas

45. PG. 26, 84

46. Near Pispir

47. Three nuclei near Memphis and Arsinoe may be regarded as the origin of the communal (coenobitic) monastic life

48. Ath. V. Ant. 44

49. In the Nitria area of Egypt (Wadi Natrun)

50. Apophth. Amun, II, p. 128

51. There are earlier records of virgins devoted to prayer and service (cf. pagan Vestals): Methodius of Olympus, Banquet of the Twelve Virgins, end third century. Nunneries are sometimes believed to have preceded monasteries

52. At Pabau (Fau-kebli)

53. Seven miles from Majoma

54. E.g. Sulpicius Severus

55. Hist. Mon. VIII, 56

56. St Martin was from Pavia and became Bishop of Tours. Cassian’s monastery and nunnery at Marseille (early fifth century) served as models for many others

57. R. Hezekiah and R. Abbahu, citing R. Eleazar. The Mishnah contains a collection of rulings on O. T. texts

58. Founded by Abba Arika (175–247). Also Nehardea under Samuel (180–250), sacked 258; then Pumbeditha under Judah ben Ezekiel (d. 299). The Alexandrian Jewish community seems to have been almost wiped out in 115–17

59. Cf. Hellenistic themes at Kahane, Avigad. At Beth She’arim Hebrew and Greek inscriptions are mixed. David in the Dura synagogue resembles Orpheus

60. Philostr. V. Apol. 33

61. In Asia, Christians were still observing the Passover in c. 170

62. Cf. Orig. C. Cels. III, 55. The early Christian Didache, however, recommends slaves to submit to their masters as to the images of God. But St Calixtus (217–22) held that divine law authorised inter-class marriages not legally recognised at Rome

63. Pont. V. Cypr. II, Pion. V. Polycarp. 6, Cypr. De Mort. 26, Ep. Diogn. 5, 5

64. Pl. Ep. X, 97

65. Bar Kochba’s revolt under Hadrian seriously shocked the government

66. ? AD 155–6 ? 165–8 ? 177

67. Mart. X. 2; cf. I Clem. 60, 61

68. Mel. ap. Eus. EH. IV, 26, 7 ff

69. Orig. C. Cels. VIII, 68; cf. 2

70. Min. Fel. IX, I ff

71. Tert. Apol. XXIII, 14 ff

72. Ibid., XXXI, 4 f. (tr. T. R. Glover)

73. De Idol. (c. 211), De Cor. Mil., cf. Ad Ux. II, 4, 9, Ad Scap. 2

74. Orig. C. Cels. III, 29, 30

75. Library of Christian Classics, Philadelphia, 1954. For Royal Priesthood, see Rev. I, 6, I Pet. II, 9. Constantine’s recognition of the church ended the period of the laity as a true order

76. Ignat. Ad Smyr. VI, 2. Parochial organisation at Rome developed further under Dionysius (259–68)

77. Jul. Ep. 84a; cf. Luc. Peregr. 12, 13

78. E.g. libelli from Theadelphia (Fayum)

79. From Acta Martyrum Scillitanorum(AD 180) onwards

80. Tert. Apol. L.12 ff

81. Cypr. Ad. Nem., Ep. LXXVI

82. John Chrysostom. Soldiers of Christ: Lact. De Mort. Pers. 31. Martyrdom rare in art: Isaiah at Bagawat, Kufra (fourth century) (cf. scourging of Aelia Afanasia, Cat. Praetextatus, c. 270–80). Pilgrimages to martyria: Bordeaux Pilgrim (333)

83. Eus. EH. VII, 13, I

84. Tert. Apol. 37, 4, Ad Scap. 2

85. Eus. EH. VIII, 1, 2

86. E.g. followers of the Syrian goddess Atargatis. Missionary bishop of Antioch: Serapion. First bishop of Edessa: Palut. Its king: Abgar IX. The Syriac language of Edessa is still used by Nestorians.

87. St Ephraim

88. Athenag. Leg. I, Tert. Apol. 24, Just. I. Apol. 24, had sought to justify Christianity by the diversity of different cultures

89. James of Sarug. The converter of Armenia was king Tiridates III

90. Porph. De Regressu,fr. 10. He also attacked the Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch and the authenticity of the Book of Daniel.

91. Lact. Inst. Div. VIII, 15, II, still shrank in terror from the thought that the empire might be not permanent

92. Id., De Mort. Pers. 16

93. W. H. C. Frend

94. Eus. De Mart. Pal. IX, 3

95. Id., EH. VIII, 17 (tr. G. A. Williamson)

96. Ibid., IX, 7 (tr. G. A. Williamson)

97. Id., V. Const. I, 28, III, 3, Lact. De Mort. Pers. 45. Cf. cosmic Chi in Pl. Tim., and tree of Eden with four fructifying rivers. Perhaps the interpretation was suggested to Constantine by his religious adviser Hosius of Corduba

98. Lact. De Mort. Pers. 46

99. Inherited by Constantine’s wife Fausta from her father Maximian

100. Cod. Theod. XVI, 2, 4; cf. I, 27, I on jurisdiction. Constantine also allowed bishops to free slaves

101. The three sons of Constantine remind Eus. V. Const. IV, 40 of the Trinity. But Constantine, officially, was divinely protected, not quite divine (Firm. Mat. De Err. Prof. Rel. XXIX, 4): cf. heaven-gazing head on coins (as Alexander, Gallienus), interpreted by Jul.Caes. 329 as the Sun looking up lecherously at the Moon. Constantine’s rule is based on the pattern of God who has committed earthly government to him (Opt. Milev. App. III)

102. Eus. V. Const. IV, 24

103. Opt. Milev. App. III (to Aelafius)

104. Cf. also John Chrysostom, Ep. ad Eph. Horn. XI, 5

105. Canon 3 (army) remains obscure. Fourth-and fifth-century popes were still critical of Christian soldiers, civil servants and lawyers

106. Jer. V. Malchi, init.

107. Tat. Or. 25; cf. Didache

108. Tert. De Praescr. Her.; cf. Apol. 46

109. Anon. ap. Eus. EH. V, 16, 10

110. Tert. De Pall. 2. Cf. Apul. Apol. 98 on hatred of Latin

111. Tert. De Cult. Fem. ii, 2

112. The ban on the Novatianists was lifted a year later

113. Constans persecuted the Donatists (345). At a disputation held at Carthage by imperial command (AD 411) they mustered 279 bishops out of 565. Four years later the death penalty was invoked against them. The Egyptian sect comparable to the Donatists were the Melitians

114. I. Clem. (c.AD 95). The titles pappas, papa, at first used of all bishops, were gradually limited in the west to the bishop of Rome (by fifth century), though still used of priests in the eastern church

115. Iren. Adv. Haer. III, 2, 3, cf. Tert. De Praescr. Haer. 36

116. Cypr. Ep. 75; cf. De Cath. Eccl. Un., Ep. 45. 3, 55. 4

117. H.H. Milman

118. St Gregory of Nazianzus

119. After disputes between St Basil (d. 379) and pope St Damasus I, Rome enforced clerical celibacy (385) and Constantinople did not. From 484 de facto division for 40 years. At the same time views on the Procession were becoming irreconcilable: cproceed from the Father only (Eastern view – single and indivisible supreme deity) or from the Father and Son (Western view–stressing divinity of Jesus) ?


1. Cf. F. W. Walbank

2. Cf. V. Ehrenberg: ‘For our purpose, it will be sufficient to see society as that part of the population which, at a certain time, can be regarded as the necessary background for the creative individual’

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