Ancient History & Civilisation

Select Bibliography

I list a few of the books and articles which are most relevant to each chapter; these cite many other sources which I have often absorbed. Space has obliged me to be selective, but the numbered notes and the bibliography should direct readers to the sources and discussions of the main issues in my text. The latest Oxford Classical Dictionary, revised by S. Hornblower and A. J. Spawforth (1996), is an invaluable first stop on topics and individuals, with excellent short entries. Throughout, I would refer to The Cambridge Ancient History, volumes III.2–XI (1982–2000) in its second, updated edition. Many of its chapters should be the next resort for those wanting more. Many other one-or two-volume surveys of the classical world, or parts of it, exist. John Boardman, Jasper Griffin and Oswyn Murray (eds.), The Oxford History of the Classical World (1986) has many good chapters and retains its value. Paul Cartledge (ed.), Cambridge Illustrated History of Ancient Greece (1998) gives particular space to the material world and the labourers, on which I have said less. Greg Woolf, Cambridge Illustrated History of the Roman World (2003) is now its thematic companion volume. Nigel Spivey and Michael Squire, Panorama of the Classical World (2004) is a thematic survey with many more illustrations. Charles Freeman, Egypt, Greece and Rome (2004) is a good one-volume survey including non-classical worlds. Many have been interested by Mary Beard and John Henderson, Classics: A Very Short Introduction (1995). The Very Short Introduction to Ancient Warfare, by Harry Sidebottom (2004) is outstandingly good.

The best general work of art history on the Greek side is Martin Robertson, A History of Greek Art, volumes 1 and 2 (1972). Nothing quite so good exists in English on the Roman side, but Paul Zanker, The Power of Images in The Age of Augustus (1988) has made a big impression. Sculpture is fully surveyed by W. Fuchs, Skulptur der Griechen(1993, 3rd edn.), the fullest one-volume guide, with many photographs. B. S. Ridgway, The Archaic Style in Greek Sculpture (1993), Fourth-century Styles in Greek Sculpture (1997) and Hellenistic Sculpture, volumes I–III (1990–2002) are all excellent guides. J. G. Pedley, Greek Art and Archaeology (2002, 3rd edn.) is another, with J. Boardman’s very many books especially his The Diffusion of Classical Art in Antiquity (1994). There are now two outstandingly good archaeological guidebooks in English, expert but accessible: Amanda Claridge, Rome: An Oxford Archaeological Guide (1998) and Antony Spawforth and Christopher Mee, Greece: An Oxford Archaeological Guide (2001) which is outstandingly helpful, a major guide to visible Greek ‘material culture’.

Several publishers now run series on the periods or key themes of ancient history. The Cambridge University Press ‘key themes’ are accessible and compact, of which Keith Bradley, Slavery and Society at Rome (1994), Peter Garnsey, Food and Society in Classical Antiquity (1999) and Jean Andreau, Banking and Business in the Roman World(1999) are particularly helpful on themes I compress here. Routledge publish an excellent series which fills out what I condense: Robin Osborne, Greece in the Making, 1200–479 BC (1996); Simon Hornblower, The Greek World after Alexander, 323–30 BC (2000); T. J. Cornell, The Beginnings of Rome, c.1000–264 BC (1995); Martin Goodman,The Roman World, 44 BC–AD 180 (1997). Fontana have published an excellent series of shorter interpretative studies which are also highly recommended: Oswyn Murray, Early Greece (1993); J. K. Davies, Democracy and Classical Greece (1993); F. W. Walbank, The Hellenistic World (1992 edn.); Michael Crawford, The Roman Republic(1978); Colin Wells, The Roman Empire (1992). They are the best short introductions to these periods. Blackwells have begun a bigger series of ‘Companions’, of which Andrew Erskine (ed.), A Companion to the Hellenistic World (2003) is exceptionally good, with other promising volumes to follow. P. J. Rhodes, A History of the Classical Greek World, 478–323 BC (2005) will be the basic survey of this complex period.

After a Fontana volume, then a Routledge one and a ‘Companion’, I recommend strongly the collections of important articles from Edinburgh University Press, of which P. J. Rhodes (ed.), Athenian Democracy (2004), Michael Whitby (ed.), Sparta (2001), Walter Scheidel and Sitta von Reden (eds.), The Ancient Economy (2002), Mark Golden and Peter Toohey (eds.), Sex and Difference in Greece and Rome (2003) and Clifford Ando (ed.), Roman Religion (2003) are particularly relevant and well chosen.

Older volumes retain their exceptional value, of which I recommend especially L. H. Jeffery, The Archaic States of Greece (1976), E. R. Dodds, The Greeks and the Irrational (1951); A. Andrewes, The Greeks (1967); W. G. Forrest, The Emergence of Greek Democracy (1963); W. W. Tarn and G. T. Griffith, Hellenistic Civilization (1952); E. J. Bickerman, The Jews in the Greek Age (1988), a masterpiece, P. A. Brunt, Social Conflicts in the Roman Republic (1971) and J. P. V. D. Balsdon, Life and Leisure at Rome (1969), still not surpassed.

On my three main themes, I should mention on freedom Kurt Raaflaub, The Discovery of Freedom in Ancient Greece (2004), from which I have sometimes carefully diverged, and P. A. Brunt, The Fall of the Roman Republic (1988), 281–350, with C. Wirszubski, Libertas as a Political Idea at Rome during the Late Republic and Early Principate(1950), importantly reviewed by A. Momigliano in Journal of Roman Studies (1951), 144–53. Paul S. Rahe, Republics Ancient and Modern, volume I (1994), is important and challenging. The changing administration of justice is a topic of such increasing complexity that I am aware I have often compressed it. D. M. MacDowell,Spartan Law(1986) and The Law in Classical Athens (1978) are accessible, with the old, but not unprofitable, survey of R. J. Bonner and G. Smith, The Administration of Justice from Homer to Aristotle, volumes I–II (1930–8). For Rome, John A. Crook, Law and Life of Rome (1967) retains its value, with Alan Watson, Rome of the XII Tables(1975) on the earlier period, and the good survey-chapters by Duncan Cloud and John Crook in Cambridge Ancient History, volume IX (1994), 498–563 and Bruce W. Frier, ibid., volume X (1996), 959–79.

On luxury, A. Dalby, Empire of Pleasures (2000) lists much that was local, as do D. Braund and J. Wilkins, (eds.), Athenaeus and His World (2000), with L. Foxhall, in N. Fisher and H. van Wees, Archaic Greece: New Approaches and New Evidence (1998), 295–309, James Davidson, Courtesans and Fishcakes (1998), J. Tondriau, in Revue des Études Anciennes (1948), 49–52, on the Ptolemies, and A. Passerini, in Studi italiani di filologia classica (1934), 35–56. R. Bernhardt, Luxuskritik und Aufwandsbeschränkungen in der Griechischen Welt (2003) is important. For Rome, the bibliography to Chapter 30, ‘Luxury and Licence’, gives good starting points.

Of course, the ancient sources, including inscriptions, remain fundamental throughout, of which the main authors are all translated in the Penguin Classics series or, with facing original texts, in the Loeb Library series whose two volumes on Arrian by P. A. Brunt and those on Cicero’s Letters and Martial’s Epigrams by D. R. Shackleton Baileyare major scholarly commentaries in their own right.


Elizabeth Speller, Following Hadrian: A Second-Century Journey through the Roman Empire (2002) is a good account, while Anthony R. Birley, Hadrian: The Restless Emperor (1997) is an excellent factual study; Mary T. Boatwright, Hadrian and the Italian Cities (1989), Hadrian and the City of Rome (1987) and Hadrian and the Cities of the Roman Empire (2000) are indispensable sources too. R. Syme’s many studies are also an important resource, now available in his Roman Papers II.617–28; III.1303–15 and 1436–46; IV.94–114 and 295–324; V.546–78; VI.103–14, 157–81, 346–57, 398–408. W. L. MacDonald and John A. Pinto, Hadrian’s Villa and Its Legacy (1995) is particularlystrong on the architecture; David Breeze and Brian Dobson, Hadrian’s Wall (2000, 4th edn.), for Britain; A. J. Spaw-forth and S. Walker, in Journal of Roman Studies (1985), 78–104, is still a brilliant study of Hadrian and Athens; J. M. C. Toynbee, The Hadrianic School: A Chapter in the History of Greek Art (1934) is unsurpassed, still. On the term ‘classic’, see now P. R. Hardie, ‘Classicism’ in Oxford Classical Dictionary (1996, 3rd edn.), 336, to which add Tonio Hölscher, The Language of Images in Roman Art (2004, English translation). R. Lambert, Beloved and God: The Story of Antinous and Hadrian (1984) is worth serious engagement. L. Robert, in Bulletin de Correspondance Hellénique (1978), 437–52, is brilliant on Hadrian the Hunter in Asia Minor.


Jasper Griffin, Homer on Life and Death (1980) is a classic; Jasper Griffin, Homer: The Odyssey (1987), a good short guide. J. B. Hainsworth, The Idea of Epic (1991), on composition. Douglas L. Cairns, Oxford Readings in Homer’s Iliad (2001), a good selection of essays; Robert Fowler (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Homer (2004), the latest of many such. The best commentaries are the three-volume A Commentary on Homer’s Odyssey, translated and republished by the Clarendon Press, Oxford (1985–93) and the six-volume The Iliad: A Commentary, under the general editorship of G. S. Kirk, from Cambridge (1985–93). J.-P. Crielaard (ed.), Homeric Questions (1995), 201–89, on eighth-century dating. Barbara Graziosi, Inventing Homer: The Early Reception of Epic (2002), on the ‘biography’ of Homer. On the trial scene in Iliad 18, H. J. Wolff, in Traditio (1946), 31–87, is still a starting point.


On the polis, M. H. Hansen, in Historia (2003), 257–82, summarizes his group’s researches since 1993; John Boardman, The Greeks Overseas: Their Early Colonies and Trade (4th edn., 1999) is fundamental; R. Osborne, Greece in the Making, 1200–479 BC (1996), 19–136, and especially I. Lemos, The Protogeometric Aegean: The Archaeology of the Late Eleventh and Tenth Centuries BC (2002), for the ‘dark’ ages. M. Popham, in Gocha R. Tsetskhladze and F. de Angelis (eds.), The Archaeology of Greek Colonization (1994), 11–34, summarizes work at Lefkandi in Euboea; M. A. Aubet, The Phoenicians and the West: Politics, Colonies and Trade (1996 edn.). On Greekness, see especially R. Fowler, ‘Genealogical Thinking: Hesiod’s Catalogue and the Creation of the Hellenes’, in Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society, 44 (1998), 1–20. G. R. Tsetskhladze and A. M. Snodgrass (eds.), Greek Settlements in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea (2002). Otar Lordkipanidze, Phasis: The River and City in Colchis(2000). L. Robert, in Bulletin de Correspondance Hellénique (1978), 535–8, is brilliant on wine-growing at Koumi in Euboea; Günter Kopcke, in Erica Ehrenberg (ed.), Leaving No Stones Unturned… (2002), 109–18, on the pottery fragments found in Galilee; D. Ridgway, The First Western Greeks (1992), on work at Ischia; W. Burkert, The Orientalizing Revolution (1992) provokes thought; Irad Malkin, in Peter Derow and Robert Parker (eds.), Herodotus and His World (2003), 153–70, opposes, as I do, the incorrect notion that settlements were unofficial in every case, and that all written evidence for their nature and organization should be regarded as later folk tale or adjusted ‘legend’. On Acragas, Sybaris and everything Western, T. J. Dunbabin, The Western Greeks (1948), especially pages 75–83 and 305–25.


Jacob Burckhardt, The Greeks and Greek Civilization, abridged and translated by Sheila Stern (1998), 160–213, a classic study, though best read in German as the translation is abbreviated. Walter Donlan, The Aristocratic Ideal in Ancient Greece (1980) is a good modern survey, now updated with his selected papers (1999) in a reissue. Robert Parker, Athenian Religion: A History (1996), chapters 2–3, 5 and pages 284–327 show the detail and problems of genē in our best-known city-state; F. Bourriot, Recherches sur la nature du genos (1976) is not a definitive treatment by any means. R. Lane Fox, in R. Brock and S. Hodkinson (eds.), Alternatives to Athens (2000), 35–51, on Theognis’ arch-aristocratic outlook; I have to say I am quite unconvinced, as Theognis would be, by H. van Wees, ibid., pages 52–67, and the attempt to reclassify him as a mafioso, one among many; Theognis, lines 183–8 are eugenic, as Xenophon, in Stobaeus Florilegium 88.14 was aware, though arguing for a new interpretation. The ‘aristocracy’ cannot be taken out of early Greek (‘eupatrid’) history. Nigel Spivey, The Ancient Olympics (2004) is now an excellent guide to athletic matters; O. Murray (ed.), Sympotica: A Symposium on the Symposium (1990), on the parties; on hunting, R. Lane Fox, in J. B. Salmon and Graham Shipley (eds.), Human Landscapes in Classical Antiquity (1996) 119–53; K. J. Dover, Greek Homosexuality (1978), 49–135, is basic, but with the important critique by James Davidson, in Past and Present (2001), 3–51. Sitta von Reden, Exchange in Ancient Greece (1995), 1–78, on gifts; Paul Cartledge, in Peter Garnsey, Keith Hopkins and C. R. Whittaker (eds.), Trade in the Ancient Economy (1983), 1–15, on trade and politics; Philip de Souza, in Nick Fisher and Hans van Wees, Archaic Greece (1998), 271–94, discusses, less optimistically, the problems of early naval warfare.


Mary Lefkowitz, Greek Gods, Human Lives: What We Can Learn from the Myths (2003) also sees the lasting force of this aspect of Greeks’ imagination; Jan N. Bremmer, The Rise and Fall of the Afterlife (2002), with N. J. Richardson, in P. E. Easterling and J. V. Muir (eds.), Greek Religion and Society (1985), 50–66. Simon Price, Religions of the Ancient Greeks (1999); W. Burkert, Greek Religion: Archaic and Classical (1985) is the classic handbook; A. D. Nock, Essays on Religion and the Ancient World, ed. Z. Stewart, volumes I and II (1972) are classics; so is R. C. T. Parker, Athenian Religion: A History (1996), with his ‘Gods Cruel and Kind’ in C. Pelling (ed.), Greek Tragedy and the Historian (1997), 143–60. W. H. D. Rouse, Greek Votive Offerings (1902). F. Graf, ‘Dionysian and Orphic Eschatology: New Texts and Old Questions’, in T. H. Carpenter and C. A. Faraone (eds.), Masks of Dionysos (1993), 239–58, marks a new start. J. Gould, Myth, Ritual, Memory and Exchange (2001), 269–82, and E. Csapo, in Phoenix(1997), 253–95, are both good on Dionysus; R. Lane Fox, Pagans and Christians (1986), 102–67, on the presence of the gods; H. W. Parke, Greek Oracles (1967), The Oracles of Zeus (1967) and The Oracles of Apollo in Asia Minor (1983), with Robert Parker, in P. Cartledge and F. D. Harvey, Crux: Essays Presented to G. E. M. de Sainte Croix(1985), 298–326.


A. Andrewes, The Greek Tyrants (1974 edn.); H. W. Pleket, ‘The Archaic Tyrannis’, in Talanta I (1969), 19–61; J. B. Salmon, ‘Political Hoplites’, in Journal of Hellenic Studies (1977), 84–101; J. T. Salmon, Wealthy Corinth (1984), 186–230, and Graham Shipley, A History of Samos (1987), 69–102, for two good surveys of major tyrannies; Hermann J. Kienast, ‘Topography and Architecture of the Archaic Heraion at Samos’, in Maria Stamatopoulou and Marina Yeroulanou (eds.), Excavating Classical Culture (2002), 311–26, is important. On Solon, A. Andrewes, in Cambridge Ancient History, volume III.3 (1982), 375–91 and P. J. Rhodes, A Commentary on the Aristotelian Athenaion Politeia (1993 edn.), 118–78, are superior to studies written since, most of which they refute; O. Murray, in Paul Cartledge, Paul Millett and Stephen Todd (eds.), Nomos: Essays in Athenian Law, Politics and Society (1990), 139–146, adds value; A. Zimmern, The Greek Commonwealth (1911), 125–38, on ‘fair play’, with the classic study of W. G. Forrest, Bulletin de Correspondance Hellénique (1956), 33–52, whose long-shots I still want to believe; R. F. Willetts, The Law Code of Gortyn (1967) translates the great text on which I side with Edmond Lévy, ‘La Cohérence du code de Gortyne’, in Edmond Lévy (ed.), La Codification des lois dans l’antiquité (2000), 185–214; G. E. M. de Sainte Croix, Athenian Democratic Origins (2004) is magnificently right about the propertyclasses (pages 5–72), wrong on the ‘zeugite’ (page 50) and vigorouslywrong, but wary, about ‘hektemoroi’ (‘sixth-part payers’) as essentially debtors (pages 109–27). The entire collection is a classic.


W. G. Forrest, A History of Sparta (1994 edn.); M. Whitby (ed.), Sparta (2002); Paul Cartledge, The Spartans: An Epic History (2002) and Spartan Reflections (2001); Anton Powell and Stephen Hodkinson (eds.), Sparta beyond the Mirage (2002); Anton Powell (ed.), Classical Sparta: Techniques behind Her Success (1989) is a fine collection, especially the essays on laughter, on drink and the promotion of harmony and a very penetrating study of Spartan religion by Robert Parker. Alcman’s bewitching, and partially intelligible, Partheneion is most recently discussed by G. O. Hutchinson, Greek Lyric Poetry (2001); G. Devereux, in Classical Quarterly (1965), 176–84, is excellent on the horses; Daniel Ogden, in Journal of Hellenic Studies (1994), 85–91, is an excellent guide to the Great Rhetra’s problems; Nino Luraghi and Susan Alcock (eds.), Helots and Their Masters (2003), on an ill-attested subject; Robin Osborne, ‘The Spartan Exception?’, in Marja C. Vink (ed.), Debating Dark Ages (1996–7), 19–23, for a clear summary of archaeological evidence.


John M. Cook, The Greeks in Ionia and the East (1960) and G. L. Huxley, The Early Ionians (1966) are full of detail; Graham Shipley, A History of Samos (1983) and C. Roebuck and H. Kyrieleis, in J. Boardman and C. E. Vaphopoulou-Richardson (eds.), Chios (1984), 81–8 and 187–204, are excellent island studies; Ellen Greene (ed.), Re-reading Sappho: Contemporary Approaches (1996), especially chapters 7 and 8. Edward Hussey, The Presocratics (1996 edn.) is very clear; Jonathan Barnes, Early Greek Philosophy (2001, revised edn.) and The Presocratic Philosophers (1999) are fuller; Alan M. Greaves, Miletos: A History (2002), not displacing the older and wilder Adelaide G. Dunham, The History of Miletus Down to the Anabasis of Alexander (1919); R. M. Cook and Pierre Dupont, East Greek Pottery (2002). Thomas Braun, ‘Hecataeus’ Knowledge of the Western Mediterranean’, in Kathryn Lomas (ed.), Greek Identity in the Western Mediterranean (2004), 287–348, a very important study; Robert Leighton,Tarquinia: An Etruscan City (2004) with Sybille Haynes, Etruscan Civilization: A Cultural History (2000), an excellent overview, and her well-based novel about Etruscan life, The Augur’s Daughter (1987).


I. Malkin, Myth and Territory in the Spartan Mediterranean (1994); W. G. Forrest, A History of Sparta (1967), 69–95, a classic; Adrienne Mayor, The First Fossil Hunters (2000), a brilliant study of ‘bones’; Martin Ostwald, Autonomia: Its Genesis and Early History (1982), with which I have disagreed; R. J. Lane Fox and also O. Murray, in John T. A. Koumoulides, The Good Idea: Democracy and Ancient Greece (1995) on Cleisthenes, and Orlando Patterson, Freedom (1997) with which I disagree; W. G. Forrest, The Emergence of Greek Democracy (1963) is the classic studystill, with the very important essay by A. Andrewes, in Classical Quarterly (1977), 241–8 and by H. T. Wade-Gery,Essays in Greek History (1958), 135–54, a still-inspiring collection; D. M. Lewis, in Historia (1963), 22–40, is the classic on the infrastructure; P. J. Rhodes (ed.), Athenian Democracy (2004) is a good selection of papers; G. E. M. de Sainte Croix, Athenian Democratic Origins (2004), 180–214, excellent on ostracism; Mogens H. Hansen,The Athenian Democracy in the Age of Demosthenes (1991; revised edn., 1999), on institutions; J. K. Davies, in Peter Derow and Robert Parker, Herodotus and His World (2003), 319–36, on sixth-century state development; D. Mertens, in Bolletino d’arte (1982), 1–57, on Metapontum; Eric W. Robinson, The First Democracies (1997), for rival ‘firsts’ for which I do not accept the evidence.


P. Briant, From Cyrus to Alexander: A History of the Persian Empire, translated by Peter T. Daniels (2002), is a massive survey, with strong interpretations; E. J. Bickermann, in Journal of Biblical Literature (1945–6), 249–75, is classic on Cyrus and the Jews; O. Murray, in Cambridge Ancient History, volume IV (1988), 461–90, J. L. Myres, inPalestine Exploration Quarterly (1953), 8–22, a brilliant essay, and W. G. Forrest, in International History Review (1979), 311–25, another: all discuss the Revolt in Asia Minor; A. R. Burn, Persia and the Greeks: The Defence of the West (1984, 2nd edn.) is best on the wars; Philip de Souza, The Greek and Persian Wars, 499–386 BC (2003) gives a simple overview; N. G. L. Hammond and J. P. Barron in Cambridge Ancient History, volume IV (1988), 461–90 and 592–622, are excellent on detail; D. B. Thompson, in The Aegean and the Near East: Studies Presented to Hatty Goldman (1956), 281–91 is classic on the Persian spoils in Athens; E. Hall, Inventing the Barbarian: Greek Self-Definition through Tragedy (1989) is valid for vase painting and drama at Athens only; Margaret C. Miller, Athens and Persia in the Fifth Century BC (1997) elaborates on the Persians’ impact.


E. A. Freeman, A History of Sicily, volume II (1891), 49–222, is still unsurpassed; Georges Vallet, in Pindare: Huit exposés, Entretiens Fondation Hardt XXXI (1984), 285–327, is also a tour de force, especially Pindar as ‘témoin oculaire’ of erupting Etna, Pindar in (male) love while others were at war at Marathon (page 312: ‘oui, Pindare a aimé ce jeune home sage et bon, ami des Muses’: Thrasybulus of Agrigentum) and then Pindar confronted with unpredictable democracy (pages 316–17), with the brilliant study by W. S. Barrett, in Journal of Hellenic Studies (1973), 23–35. On Pindar and the afterlife, Hugh Lloyd-Jones, ibid. (1984), 245–83 is also excellent. J. G. Pedley, Paestum: Greeks and Romans in Southern Italy (1990) is a fine survey of a fine site; J. J. Coulton, Greek Architects at Work (1977), 82–8 and 141–4, on temple-building; M. W. Frederiksen, Campania (1984), 85–133, on Greeks in Italy and Etruria; on early Rome, T. J. Cornell, The Beginnings of Rome (1995), chapters 3–11, although I certainly do not accept that ‘Etruscan Rome’ was a ‘myth’; Christopher J. Smith, Early Rome and Latium (1996), for Rome’s surrounds; A. Grandazzi, The Foundation of Rome: Myth and History (1997), for more of the former than the latter; Alan Watson, Rome of the XII Tables: Persons and Property (1975) is an enjoyable study, with A. W. Lintott, The Constitution of the Roman Republic (1999), 27–146, a magisterial survey. For the Tables themselves, M. H. Crawford, Roman Statutes, volume II (1996), 555–722, a fine study.


P. J. Rhodes, The Athenian Empire (1985) gives an excellent survey; R. Meiggs, The Athenian Empire (1975) is classic, especially chapters 11–23 and pages 413–589; I confess to disbelieving in a ‘Delian League’, to rejecting the superfluous activities of Aristides, mythologized in Aristotle, Athenaion Politeia 23.4–5, and therefore to accepting the lucid view of A. Giovannini and G. Gottlieb, in Sitzungsberichte der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften: Phil.-Hist. Klasse (1980), 7–45 which torpedoes much modern debate. P. J. Stylianou, The Age of the Kingdoms (1989), 428–58, is a good view from Cyprus outwards; W. G. Forrest, in Classical Quarterly (1960), 232–41, is a classic, on the ‘two groups’ of Athenians. J. K. Davies, Democracy and Classical Greece (1993, 2nd edn.), chapters 4, 5 and 6, is particularly clear. S. Brenne and P. Siewert, Ostrakismos-Testimonien (2002 – in progress) publishes the excellent new range of ostraka, while G. E. M. de Sainte Croix, Athenian Democratic Origins (2004), 180–214, explains the institution; M. Ostwald, From Popular Sovereignty to the Sovereignty of Law (1986), 28–83, on constitutional change at Athens; G. E. M. de Sainte Croix, in Historia (1954–5), 1–40, is still the best study of the ‘character’ of the Empire, after decades of debate and criticism; D. M. Lewis, Selected Papers in Greek and Near Eastern History(1997) 9–21, on the ‘first’ war; Jeffrey M. Hurwit, The Athenian Acropolis (1999), 138–245, on its changing face. E. A. Freeman, The History of Sicily, volume II (1891), 222–429, is still unsurpassed on the West.


Deborah Boedeker and Kurt A. Raaflaub (eds.), Democracy, Empire and the Arts in Fifth Century Athens (1998); T. B. L. Webster, Athenian Culture and Society (1973) is still valuable; Martin Robertson, A History of Greek Art, volume I (1972), 292–362, and his The Art of Vase Painting in Classical Athens (1992) are classic on the classical age; James Whitley, The Archaeology of Ancient Greece (2001), 269–94, finds ‘defining the “classical” an elusive task’, by contrast. Terence Irwin, Classical Thought (1989) is very clear and E. R. Dodds, The Greeks and the Irrational (1951), 179–206, and The Ancient Concept of Progress (1973), 1–25, are unarguably classics, perhaps even for J. Whitley. R. Netz, The Shaping of Deduction in Early Greek Mathematics (1999) is very important. On Herodotus, John Gould, Herodotus (1989) with Thomas Harrison, Divinity and History (2000), a helpful study, Rosalind Thomas, Herodotus in Context (2000) from whom I differ. R. L. Fowler, in Journal of Hellenic Studies (1996), 62–87, inclines against a Herodotus who is ‘first’ on the historical scene. W. G. Forrest, in Phoenix (1984), 1–11, is very important on Herodotus’ politics. W. K. Pritchett, The Liar School of Herodotus (1993) is vigorous and pages 150–59 address the chariot-group at Athens and Herodotus’ visit, a reason why, perhaps too specifically, I put him in Athens in 438/7, before (on usual dating) the new Propylaea; the ancients think of a visit in 446/5, perhaps only as a synchronism with the Thirty Years Peace. Margaret C. Miller, in American Journal of Archaeology (1999), 223–54, memorably discusses the scenes of cross-dressing. J. Gould, in Journal of Hellenic Studies (1980), 38–55, is a basic study on Athenian women, with Roger Just, Women in Ancient Law and Life (1987), essays in Ian McAusland and Peter Walcot, Women in Antiquity (1996) and much else. R. Osborne, in Past and Present (1997), 3–33, points to a change in the representation of women, albeit in our surviving evidence; I hesitate to link it to the citizenship law, on which G. E. M. de Sainte Croix, Athenian Democratic Origins (2004), 233–53. On Sculpture, Andreas Scholl, Die korenhalle Des Erechtheion (1998), with J. B. Connelly, in American Journal of Archaeology (1996), 53–80, is brilliantly controversial and not yet refuted by critics; Stefano d’Ayala Valva, in Antike Kunst (1996), 5–13, is very important, with W. Fuchs, Torsten Mattern, ed., Munus… für Hans Wiegart (2000) 111–2 identifying Erichthonios in the Frieze’s procession. A. W. Pickard-Cambridge, The Dramatic Festivals of Athens (1986, revised edn.), 263–78, is still basic on the audience; on tragedy and ‘political ideas’, S. Goldhill, in Christopher Rowe and Malcolm Schofield (eds.),Cambridge History of Greek and Roman Political Thought (2000), 60–88, for a clear survey, but see Jasper Griffin, in Classical Quarterly (1998), 39–61. I wrote this chapter before the publication of P. J. Rhodes, in Journal of Hellenic Studies (2003), 104–19, which is very important. Eric Segal (ed.), Oxford Readings in Aristophanes (1996) and Malcolm Heath, Political Comedy in Aristophanes (1987) provoke thought; W. G. Forrest, in Klio (1970), 107–16, is important for the context, surely, of Knights; Nan Dunbar, Aristophanes’ Birds (1994) is a brilliant commentary.


Plutarch’s Life of Pericles is edited by Frank J. Frost (1980); Anthony J. Podlecki, Perikles and His Circle (1998) and An Age of Glory: Athens in the Time of Pericles (1975); A. W. Gomme, Historical Commentary on Thucydides, volumes 1 and 2, for noble observations on Thucydides, 1.140–44, 2.35–46 and 2.60–64. Jeffrey M. Hurwit, The Acropolis in the Age of Pericles (2004).


D. M. Lewis, in Cambridge Ancient History, volume V (1992), 370–432, and A. Andrewes, ibid. (1992), 433–98, are now the best surveys; V. D. Hanson, Why the West Has Won: Carnage and Culture from Salamis to Vietnam (2000) is enjoyably controversial; H. van Wees, Greek Warfare: Myths and Realities (2004), especially chapters 12 onwards. On Thucydides, G. E. M. de Sainte Croix, Origins of the Peloponnesian War (1972), 5–34, is a classic, as is the rest of the book; Tim Rood, Thucydides: Narrative and Explanation (1998) is important; A. Andrewes and K. J. Dover, Commentary on Thucydides, volumes IV and V (1981), are also fundamental, although we disagree about Thucydides 8.97.2. The latest commentary in progress is S. Hornblower, A Commentary on Thucydides (1991–6, so far). On a Spartan’s brutality, Sherry Lee Bassett, in Ancient History Bulletin (2001), 1–13; compare S. Hornblower, in Hans van Wees, War and Violence in Ancient Greece (2000), 57–82, on their canes, and Clifford Hindley, inClassical Quarterly (1994), 347–66, on their sex-lives. For a memorable view of the war’s impact, Gilbert Murray, in Journal of Hellenic Studies (1944), 1–9; for one which is more factually based, Barry Strauss, Athens after the Peloponnesian War: Class, Faction and Policy, 403–386 BC (1987).


C. C. W. Taylor, Socrates (1998) is an excellent short guide; Gregory Vlastos, Socrates (1991) is a fuller, vigorous study; R. C. T. Parker, Athenian Religion: A History (1996), 152–218, is very important, with E. R. Dodds, The Greeks and the Irrational (1951), 179–206, a classic. W. G. Forrest, in Yale Classical Studies (1975), 37–52, is still the outstanding study of the ‘generation gap’, though composed in 1968 whose événements are audible in it; M. Ostwald, From Popular Sovereignty to the Sovereignty of Law (1986), 537–50, studies the personnel very interestingly. Paula Gottlieb, in Classical Quarterly (1992), 278–9, is important on irony; Thomas C. Brickhouse and Nicholas D. Smith, The Trial and Execution of Socrates (2002) collects sources and discussions, including the pungent one by I. F. Stone, The Trial of Socrates (1997); James A. Coliasco, Socrates against the Athenians (2001) and Malcolm Schofield, in T. P. Wiseman (ed.), Classics in Progress (2002), 263–84, on Socrates and the lot. Paul Zanker, The Mask of Socrates (1995, English translation) is a fine study of the later portraitures.


S. Hornblower, The Greek World, 479–323 BC (2002, 3rd edn.), 210–60, is an excellent guide through the complex events; J. K. Davies, Democracy and Classical Greece (1993, 2nd edn.), 134–260, is an interpretative survey; N. G. L. Hammond, A History of Greece to 322 BC (1967), 466–520, and especially pages 663–5 on army-numbers in the main states; P. Carlier, Le IVème siècle avant J.-C.: Approaches historiographiques (1996). J. Roy, in Roger Brock and Stephen Hodkinson (eds.), Alternative to Athens (2000), 308–26, is important on Arcadia, with Frank W. Walbank, Selected Papers (1985), chapters 1 and 2, on Greek nationality and Greek ‘federalism’; Alexander Fuks, Social Conflict in Ancient Greece (1984), with A. W. Lintott, Violence, Civil Strife and Revolution in the Classical City (1982), chapters 6 and 7; M. N. Tod, International Arbitration among the Greeks (1913) is still valuable.


Jenifer Neils and John H. Oakley, Coming of Age in Ancient Greece: Images of Childhood from the Classical Past (2003), with excellent illustrations; Mark Golden, Children and Childhood in Classical Athens (1990); Mark Golden, in Greece and Rome (1988), 152–62, on whether the ancients cared when children died. On abortion, K. Kapparis,Abortion in the Ancient World (2002); D. Ogden, Greek Bastardy (1996); J.-M. Hannick, ‘Droit de cité et mariages mixtes’, in L’Antiquité classique (1976), 133–48; Mary R. Lefkowitz and Maureen A. Fant, Women’s Life in Greece and Rome: A Sourcebook (1992); Ellen D. Reeder, Pandora: Women in Classical Greece (1995); Helen King,Hippocrates’ Woman: Reading the Female Body in Ancient Greece (1998) is excellent on medical fantasies; James Davidson, Courtesans and Fishcakes (1998), 73–212, on prostitution and sex; Sian Lewis, The Athenian Woman (2002), very good on the iconography; Pierre Brulé, Women of Ancient Greece (2003, English translation), a thoughtful study; Debra Hamel, Trying Neaira (2003) is an excellent, clear read. On education, H. I. Marrou, Histoire de L’éducation dans L’antiquité (1965, revised edn.) is classic. Matthew Dillon, Girls and Women in Classical Greek Religion (2002), with the excellent study of R. G. Osborne, in Classical Quarterly (1993), 392–405. On King Philip’s family, Kate Mortensen, in Ancient History Bulletin (1992), 156–71.


The evidence for Philip and his predecessors is admirably assembled by N. G. L. Hammond and G. T. Griffith, A History of Macedonia, volume II (1979), 113–722, with very lengthy discourse. There are short biographies by G. L. Cawkwell, Philip of Macedon (1978) and a remarkable construct by N. G. L. Hammond, Philip of Macedon (1994), a eulogy; on Macedonian Greek, M. B. Hatzopoulos, in Atti XI Congresso Internazionale di Epigrafia Greca e Latina, volume I (1999), 257–73, and Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum XLIX (1999) numbers 656–7; René Ginouvès, Macedonia from Philip II to the Roman Conquest (1993) gives a good idea of finds in Macedon, up to that date; M. B. Hatzopoulos and Louisa D. Loukopoulos (eds.), Philip of Macedon (1981) includes good essays by G. T. Griffith on Philip as a general and M. Andronicos (the hero of this subject) on the Royal Tombs at Aigai; M. Andronicos, Vergina: The Royal Tombs and the Ancient City (1989) and Vergina II: The Tomb of Persephone (1994) are stunning, with A. N. J. W. Prag, J. H. Musgrave and R. A. H. Neave, in Journal of Hellenic Studies (1984), 60–78; attempts to attribute Tomb II to Philip III continue on unconvincing grounds and are increasingly behind the evidence now available on site; O. Palagia, in E. J. Baynham and A. B. Bosworth, Alexander the Great in Fact and Fiction(2000), 189–200, is a recent example.


The bibliography is vast here: two good very short introductions are R. M. Hare, Plato (1982) and Jonathan Barnes, Aristotle (1982); Bernard Williams, Plato: The Invention of Philosophy (1998) is veryclear; Julia Annas, An Introduction to Plato’s Republic (1981), T. H. Irwin, Plato’s Ethics (1995) and R. B. Rutherford, The Art of Plato (1995) are a good trio, on accessible topics; Gail Fine (ed.), Plato 1 and 2 (1999) gives an excellent selection of studies, with a fine introduction and bibliographies; R. Kraut (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Plato (1992) is also excellent; David Sedley, in T. Calvo and L. Brisson (eds.), Interpreting the Timaeus and Critias (1997), 327–39, on ‘likeness to God’, with the superb study by A. J. Festugière, La Révélation de L’Hermès Trismegiste, volumes I–IV (1949–54), a profound classic. P. A. Brunt, Studies in Greek History and Thought (1993), 242–344, is magisterial on the laws, the letters and Plato’s pupils. Julia Annas and Robin Waterfield (eds.), Plato’s Statesman (1995); M. M. Markle, inJournal of Hellenic Studies (1976), 80–99, on Speusippus. On Aristotle, W. D. Ross, Aristotle (1923) is slightly easier than J. L. Ackrill, Aristotle the Philosopher (1981), an excellent study; J. O. Urmson, Aristotle’s Ethics (1988) is clear; Jonathan Barnes (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Aristotle (1995); on women, Robert Mayhew, The Female in Aristotle’s Biology (2004) is a good, short rethink; on democracy, A. W. Lintott, in Classical Quarterly (1992), 114–28, is excellent.


A. H. M. Jones, Athenian Democracy (1957), chapters 1–2, is still a starting point. On slavery, G. E. M. de Sainte Croix, The Class Struggle in the Ancient Greek World (1981), 112–204: on religion, R. C. T. Parker, Athenian Religion: A History (1996) 218–55; on citizenship, D. Ogden, Greek Bastardy (1996), 166–88; on Apollodorus, R. J. Bonner,Lawyers and Litigants in Ancient Athens (1927) and J. Trevett, Apollodorus Son of Pasion (1992); on Aeschines, R. J. Lane Fox, in S. Hornblower, and R. G. Osborne (eds.), Ritual, Finance and Politics (1994), 135–55; on drinking, James Davidson, Courtesans and Fishcakes (1998), 36–73; on cockfights, Nan Dunbar, Aristophanes’ Birds (1995) 158; on the Tanagras, the excellent Louvre catalogue, ‘Tanagras’ (2003); on the art, Martin Robertson, History of Greek Art, volume 1 (1972), 363–444; on theatre, Pat Easterling, in A. H. Sommerstein, S. Halliwell et al. (eds.), Tragedy, Comedy and the Polis (1993), 559–69, and Gregory W. Dobrov (ed.), Beyond Aristophanes(1995), especially pages 1–46; on Menander, T. B. L. Webster, An Introduction to Menander (1990); on lawmaking, P. J. Rhodes, in Classical Quarterly (1985), 55–60; also P. J. Rhodes, in Journal of Hellenic Studies (1986), 132–144, and M. M. Markle III, in Ancient Society (1990), 149–66, on participation; on taxes, P. J. Rhodes, in American Journal of Ancient History (1982), 1; on display, D. M. MacDowell (ed.), Demosthenes against Meidias (1990); on silver-mines, R. J. Hopper, in Annual of British School in Athens (1968), 293–326; Paul Millett, Lending and Borrowing in Ancient Athens (1991), though I do not share the Finley–de Sainte Croix notion of maritime loans as ‘insurance’; R. G. Osborne, in Chiron (1988), 279–323, is important on lending and also in John Rich and Andrew Wallace-Hadrill, City and Country in the Ancient World (1991), 119–46, on the decidedly non-subsistence economy of the rich in Attica; Jack Cargill, The Second Athenian League (1981) is an English treatment; on sycophants, D. Harvey, in P. Cartledge et al. (eds.), Nomos (1990), 103–22; on feuds, P. J. Rhodes, in P. Cartledge et al. (eds.), Kosmos (1998), 144–67. Walter Eder (ed.), Athenische Demokratie im 4. Jahrhundert v. Chr.… (1995) has several good essays; on the navy, G. L. Cawkwell, in Classical Quarterly (1984), 334–45, is important. On Demosthenes, A. W. Pickard-Cambridge, Demosthenes(1914) is still the best English ‘life’; J. C. Trevett, in Historia (1999), 184–202, is important on his foreign policy.


Ulrich Wilcken, Alexander the Great (1932) is the best short study; R. Lane Fox, Alexander the Great (1973) and A. B. Bosworth, Conquest and Empire (1988) are biographical and thematic respectively; A. B. Bosworth’s lifelong Historical Commentary on Arrian’s History of Alexander (1980–) is a fundamental resource; P. A. Brunt, Arrian, volumes I–II (1976–83; Loeb Library) is a translation with excellent notes and studies, a major contribution; J. R. Hamilton, Plutarch, Alexander: A Commentary (1969) is a guide to the problems in the best short ‘life’ of Alexander; J. E. Atkinson, A Commentary on Q. Curtius Rufus’ Historiae Alexandri Magni (1980–) is valuable. J. Roisman (ed.),Brill’s Companion to Alexander the Great (2003) is the most recent range of articles. Recent significant contributions, each provoking thought and dissent, are Georges Le Rider, Alexander le grand: Monnaies, finance et politique (2003), Pierre Briant, Histoire de l’empire perse (1996), 713–892, and P. M. Fraser, Cities of Alexander the Great(1996), a masterpiece of related scholarship, but on its main topic, compare N. G. L. Hammond, in Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies (1998), 243–69, for much that it left out, not always rightly.


The best presentation is still Edouard Will, Histoire politique du monde hellenistique, volume I (1979, 2nd edn.), 1–120; F. Schachermeyr, Alexander in Babylon (1970) repays careful thought; biographies of the Successors include R. Billows, Antigonus the One-Eyed and the Hellenistic State (1997), John D. Grainger, Seleukos Nikator (1990) and especially Helen Lund, Lysimachus (1992); Pierre Briant, Rois, tributs et paysans (1982), 13–94, on Eumenes; A. B. Bosworth, The Legacy of Alexander (2002), a valuable collection; A. B. Bosworth and E. J. Baynham, Alexander the Great in Fact and Fiction (2000), 207–41, is thought-provoking on Alexander’s so-called ‘Will’; E. Badian, inHarvard Studies in Classical Philology (1967), 183–204, on the ‘Plans’ and in W. Will and J. Heinrichs (eds.), Zu Alexander dem Grossen: Festschrift Gerhard Wirth, volume I (1987), 605–25, on his ‘ring’; Elizabeth D. Carney, Women and Monarchy in Macedonia (2000); Daniel Ogden, Polygamy, Prostitutes and Death (1999) and Jim Roy, in Lin Foxhall and John Salmon (eds.), When Men Were Men (1998), 111–35, with differing views on polygamy. E. J. Bickerman, Religions and Politics in the Hellenistic and Roman Periods (1985), 489–522, is a classic, on the Seleucids and the Achaemenids.


P. M. Fraser, Ptolemaic Alexandria, volumes 1–3 (1972) is the fundamental study; Christian Jacob and François de Polignac, Alexandria: The Third Century BC (2000, English translation) is more slight; J.-Y. Empereur, Alexandria Rediscovered (1998) and Alexandria: Past, Present and Future (2002) include very recent discoveries, as does the different project of Franck Goddio, Alexandria: The Submerged Royal Quarters (1998) and Alexandria: The Submerged Canopic Region (2004); Judith McKenzie, in Journal of Roman Archaeology (2003), 35–63, is an excellent survey of the evidence; P. Leriche, in J.-L. Huot, La Ville neuve: Une idée de l’antiquité (1994), 109–25, is an important survey; Günther Hölbl, A History of the Ptolemaic Empire (2001) makes the royal family accessible in English. Paul Bernard, Olivier Guillaume, Henri Paul Francfort, Pierre Leriche and others present aspects of the, sadly interrupted, excavations of Ai Khanum in Afghanistan in Fouilles d’Ai Khanum (1973 onwards); E. E. Rice, The Grand Procession of Ptolemy Philadelphus (1983); O. Murray, ‘Hellenistic Royal Symposia’, in P. Bilde (ed.), Aspects of Hellenistic Kingship (1996), 15–27, is important; G. E. R. Lloyd, Greek Science after Aristotle (1973) is still a good overview; H. von Staden, Herophilus: The Art of Medicine in Early Alexandria (1989) is a major advance, with V. Nutton, Ancient Medicine (2004) on Erasistratus; Lionel Casson, Libraries in the Ancient World (2001) is an excellent short survey. G. O. Hutchinson, Hellenistic Poetry (1988) is acute and appreciative; R. L. Hunter and M. Fantuzzi, Tradition and Innovation in Hellenistic Poetry (2004) are up-to-date guides. Collections by Paul Cartledge, P. Garnsey and E. Gruen (eds.), Hellenistic Constructs… (1997) and Peter Green (ed.), Hellenistic History and Culture (1993) show what is going on in English publications. W. W. Tarn, with G. T. Griffith, Hellenistic Civilization (1952, 3rd edn.) is unsurpassed as a vigorous read.


L. Robert, ‘De Delphes à l’Oxus’, in Comptes-Rendus de L’Academie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres (1968), 416–57, is a ‘classic’; Barry W. Cunliffe, The Extraordinary Voyage of Pytheas the Greek (2002) is a readable account but concludes, as I do not, that Pytheas went to Iceland; I. Pimouguet-Pédarres and F. Delrieux, L’Anatolie, la Syrie, l’égypte… (2003) collects excellent articles, comments and bibliography, which I presuppose; Claire Préaux, Le Monde hellénistique: La grèce et l’orient, volumes 1–2 (1978), is an outstanding survey, with invaluable bibliographies; E. J. Bickermann, The Jews in the Greek Age (1988) is a classic, even among his works. On spreading Greek, D. J. Thompson, in A. K. Bowman and G. Woolf (eds.), Literacy and Power (1994), 67–83, is very important. C. Habicht, Athens from Alexander to Antony (1997) opens up a fragmented subject, with his important Hellenistic Athens and Her Philosophers (1988, English translation). E. R. Bevan, Stoics and Sceptics (1913) is still worth reading, as is A. J. Festugière, Epicurus and His Gods (1969, English translation); A. A. Long, Hellenistic Philosophy (1986, 2nd edn.); W. Capelle, ‘Der Garten des Theophrast’, in Wolfgang Müller (ed.), Festschrift für Felix Zucker (1954), 47–82, is more sympathetic than J. E. Raven, Plants and Plant Lore in Ancient Greece (2000); on Zenon, Claude Orrieux, Les Papyrus de Zenon… (1983) and Zenon de Caunos, Parepidemos (1985) are excellent studies, with X. Durand, Des grecs en Palestine au III siècle: Le dossier syrien de Zénon de Caunos (1997). On a great geographer, P. M. Fraser, ‘Eratosthenes of Cyrene’, in Proceedings of the British Academy (1970), 176–207; on ethnography, Albrecht Dihle, ‘Zur Hellenistischen Ethnographie’, in Grecs et Barbares, Entretiens Fondation Hardt VIII (1965), 205–39, is excellent; so is A. Momigliano, Alien Wisdom: The Limits of Hellenization (1975). On Hecataeus, O. Murray, in Journal of Egyptian Studies (1970), 141, and J. Dillery, in Historia (1998), 255–75. On India, Pascal Charvet and Fabrizia Baldissera, Arrien: Le voyage en Inde d’Alexandre le grand (2002) has an excellent bibliography; K. Karttunen, India in Early Greek Literature (1989); W. W. Tarn, The Greeks in Bactria and India (1951, 2nd edn.) is a superb read whose ingenuities deserve, and require, a lifetime of correction. P. Brulé, ‘Enquête démographique sur la famille grecque antique’, in Revue des Études Anciennes (1990), 233–58, repays careful thought; on other lines, R. van Bremen, in Andrew Erskine (ed.), A Companion to the Hellenistic World (2003), 313–30, part of an excellent collection.


T. J. Cornell, The Beginnings of Rome (1995), chapters 7–15, takes a thoughtfully positive line on the evidence; Andrew Erskine, Troy between Greece and Rome (2001) is verywell written; A. W. Lintott, The Constitution of the Roman Republic (1999) is an excellent guide through a great jungle; Fergus Millar, The Roman Republic in Political Thought (2002) is a fine complement; M. W. Frederiksen, Campania (1984), chapters 8, 9, 10 are very important on Rome’s expansion. Kurt A. Raaflaub (ed.), Social Struggles in Archaic Rome (1986); on the army reforms, David Potter, in Harriet I. Flower (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to the Roman Republic (2004), 66–88, is very important; N. Purcell, in David Braund and Christopher Gill (eds.), Myth, History and Culture in Republican Rome (2003), 12–40, on foreign contacts; Tim Cornell, ibid. (2003), 73–97, on Coriolanus; J. H. C. Williams, Beyond the Rubicon: Romans and Gauls in Republican Italy (2001), on the Gallic question; Hanneke Wilson, Wine and Words(2003), 55–73, on women and wine; N. Purcell, in Cambridge Ancient History, volume VI (1994), 381–403 on South Italy and T. J. Cornell, ibid. volume VIII.2 (1989), 351–419; on Tarentum, G. C. Brauer Jun., Taras: Its History and Coinage (1983) with P. Wuilleumier, Tarente, des origines à la conquête romaine (1939), a classic, J. Heurgon,The Rise of Rome to 264 BC (1973, English translation) is still excellent.


Translated texts and discussions are now available in M. Beard, J. North and S. R. F. Price, Religions of Rome, volumes 1–2 (1998), giving an accessible history and excellent bibliographies; R. M. Ogilvie, The Romans and Their Gods (1969) is still valuable and John Scheid, An Introduction to Roman Religion (2003, English translation) is excellent; Clifford Ando (ed.), Roman Religion (2003) is a good selection of important articles; W. Warde Fowler, The Roman Festivals of the Period of the Republic (1899) is still important; T. P. Wiseman, in Bettina Bergmann and Christine Kondoleon, The Art of Ancient Spectacle (1999), 195–204, discusses the Floralia; T. P. Wiseman, The Myths of Rome (2004) is a great synthesis. Edward Bispham and Christopher Smith (eds.), Religion in Archaic and Republican Rome and Italy (2000) includes papers on Italy outside Rome, which I have compressed, or had to omit. J. A. North, Roman Religion (2000) is a ‘New Survey’ which takes the subject forward through the centuries, with good bibliographies too.


J. Heurgon, The Rise of Rome to 284 BC (1973, English translation) is an excellent survey; Pierre Lévèque, Pyrrhos (1957) is the classic starting point; Jane Hornblower, Hieronymus of Cardia (1981) is excellent on one major historian, and A. Momigliano, Essays in Ancient and Modern Historiography (1977) is a classic on Timaeus; David Asheri, in Scripta Classica Israelica (1991), 52–89, on Timaeus’ synchronisms; J. F. Lazenby, The First Punic War (1996) is a military history and Y. Le Bohec, Histoire militaire des guerres puniques (2003) is another; Werner Huss, Karthago (1995) is fundamental for Carthage.


S. Lancel, Hannibal, 247–182 BC (1998, English translation) is the best up-to-date general study; Tim Cornell, Boris Rankov and Philip Sabin (eds.), The Second Punic War: A Reappraisal (1996) is a very good selection of essays. The sources pose problems, recently reviewed by Briggs L. Twyman, in Athenaeum (1987), 67, and R. T. Ridley, ‘Livy and the Hannibalic War’, in C. Bruun (ed.), The Roman Middle Republic: Politics, Religion and Historiography (2000, Acta Instituti Romani Finlandiae, 23), 13–40; on coins, E. S. G. Robinson, in Numismatic Chronicle (1964), 37–64. On warfare, Philip Sabin, ‘The Roman Face of Battle’, in Journal of Roman Studies (2000), 1–17 and once again, H. H. Scullard, The Elephant in the Greco-Roman World (1974), 146–77. Gregory Daly, Cannae: The Experience of Battle in the Second Punic War (2002) is vivid. On the war’s impact in Italy, Andrew Erskine, in Hermes (1993), 58–62; W. V. Harris, Rome in Etruria and Umbria (1971), 131–43, and the very different views of two magnificent works, A. J. Toynbee, Hannibal’s Legacy, volumes I–II (1965) and P. A. Brunt, Italian Manpower, 225 BC–AD 14 (1987, 2nd edn.), 269–88. Here, myviews are closer to those of T. J. Cornell, ‘Hannibal’s Legacy: The Effects of the Hannibalic War on Italy’, in Tim Cornell, Boris Rankov and Philip Sabin (eds.), The Second Punic War: A Reappraisal(1996), 97–117.


Peter Derow, in Andrew Erskine (ed.), A Companion to the Hellenistic World (2003), 51–70, is an excellent overview, based on years of reconsideration; W. V. Harris, War and Imperialism in Republican Rome (1979), 68–130 and 200–44; J. S. Richardson, Hispaniae: Spain and the Developments of Roman Imperialism, 218–82 BC (1986) andThe Romans in Spain (1996). On particular episodes, P. S. Derow, ‘Polybius, Rome and the East’, in Journal of Roman Studies (1979), 1–15; A. Meadows, ‘Greek and Roman Diplomacy on the Eve of the Second Macedonian War’, in Historia (1993), 40–60; J. J. Walsh, ‘Flamininus and the Propaganda of Liberation’, in Historia (1996), 344–63; F. W. Walbank, ‘The Causes of the Third Macedonian War: Recent Views’, in Ancient Macedonia II… (Thessaloniki, Institute for Balkan Studies, 1977), 81–94; N. Purcell, ‘On the Sacking of Carthage and Corinth’, in D. Innes, H. Hine and C. Pelling (eds.), Ethics and Rhetoric: Classical Essays for Donald Russell on His Seventy-fifth Birthday(1995), 133–48. On dealings with kings, John T. Ma, Antiochus III and the Cities of Western Asia Minor (1999) and E. Badian, in J. Harmatta (ed.), Proceedings of the VIIth Congress of the International Federation of the Societies of Classical Studies (1984), 397. On Roman motivation, John Rich, ‘Fear, Greed and Glory’, in J. Rich and G. Shipley (eds.),War and Society in the Roman World (1993), 38–68, A Ziolkowski, ‘Urbs Direpta, or How the Romans Sacked Cities’, ibid. (1993), 69–91. On third-century Greece, Graham Shipley, The Greek World after Alexander, 323–30 BC (1999), 108–152; F. W. Walbank, ‘An Experiment In Greek Union’, in Proceedings of the Classical Association (1970), 13–27 and his ‘The Causes of Greek Decline’, in Journal of Hellenic Studies (1944), 10–20; G. E. M. de Sainte Croix, The Class Struggle in the Ancient Greek World (1981), 344–50 and 518–37, with John Briscoe, in Past and Present (1967), 1–20 and J. J. Walsh, in Classical Quarterly (2000), 300–3. On the ‘destruction of democracy’, P. J. Rhodes and D. M. Lewis, The Decrees of the Greek States (1997), 542–50.


Erich S. Gruen, Culture and National Identity in Republican Rome (1992) is an excellent survey of Greek–Roman interrelations; Jean-Louis Ferrary, Philhellenisme et imperialisme (1988) is extremely important for the relations of power; Matthew Leigh, Comedy and the Rise of Rome (2004), on the dramas; E. Baltrusch, Regimen Morum (1989) is full of detail; A. G. Clemente, in A. Giardina and A. Schiavone (eds.), Società romana e produzione schiavistica, volume I (1981), 1–12, is the best short survey of sumptuarylaw; E. Gabba, Del buon uso della richezza (1988) is longer. On Cato, A. E. Astin, Cato the Censor (1978) is a narrative, with all the evidence; Jonathan C. Edmondson, in Bettina Bergmann and Christine Kondoleon, The Art of Ancient Spectacle (1999), 77–96, is excellent on the shows in the East and at Rome in the 160s BC. Erich S. Gruen, Heritage and Hellenism (2002), on culture-clashes in Judaea. On Polybius, P. S. Derow, in T. James Luce, Ancient Writers: Greece and Rome, volume I (1982), 525–40, is a very penetrating introduction. F. W. Walbank, Polybius (1972) is essential, with the subsequent survey to 2000 and some fascinating essays in his Polybius, Rome and the Hellenistic World (2002). His three-volume Commentary on Polybius (1957–79) is the outstanding such work by a living scholar on Greek history.


Much is compressed, or omitted, in this chapter, but the period is excellently served in the revised Cambridge Ancient History, volume IX (1994), especially chapters 2–6, pages 498–563, on public and private law (a particularly compressed element in my ‘story’) and chapter 15 (administration of the Empire). The sources are collected invaluably by A. H. J. Greenidge and A. M. Clay, Sources of Roman History, 133–70 BC (1986, 2nd edn.). On individual careers, A. E. Astin, Scipio Aemilianus (1967); David Stockton, The Gracchi (1979); T. Carney, A Biography of C. Marius (1970, 2nd edn.); E. Badian, Lucius Sulla: The Deadly Reformer, Todd Memorial Lecture (1970); Arthur Keaveney,Sulla: The Last Republican (1982) and J. P. V. D. Balsdon, ‘Sulla Felix’, in Journal of Roman Studies (1951), 1–10. On particular aspects, A. N. Sherwin-White, ‘The Political Ideas of C. Gracchus’, in Journal of Roman Studies (1982), 18–31 and P. A. Brunt, The Fall of the Roman Republic (1988), chapters 2–4 are exceptionally important; also, J. S. Richardson, in Journal of Roman Studies (1987), 1–12, on extortion; A. W. Lintott, Judicial Reform and Land Reform in the Roman Republic (1992), 10–33, and 44–50; E. Gabba, Republican Rome, the Army and the Allies (1976), chapters 1 and 2. Robert Morstein Kallet-Marx, Hegemony to Empire (1995) is excellent on Rome’s ‘empire’ to 62BC. M. H. Crawford (ed.), Roman Statutes I (1996), numbers 1, 2, 12 and 14, gives excellent commentaries on four major documents.


Pat Southern, Pompey the Great (2002) is a lively popular introduction; Robin Seager, Pompey the Great (2003, revised edn.) is a scholarly study of political factions and detail. F. G. B. Millar, The Crowd in Rome in the Late Republic (1998), chapters 2–4, takes a clear and vigorous line, though the main ‘democratic’ emphasis is not followed in my chapter, on which see M. Jehne (ed.), ‘Demokratie in Rom?’, in Historia Einzelschrift, 96 (1995), for full critiques. For questions linked to aristocratic competition, see the exchanges of view by Nathan Rosenstein, Callie Williamson, John North and W. V. Harris, in Classical Philology (1990), 255–98. For Rome, the East and Mithridates, A. N. Sherwin-White, Roman Foreign Policy in the East (1984), 149–270. On Pompey and public shows, Richard C. Beacham, Spectacle Entertainments of Early Imperial Rome (1999), 49–74.


J. P. V. D. Balsdon, ‘Cicero the Man’, in T. A. Dorey (ed.), Cicero (1965), 171–214, remains an outstanding study; Elizabeth Rawson, Cicero: A Portrait (1983, 2nd edn.) is a many-sided study, while David Stockton, Cicero: A Political Biography (1971) is good on its chosen ground. L. R. Taylor, Party Politics in the Age of Caesar (1968) is excellent, especially chapter III (‘Delivering the Vote’) and chapter V (The Criminal Courts and the Rise of a New Man’). D. R. Shackleton Bailey (ed.), Cicero’s Letters to Atticus, volume I (1965), 3–58, is a superb study of Atticus and Cicero; Miriam T. Griffin, ‘Philosophical Badinage in Cicero’s Letters To His Friends’, in J. G. F. Powell (ed.),Cicero the Philsopher: Twelve Papers (1995), 325–46, catches a wider world. The editions of D. R. Shackleton Bailey, including the recent Loeb Library texts and translations of Cicero’s Letters, are acknowledged masterpieces. S. Treggiari, Roman Social History (2002), 49–73, is an exemplary study of how they can be used for nonpolitical topics; Susan Treggiari, Roman Marriage (1991), 127–38, 414–27 and chapter 13 (‘Divorce’) guides us through marriage and Cicero; Susan Treggiari, Roman Freedmen during the Late Republic (1969), 252–64, on Cicero’s freedmen, including Tiro; S. Weinstock, in Journal of Roman Studies (1961), 209–10, underlies my view of Cicero and ‘religion’.


J. P. V. D. Balsdon, Julius Caesar and Rome (1967) is an excellent brief introduction; Matthias Gelzer, Caesar (1968) is the basic fully documented account; Christian Meier, Caesar (1995, English translation) is more abstract, but is notably reviewed by E. Badian in Gnomon (1990), 22–39, whose own brief survey in the Oxford Classical Dictionary (1996, 3rd edn.), 780–2, is important. Kathryn Welch, Anton Powell and Jonathan Barlow (eds.), Julius Caesar as Artful Reporter (1998) has much of value on Caesar’s style and ‘spin’. On Cato, L. R. Taylor, Party Politics in the Age of Caesar (1968), 119–39. On land allotment, P. A. Brunt, The Fall of the Roman Republic (1988), 240–88, is a classic; on debt and financing, M. W. Frederiksen, ‘Caesar, Cicero and the Problem of Debt’, in Journal of Roman Studies (1966), 128–41, is another. J. Sabben Clare, Caesar and Roman Politics, 60–50 BC (1971), 1–49, translates much of the main evidence veryhelpfully. P. A. Brunt, Italian Manpower (1987, 2nd edn.), 312–19, discusses Caesar’s agrarian laws. On public speaking, Andrew J. E. Bell, ‘Cicero and the Spectacle of Power’, in Journal of Roman Studies (1997), 1–22, and the very important study by R. Morstein-Marx, Mass Oratory and Political Power in the Late Roman Republic (2004).


T. P. Wiseman, ‘Caesar, Pompey and Rome, 59–50 BC,’ in Cambridge Ancient History, volume IX (1994), 368–423, gives an intelligible narrative; P. A. Brunt, The Fall of the Roman Republic (1988), chapter 1 is masterly and chapter 6 (‘Libertas in the Republic’) is fundamental at this point; David Stockton, ‘Cicero and the Ager Campanus’, inTransactions of the American Philological Society (1962), 471–89, is an outstanding study of 57–56 BC and much more besides; A. W. Lintott, ‘P. Clodius Pulcher – Felix Catilina’, in Greece and Rome (1967), 157–69, and ‘Cicero and Milo’, in Journal of Roman Studies (1974), 62–78, help to explain two leading ‘populists’, together with A. W. Lintott, Violence in Republican Rome (1999, 2nd edn.), especially pages 67–88. On living conditions, P. A. Brunt, ‘The Roman Mob’, in M. I. Finley (ed.), Studies in Ancient Society (1974), 74–102, is fundamental, with A. Scobie, in Klio (1986), 399–443. Emily A. Hemelrijk, Matrona Docta (1999) is good on educated women, in the late Republic and in the Empire. J. F. Drinkwater, Roman Gaul (1983), 5–20, briefly summarizes Caesar’s Gallic years; Elizabeth Rawson, Roman Culture and Society (1991), 416–26, is very interesting on Crassus senior and junior; G. R. Stanton, in Historia (2003), 67–94, studies ‘why did Caesar cross the Rubicon?’


S. Weinstock, Divus Julius (1971), 133–345, is the outstanding study still, in my judgement, with I. Gradel, Emperor Worship and Roman Religion (2002), 54–72. Elizabeth Rawson, Roman Culture and Society (1991), 169–88 on the ‘kingship’, and pages 488–507, especially, on Cassius, with David Sedley, in Journal of Roman Studies (1997), 41–53; Stephen G. Chrissanthos, in Journal of Roman Studies (2001), 63–71, on money; M. W. Frederiksen, in Journal of Roman Studies (1966), 128–41 on debt, with G. E. M. de Sainte Croix, The Class Struggle in the Ancient Greek World (1981), 166 and notes 60–63. P. A. Brunt, in Journal of Roman Studies (1986), 12–32, on Cicero’s dilemma; R. B. Ulrich, in American Journal of Archaeology (1993), 49–80, on the new Forum; C. Habicht, Cicero the Politician (1990), chapter 6, on Cicero; Z. Yavetz, Caesar and His Public Image (1983), 101–6, on Caesar’s legislation; Tenney Frank, An Economic Survey of Ancient Rome, volume I (1933), 316–18, on the colonies, and pages 333–42 on funding, is still excellent. J. P. V. D. Balsdon, in Historia (1958), 80–94, a classic on the Ides and motives, though not the last word.


R. Syme, The Roman Revolution (1939; revised edn., 1951) is a classic, but I am one of those who find it a very difficult read. Henriette van der Blom, in Classica et Mediaevalia (2003), 287–320, is now an excellent and much clearer account of Cicero in 44–43 BC; compare Elizabeth Rawson, Cicero (1975), 260–98. The new emphasis of importance is on Sextus Pompeius, in Anton Powell and Kathryn Welch (eds.), Sextus Pompeius (2002); on the Liberators, Elizabeth Rawson, Roman Culture and Society (1991), 488–507; Lawrence Keppie, The Making of the Roman Army (1984), 112–21, 199–204; S. Weinstock, Divus Julius (1971), 346–47 is masterly here too. T. N. Mitchell,Cicero the Senior Statesman (1991), chapter 7, is well documented; R. Syme, Sallust (1964) is an important study.


R. Syme, The Roman Revolution (1939; revised edn., 1951), chapters XII to XXI, a classic, but reductionist; Pat Southern, Mark Antony (1998) is a simple start on Antony; Ellen Rice, Cleopatra (1999), likewise. Major changes since Syme’s book include awareness of the ‘fourth man’, in Anton Powell and Kathryn Welch (eds.), Sextus Pompeius(2002) and much more work on monuments and publicity. Paul Zanker, The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus (1988), 5–78, a fine study, with the excellent article of K. Scott, in Memoirs of the American Academy at Rome (1933), 7–49; the good survey of 36–28 BC by Fergus Millar, in La Revolution romaine après Ronald Syme, Entretiens Fondation Hardt XLVI (1999), 1–38, with the others in the volume, especially John Scheid, pages 39–72, on religion. Syme’s contribution is reconsidered by H. Galsterer and Z. Yavetz, in Kurt A Raaflaub and Mark Toher (eds.), Between Republic and Empire (1990), 1–41. The marriage of Antony and Cleopatra and Cleopatra’s death raise questions too, beyond Syme’s book: John Whitehorne, Cleopatras (1994), especially pages 186–96, and Duane W. Roller, The World of Juba II and Kleopatra Selene (2003), an excellent study. Jacob Isager, Foundation and Destruction of Nicopolis and Northeastern Greece (2001), for one aftermath; Joyce Reynolds, Aphrodisias and Rome(1982) for the important documents.


W. K. Lacey, Augustus and the Principate: The Evolution of the System (1996) is a very useful collection of studies; P. A. Brunt, in La rivoluzione romana, Biblioteca de Labeo, 6 (1982), 236–44 is best on 27 BC; D. Stockton, in Historia (1965), 18–40, adopts 23 BC for the trial which I have put now in 22 BC; P. A. Brunt and J. M. Moore, Res Gestae Divi Augusti (1967) with translation and excellent commentary, especially on 19 BC; A. H. M. Jones, Studies in Roman Government and Law (1960), 1–17 is a lucid basis for much since written in dialogue with it; M. T. Griffin, in Loveday Alexander (ed.), Images of Empire (1991), 19–46, questions the overtones of the ‘tribunician’ side to 23 BC. A. Wallace-Hadrill, in Journal of Roman Studies (1982), 32–48, on the emperor’s many-sided image; P. A. Brunt, in Classical Quarterly (1984), 423–44, on the Senate’s continuing functions, if not power.


M. Beard, J. North and S. R. F. Price, Religions of Rome, volume I (1998), 114–210, is an excellent, questioning survey, with J. Liebeschuetz, Continuity and Change in Roman Religion (1979), chapter 2; P. A. Brunt, Italian Manpower (1971), 558–66, is important; Catherine Edwards, The Politics of Immorality in Ancient Rome (1983) gives the context verywell; S. Treggiari, Roman Marriage (1991) is a classic, especially pages 60–80, 277–98 and 450–61. J. A. Crook, Law and Life of Rome (1967), 99–118, especially on the rather varied implications of the changes in ‘manus’ marriage; Beryl Rawson (ed.), The Family in Ancient Rome (1986) is still a fine collection throughout, including J. A. Crook on the (later) wariness about women making loans (pages 83–92); Beryl Rawson, Marriages, Divorce and Children in Ancient Rome (1991) is also excellent, especially chapters 1–5; Jane F. Gardner, Women in Roman Law and Society (1995, 2nd edn.) is a fundamental guide; Susan Dixon, Childhood, Class and Kin (2001) is relevant too. Jasper Griffin, in Journal of Roman Studies (1976), 87, and R. G. M. Nisbet, ibid. (1987), 184–90, debate the poets and their context; Peter Green, Classical Bearings (1989), 210–22 is excellent on Ovid’s exile. A. M. Duff, Freedmen in the Early Roman Empire (1928), 12–35 and 72–88 and K. R. Bradley, Slaves and Masters in the Roman Empire (1984) untangle the laws on slaves very well.


D. S. Potter and D. J. Mattingly (eds.), Life, Death and Entertainment in the Roman Empire (1998) is an excellent collection to which I owe much. Richard C. Beacham, Spectacle Entertainments of Early Imperial Rome (1999) is excellent, with good bibliographies. K. M. Coleman, in Journal of Roman Studies (1990), 44–73, and (1993), 48–74, are excellent studies; R. E. Fantham, in Classical World (1989), 153–63, on mimes; on pantomime, E. J. Jory, in Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies (1981), 147–61, and in W. J. Slater (ed.), Roman Theatre and Society (1996), 1–28, a valuable collection throughout; C. P. Jones, in W. J. Slater (ed.), Dining in a Classical Context (1991), 185–98, on theatre over dinner; Garrett G. Fagan, Bathing in Public in the Roman World (1999), with translated texts; J. H. Humphrey, Roman Circuses: Arenas for Chariot Racing (1986) is invaluable; Eckart Köhne and Cornelia Ewigleben, Gladiators and Caesars (2000) is veryvivid; Adriano La Regina (ed.), Sangue e arena (2001) is outstandingly good; David Potter, in Martin M. Winkler (ed.), Gladiator: Film and History (2004) gives an excellent account of gladiators’ careers; Donald G. Kyle, Spectacles of Death in the Roman Amphitheatre (1998), full of explanatory theories too; D. C. Bomgardner, The Story of the Roman Amphitheater (2000), a social history; Keith Hopkins, Death and Renewal (1983), chapter 1; Bettina Bergmann and Christine Kondoleon (eds.), The Art of Ancient Spectacle (1999), an excellent collection; B. M. Levick, in Journal of Roman Studies (1983), 97–115, is the classic study of official reactions, and Elizabeth Rawson, Roman Culture and Society (1991), 508–45 of theatre-regulations and the Lex Julia; Kathleen M. Coleman, in Kathleen Lomas and Tim Cornell (eds.), Bread and Circuses (2002), 61–88, on the location of Augustan shows.


J. J. Wilkins (ed.), Documenting the Roman Army: Essays in Honour of Margaret Roxan (2003, Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies) is an excellent collection of essays, especially W. Eck on the emperor’s role in issuing ‘diplomas’; L. R. Keppie, The Making of the Roman Army (1984), 132–216, is excellent on the change from Civil War to the age of Augustus; J. B. Campbell, The Emperor and the Roman Army, 31 BC–AD 235 (1984), 17–242 and 300–316, is basic on the emperor’s role and the giving of privileges; G. R. Watson, The Roman Soldier (1969) is lively and P. Connelly, The Roman Army (1975) is by an author who is interested in reconstructing the realities; G. Webster,The Roman Imperial Army (1985, 3rd edn.); Brian Campbell, The Roman Army, 31 BC–AD 337 (1994) is a very good source-book; Harry Sidebottom, Ancient Warfare: A Very Short Introduction (2004) is outstandingly good, with a very good bibliography. I incline to the studies by M. P. Speidel, Riding for Caesar (1994) and Ann Hyland, Equus: The Horse in the Roman World (1990), especially on saddles and harness. Jonathan Roth, The Logistics of the Roman Army (1999) is of wide relevance; T. J. Cornell, in J. Rich and G. Shipley (eds.), War and Society in the Roman World (1993), 139–70, surveys Roman military expansion in the early imperial age; J. N. Adams, in Journal of Roman Studies (1994), 87–112 and ibid. (1999), 109–34, two fascinating studies of soldiers’ Latin in north Africa.


M. Beard, J. North and S. R. F. Price (eds.), Religions of Rome, volume I (1998), 182–210, on rites and temples; D. C. Feeney, Literature and Religion at Rome (1998), 28–38; A. D. Nock, Essays on Religion and the Ancient World, volume I (1972), 16–25 and 348–56. Greg Rowe, Princes and Political Cultures (2003), especially pages 102–24 on Pisa and elsewhere; Beth Severy, Augustus and the Family at the Birth of the Roman Empire (2003) is excellent; N. Purcell, in Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society (1986), 78–105, and M. Boudreau Flory, in Historia (1984), 309–330, are important on Livia; N. Horsfall, The Culture of the Roman Plebs (2003); P. Zanker, The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus (1988), 79–297, extremely readable; Kurt A. Raaflaub and Mark Toher (eds.), Between Republic and Empire (1990), especially T. J. Luce, pages 123–38, B. A. Kellner, pages 276–307, and K. Raaflaub, pages 428–54; F. G. B. Millar and E. Segal (eds.), Caesar Augustus: Seven Aspects (1984), especially Millar, pages 37–60, and W. Eck, pages 129–68, in an excellent collection; A. H. M. Jones, Criminal Courts of the Roman Republic and Principate (1972); F. G. B. Millar, The Emperor in the Roman World (1977), 363–550, on embassies and justice; A. W. Lintott, Imperium Romanum (1993), 115–20.


T. P. Wiseman, Roman Studies: Literary and Historical (1987) cautions that, strictly, there was no Julio-Claudian ‘dynasty’, but the Julian gens and the imperial domus, so that Claudius is strictly an interloper: pages 96 and 376–7. Thorough biographies now guide us through all the issues: Barbara Levick, Tiberius the Politician (1999, 2nd edn.); G. P. Baker, Tiberius Caesar: Emperor of Rome (2001, reissue) is vivid; A. A. Barrett, Caligula: The Corruption of Power (1993); Barbara Levick, Claudius (1993); Miriam Griffin, Nero: The End of a Dynasty (1984); Edward Champlin, Nero (2003); Jas Elsner and Jamie Masters (eds.), Reflections of Nero (1994), on the culture and legacy. On their settings, Clemens Krause, Villa Jovis: Die Residenz der Tiberius auf Capri (2003) is excellent, with A. F. Stewart, in Journal of Roman Studies (1977), 76–94; Elisabeth Segala and Ida Sciortino, Domus Aurea (1999), on Nero’s awful House. On two of the women, Nikos Kokkinos, Antonia Augusta: Portrait of a Great Roman Lady(2002), updated for new evidence; Anthony Barrett, Agrippina (1996). Greg Rowe, Princes and Political Culture: The New Tiberian Senatorial Decrees (2002) discusses the remarkable new finds of inscriptions. Doreen Innes and Barbara Levick, in Omnibus II (1989), 17–19, on empresses’ toothpaste.


Barbara Levick, The Government of the Roman Empire (2000, 2nd edn.) is an outstanding commentary on major texts in translation; P. A. Brunt, Roman Imperial Themes (1990) is now the classic study, especially chapters 4 (on which I differ, somewhat), 6, 8, 10, 11, 12 and 14–18; A. H. M. Jones, The Roman Economy, edited by P. A. Brunt (1974), chapters 1, 2 and 8 are also fundamental; Andrew Lintott, Imperium Romanum (1993) is an excellent synthesis; S. R. F. Price, Rituals and Power (1984), chapter 3–8, on cults of the empires in the Greek East. J. A. Crook, Law and Life of Rome (1967), chapters 2, 3 and 8 are still valuable; Stephen Mitchell, Anatolia: Land, Men and Gods in Asia Minor, volume I (1993), is an exemplary study of Asia Minor’s provinces; Alan K. Bowman, Egypt after the Pharaohs (1986) and Naphtali Lewis, Life in Egypt under Roman Rule (1983) are excellent introductions to the best-documented area; C. R. Whittaker, Frontiers of the Roman Empire (1994) is a series of social and economic studies; F. G. B. Millar, The Roman Empire and its Neighbours (1981, 2nd edn.) is a good collection on the world beyond.


R. MacMullen, Romanization in the Time of Augustus (2000) is a very good survey; on benefactions, Stephen Mitchell, in Harvard Studies in Classical Philology (1987), 333–66, a very valuable study; P. A. Brunt, Roman Imperial Themes (1990), 267–81, and also pages 282–7 and 517–31 on Judaea are fundamental; Cambridge Ancient History, volume XI (2000, 2nd edn.), 444–678, is full of important material; Stephen Mitchell and Marc Waelkens, Pisidian Antioch: The Site and Its Monuments (1998) is excellent; on the West, T. F. Blagg and Martin Millett, The Early Roman Empire in the West (2002), especially Jonathan C. Edmondson, pages 169–73 on Conimbriga, and Nicola Mackie, pages 179–93 on ‘epigraphic’ honours and urban consciousness. A. T. Fear, Rome and Baetica (1996) is excellent on municipal law in Spain, with J. Gonzalez, in Journal of Roman Studies (1986), 147–243, and Alan Rodger, ibid. (1991), 74–90, and (1996), 61–73, on the recent Irni law. Peter Salway, Roman Britain (1981) and M. D. Goodman, The Ruling Class of Judaea (1987). Tessa Rajak, Josephus: The Historian and His Society (2002, 2nd edn.) is excellent on a historian I regret having omitted as not fully ‘classical’. J. N. Adams, in Journal of Roman Studies (1995), 86–134 is excellent on the Latin found at Hadrian’s Wall, a comfort to those in Britain whose Latin is still no better.


E. P. Sanders, The Historical Figure of Jesus (1993) is an excellent methodical study; Gerd Theissen and Annette Merz, The Historical Jesus (1998, English translation), 125–280, gives a full survey; Paula Frederiksen, From Jesus to Christ (1988), the next stage; G. B. Caird, The Apostolic Age (1955) is still valuable; ‘Christmas’, was refuted by E. Schuerer, in A History of the Jewish People, volume I (1973, revised edn. by F. G. B. Millar and G. Vermes), 399–427; R. J. Lane Fox, The Unauthorized Version (1991), 27–36, 200–11, 243–51 and 283–310, and Pagans and Christians (1986), 265–335; G. E. M. de Sainte Croix, in D. Baker (ed.), Studies in Church History, volume 12 (1975), 1–38, vigorously criticizes Christian attitudes to property and slavery, and in Past and Present (1963), 6–38, he gives the classic account of Christian persecution; Wayne A. Meeks, The First Urban Christians: The Social World of the Apostle Paul (1983); M. Goodman, Mission and Conversion (1994) provokes thought; Henry Chadwick, The Early Church (1993, 2nd edn.) is the best one-volume history.


Kenneth Wellesley, The Year of the Four Emperors (2000), 3rd edn.) is the fullest modern account; early chapters in Barbara Levick, Vespasian (1999) are also fundamental, with full bibliography; on Vespasian’s law, I differ from the very important study of P. A. Brunt, in Journal of Roman Studies (1977), 95–116; P. A. Brunt, Papers of the British School at Rome (1975), 7–35 is the classic study of philosophers and Stoics.


Barbara Levick, Vespasian (1999) is the fundamental guide, with full notes and bibliography; Pat Southern, Domitian: Tragic Tyrant (1997) is one readable guide, especially on the later years; also, Brian W. Jones, The Emperor Domitian (1992); John D. Grainger, Nerva and the Roman Succession Crisis ofAD 96–99 (2001) discusses Nerva’s reign too; A. J. Boyle and W. J. Dominik, Flavian Rome: Culture, Image, Text (2003) range widely over arts and culture; R. Darwall-Smith, Emperors and Architecture: A Study of Flavian Rome (1996); Paul Zanker, in Alan K. Bowman and Hannah M. Cotton (eds.), Representations of Empire (2002), 105–30, an overview of Domitian’s palace in Rome.


English readers are much better served now, with Paul Zanker, Pompeii: Public and Private Life (1998); Alison E. Cooley and M. G. C. Cooley, Pompeii: A Sourcebook (2004) which is now invaluable, with Alison E. Cooley, Pompeii: Guide to the Lost City (2000). Salvatore Nappo, Pompeii (2000) is the best popular guide; James L. Franklin,Pompeiis Difficile Est… (2001) is a very good epigraphic study; Antonio D’Ambrosio, Women and Beauty in Pompeii (2001) is short but interesting; W. F. Jashemski and Frederick G. Meyer (eds.). The Natural History of Pompeii (2002) has much new evidence, as does Annamaria Ciarallo, Gardens of Pompeii (2000); John R. Clarke,Roman Sex: 100 BC–AD 250 (2003) puts Pompeian erotica in a wider context; Sara Bon and R. Jones, Sequence and Space in Pompeii (1997) and T. McGran and P. Carafa (eds.), Pompeian Brothels: Pompeii’s Ancient History… (2002) are two good essay collections. There is much else, but J. J. Deiss, Herculaneum: A City Returns to the Sun (1968) is the main English book given solely to Pompeii’s important neighbour.


A. N. Sherwin-White, The Letters of Pliny (1966) is a superb commentary; the Bithynian letters are revisited by his pupil, Wynne Williams, Pliny: Correspondence with Trajan from Bithynia (1990); R. Syme, Roman Papers, volume VII (1991), is more narrowly focused on prosopography; Richard Duncan-Jones, The Economy of the Roman Empire(1974), 17–32, is excellent on Pliny’s finances. C. P. Jones, The Roman World of Dio Chrysostom (1978) is a fine study of Bithynia through another contemporary’s texts; Christian Marek, Pontus Et Bithynia (2003) is a brilliantly illustrated local study; J. P. Sullivan, Martial: The Unexpected Classic (1991) with D. R. Shackleton Bailey,Martial: Epigrams, volumes I–III (1993, Loeb Library) which is masterly. Samuel Dill, Roman Society from Nero to Marcus Aurelius (1905, 2nd edn.), 141–286, is still unsurpassed in general range.


Much that I discuss here is implicit in R. J. Lane Fox, Pagans and Christians (1986) and the valuable review-article of P. R. L. Brown, in Philosophical Books, 43 (2002), 185–208, together with his The Body and Society (1989) and Poverty and Leadership in the Later Roman Empire (2002). On suicide, see M. T. Griffin, in Greece and Rome(1986), 64–77 and 192–202; on gardens, the best English guide is Linda Farrar, Ancient Roman Gardens (2000), with the legacy well illustrated in Patrick Bowe, Gardens of the Roman World (2004).


Julian Bennett, Trajan (1997) gathers together recent work excellently and allows me to refer simply to its bibliography on the matters in (and outside) my text; F. A. Lepper and S. S. Frere, Trajan’s Column (1988) have excellent discussions of the Dacian War and many related issues, but should be read with M. Wilson Jones, in Journal of Roman Archaeology (1993), 23–38 and the very important revisions of Amanda Claridge, ibid. (1993), 5–22, attributing to Hadrian a major role in the monument, a view which I have hesitated over, simply because it is controversial, as James E. Packer shows, in Journal of Roman Archaeology (1994), 163–82. James E. Packer, The Forum of Trajan in Rome (2001, paperback) gives a briefer version of his masterwork on this subject; Lionel Casson, Libraries in the Ancient World (2001) puts the library in context. There is much in Annette NünnerichAsmus, Traian: Ein Kaiser der Superlative am Beginn einer Umbruchzeit? (2002). Anthony R. Birley, Hadrian: The Restless Emperor (1997), 35–77 is helpful, and in Journal of Roman Studies (1990), 115–26, discusses the Parthian War, but I remain firm about the chronology I adopt here, noting that it is also adopted by Birley, Hadrian, 71–3.


Andrew Wallace-Hadrill, Suetonius (1995, 2nd edn.) and R. Syme, Roman Papers, volume III (1984), 1251–75, on biography; R. Syme, Ten Studies in Tacitus (1970) is more accessible than his Tacitus (1958) whose Hadrianic date for the Annals I reject; Syme, Roman Papers volume III pages 1014–42, IV (1988), 199–222, and VI (1991), 43–54, are all penetrating; Ronald Mellor, Tacitus (1993) and R. Martin, Tacitus (1981) are clear and helpful; J. B. Rives, Tacitus: Germania (1999) translates it; R. M. Ogilvie and I. Richmond (eds.), Taciti Agricola (1967) gives excellent notes and introduction; T. D. Barnes, in Harvard Studies in Classical Philology (1986), 225–64, is perceptive on theDialogues; M. T. Griffin, in Scripta Classica Israelica (1999), 139–58, is excellent on Pliny and Tacitus; also in I. Malkin and Z. W. Rubensohn, Leaders and Masses in the Roman World (1995), 33–58, on Tacitus and Tiberius and in Classical Quarterly (1982), 404–16, on Tacitus, the Lyons Tablet and his provincial view.

Commentary on the Illustrations

1. Black-figure amphora of the Tyrrhenian Group, c. 540 BC, showing a pentathlete in action (British Museum, London)

2. Red-figure mixing-bowl, or krater, showing a symposion during which a slave-girl plays music for the male diners on their couches. On the right the diner is pouring watered wine into a cup, phiale, from a drinking-horn, rhyton, which ends in the forepart of a horse. Fourth century BC (Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna)

3. Black-figure lekythos, or oil flask, showing a hunter with his spears and hound: Edinburgh Painter, Athens c. 510–500 BC (Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum: Photo: AKG Images, London)

4. Older male, sexually aroused, fondles a young boy, who has slight down on his cheeks but no pubic hair: under age, certainly, so perhaps pre-pubic paidophilia, and definitely not ‘ephebophilia’, sex with older adolescents. The cup is now in Oxford, but it is not showing a ‘teacher’ sexually harassing a ‘pupil’. A sponge and a strigil are behind the older man, signifying a gym or wrestling space: the boy has a net or bag, possibly for ‘gym’ gear. It represents a sexual advance in a sports-arena: as the male owner of the cup drank the last of the wine, this sex-scene appeared, a ‘tondo’ at the bottom of the cup. Red-figure tondo; Brygos Painter, c. 480 BC (Ashmolean Museum, Oxford)

5. Bronze figurine of a Spartan girl, detached from the rim of a bronze vessel. Her dress is cut away from the shoulder, Spartan style, and held up at the knee, suggesting that she is not an athlete running in a lady’s race (in honour of Hera) but a dancer, though female Spartan dancers were said often to dance naked (British Museum)

6. Marble statue from the acropolis in Sparta, showing a god or hero, in clean-shaven style. Probably one of a group on a Spartan temple: misunderstood as the famous Spartan warrior, Leonidas, when discovered in 1925 (Archaeological Museum of Sparta. Photo: Deutsches Archaölogisches Institut-Athens)

7. Footsoldiers of Persian king, wearing pointed hats, with ear-flaps, in Scythian style: limestone relief from palaces at Persepolis, fourth century BC (Vorderasiatisches Museum, Berlin)

8. Painting on the inner surface of the coffin-lid of the ‘Tomb of the Diver’, found in 1968 about a mile south of Paestum. Four other paintings of scenes from a symposium decorated the inner sides: the young boy dives, holding his head awkwardly, from a plinth of uncertain significance. Like the symposium scenes, the scene surely refers to worldly life, perhaps to something in the dead man’s earlier life, rather than symbolizing his dive out into the ‘unknown’ space of the underworld, a favoured but fanciful interpretation. Painting on white stucco surface (Paestum Museum. Photo: © author)

9. Small terracotta plaque, one of many dedicated at the sanctuary of Persephone at Locri, in the Greek West, now Calabria in S. Italy. Probably the plaques were fixed on trees. In my view the young woman is putting away the folded cloth, not taking it out. The front of the chest is decorated with a panel of the goddess Athena killing a giant (Enceladus?) and another of a man leading off a woman, apparently willingly, by taking her right wrist. The allusion is possibly to an ‘abduction’ for marriage: the scene with the giant suggests, but only to some, that ‘violence’ is involved in male-female marriage. The lady is also thought to be preparing for marriage, perhaps packing up in her parental home. In my view, the young woman is already married, and enjoying it all, with symbols of her household role, including the cloth (a blanket) and the mirror and the wool-basket of a ‘good wife’ above her head. Just as the virgin Athena laid low a giant, so she, a virgin, thunderstruck her man whom she followed, taken willingly by the hand. If so, the plaque is dedicated by a woman in gratitude, not in preparation. c. 470–450 (Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Reggio Calabria)

10. The upper half of one of the ‘Riace bronzes’, Warrior A, displayed since recovery in 1980, in Reggio di Calabria. Certainly a hero, he survived with his teeth and original eye balls, a masterpiece. On one view, he and Warrior B were two of the ten heroes, eponyms of the Athenian democracy’s tribes, made by the great Pheidias and dedicated at Delphi c. 460 BC. Others champion an artist from Argos, citing the (inconclusive) evidence of the type of earth used in the statue’s filling. Many others remain safelyagnostic. But he is a great work, plundered from Greece and shipped west before being wrecked (and saved on the seabed) near Locri in S. Italy (Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Reggio Calabria)

11. Fine marble Attic funerary-relief, perhaps of 431/0 BC, showing a dismounted Athenian cavalryman, holding his horse’s reins in one hand and raising his sword in the other to kill his fallen enemy. The victim and the killer gaze at each other in a ‘frozen’ classic moment, of great power. The left of the relief shows hilly landscape, perhaps in Attica itself. The encounter may, then, belong in the first battle, a cavalry one, of the Peloponnesian War, described in Thucydides 2.22.2. If so, the victim may be a Theban and the Athenian cavalryman commemorated here will have been one of the beneficiaries of Pericles’ Funeral Oration, the defining classical speech (Villa Albani, Rome. Photo: Hirmer Verlag)

12. Attic black-figure tondo, painted inside a drinking-cup and showing a slave, contemptibly ugly, with ankles chained: he puts stones into a basket. As the drinker emptied the wine, he would see this contemptible figure at the bottom of his cup, and be amused. Attic black-figure tondo, c. 490–80 BC (Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, Leiden)

13. Attic red-figure cup by the Cage painter, showing a youth, wreathed, so perhaps not a slave, filling his kylix, or drinking cup, with watered wine from the mixing bowl at a symposium, c. 490 BC (Musée du Louvre, Paris)

14. White-ground lekythos, or oil-flask showing a lady musician, with the caption ‘Helicon’, mountain of the Muses. She plays to a second lady, round the flask, who appears to gesture to the music. The implication, perhaps, is that the dead Athenian ladyhonoured bythis flask is ‘like a Muse’: certainly, well-born Athenian women learned music. Achilles Painter, c. 440 BC (Antikensammlungen, Munich)

15. Marble relief showing a pensive Athena in front of what is probably a grave monument, rather than a boundarymarker. It might be inscribed with the names of Athenian casualties, recently dead in war, c. 460 BC (Acropolis Museum, Athens)

16. Grave monument of Sosias and Kephisodorus whose names are inscribed above, from the left to beyond centre. It seems, then, that these two are the two left-hand figures, the left one wearing a priestly robe, the other hoplite armour and a pointed helmet, shaking hands with a third hoplite on the right. Are they the only dead men, one of whom takes a fond farewell of a fellow hoplite? Or, less plausibly, are all three dead? They fell in the Peloponnesian War: c. 410 BC (Antikensammlungen, Berlin)

17. Attic red-figure jug, or pelike, showing a baby learning to crawl, c. 430–520 BC (British Museum, London)

18. Copy of the portrait-statue by Polyeuctus of the great Athenian orator and democrat Demosthenes, which was set up by admiring democrats in Athens in 280–79 BC, forty years after his death. It stood in the Agora near the Altar of the Twelve Gods. In the original, his hands were clasped simply, without a scroll. The style is admirably classical, in a ‘severe’ style, and the face and the position of the hands are apt for the expression of grief: the great Demosthenes, then, is mourning the city’s loss of freedom to King Philip, and was put up in 280 on the proposal of his nephew Demochares at a time of renewed patriotic and democratic fervour against Macedon. The last great classical Greek statue, looking back to a classical hero, but made in a post-classical age (Ny Carlsberg Glyptothek)

19. Byzantine wall painting from the church of St Thomas at Kastoria in the north-west of Alexander’s Macedon, showing the great king with King Porus of India, whose elephants he conquered but whose person he greatly honoured, King Cyrus, founder of the Persian Empire and King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon, each of them two centuries older than Alexander. Great Alexander and the kings of these three Eastern empires meet here for the Last Judgement. Late Byzantine, fourteenth century BC (Photo: J. L. Lightfoot)

20. Grave stele of Thraseas and Euandria, husband and wife. She sits while he fondly clasps her hand and the head of a girl, surelya slave, looks on, pensively. A married Athenian scene, with a domestic onlooker, but we do not know which of the two had died. Athens, c. 350 BC (Antikensammlungen, Berlin)

21. Modern drawing to reconstruct a major Macedonian hunting scene, known in a mosaic copy, perhaps c. 150 BC, which survives in the Piazza Vittoria, Palermo. The original painting showed a hunt in Asia, confirmed by the vegetation on the right side: perhaps it is a famous hunt in Syria, in 332/1 BC. The mounted huntsman, rescuing the fallen warrior from a lion, replicates the pose of the figure to be identified as Alexander in figure 20.1. The fallen warrior was, arguably, identified with Lysimachus, one of Alexander’s Bodyguards and an eventual Successor in western Asia. To the right, a participant in Oriental dress runs away from a hunted boar: he chickens out symptomatically, so unlike the brave Macedonian ‘lion kings’. The original is similar to parts of the Vergina hunt painting and probably comes from the same circle, or artist, at an uncertain date, but surely in Alexander’s own lifetime, close to the memorable lion-hunting of 332/1 BC (Reconstruction, drawing and photo by William Wootton)

22. Ptolemy I, silver tetradrachm, c. 310–305 BC. Head of Alexander (Heberden Coin Room, Ashmolean Museum, Oxford)

23. Indo-Greek silver tetradrachm, c. 170–145 BC. Bust of Eucratides (Heberden Coin Room, Ashmolean Museum, Oxford)

24. Indo-Greek silver tetradrachm, 160–145 BC. Bust of Menander (Heberden Coin Room, Ashmolean Museum, Oxford)

25. Silver tetradrachm from Sardis, c. 213–190 BC. Head of Antiochus III (Heberden Coin Room, Ashmolean Museum, Oxford)

26. Cast of a Roman bronze portrait bust of Seleucus I, commander of Alexander’s Royal Shield-bearers, then a Successor King in Asia (he wears the royal diadem here) and founder of the Seleucid dynasty to which Antiochus III in figure 11.4 belonged. From the Villa of the Papyri, Herculaneum, Roman copy c. 50 BC of a lost marble original. Cast from Copenhagen Glyptotek (Photo: Professor Marianne Bergmann)

27. Big Corinthian column-capitals excavated at Ai Khanum, the Greek city on the Oxus and Kokcha rivers in northern Afghanistan, probably an Alexandria, subsequentlyenlarged. Reused as the main city-site was pillaged and ruined during the wars of the 1980s and 1990s: they now support the roof of a nearbymodern tea-house (Photo: Délégation Archélogique Française en Afghanistan: R. Besenval)

28. Cast of a Roman copy of a contemporary marble portrait of Demetrius the Besieger, the most handsome and most flamboyant of Alexander’s Successors. Born in 336 BC, year of Alexander’s accession, he was son of Anti-gonus the one-eyed and is sculpted here with small bull’s horns in his hair, attributes of the god Dionysus with whom he liked to be compared. He also wears a narrow diadem, symbol of royalty for Alexander’s Successors since 306/5 BC. Cast, from Copenhagen Glyptotek. (Photo: Professor Marianne Bergmann).

29. South façade of the court of Tomb I in Moustapha Pasha necropolis, Alexandria, Egypt, with a reconstructed altar in front and traces of fine painting, including Macedonian cavalrymen pouring libations with one hand and ladies standing between. Probably c. 280–260 BC, Alexandria (Photo: Professor Marianne Bergmann)

30. The most remote Ionic Greek column-capital yet known: locally carved for the big temple-portico of the largely Asiatic-style temple to the river Oxus at Takht-i-Sangin where the Oxus and Waksh rivers meet. The capital recalls details of late fourth–third century BC Ionic capitals back in Ionia, but the site is on the Oxus’s northern bank, in Tadjikistan. After Alexander, perhaps c. 300–280 BC under Seleucus (Photo: Délégation Archélogique Francaise en Afghanistan: R. Besenval)

31. Foot of a colossal Greek acrolith statue, surely of a god, c. 250–150 BC, from the Greek city at Ai Khanum, Afghanistan (Délégation Archélogique Francaise en Afghanistan, courtesy of Prof. Paul Bernard)

32. Imperial Roman copy of a marble portrait head of Pompey, combining the realism of small eyes and expression with a hairstyle recalling the great Alexander with whom Pompey was at times, optimistically, compared (Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen)

33. Portrait head of Julius Caesar, probablyposthumous: c. 40–30 BC (Vatican Museum, Rome)

34. Marble portrait generally assumed to represent Cicero. 30s BC (Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence)

35. The Portland Vase, brilliantly crafted blue and white cameo-glass. The uncaptioned figures have attracted many interpretations, of which the mythological ones are most likely. In our left-hand picture, the seated lady, holding a sea-monster, may be Thetis, goddess of the sea, watched pensively by the sea-god Poseidon, shown in a famous pose based on his statue by Lysippus, Alexander’s favoured sculptor. She draws fondly to her the nearly naked Peleus whom she will marry. A ‘Cupid’ with a flaming torch leads him on. The tree above may be a myrtle, although it has been compared with a budding peach, erotically more apt. Our right-hand picture is more disputed. I suggest a (slightly) regretful Aeneas, looking to the distressed Dido whom he has ‘reluctantly’ abandoned. She sits on a heap of marble plaques, possibly symbolizing a ‘broken home’, and her torch of ‘love’ is lowered. She will kill herself on a bonfire, perhaps implied here. To the far right, Venus, Aeneas’ mother, looks on with a sceptre. The tree is probably a fig tree, symbolizing barrenness. On the one side, then, the vase shows love leading to marriage, and to the future child Achilles. On the other side, love is abandoned and instead Aeneas will found a new home in Italy. As the supposed ancestors of Julius Caesar, Venus (and Aeneas) were Octavian’s ancestors. So, there may be a hint of Octavian-Augustus in the choice of themes. There is now a theory that on the left, the figures are Mark Antony, a seated Cleopatra, and Anton (a Heracles-figure and a supposed ancestor of Antony). On the right, Octavian is suggested as looking at his poor sister Octavia, Antony’s abandoned wife, while Venus and her sceptre assure him all will be well. The problems here are that Cleopatra is not naturally associated with a sea-monster (although she came by ship to meet Antony) nor with Poseidon, certainly the figure to her right. A half-naked pose for Octavia would also be surprising. The figures are surely mythological, not historical. Any reference to Octavian-Augustus is partial, and indirect, although the vase was made between c. 35 and 10 BC (British Museum, London)

36. Amphitheatre mosaic from a house floor at Smirat in Tunisia (north of ancient Thysdrus): it is antiquity’s supreme combination of text and image. A company of professional animal-hunters called the ‘Telegonii’ are shown fighting under the patronage of Dionysus, with Diana, goddess of the hunt, also in the mosaic. Each is captioned with their tough professional name (‘the Mamertine’) and each has just killed one of four leopards, individually named too (‘the Roman’ and ‘Luxurious’): these two of the leopards are garlanded with ivy, Dionysus’ plant. The inscription is a classic, recording how the herald in the arena called on ‘my Lords’, the local big-wigs, to pay 500 denarii to each hunter as the reward for each dead leopard. The crowd then started a chanted acclamation, to encourage a possible donor. ‘By your example, may future donors learn how to give a show! Let past donors hear! From where has such a show ever come? When has there been one like this? (Quando tale). You will be giving a show like the quaestors at Rome… The day will be yours…’ Then, the great moment occurred… ‘Magerius is donating! This is what it means to have money! This is what it is to be powerful! This is it – here and now! Night is here! By your gift, they’ve taken their leave with bags of money.’ The mosaic shows four moneybags but specifies each one was of 1000 denarii: Magerius doubled the huntsmen’s reward. Above all, Magerius had the scene, the verywords of the herald and the crowd, the moneybags, the names (of the leopards, the hunters and his own) laid out in mosaic, naturally in his own house for future visitors’ instruction. It is the pearl of all hunt-mosaics, though later than Hadrian, perhaps c. AD 260–80: Magerius’ like, however, existed earlier, and still does (Sousse Museum, Tunisia)

37. Modern colour reconstruction of the so-called ‘Peplos Korē’, or ‘Maiden in a Robe’, one of several such statues dedicated in Athenian dress for upper-class Athenian women, perhaps often to commemorate their role as a ‘priestess’ in an important cult. She may have held a pomegranate, symbol of fertility in other contexts, in her outstretched hand. Most Greek marble statues were brightly painted in this way, refuting their ‘austere’ or ‘marmoreal’ reputation. Original c. 530 BC, from Athens (Photo and reconstruction: Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge)

38. Colour reconstruction of the grave-stele of Aristion, by Aristocles. Aristion’s name is inscribed on its own, with no father’s name: perhaps he was a recent arrival in Attica, possibly the famous sculptor Aristion from Paros. Original c. 510 BC, found at Marathon in Attica. (Photo: V. Brinkmann, Staatliche Antikensammlungen und Glyptothek, Munich)

39. The ‘Lady in Blue’, a terracotta Tanagra figurine found with four others in a tomb just north of Tanagra in central Greece in the early 1870s when thousands of local tombs, some with these figurines, were excavated. The ‘Tanagras’ seemed to give an intimate glimpse of ancient Greek life and were a sensation, especially in France of the 1870s for whose public many copies, and clever fakes, were mass-produced. The Tanagran ladies were hailed as the ‘Parisiennes’ of their day, apparently exemplifying the grace and innate elegance of true Parisian ladies. The figurines’ original purpose is uncertain, some now considering them to be ‘dolls’. Their style, at times echoing marble sculpture, probably began in Athens, being imitated in Thebes (Before 335 BC, when Alexander destroyed it) and then in nearby Tanagra. ‘Tanagras’ were widely exported, early to Macedon and then out eastwards as far as eastern Iran for Alexander’s settlers in Asia who wanted such figurines from home. French critics named several, this one being ‘La Dame en Bleu’. She preserves her blue and pink paint and some of the gold leaf, rare and precious, for her robe and the edge of her fan. Her robe, covered head and fan suggest that (like some Parisiennes) she is a courtesan. Tanagra, Greece, c. 330–300 BC (Musée du Louvre, Paris)

40. Silver plate, 25 cms in diameter, with gilded figures, found carefully buried in a city-temple on the site at Ai Khanum, Afghanistan. A goddess is driven by a winged Victory in a chariot pulled by lions, attended by a priest behind, with parasol, and driven to a high stepped altar where a second priest waits, making an offering. A youthful Sun, the moon and a star are in the sky. The goddess wears a turreted headdress and is currently, but uncertainly, identified as the Greek Cybele coming down from her mountains, shown behind. However she may be Syrian, or local. The chariot is of near Eastern style, as are the altar and the priest’s pointed hat, but the Victory and the youthful Sun are certainly Greek. A similar plaque has now been found just to the west, at Takht-i-Sangin (see 30), implying a local craftsman, not an import from Seleucid Syria. This fine plate survived the wars of the 1980s and 1990s and is still in Afghanistan (Photo: Délégation Archélogique Francaise en Afghanistan, courtesy of Professor Paul Bernard)

41. Aerial view of the Greek city-site on the Oxus, in modern Afghanistan, at Ai Khanum. The site in the plain contained Greek inscriptions, fragments of Greek sculpture (including a big horse statue, with a wild animal-skin shown as its horse-blanket: ridden by a king, no doubt), a big Greek gymnasium, a palace, and a theatre set in the hillside. It was then plundered and devastated during the wars of the 1980s and 1990s. But the ‘acropolis’ was never excavated, nor a mound less than a mile up river: the site may thus be a foundation of Alexander in 329–7 BC, subsequentlyenlarged and flourishing until c. 130 BC (D. A. F. A., courtesy of Professor Paul Bernard)

42. Wall painting from the big cist ‘Tomb of Persephone’ at Vergina (Aigai), the Macedonian royal centre, a few yards south-east of King Philip’s tomb. The god Pluto ascends to his chariot, with his left foot still free, carrying a distraught Persephone off to the underworld. Beyond her, a female, perhaps her friend Kyane, is shown distressed. Beneath the chariot are flowers, like those Persephone was gathering in the meadow. The couple are also shown painted on the back of the marble throne in the tomb ascribed to King Philip’s mother Eurydice, also at Vergina (c. 340 BC). The artist sketched freely, with visible revisions, before painting this four-colour masterpiece: he may be the famous Nicomachus. Dated c. 340 BC (Vergina (Aigai): Photo: courtesy of Professor C. Paliadeli)

43. Detail from the façade painting on the Tomb of Philip at Vergina (Aigai), showing the face of the man identified as Alexander c. 336/5 BC (Photo: Professor C. Paliadeli)

44. Detail from the tomb façade painting on the Tomb of Philip at Vergina showing King Philip II on horseback, c. 336/5 BC (Photo: Professor C. Paliadeli)

45. Modern reconstruction by G. Miltsakakis of the original hunt painting, found on the façade of King Philip II’s tomb at Vergina (Aigai). The scene is an expressive masterpiece, perhaps not true to one single day’s hunting. The figure of the prancing horse, directly over the door, is surely Alexander, centrally placed as the new king who paid for the scene. The dogs have been remarked for their exceptional jaws and fierce breeding. On the right, the older Philip (conforming to his coin portraits) attacks a lion, still at large in Macedon (a previous king had shown a lion pierced by a broken spear on his coinage). We are in Macedon, not Asia, and Philip hunts with younger lads, the Royal Pages whom he instituted. Alexander has brought down a boar, behind him, and now gallops to the lion: for the pose, compare our 21. The implausible notion that the Tomb contained the later Philip III, Alexander’s half-witted half-brother (died 317 BC), is refuted by, among much else, the extreme implausibility of a painting on his tomb with Alexander himself at the centre and his absence (as a half-wit) from any such scene of hunting in person. Dated, therefore, 336/5 BC, the year of Philip II’s murder, by a Greek master, possibly Aristides, whose use of a bare tree, the prancing horse and (possibly) these faces was paralleled in other near-contemporary paintings for Macedonians (Photo: Professor C. Paliadeli)

46. Three sections of the painted frieze above the doorway of a Macedonian tomb, discovered in 1994, at Agios Athanasios (probably ancient Chalastra) about twelve miles west of Thessalonica in Macedonia. Our middle register shows the frieze’s centre, six men reclining at a symposion on bright cushions, listening to one woman (surprisingly, clothed) who plays the double aulos, like our oboe, while another, to the right, sits and plays a stringed kithara. A three-legged table is set with after-dinner dessert and the second male diner holds a drinking-horn, or rhyton, which ends in an ‘oriental’ griffin. Our upper register is the left of the frieze, showing three garlanded revellers on horseback, with others on foot carrying torches and a silver vessel for a drinking-party, similar to known examples, including one found in King Philip’s tomb at Aigai. Our lower register shows eight Macedonian warriors, in military dress with shields typical of the Macedonian infantry. On either side of the door (not shown) a tall young Macedonian leans against a sarissa-spear, mourning the dead man inside. Arguably, c. 340–335 BC, on coin evidence, but currently dated 330–20 BC. This splendid painting appeared in time for the size of its shields and its plumed helmets to be a starting point for the designers of Oliver Stone’s epic Alexander film (2004), in which the comfortable lace-up cavalry boots, hand-made in Italy, resembled these Macedonians’ own. So did the revels during filming. (Greek Archaeological Service; M. Tsimbidou-Avloniti, excavator)

47. Painting of drunken Silenus, Dionysus’ companion on his revels, set on a marble funeral-bed in a Macedonian Tomb, excavated at Potidaea in southeast Macedonia. He holds a drinking-horn, or rhyton, ending in an ‘oriental’ griffin, like the Macedonian diners in our figure 21. Late fourth century BC (Excavator: Dr. Costas Sismanidis: photo courtesy of Professor D. Pandermalis)

48. Wall painting of Terentius Neo, holding a book-scroll, and his wife, holding a stylus-pen and a folded writing-tablet. Pompeii, House vii.2.6, c. 60 AD. Terentius Neo’s common features remind us that literacywas not the art, or pretension, only of an upper class at Pompeii (Photo: AKG Images, London)

49. Wall painting from the portico on the far side of the peristyle garden of the House of Marine Venus in a Shell, at Pompeii. Venus is drawn by a cherub on a dolphin and pushed by another cherub across the sea: the scene seems to have been painted by different hands, of which the artist for her head is best. Venus was a patron-goddess of Pompeii and here, her hairstyle follows a fashion in Nero’s reign at Rome. The trompe l’œil style makes her and the sea seem to float beyond the adjoining wall paintings of enclosed gardens, at least when viewed from the peristyle’s entrance way. AD 60s (Photo: J. L. Lightfoot)

50. Female–male sex scene from House of the Centenary, Room 43. Sited above the recessed bed in the small ‘slave-quarters’ room of the supervisor of the household: not, then, in a main room in this house, which was eventually owned by an aedile of the town. c. AD 49–70, Pompeii (Photo, Giovanni Battista)

51. Male–Female sex scene, uncertain location, wall painting. AD 40–70, Pompeii (Museo Archeologico, Naples; photo, Giovanni Battista)

52. Portrait of a boy, surrounded by the original mummy-wrappings which held his picture onto the mummy-case. From the Fayyum, Egypt. Reign of Trajan, AD 98–117 (British Museum, London)

53. Portrait of a woman, with fashionable pearl and red-stone earrings and unusual highlighting, suggesting a tear-drop in her left eye. Found at Anti-noopolis, Hadrian’s new city for his dead male lover. She will have been one of the first batch of settlers, keen to show her social status. AD 130s (Arthur M. Sackler Museum, Harvard University)

54. Silver denarius from Rome, 113 or 112 BC, showing voting scenes. On the left, a supervisor (the custos) gives a voting tablet to a voter who will mark it, walk up to a wooden ‘bridge’ and follow the man (right) who is putting his tablet into an urn. Both voters wear the required toga and above, the letter ‘P’ signifies a tribe. This voting one by one is at an assembly to pass laws for which a ‘secret’ ballot was relatively recent, and special to Rome. In 119 BC, the ‘bridges’ had been narrowed, as proposed by Marius when tribune, so as to stop intimidation of individual voters. The moneyer who issued this coin, Licinius Nerva, maybe a partisan of Marius, celebrating the reform (Heberden Coin Room, Ashmolean Museum, Oxford)

55. Silver denarius from Rome, 82 BC, showing Sulla on the reverse triumphing in a four-horse chariot. Significantly, the coin was issued before Sulla actually celebrated a triumph for his victory over Mithridates in Asia. In 82 BC, he invaded Italy and marched on Rome in open civil war. The triumph began only on January 27, 81 BC (Heberden Coin Room, Ashmolean Museum, Oxford)

56. Silver denarius, Rome, 44 BC. On obverse, a portrait of Julius Caesar, dictator, in the year of his murder. On reverse, his ‘ancestor’, the goddess Venus (Heberden Coin Room, Ashmolean Museum, Oxford)

57. Gold coin showing Nero and his mother Agrippina, face to face on the obverse. A unique placing for an imperial woman, but in December 54 (the coin’s date), Agrippina was a unique ‘queen mother’. Her titles are on this side of the coin, whereas Nero’s are only on the reverse. In the next year (55) the portraits are shown side by side and the titles swap sides, no doubt by order of Nero (British Museum, London)

58. Relief frieze from upper storey of the portico leading to the shrine of the Roman emperors, the Sebasteion at Aphrodisias in modern Turkey, showing Augustus with symbolic representations of land and sea, symbolizing his world-wide power. c. 60 AD (Photo: M. Ali Düğenci, courtesy of Professor R. R. R. Smith)

59. Relief frieze from same location, showing the Emperor Claudius conquering Britannia, as his army partly did in his presence in AD 43 (Photo: M. Ali Düğenci, courtesy of Professor R. R. R. Smith)

60. Gold aureus from Judaea, AD 70, found at Finstock, West Oxfordshire, UK in the 1850s and only recently recognized. Obverse, Vespasian, the new Emperor. Reverse, a personification of Justice, the first known. She expresses the Roman view of their ‘just’ sack of Jerusalem and its Temple. Struck under Titus, Vespasian’s son and the commander in Judaea (Heberden Coin Room, Ashmolean Museum, Oxford)

61. Brass sestertius from Rome, AD 96, with a portrait of the ‘good’ Emperor Nerva on the obverse. The reverse shows clapsed hands symbolising, optimistically, the ‘concord’ of the armies (Heberden Coin Room, Ashmolean Museum, Oxford)

62. Gold aureus from Rome, AD 134–8; obverse, a portrait of Hadrian; reverse, a personification of Egypt (Heberden Coin Room, Ashmolean Museum, Oxford)

63. Modern reconstruction of the south-westerly of the two chambers which made up the Library of Trajan in his Forum at Rome, dedicated in AD 112–3. Between these two facing chambers stood his Column in its portico: on one side, able to be closed by grilles, each chamber opened out on to it. Two storeys high, this chamber was about 30 yards by 20 yards, a stairway leading to the upper gallery. Each side-wall had seven upper and seven lower niches for scrolls in ‘bookcases’, set away from the wall to avoid damp. The floor was paved in grey granite from Egypt with strips of yellow marble from north Africa. The walls of brick-faced concrete were covered with a layer of multicoloured marble from western Asia. The white marble statue at the far end was surely of Trajan. Perhaps the historian Tacitus worked here among the 10,000 rolls which each chamber held (Reconstruction by G. Gorski)

64. The huge aqueduct at Segovia in Spain, on which an inscription refers to ‘restoration’ by Trajan’s orders in AD 98, undertaken by local magistrates. So, an aqueduct existed earlier and was then improved (Photo: J. L. Lightfoot)

65. A reconstruction of Pliny’s Villa at Laurentum, one of many, based on Pliny’s own Letter, a major text in the history of landscape gardening. Louis-Pierre Haudebourt prided himself on his Latin and classical allusions; he visited Pompeii in 1815–16, was a respected architect in Paris and in 1838, published plans, imagined interior and exterior views and this general impression of Pliny’s villa, with a learned commentary between himself and an imaginary architect used by Pliny, one Mustius. From L. P. Haudebourt, Le Laurentin, Maison de Campagne de Pline Le Jeune (Paris, 1838)

66. Roman theatre at Emerita (now Mérida) in Spain, founded by Augustus as a colony-city for his retired soldiers (emeriti). Dateable to 16/15 BC, with the patronage of his general Agrippa, and subsequently further decorated. Emerita quicklybecame a showpiece, with loads of marble, including a Forum (later decorated to imitate Augustus’ own at Rome), big temples and an amphitheatre for blood-sports (Photo: J. L. Lightfoot)

67. Scenes from the Column of Trajan in his Forum at Rome, dedicated in AD 112/3 to commemorate his campaigns against the Dacians (modern Romania)

a) Dacian prisoners are brought before the emperor Trajan outside a Roman camp

b) Roman soldiers lock their shields together in the ‘tortoise’ (testudo) formation as they attack a Dacian fortress

c) The Dacian’s leader, Decebalus, kills himself near a tree as the Roman cavalry attacks him

d) Victory inscribes a shield, recording Trajan’s successes for posterity (Photos: Deutsches Archäologisches Institut, Rome)

68. Tondo, originally from a Hadrianic monument commemorating great hunting moments in his reign, set at Rome. Moved under the later Emperor Constantine, after AD 312, to adorn the Arch of Constantine in Rome. The lion killed here was in the Western Desert in Egypt in September AD 130. A verbose poem by a contemporary poet describes it as terrorizing the area and, when hunted, attacking Antinous on his horse but being killed by Hadrian himself and then stamped on by Antinous’ steed. Here, Hadrian is second left (later, recut to resemble Constantine) and many believe, others dispute, that Antinous is at the far left, with his foot on the lion’s head. If so, he looks unlike his boyish ‘divine’ portraits, spread after his death soon after the hunt (Arch of Constantine, Rome: author’s photograph)

69. Replica statue from the grounds of Hadrian’s villa at Tivoli, representing a classical Greek warrior whose bronze original has not survived. The warrior is beardless, and therefore unlikely to represent the war god Ares. He is probably a semi-divine hero: his pose and weaponry have suggested that he may represent one of the Athenians’ ten tribal heroes, sculpted by the great Phidias and dedicated at Delphi c. 460 BC. A similar origin has been upheld for the fine ‘Riace Bronze’ warrior, (our number 10), who held a shield and also a spear (now lost). But unlike the Roman who stole an original from Greece, and then lost it off Riace at sea, Hadrian patronized a replica by a contemporary sculptor, thus respecting the ‘classical’ original. His replica stands by the long canal in his garden, known as ‘Canopus’ after the celebrated canal by Alexandria in Egypt, well known for its luxury. So, Hadrian combined ‘luxury’ and respect for the classical world, a fitting climax to our illustrations. Hadrian’s villa, Tivoli c. AD 135(Photo: © Macduff Everton/CORBIS)

70. Bronze portrait head of Hadrian, second quarter of second century AD (Museo Nazionale, Rome)

71. Marble relief of the deified Antinous from near Lanuvium, Italy, represented in the style of the nature-god Silvanus. Signed by Antonianos from Aphrodisias, now in Turkey and a great seat of marble sculpture (from Istituto dei Fondi Rustici, now Banco Nazionale, Rome)

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