Ancient History & Civilisation

Notes

HADRIAN AND THE CLASSICAL WORLD

1. Aulus Gellius, 19.8.5.

2. J. M. C. Toynbee, The Hadrianic School: A Chapter in the History of Greek Art (1934).

3. A. Spawforth, S. Walker, in Journal of Roman Studies (1985), 78–104, and (1986), 88–105, are still the fundamental studies.

4. Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, 12.1122.

5. Josephus, Jewish War 2.385.

6. Historia Augusta, Life of Hadrian 12.6.

7. Tertullian, Apology 5.7.

8. William J. Macdonald, John A. Pinto, Hadrian’s Villa and Its Legacy (1995).

9. R. Syme, Fictional History Old and New: Hadrian (1986, lecture), 20–21: ‘the notion that Hadrian, if anything, was an Epicurean may engender disquiet or annoyance.’ So far, it has not.

10. Sophocles, Antigone 821.

11. F. D. Harvey, in Classica et Mediaevalia (1965), 101–46.

12. Mary T. Boatwright, Hadrian and the Cities of the Roman Empire (2000), an excellent study whose bibliography is important for this book.

13. Naphtali Lewis, in Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies (1991), 267–80, with the history of the scholarly debate over authenticity.

14. G. Daux, in Bulletin de Correspondance Hellénique (1970), 609–18, and in Ancient Macedonia II, Institute for Balkan Studies number 155 (1977), 320–23.

CHAPTER 1. HOMERIC EPIC

1. L. Godart, A. Sacconi, in Comptes Rendus de L’Académie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres (1998), 889–906, and (2001), 527–46.

2. S. Mitchell, in Journal of Roman Studies (1990), 184–5, translating lines 40 ff. of C. Julius Demosthenes’ inscription at Oenoanda (AD 124).

3. Homer, Iliad 6.528 and Odyssey 17.323.

4. Homer, Iliad 2.270.

5. Ibid. 16.384–92.

6. Ibid. 18.507–8.

CHAPTER 2. THE GREEKS’ SETTLEMENTS

1. M. H. Hansen, in M. H. Hansen (ed.), A Comparative Study of Thirty City-state Cultures (2000), 142–86, at 146.

2. W. D. Niemeier, in Aegaeum (1999), 141–55.

3. J. D. Hawkins, in Anatolian Studies (2000), 1–31.

4. Plutarch, Greek Questions 11.

5. Pliny, Natural History 19.10–11.

6. S. Amigues, in Revue Archéologique (1988), 227.

7. S. Amigues, in Journal des Savants (2004), 191–226, contesting the recently revived identification with Cachrys ferulacea.

8. Diodorus, 13.81.5 and 83.3.

9. T. J. Dunbabin, The Western Greeks (1948), 77 and 365.

10. P. A. Hansen (ed.), Carmina Epigraphica Graeca, Volume I (1983), number 400: Robert Parker kindly cited this for me.

11. J. Reynolds, in Journal of Roman Studies (1978), 113, lines 2–12, and, for the local side to it, see A. J. Spawforth and Susan Walker, ibid. (1986), 98–101, a fascinating study.

CHAPTER 3. ARISTOCRATS

1. Hesiod, Theogony 80–93 and Works and Days 39.

2. Aristotle, Politics 1306A 15–20.

3. Homer, Iliad 3.222.

4. O. Murray, in Apoikia: scritti in onore di Giorgio Buchner, AION n.s. 1 (1994), 47–54, for this dating.

5. M. Vickers, Greek Symposia (Joint Association of Classical Teachers, London, n.d.).

6. L. Foxhall, in Lynette G. Mitchell and P. J. Rhodes (eds.), The Development of the Polis in Archaic Greece (1997), 130, gives calculations, perhaps on the high end of the scale.

7. Jacob Burckhardt, The Greeks and Greek Civilization, abridged and translated by Sheila Stern (1998), 179. I incline to his view, which is still controversial.

8. H. W. Pleket, in Peter Garnsey, Keith Hopkins and C. R. Whittaker (eds.), Trade in the Ancient Economy (1983), 131–44, the model which essentially I follow on this vexed question throughout this book.

CHAPTER 4. THE IMMORTAL GODS

1. Homer, Iliad 23.75–6 and 100.

2. Homeric Hymn to Apollo 189–93.

3. Erich Csapo, Theories of Mythology (2005), 165–71.

4. Robert Parker, in J. Boardman, J. Griffin and O. Murray (eds.), The Oxford History of the Classical World (1986), 266.

5. Homer, Odyssey 11.241–4.

6. Ibid. 11.251 and Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite 286–9, with P. Maas, Kleine Schriften (1973), 66–7, implying the gods make love only to virgins. But Helen was not one.

7. Prices from Attic data only, in M. H. Jameson, in Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society, supplementary volume 14 (1988), 91.

8. Hesiod, Theogony 418–52 with M. L. West’s Commentary (1971 edn.), 276–91.

9. Homeric Hymn to Apollo 390–end, with the remarkable study by W. G. Forrest, in Bulletin de Correspondance Hellénique (1956), 33–52.

10. Adrienne Mayor, in Archaeology 28 (1999), 32–40.

11. W. G. Forrest, in Historia (1959), 174.

CHAPTER 5. TYRANTS AND LAWGIVERS

1. Hesiod, Works and Days 225–37.

2. Chester G. Starr, The Origins of Greek Civilization (1962), part III, for the phrase I reapply here.

3. Anthologia Palatina 14.93.

4. Solon F36 (West).

5. Solon F4 (West), line 18.

6. Solon F36 (West).

7. R. F. Willetts, The Law Code of Gortyn (1967), with a possible translation; A. L. Di Lello-Finuoli, in D. Musti (ed.), La transizione dal Miceneo all’Arcaismo… Roma, 14–19 Marzo, 1988 (1991), 215–30; K. R. Kristensen, in Classica et Medievalia (1994), 5–26.

8. E. Lévy, in P. Brulé and J. Oulken (eds.), Esclavage, guerre, économie en Grèce ancienne: Hommages à Yvon Garlan (1997), 25–41, is fundamental here.

9. Aristotle, Athenaion Politeia 7.3–4; on the (non-numerical) classes, see (correctly) G. E. M. de Sainte Croix, Athenian Democratic Origins (2004), 5–72; I must stress that the ‘300’ and ‘200’ measures for hippeis and zeugites are only an Aristotelian guess (eulogotera) and are not historical. Zeugitai, like (e. g.) boarii in early medieval law-codes, owned oxen; hippeis owned horses. It is unfortunate that these Aristotelian guesses are too often taken as key ‘statistical’ sources for the archaic state’s economy and land-holdings.

10. Pausanias, 6.4.8.

11. Aelian, Varia Historia 2.29.

CHAPTER 6. SPARTA

1. J. Reynolds, in Journal of Roman Studies (1978), 113, lines 39–43; Paul Cartledge and Antony Spawforth, Hellenistic and Roman Sparta (1992 edn.), 113.

2. A. Andrewes, Probouleusis: Sparta’s Contribution to the Technique of Government (1954).

3. Plutarch, Greek Questions 4, with G. Grote, A History of Greece, volume II (1888, revised edn.), 266 and note 2 for the relevance of it at ‘Laconian’ Cnidus.

4. Homer, Odyssey 17.487; A. Andrewes, in Classical Quarterly (1938), 89–91.

5. Terpander in Plutarch, Life of Lycurgus 21.4.

6. Mucianus, cited in Pliny, Natural History 19.12.

CHAPTER 7. THE EASTERN GREEKS

1. Homeric Hymn to Apollo 146–55.

2. Herodotus, 2.152.4.

3. Sappho F 39 (Diehl), with (independently of mine) the fine observations by John Raven, Plants and Plant Lore in Ancient Greece (2000), 9.

4. J. D. P. Bolton, Aristeas (1962), a brilliant study, although his pp. 8–10 take a more cautious view of Longinus, On the Sublime 10.4 (his F7, p. 208).

5. Text of the Oath in Loeb Library, Hippocrates, volume I, translated by W. H. S. Jones (1933), 298, with Vivian Nutton, Hippocratic Morality and Modern Medicine, in Entretiens de la Fondation Hardt, volume XLIII (1997), 31–63.

6. Athenaeus, Deipnosophistae 12.541A, Ps.-Aristotle, De Mirabilibus 96 and the brilliant study by J. Heurgon, Scripta Varia (1986), 299.

7. Herodotus, 1.164.3.

CHAPTER 8. TOWARDS DEMOCRACY

1. Herodotus, 1.152.3.

2. P. A. Cartledge, Agesilaos (1987), 10–11.

3. A. Andrewes, The Greek Tyrants (1956), chapter VI, for this fine phrase.

4. Herodotus, 5.72.2, with P. J. Rhodes, Ancient Democracy and Modern Ideology (2003), 112–13 and notes 17 and 19.

5. Mogens H. Hansen, The Athenian Democracy in the Age of Demosthenes (1991), 220.

6. Herodotus, 5.78.1; G. T. Griffith (ed.), Ancient Society and Institutions: Studies Presented to V. Ehrenberg (1966), 115.

7. Herodotus, 5.73.3.

CHAPTER 9. THE PERSIAN WARS

1. Herodotus, 1.212–14.

2. Ibid. 1.153.1–2.

3. Section 8 of the Naqsh-i-Rustam DN-b text, as rendered in P. Briant, From Cyrus to Alexander, translated by Peter T. Daniels (2002), 212.

4. J. S. Morrison, J. F. Coates and N. B. Rankov, The Athenian Trireme (2000, rev. edn.), 250 and 252.

5. Herodotus, 6.112.3.

6. V. D. Hanson, The Western Way of War (1989), 158 and 175, also now in Hans van Wees, Greek Warfare (2004), 184.

7. Homer, Iliad 2.872.

8. Found by M. H. Jameson and concisely discussed in R. Meiggs and D. M. Lewis, A Selection of Greek Historical Inscriptions (1988 edn.), number 23.

9. R. Étienne and M. Piérart, in Bulletin de Correspondance Hellénique (1975), 51.

10. Deborah Boedeker and David Sider (eds.), The New Simonides (1996).

11. Angelos P. Matthaiou, in Peter Derow and Robert Parker (eds.), Herodotus and His World (2003), 190–202.

12. Herodotus, 8.83.

CHAPTER 10. THE WESTERN GREEKS

1. Pindar, Pythian 1.75.

2. Historia Augusta, Life of Hadrian 13.3.

3. Ps.-Plato, Seventh Letter 326B.

4. Pindar, Olympian 5.13–14.

5. T. J. Dunbabin, The Western Greeks (1948), p. vii.

6. F. Cordano, Le tessere pubbliche dal tempio di Atena a Camarina (1992); O. Murray, in Mogens H. Hansen (ed.), The Polis as an Urban Centre and as a Political Community: Acts of the Copenhagen Polis Centre, volume IV (1997), 493–504.

7. Michael H. Jameson, David R. Jordan and Roy D. Kotansky, A Lex Sacra from Selinous (1993).

8. Pindar, F106 (Maehler): I owe this to P. J. Wilson.

9. Herodotus, 7.164.1.

10. A. Giovannini, ‘Le Sel et la fortune de Rome’, in Athenaeum (1985), 373–87, a brilliant study.

11. Livy, 3.31.8, with R. M. Ogilvie, A Commentary on Livy, Books 1–5 (1965), 449–50, for the variants and a sceptical view.

CHAPTER 11. CONQUEST AND EMPIRE

1. Herodotus, 5.92 on isokratia.

2. Pindar, Pythian 7.18–19.

3. Herodotus, 8.124.3.

4. Pliny, Natural History 18.144.

5. Thucydides, 2.65.2 is important here; A. G. Geddes, in Classical Quarterly (1987), 307–31, for the problematic question of dress.

6. Thucydides, 2.63.2 and 3.37.2.

CHAPTER 12. A CHANGING GREEK CULTURAL WORLD

1. Hippocrates, Epidemics 1.1; Jean Pouilloux, Recherches sur l’histoire et les cultes de Thasos, volume I (1954), 249–50 is crucial for the dating, but I identify the mention of the ‘new wall’ with Thasos’ new wall built by the 460s, and I keep Polygnotus and therefore ‘Antiphon, son of Critoboulus’ up in the 460s too. I acknowledge many discussions of this rare point with the late D. M. Lewis, who agreed.

2. Herodotus, 3.80.3.

3. J. S. Morrison, J. F. Coates and N. B. Rankov, The Athenian Trireme (2000), 238.

4. Athenaeus, 14.619A, with Walter Scheidel, in Greece and Rome (1996), 1.

5. Ps.-Demosthenes, 59.122.

6. Ps.-Xenophon, Constitution of the Athenians 3.2 and 3.8.

7. David Harvey and John Wilkins, The Rivals of Aristophanes (2000).

8. Alberto Cesare Cassio, in Classical Quarterly (1985), 38–42.

CHAPTER 13. PERICLES AND ATHENS

1. H. L. Hudson-Williams, in Classical Quarterly (1951), 68–73, on ‘pamphlets’; Harvey Yunis (ed.), Written Texts and the Rise of Literate Culture in Ancient Greece (2003), has all the bibliography.

2. Thucydides, 2.65.9.

3. Ion, in Plutarch, Life of Pericles 5.3.

4. Plato, Menexenus, with the comic Callias F15 (Kock), for this sort of joke.

5. Plutarch, Life of Pericles 24.9.

6. Ibid. 8.7.

7. Glenn R. Bugh, The Horsemen of Athens (1988), 52–78.

8. Thucydides, 2.41.4.

9. J. M. Mansfield, ‘The Robe of Athena and the Panathenaic Peplos’ (Dissertation, Univ. of California, Berkeley 1985), supplementing D. M. Lewis, Selected Papers in Greek and Near Eastern History (1997), 131–2.

10. Aeneas Tacticus, 31.24.

11. Thucydides, 2.40.2.

12. Plutarch, Life of Pericles 3.5 and 13.5, with Anthony J. Podlecki, Perikles and His Circle (1998), 172, citing A. L. Robkin for the view I, too, have always preferred.

CHAPTER 14. THE PELOPONNESIAN WAR

1. M. H. Jameson, in R. G. Osborne and S. Hornblower (eds.), Ritual, Finance and Politics (1994), 307.

2. Thucydides, 3.36.6; 5.16.1; 8.73.3; 8.97.2.

3. Xenophon, Hellenica 2.3.39; Thucydides, 7.86.5.

4. Thucydides, 1.22.3.

5. Thucydides, 2.27.1, whereas Herodotus, 6.91.1, adduces a religious explanation.

CHAPTER 15. SOCRATES

1. Diogenes Laertius, 2.40; on the sense of ‘theous nomizein’, I confess to preferring J. Tate, in Classical Review (1936), 3 and (1937), 3.

2. Xenophon, Symposium 2.10.

3. Aristophanes, Clouds 1506–9.

4. Plutarch, Life of Pericles 32.2 with L. Woodbury, in Phoenix (1981), 295 and M. Ostwald, From Popular Sovereignty to the Sovereignty of Law (1986), 528–31.

5. Xenophon, Symposium 8.2.

CHAPTER 16. FIGHTING FOR FREEDOM AND JUSTICE

1. Plutarch, Life of Lysander 30.3–5.

2. Diodorus, 15.54.3; Xenophon, Hellenica 6.4.7; Plutarch, Life of Pelopidas 20.4–21.1; Plutarch, Moralia 856F; Pausanias, 9.13.5.

3. K. J. Dover, Greek Homosexuality (1978), 190–94.

4. Xenophon, Hellenica 7.5.27.

CHAPTER 17. WOMEN AND CHILDREN

1. John M. Oakley, in Jenifer Neils and John H. Oakley, Coming of Age in Ancient Greece: Images of Childhood from the Classical Past (2003), 174, and catalogue 115, on pp. 162 and 174.

2. Aeschines, 3.77–8.

3. D. Ogden, Greek Bastardy (1996), 199–203.

4. Plato Comicus F143 and F188, with James Davidson, Courtesans and Fishcakes (1998), 118.

5. L. Llewellyn-Jones, Aphrodite’s Tortoise (2003), is important here, citing (p. 62) Heracleides Criticus, 1.18; compare Tanagra, mythe et archéologie, Louvre catalogue 15 September 2003–5 January 2004 (Paris, 2003), which is excellent, especially number 101 from Athens (a veiled prostitute?).

6. Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum, volume XV (1958), 384 and J. M. Hannick, in Antiquité Classique (1976), 133–48.

7. Justin, Epitome 7.5.4–9.

CHAPTER 18. PHILIP OF MACEDON

1. Arrian, Indica 18.6–7; on Aristotle’s view, note the case advanced by P. A. Brunt, Studies in Greek History and Thought (1993), 334–6.

2. E. Voutiras, Revue des Études Grecques (1996), 678, with Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum, volume XLVI (1996), 776, and volume XLIX (1999), 759.

3. Arrian, Anabasis 1.10.1, and Diodorus, 17.16.3, which I accept, differing from A. B. Bosworth, Commentary on Arrian’s History of Alexander, volume I (1980), 97, who credits Arrian with an ‘error’.

4. Plutarch, Life of Alexander 39.2–3.

5. M. W. Dickie, in Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 109 (1995), 81–6 and L. Rossi, ibid. 112 (1996), 59; Poseidippus F44 (ed. Austin–Bastiniani).

6. Ps.-Demosthenes, 17.15.

7. Plutarch, Moralia 179 C–D.

CHAPTER 19. THE TWO PHILOSOPHERS

1. Plato, Republic 558C; the entire section, starting at 555B, is brilliantly malign.

2. Plato, Laws 636B–D4; 836B8–C7; 836D9–E4; 841D4–5; G. E. M. de Sainte Croix used to lecture with great force on Plato as the first attested ‘homophobe’, citing the Laws, including Laws 636C5 which applies, too, to ‘lesbians’.

3. Laws 907E–910D; for ‘corrective’ punishment, T. J. Saunders, Plato’s Penal Code: Tradition, Controversy and Reform in Greek Penology (1991) is a fine study.

4. Aristotle, Meteorologica 1.352A30, F13 (Rose), F25 (Rose), Metaphysics 1074 B1–14.

5. Aristotle, History of Animals 523A18 and Generation of Animals 736A11–12.

6. Aristotle, Politics 1254A20, explicitlyappealing to ‘ta gignomena’ as proof that slaves exist: ‘natural slavery’ is not just a theoretical construct of his thinking. P. A. Brunt, Studies in Greek History and Thought (1993), 343–88, is the definitive study on this issue.

7. Aristotle, Politics 1260A12.

8. To the texts in Brunt, Studies in Greek History and Thought, 288–90, a sceptical view, we can add on Cotys’ death, Philostratus, Life of Apollonius 7.2 and on Clearchus’, Justin, Epitome 16.5.12–13, Philodemus, Index Academicorum 6.13 (Dorandi) and the fiction in I. Düring, Chion of Heraclea (1951). Memnon 434F1 (Jacoby) says Clearchus himself had ‘heard Plato’.

9. Aristotle F668 (Rose).

10. Aristotle, On the Heavens 297A3–8.

11. Duris, in Athenaeus 12.542D; Diogenes Laertius, 5.75 (the statues); William W. Fortenbaugh and Eckart Schütrumpf, Demetrius of Phaleron, texts and translation (2000).

12. Diogenes Laertius, 5.38; C. Habicht, Athens from Alexander to Antony (1997), 73, and the fine studyin his Athen in Hellenisticher Zeit: Gesammelte Aufsätze (1994), 231–47.

CHAPTER 20. FOURTH-CENTURY ATHENIANS

1. Jacob Burckhardt, The Greeks and Greek Civilization, abridged and translated by Sheila Stern (1998), 289–90.

2. Ps.-Demosthenes, 50.26.

3. G. E. M. de Sainte Croix, Origins of the Peloponnesian War (1972), 371–6.

4. S. Lewis, News and Society in the Greek Polis (1996), 102–15.

5. D. M. Lewis, Selected Papers in Greek and Near Eastern History (1997), 212–29.

6. J. K. Davies, in Journal of Hellenic Studies (1967), 33–40.

7. W. K. Pritchett, The Greek State at War, part V (1991), 473–85, is essential here.

8. I disagree with D. M. MacDowell, in Classical Quarterly (1986), 438–49 (an important paper), and incline more (but not wholly) to A. H. M. Jones, Athenian Democracy (1957), 28–9.

9. W. C. Arnott, in Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies (1959), 78–9.

10. Theophrastus, Characters 4.11, 21.5, and R. J. Lane Fox, in Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society (1996), 147, and notes 210–13.

11. Theophrastus, Characters 23.2, with Lane Fox, op. cit. (note 10), 147 and note 208.

12. K. Hallof and C. Habicht, in Mitteilungen der deutschen Archäologischen Institut (Athenische), 110 (1995), 273–303; Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum, volume XLV (1995), 300–306.

13. Xenophon, Ways and Means 1.1.

14. Demosthenes, 10.36–45.

CHAPTER 21. ALEXANDER THE GREAT

1. Herodotus, 6.69.2–3; Plutarch, Life of Lysander 26.1; Plutarch, Moralia 338B. Aristander (Alexander’s own mantis) is named in Origen, Against Celsus 7.8, a neglected and important citation.

2. Arrian, Anabasis 6.19.4.

3. Nearchus, Indica 40.8.

4. P. J. Rhodes and R. G. Osborne, Greek Historical Inscriptions 404–323 BC (2000), 433.

5. Duris, in Athenaeus, Deipnosophistae 4.155C.

6. Arrian, Anabasis 7.26.1.

CHAPTER 22. ALEXANDER’S EARLY SUCCESSORS

1. Abraham J. Sachs and Hermann Hunger, Astronomical Diaries and Related Texts from Babylonia, volume I (1988), 207.

2. Plutarch, Moralia 180D; I owe an ‘empire of the best’ to Guy Rogers of Wellesley College.

3. Arrian, Anabasis 7.12.4.

4. Diodorus, 18.4.4.

5. Plutarch, Life of Demosthenes 31.5.

6. W. W. Tarn, Antigonus Gonatas (1913), 18.

7. Libanius, Oration 49.12; earlier, Herodian, 4.8.9.

8. E. J. Bickermann, in E. Yarshater (ed.), The Cambridge History of Iran, volume III (1) (1983), 7, a brilliant overview.

9. H. W. Parke, The Oracles of Apollo in Asia Minor (1985), 44–55, and L. Robert, in Bulletin de Correspondance Hellénique (1984), 167–72.

10. Theocritus, Idyll 14.61.

CHAPTER 23. LIFE IN THE BIG CITIES

1. W. W. Tarn, Antigonus Gonatas (1913), 185 and note 60, for all the evidence.

2. P. Leriche, in Bulletin d’Études Orientales (2000), 99–125.

3. Diodorus, 18.70.1.

4. E. E. Rice, The Grand Procession of Ptolemy Philadelphus (1983) for the details; D. J. Thompson, in Leon Mooren (ed.), Politics, Administration and Society… Studia Hellenistica, 36 (2000), 365–88, particularly on the dating problem.

5. D. B. Thompson, Troy: The Terracotta Figurines of the Hellenistic Period (1963), 46.

6. J. D. Lerner, in Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 142 (2003), 45, for the papyrus and the full bibliography.

7. Dorothy Burr Thompson, Ptolemaic Oinochoai and Portraits in Faience (1973), 78, a superb study.

8. A controversial view, for which I can now cite the full study of P. F. Mittag, in Historia (2003), 162–208.

9. W. Clarysse, in L. Mooren (ed.), op. cit. (n. 4), 29–43 for these visits.

10. Maryline Parca, in L. Mooren (ed.), Le Rôle et le statut de la femme…, Studia Hellenistica 37 (2002), 283–96, for similar aggressive cases concerning women.

CHAPTER 24. THE NEW WORLD

1. J. B. Connelly, in T. Fahd (ed.), L’Arabie préislamique et son environnement historique et culturel (1989), 145–58, especially 149–51.

2. Theophrastus, ‘History’ of Plants 8.4.5.

3. Pytheas, F7A lines 16–20 (H. J. Mette).

4. Hippolochus’ Letter, in Athenaeus 4.128C–130D, a marvellous text which Athenaeus already quotes as a rarely known one.

5. Theophrastus, Hist. Plant. 5.8.1–3, on ‘Italy’ and the ‘land of the Latins’, not fully considered by P. M. Fraser, in S. Hornblower (ed.), Greek Historiography (1994), 182–5; for Italy, note 2.8.1, 4.5.6 (Italia pasa); 3.17.8 (Lipari isles) and so on.

6. Theophrastus, Hist. Plant. 7.11.4.

7. P. M. Fraser, in Afghan Studies, 3–4 (1982) 53, where ‘Alexandreusin en astois’ (obviously acceptable wording for a verse-dedication, not a civic decree) should, pace Fraser, be restored.

8. Diodorus, 1.74; P. M. Fraser, Ptolemaic Alexandria, volume I (1972), 502: ‘that is the voice of the anti-democratic Greek as it maybe heard at anytime in the fifth and fourth centuries BC.’

9. I suspect the ‘Callaneus’ in the Milesian ‘parapegma’ (Diels–Rehm no. 456A) really is our ‘Calanos’: text in Liba Taub, Ancient Meteorology (2003), 248.

10. Aristobulus, in Strabo, 15.1.62, amplified by Onesicritus, in Strabo, 15.1.30 and then Diodorus, 19.33; I differ from A. B. Bosworth, Legacy of Alexander (2002), 181–4.

11. Edict 13, in Beni Mahab Barun, Inscriptions of Asoka (1990, 2nd edn.).

12. Heraclides Ponticus, 840F23 (Jacoby) with Fraser, op. cit. (note 5), 186–7.

CHAPTER 25. ROME REACHES OUT

1. A. Erskine, Troy between Greece and Rome (2001), 131–56, with 149 note 81.

2. J. G. Pedley, Paestum (1990), 120–25; E. Dench, From Barbarians to New Men (1995), 64–6; M. W. Frederiksen, Dialoghi di archeologia (1968), 3–23.

3. Aristotle, in Plutarch, Life of Camillus 22.3; T. J. Cornell, The Beginnings of Rome (1995), 315–18, for variants; N. Horsfall, in Classical Journal (1981), 298–311.

4. Diodorus, 14.93.4.

5. Pliny, Natural History 34.26, with Dench, From Barbarians, 62, notes 142–3.

6. Polybius, 3.22; Diodorus, 16.69.1 and Livy, 7.27.2; Livy, 9.43.12; I accept all three and put Polybius’ second treaty in the 340s; for the debate, Cornell, Beginnings of Rome, 210–14.

7. Duris, 76 (Jacoby) F 56.

8. David Potter, in Harriet I. Flower (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to the Roman Republic (2004), 66–88 is a very important rethink of these issues.

9. M. H. Crawford, Roman Statutes, volume II (1996), 579–703.

10. A. W. Lintott, in Aufstieg und Niedergang der Römischen Welt, volume I.ii (1972), 226–67.

11. Livy, 3.26.8.

12. N. M. Horsfall, in J. N. Bremmer and N. M. Horsfall, Roman Myth and Mythology (1987), 68.

13. M. W. Frederiksen, Campania (1984), 183–9.

14. Appian, Samnitica 3.7.2; Cassius Dio, 9.F39.5–10.

15. Appian, Samnitica 3.7.1 where I side with M. Cary, in Journal of Philology (1920), 165–70 against P. Wuilleumier, Tarente (1939), 87, 95, 102 in an excellent treatment.

CHAPTER 26. THE PEACE OF THE GODS

1. J. P. V. D. Balsdon, Romans and Aliens (1979), 30–58, at 33, in a fine treatment.

2. Cicero, Pro Flacco 9.14; Pro Sestio 141.

3. Polybius, 6.53, with Harriet I. Flower, Ancestor Masks and Aristocratic Power in Roman Culture (1996).

4. Virgil, Georgics 4.276.

5. M. W. Frederiksen, Campania (1984), 200 note 53 for the problem; Livy, 8.9–11; H. W. Versnel, in Le Sacrifice dans l’antiquité, Entretiens de la Fondation Hardt, volume XXVII (1981), 135–94.

6. Polybius, 12.41.1; Plutarch, Roman Questions 97; Festus 190 L; W. Warde Fowler, The Roman Festivals (1899), 241–50.

7. Ovid, Fasti 5.331; Valerius Maximus, 2.10.8, for young Cato’s reaction; Warde Fowler, Roman Festivals, 91–5.

8. Servius, on Virgil, Aeneid 9.52.

CHAPTER 27. LIBERATION IN THE SOUTH

1. Plutarch, Life of Pyrrhus 19.6–7, with P. Lévèque, Pyrrhos (1957), 355 note 7 and in general 345–56.

2. Florus, 1.13.9, with H. H. Scullard, The Elephant in the Greek and Roman World (1973), 110, on the story’s credentials.

3. Plutarch, Life of Pyrrhus 21.14.

4. Ibid. 23.8.

5. Diodorus, 23.1.4.

6. Hanno the Carthaginian, Periplus, with introduction and notes by Al. Oikonomides and M. C. J. Miller (1995, 3rd edn.).

7. Lawrence E. Stager, in H. G. Niemeyer, Phönizier im Westen (1982), 155–65: W. Huss, Geschichte der Karthager (1985), 532–42; Diodorus, 20.14.4–7; Plutarch, Moralia 171D.

8. C. Sempronius Tuditanus, F5 (Peter), for the legend; Diodorus, 24.12, for the torturing.

9. Polybius, 3.11, with F. W. Walbank, Commentary, volume I (1957).

10. Livy, 21.18.13–14.

CHAPTER 28. HANNIBAL AND ROME

1. V. D. Hanson, ‘Cannae’, in R. Cowley (ed.), The Experience of War (1992), with Gregory Daly, Cannae: The Experience of Battle in the Second Punic War (2002), 156–201.

2. Polybius, 3.78.1.

3. Ibid. 3.88.1.

4. Pliny, Natural History 3.103, with Justin, Epitome 32.4.11.

5. Livy, 22.51.

6. Livy, 21.62.3 and 22.1.8–15.

7. Michael Koortbojian, in Journal of Roman Studies (2002), 33–48.

8. Livy, 27.37, and M. Beard, J. North and S. R. F. Price, Religions of Rome, volume I (1998), 82.

9. M. W. Frederiksen, Campania (1984), 243–50.

10. Tim Cornell, in Tim Cornell, Boris Rankov and Philip Sabin (eds.), The Second Punic War: A Reappraisal (1996), 97–117.

11. Seneca, Epistle 86.4–6.

12. Suetonius, Life of Domitian 10.

CHAPTER 29. DIPLOMACY AND DOMINANCE

1. Polybius, 5.104.

2. Appian, Illyrica 7, P. S. Derow, in Phoenix (1973), 118–34, for its value.

3. R. K. Sherk, Rome and the Greek East to the Death of Augustus (1988), number 2, the text; Polybius, 9.39.1–5 for reactions to it.

4. Plutarch, Life of Flamininus 10.6 ff.

5. E. T. Salmon, Roman Colonization under the Republic (1969), 95–112.

6. A. Erskine, in Mediterraneo antico: economie, società, culture, 3.1 (2000), 165–82, an excellent study.

7. P. J. Rhodes and D. M. Lewis, The Decrees of the Greek States (1997), 531–49 is now fundamental on the changes in inscribed decrees.

8. Polybius, 3.4.12, with F. W. Walbank, Polybius (1972), 174–81, arguing however that the ‘troubled times’ began c. 152 BC.

9. Polybius, 30.15; for a subsequent (and differently based) ‘change for the worse’, Polybius, 6.57.5 and 31.25.6.

10. John Briscoe, in Journal of Roman Studies (1964), 66–77.

CHAPTER 30. LUXURY AND LICENCE

1. A good overview by Matthew Leigh, in Oliver Taplin (ed.), Literature in the Greek and Roman Worlds: A New Perspective (2000), 288–310.

2. O. Skutsch, The Annals of Quintus Ennius (1985), the basic study.

3. Polybius, 30.22.

4. G. Clemente, in A. Giardina and A. Schiavone (eds.), Società romana e produzione schiavistica, volume I (1981), 1–14, a very good survey; M. Coundry, in Chroniques italiennes, 54 (1997), 9–20, for history up to Tiberius.

5. Cato, in Festus 350 L.

6. Plutarch, Life of Cato 51; also, 2.1–3; 20.2–4.

7. Ibid. 21.8.

8. Cato, in Cicero, De Officiis 2.89; Cato, preface to On Agriculture.

9. Cato, in Aulus Gellius, Attic Nights 6.3.7: I owe the emphasis on ‘ill-gotten gains’ to discussion with T. J. Cornell.

10. Cato, in Pliny, Natural History 29.14.

11. Plutarch, Life of Cato 27.

12. Polybius, 30.18.

13. Ibid. 29.4 and 30.5.

14. 2 Maccabees, 5.11–6.2, with the important reconsideration by F. Millar, in Journal of Jewish Studies (1978), 1–21.

15. 2 Maccabees, 7.9 ff.

16. Polybius, 3.4.12.

17. Polybius, 12.25 E, with F. W. Walbank, Commentary and his Polybius (1992), 66–96.

18. A. Erskine, in Mediterraneo antico: economie, società, culture, 3.1 (2000), 165–82, an excellent study of this too.

19. Polybius, 10.15.4–6.

20. Polybius, 31, 25.3–8; on Romans and money, A. Erskine, in F. Cairns (ed.), Papers of Leeds ‘International’ Latin Seminar (1996), 1.

21. F. W. Walbank, Polybius (1972), 130–56 and his Polybius, Rome and the Hellenistic World (2002), 277–92 for further thoughts.

CHAPTER 31. TURBULENCE AT HOME AND ABROAD

1. Sallust, Catiline 10.

2. M. Pobjoy, in E. Herring and Kathryn Lomas (eds.), The Emergence of State Identity in Italy in the First Millennium (2000), 187–247.

3. Plutarch, Life of Tiberius Gracchus 14.1, 19.2; Florus, 2.14.7; C. Gracchus, Fragment 62 (Malcovati).

4. Diodorus, 37.9.

5. A. N. Sherwin-White, in Journal of Roman Studies (1982), 28, part of a very important study.

6. Plutarch, Life of Sulla 38.3; Appian, Civil War 1.106.

CHAPTER 32. POMPEY’S TRIUMPHS

1. Stressed by F. G. B. Millar, The Crowd in Rome in the Late Republic (1998), 204–26, and his The Roman Republic in Political Thought (2002), 19.

2. A. W. Lintott, in Journal of Roman Studies (1998), 1–16, moving between the two concepts.

3. Sallust, The Histories, ed. P. McGushin, volume II (1994), 27–31.

4. Macrobius, Sat. 3.13.10; Varro, De Re Rustica 3.6.6.

5. Plutarch, Life of Lucullus 39.2–41; Pliny, Natural History 15.102; P. Grimal, Les Jardins romains (1984 edn.), 128–30.

6. Plutarch, Life of Pompey 2.6.

7. Helvius Mancia, in Valerius Maximus, 6.2.8.

8. Cicero, De Imperio 41–2.

9. A. N. Sherwin-White, Roman Foreign Policy in the East (1984), 186–234, for the detailed results.

10. Plutarch, Life of Pompey 14.6; Pliny, Natural History 8.4.

11. Cicero, Ad Atticum 2.1.8.

12. S. Weinstock, Divus Julius (1971), 43, and Cicero, Pro Sestio 129.

13. Valerius Maximus, 6.2.7 and Ammianus, 17.11.4.

14. Julian, The Caesars, Loeb Library, volume II (1913), ed. W. C. Wright, 384 for the ‘lion’; Caelius, in Cicero, Ad Familiares 8.1.3; compare Cicero, Ad Atticum 4.9, another classic.

CHAPTER 33. THE WORLD OF CICERO

1. J. P. V. D. Balsdon, in T. A. Dorey (ed), Cicero (1965), 171–214, at 205, in a brilliant appreciation of the man.

2. S. Treggiari, in Transactions of the American Philological Association (1998), 11–23.

3. Ibid. 1–7; E. Rawson, in M. I. Finley (ed.), Studies in Roman Property (1976), 85–101, a fine study on Cicero’s properties; S. Treggiari, Roman Social History (2002), 74–108, on ‘privacy’.

4. Ibid. 49–73; Cicero, Ad Familiares 4.6.

5. Commentariolum Petitionis, 1.2.

6. Ibid. 5.18.

7. Ibid. 11.1.

8. Cicero, Ad Familiares 5.7; Scholia Bobiensia 167 (Strangl).

9. Cicero, Ad Atticum 2.3.3–4, with the very useful debate and discussion by A. M. Ward, B. A. Marshall and many others in Liverpool Classical Monthly, 3.6 (1978), 147–75.

10. Cicero, Ad Quintum Fratrem 3.2.4.

11. Cicero, De Legibus 3.28 and 3.34–9, especially 39.

12. E. Rawson, in Liverpool Classical Monthly, 7.8 (1982), 121–4, a very good study of this tantalizing subject.

13. S. Treggiari, Selection and Translation of Cicero’s Cilician Letters (1996, 2nd edn.).

14. Cicero, Ad Atticum 8.16.2; compare 8.9.4.

CHAPTER 34. THE RISE OF JULIUS CAESAR

1. Aulus Gellius, 1.10.4.

2. Suetonius, Life of Caesar 22.2–3.

3. Plutarch, Life of Caesar 11.4.

4. Asconius, In Toga Candida 71, on which I agree with E. Rawson, in Liverpool Classical Monthly, 7.8 (1982), 123.

5. L. R. Taylor, in Historia (1950), 45–51, is still a basic study: Cicero, Ad Atticum 2.24.

CHAPTER 35. THE SPECTRE OF CIVIL WAR

1. Caesar, Gallic War 3.10.

2. Pliny, Natural History 9.11; 36.114–15, for the theatre.

3. B. M. Levick, in Kathryn Welch and Anton Powell (eds.), Julius Caesar as Artful Reporter (1998), 61–84.

4. Pliny, Natural History 36.116, on Curio; 36.115 on Scaurus’ villa.

5. G. O. Hutchinson, in Classical Quarterly (2001), 150–62.

6. Cicero, De Oratore 30–1; A. C. Dionisiotti, in Journal of Roman Studies (1988), 35–49, on Nepos and comparative history, especially 38–9, an excellent study.

7. Sallust, Catiline 25, with R. Syme, Sallust (1964), 133–5.

8. Valerius Maximus, 9.1.8.

9. Cicero, Ad Familiares 8.14.

10. Suetonius, Life of Caesar 29.2; Appian, Civil War 2.32; Plutarch, Life of Caesar 31.

11. Ibid. 32.8.

12. Suetonius, Life of Caesar 81.2.

CHAPTER 36. THE FATAL DICTATOR

1. Cicero, Ad Familiares 8.14.3.

2. Cicero, Ad Atticum 7.11.1.

3. Ibid. 9.18.1.

4. Ibid. 9.10.7 and 9.18.2.

5. Ibid. 9.18.3.

6. Cicero, Ad Familiares 7.3.2.

7. Plutarch, Life of Pompey 38.2–3.

8. Dio, 42.14.3–4.

9. Anthologia Palatina 9.402; Cicero, Ad Atticum 11.6.7.

10. For context, E. E. Rice, Cleopatra (1999), 46–71, a very clear survey.

11. Cicero, Ad Atticum 10.10.5.

12. Dio, 43.23.3; S. Weinstock, Divus Julius (1971), 76–9.

13. Dio, 43.23.6 and Suetonius, Life of Caesar 39.2; Weinstock, Divus Julius, 88–90.

14. Cicero, Ad Familiares 9.16.3.

15. Macrobius, Saturnalia 2.7.4; Cicero, Ad Familiares 12.18.2.

16. Ibid. 4.5.

17. Dio, 43.44.1, with Weinstock, Divus Julius, 133–45.

18. Cicero, Ad Atticum 12.43.3 and 13.28.3, with S. Weinstock, in Harvard Theological Review (1957), 212.

19. Cicero, Ad Atticum 13.40.1; Nepos, Atticus 18.3.

20. Cicero, Ad Familiares 7.26.2.

21. Ibid. 13.52, a classic letter.

22. Dio, 44.10.1–3; I disagree with Weinstock, Divus Julius, 330, that it was a pre-planned ‘advent’ as a king.

23. Suetonius, Life of Caesar 77.1.

24. Ibid. 81.2: I cannot, sadly, accept ‘ubertimque flere’.

25. Suetonius, Life of Caesar 79.3; Cicero, De Divinatione 2.110; Dio, 44.15.3; Appian, Civil War 2.110.

CHAPTER 37. LIBERATION BETRAYED

1. Appian, Civil War 2.118–19; Suetonius, Life of Caesar 82.3–4; Appian, Civil War 2.134.

2. Cicero, Ad Familiares 11.1.1: the dating is famously disputed, some delaying this letter until 20 March.

3. Cicero, Ad Atticum 14.13.6.

4. Against Suetonius, 84.2, I set Cicero, Ad Atticum 14.10, 14.11, 14.22 and Philippic 2.91, pointing to more. Surely Appian, Civil War 2.144–7, is usable evidence of what did go on.

5. Appian, Civil War 3.2.

6. Cicero, Ad Atticum 14.3.

7. R. Syme, Augustan Aristocracy (1986), 39, with Suetonius, Life of Augustus 2.3.

8. Cicero, Ad Atticum 14.11.2 (‘mihi totus deditus’: in Shackleton-Bailey’s view, Loeb Library, volume IV, 164 note 2, ‘Atticus would know better than to take this at face value’. I wonder). Compare 14.12.2 (‘perhonorifice’).

9. Cicero, Ad Atticum 15.4.2.

10. Suetonius, Life of Caesar 88 and Pliny, Natural History 2.94 with S. Weinstock, Divus Julius (1971), 370–71.

11. Cicero, Ad Familiares 11.3, a very fine letter.

12. Cicero, De Officiis 3.83; compare 2.23–9 and especially 2.84.

13. Cicero, Ad Familiares 10.20.2.

14. Cicero, Ad Atticum 16.15.3; compare 16.14.1, but also 16.11.6, a classic.

15. Cicero, Philippic 5.50, another classic.

16. Cicero, Ad Familiares 10.28.3; Philippic 5.50.

17. Cicero, Ad Familiares 11.14 and 12.30.2.

18. R. Syme, The Roman Revolution (1939), 190, note 6.

19. Kathryn Welch, in Anton Powell and Kathryn Welch (eds.), Sextus Pompeius (2002), 1–30.

20. Cicero, Ad Familiares 11.20.1.

21. Plutarch, Life of Cicero 47–8 for his last hours; on Fulvia, Dio, 47.8.4–5.

CHAPTER 38. ANTONY AND CLEOPATRA

1. Nicholas Horsfall, in Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies (1983), 85–98; E. K. Wifstrand, The So-called Laudatio Turiae (1976).

2. R. G. M. Nisbet, in his Collected Papers on Latin Literature (1995), 390–413, a brilliant study of ‘the Survivors’.

3. R. Syme, in Historia (1958), 172–88.

4. Joyce Reynolds, Aphrodisias and Rome (1982), 438, with numbers 6, 10 and 12.

5. Plutarch, Life of Antony 23.2–3.

6. Ibid. 26, and Socrates of Rhodes, FGH 192 F1 (Jacoby).

7. Martial, Epigrams 11.20; the pearl story, Pliny, Natural History 9.120–21 and Macrobius, Saturnalia 3.17.15.

8. P. M. Fraser, in Journal of Roman Studies (1957), 71–4.

9. Plutarch, Life of Antony 23.5–8 with C. B. R. Pelling, Commentary (1988), 205.

10. K. Scott, in Classical Philology (1929), 133–41, on ‘On Drunkenness’; Suetonius, Life of Augustus 69.2, on sex; on Sarmentus, Plutarch, Life of Antony 59.4 with Craig A. Williams, Roman Homosexuality (1999), 275.

11. T. P. Wiseman, in Classical Quarterly (1982), 475–6, and his Roman Studies (1987), 172.

12. A. N. Sherwin-White, Roman Foreign Policy in the East (1984), 307–21.

13. Plutarch, Life of Antony 36.3–5 and Dio, 49.32, with Pelling, Commentary, 217–20.

14. J. Linderski, in Journal of Roman Studies (1984), 74–80.

15. Plutarch, Life of Antony 71.4; on Timon, Strabo, 17.794 and Plutarch, Life of Antony 69.6–7 and 70.

16. Ibid. 76.5–78.4.

17. Macrobius, Saturnalia 2.4.28–9, brought to notice by F. Millar, The Emperor in the Roman World (1977), 135.

18. On the poets’ earlier attitudes, note Virgil, Eclogue 9, with M. Winter-bottom, in Greece and Rome (1976), 55–8; Horace, Epodes 6 and 16 with the remarkable study by Nisbet, Collected Papers, 161–81, and Propertius 1.21 with Gordon Williams, Tradition and Originality in Roman Poetry (1968), 172–81.

19. Jasper Griffin, in Journal of Roman Studies (1977), 17–26.

CHAPTER 39. THE MAKING OF THE EMPEROR

1. Velleius, 2.88; Livy, Periochae CCXIII; Dio, 54.15.4.

2. I differ on this from P. A. Brunt, in Journal of Roman Studies (1983), 61–2.

3. Joyce Reynolds, Aphrodisias and Rome (1982), 104, number 13.

4. J. Rich and J. Williams, Numismatic Chronicle (1999), 169–214.

5. Livy, 4.20.7 with R. M. Ogilvie, Commentary on Livy Books 1–5 (1965), ad loc.

6. S. Weinstock, Divus Julius (1971), 228–43, a fine study.

7. B. M. Levick, in Greece and Rome (1975), 156–63, especially the important note 10.

8. I opt for a trial in 22 BC, because it seems to occur when Marcellus is dead and therefore not called to give evidence; on Castricius the informer, D. Stockton, in Historia (1965), 27.

9. Virgil, Aeneid 6.851–3.

CHAPTER 40. MORALS AND SOCIETY

1. Historia Augusta, Life of Hadrian 11.6–7.

2. Nepos, Atticus 20.3.

3. Horace, Odes 3.24.25–30.

4. The suggestion of E. Badian, in Philologus (1985), 82–98.

5. Horace, Epodes 4; Dio, 48.34.5 and 48.43.3.

6. R. Syme, The Roman Revolution (1939), 361; Florus, 2.6.6 on ‘municipalia prodigia’, of which there are many.

7. Augustus, Res Gestae 8.5.

8. Pliny, Letters 1.8.11.

9. Epitome de Caesaribus, 14.8.

10. P. A. Brunt, Italian Manpower (1971), with Gaius, Institutes 2.286.

11. Horace, Odes 4.5.22.

12. Craig A. Williams, Roman Homosexuality (1999), 275, note 115; S. Treggiari, Roman Freedmen During the Late Republic (1969), 271–2.

13. Cicero, De Legibus 3.30–2.

14. S. Treggiari, in Ancient History Bulletin (1994), 86–98, for this connection.

15. Tacitus, Annals 2.85, with Pliny, Natural History 7.39, and R. Syme, Roman Papers, volume II (1979), 805–24, esp. 811 and R. Syme, Augustan Aristocracy (1986), 74.

16. Dio, 77.16.4 with F. Millar, A Study of Cassius Dio (1964), 204–7.

17. S. Riccabono, Fontes Iuris Romani…, volume III, numbers 2 and 4.

18. K. Sara Myers, in Journal of Roman Studies (1996), 1–20.

19. Macrobius, Saturnalia 2.5.9.

CHAPTER 41. SPECTATOR SPORTS

1. L. Robert, Comptes Rendus de L’Académie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres (1970), 6–11.

2. Pliny, Natural History 8.170; on the heated pool, Dio, 55.7.6.

3. Pliny, Natural History 36.121.

4. Ibid. 9.168 on Sergius Orata; Martial, Epigrams 7.34.

5. Tacitus, Annals 14.21.

6. H. Dessau (ed), Inscriptiones Latinae Selectae, 5287, with David S. Potter, in D. S. Potter and D. J. Mattingly (eds.), Life, Death and Entertainment in the Roman Empire (1998), 296, on Diocles.

7. In 252 BC; Pliny, Natural History 8.6.17.

8. Augustus, Res Gestae 22 and 23.

9. L. Robert, Les Gladiateurs dans l’orient grec (1940), 248: ‘ce n’est pas le seul trait original de la fière et virile république de Rhodes.’

10. Livy, 39.22.2; 41.27.6; 44.18.8.

11. Plutarch, Moralia 1099B; Martyrdom of Perpetua 17.2–3, with G. Ville, La Gladiature dans l’occident des origines à la mort de Domitian (1981), 363.

12. Martyrdom of Perpetua 20.2.

13. Martial, On Spectacles 6, in Loeb Library edition of Martial, Epigrams 1 (1993), notes and translation by D. R. Shackleton Bailey.

14. Celadus, in Dessau, Inscriptiones Latinae Selectae, 5142A and B, with Robert, Les Gladiateurs, 302 on his name; 5142C, on ‘puparum nocturnarum’.

15. M. Cébeillac-Gervasoni and F. Zevi, in Mélanges de l’École Française à Rome (1976), 612.

16. Dio, 67.8.4.

17. Dio, 74.5.5.

CHAPTER 42. THE ROMAN ARMY

1. Suetonius, Life of Augustus 49.

2. Hyginus, in Corpus Agrimensorum Romanorum, ed. C. Thulin, volume I (1913), 165–6; O. A. W. Dilke, The Roman Land Surveyors (1971), 113–14.

3. Strabo, 3.4.20.

4. M. Beard, J. North and S. R. F. Price (eds.), Religions of Rome, volume I (1998), 324–8, and volume II (1998), 71–6.

5. Suetonius, Life of Nero 44.1; I disagree with P. A. Brunt, in Scripta Classica Israelica (1974), 80; a ‘levy’ (dilectus) is either of auxiliaries or of volunteers (Tacitus, Histories 3.58, is a good example).

6. Tacitus, Annals 4.4.2, and Suetonius, Life of Tiberius 30, where M. W. Frederiksen pointed out to me the force of ‘etiam’ (‘even’).

7. Statius, Silvae 5.1.94–5.

8. H. Dessau (ed.), Inscriptiones Latinae Selectae, 2558, with the fine study of M. P. Speidel, in Ancient Society (1991), 277–82, and his Riding for Caesar (1994), 46.

9. Tacitus, Annals 1.17, and J. F. Gilliam, in Bonner Jahrbücher (1967), 233–43, especially 238.

10. Suetonius, Life of Tiberius 16.

11. R. W. Davies, in Aufstieg und Niedergang der Römischen Welt, volume II.i (1974), 301–34, an excellent survey.

12. Tacitus, Agricola 5.1–2, with Brian Campbell, in Journal of Roman Studies (1975), 18–19.

13. Historia Augusta, Life of Hadrian 10.4–5.

14. H. C. Youtie, in J. Bingen, G. Cambier and G. Nachtergael (eds.), Le Monde grec… : Hommages à Claire Préaux (1975), 723, a brilliant study.

CHAPTER 43. THE NEW AGE

1. Horace, Carmen Saeculare 50–51, with 56; M. Beard, J. North and S. R. F. Price, Religions of Rome, volume I (1998), 201–6, and volume II (1998), 140–44.

2. Ibid. 140.

3. R. K. Sherk, The Roman Empire: Augustus to Hadrian (1988), number 15, line 10.

4. Ibid., number 36, page 66, lines 15 ff.

5. M. T. Griffin, in Journal of Roman Studies (1997), 252, lines 115–20.

6. Tacitus, Annals 14.43.

7. G. W. Bowersock, in Kurt A. Raaflaub and Mark Toher (eds.), Between Republic and Empire (1990), 380–94.

8. Fergus Millar, in Greece and Rome (1988), 48–51; W. Eck, in F. Millar and E. Segal (eds.), Caesar Augustus (1984), 129–67.

9. Suetonius, Life of Augustus 31.5.

10. P. A. Brunt, The Fall of the Roman Republic (1988), 350.

11. R. K. Sherk, Rome and the Greek East to the Death of Augustus (1984), number 133.

12. Tacitus, Annals 1.75.1–2; D. C. Feeney, in Anton Powell (ed.), Roman Poetry and Propaganda in the Age of Augustus (1992), 1.

CHAPTER 44. THE JULIO-CLAUDIANS

1. H. Dessau (ed.), Inscriptiones Latinae Selectae, 5026; I owe this to C. E. Stevens. It was not adduced by R. Syme; J. Scheid, Les Frères Arvales (1975), 87, does cite it, and R. Syme, The Augustan Aristocracy (1986), 415, then dismisses it, quite unconvincingly.

2. Velleius, 2.124.2; Suetonius, Life of Tiberius 30.

3. Tacitus, Annals 1.7.

4. Suetonius, Life of Claudius 3.2.

5. Pliny, Natural History 3.119.

6. M. T. Griffin, in Journal of Roman Studies (1997), 252, lines 115 ff.

7. Tacitus, Annals 11.1.1.

8. Suetonius, Life of Nero 6.2 and Dio, 61.2.3.

9. Tacitus, Histories 1.72.

10. N. Purcell, in Journal of Roman Studies (1985), 14.

11. Tacitus, Annals 3.53.5 and 2.33.1 (silks).

12. Tacitus, Annals 16.18.

13. Ibid. 11.3.

CHAPTER 45. RULING THE PROVINCES

1. C. Nicolet, Space, Geography and Politics in the Early Roman Empire (1991).

2. Oxyrhynchus Papyrus 2131;Papyrus Yale 61; Naphtali Lewis, Life in Egypt under Roman Rule (1983), 190.

3. B. M. Levick, in Greece and Rome (1979), 120.

4. E. Schuerer, A History of the Jewish People, volume I (1973, rev. edn. by F. G. B. Millar and G. Vermes), 399–427; R. J. Lane Fox, The Unauthorized Version (1991), 27–34.

5. L. Robert, Laodicée du Lycos, volume I (1969), 274, a fine study.

6. G. C. Boon, Antiquaries Journal (1958), 237–40; Richard Gordon, in Mary Beard and John North (eds.), Pagan Priests (1990), 217.

7. J. L. Lightfoot (ed.), Lucian: On the Syrian Goddess (2003), 200–207.

CHAPTER 46. EFFECTS OF EMPIRE

1. Tacitus, Agricola 21.1.

2. Ibid. 21.2.

3. Susan Walker (ed.), Ancient Faces: Mummy Portraits from Roman Egypt (2000, rev. edn.).

4. Tacitus, Annals 14.31.

5. A. T. Fear, Rome and Baetica (1996), 131–69.

6. I incline to M. Stern, in M. Avi-Yonah and Z. Baras (eds.), Society and Religion in the Second Temple Period (1977), 263–301; note also M. Smith, in Harvard Theological Review (1971), 1–19; ‘Zealots’ occur first in Josephus, The Jewish War 4.161; for other views, Martin Goodman, The Ruling Class of Judaea (1987), 93–6, 219–21.

7. The city ‘Agrippina’ is in E. Schuerer, A History of the Jewish People, volume I (1973, rev. edn. by F. G. B. Millar and G. Vermes), 461, note 20; Acts of the Apostles 24.25.

CHAPTER 47. CHRISTIANITY AND ROMAN RULE

1. E. Schuerer, A History of the Jewish People, volume I (1973, rev. edn. by F. G. B. Millar and G. Vermes), 399–427; R. J. Lane Fox, The Unauthorized Version (1991), 27–34.

2. N. Kokkinos, in J. Vardman and E. M. Yamauchi (eds.), Chronos, Kairos, Christos: Studies in Honor of Jack Finegan (1989), 133, is still the important study.

3. John 18.31, and the cardinal study by E. J. Bickerman, in his Studies in Jewish and Christian History, volume III (1986), 82 with Lane Fox, Unauthorized Version (1991), 283–310.

4. Josephus, The Jewish War 6.300–309; E. Rivkin, What Crucified Jesus? (1986).

5. Luke 13.1–5.

6. Acts of the Apostles 11.26 with the still-penetrating study of Elias J. Bickerman, in Harvard Theological Review (1949), 109–24.

7. Acts of the Apostles 18.17; on Paul and Pisidian Antioch, W. Ramsay, in Journal of Roman Studies (1926), 201.

8. Romans 13.1–5.

9. 1 Corinthians 7.21; Ephesians 6.5.

10. Matthew 19.12.

CHAPTER 48. SURVIVING FOUR EMPERORS

1. M. I. Rostovtzeff, The Social and Economic History of the Roman Empire, volume I (1957, rev. edn. by P. M. Fraser), 86.

2. T. E. J. Wiedemann, in Alan K. Bowman et al. (eds.), Cambridge Ancient History, volume X (1996), 256–7; Pliny, Natural History 20.100.

3. Rhiannon Ash, in Omnibus, 45 (2003), 11–13.

4. A. Henrichs, in Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 3 (1968), 51–80, and Barbara Levick, Vespasian (1999), 227, note 9.

5. Translated in Robert K. Sherk, The Roman Empire: Augustus to Hadrian (1988), 82–3, with the important study of P. A. Brunt, in Journal of Roman Studies (1977), 95–116, with which I disagree.

CHAPTER 49. THE NEW DYNASTY

1. Suetonius, Life of Vespasian 22.

2. R. Darwall-Smith, Emperors and Architecture: A Study of Flavian Rome (1996), 55–68, an excellent discussion.

3. Barbara Levick, Vespasian (1999), 194; Quintilian, Institutes 4.1.19.

4. Suetonius, Life of Titus 10.2.

5. Quintilian, Institutes 1.1.12.

6. Pliny, Panegyric 82.1–3.

7. Dio, 67.9.1–5.

8. Statius, Silvae 4.2.30–1.

9. Pliny, Letters 4.22.5–6.

CHAPTER 50. THE LAST DAYS OF POMPEII

1. Kenneth S. Painter, The Insula of the Menander at Pompeii, volume IV: The Silver Treasure (2001).

2. Liisa Savunen, in Richard Hawley and Barbara Levick (eds.), Women in Antiquity: New Assessments (1995), 194–206, for the evidence, at least.

3. H. Dessau (ed.), Inscriptiones Latinae Selectae, 5145.

4. R. C. Carrington, in Journal of Roman Studies (1931), 110–30, an excellent study: ‘Pompeii and its vicinity was no garden city or suburb, but the scene of an intense industrial activity’ (130).

5. Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, IV.2993t.

6. I differ from Paul Zanker, Pompeii: Public and Private Life (1998, English transl.), 23–4.

7. J. R. Clarke, in D. Fredrick (ed.), The Roman Gaze: Vision, Power and the Body (2002), 149–81, suggests the scenes were comic; J. R. Clarke, Looking at Lovemaking: Constructions of Sexuality in Roman Art (1998), 212–40.

8. Lorenzo Fergola and Mario Pagano, Oplontis (1998), 19 and 85, for the ‘Poppaea’ possibility (I incline to it); P. Castren, Ordo Populusque Pompeianus (1963, 2nd edn.), 209 for the evidence for the family in Pompeii.

9. Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, IV.7698B, from the ‘House of the Moralist’, III.iv.2–3.

CHAPTER 51. A NEW MAN IN ACTION

1. R. Syme, Roman Papers, volume VII (1991), 621, and index, 695, for the phrase.

2. M. Winterbottom, in Journal of Roman Studies (1970), 90–97.

3. Pliny, Letters 4.25.1–2.

4. Pliny, Panegyric 76.6; 65.1; 80.

5. Pliny, Letters 3.20.12.

6. Pliny, Panegyric 74.2 with 73.4 and 2.8.

7. Pliny, Letters 10.18.

CHAPTER 52. A PAGAN AND CHRISTIANS

1. Pliny, Letters, 10.96.

2. R. J. Lane Fox, Pagans and Christians (1986), 433 and 751 note 37.

3. Pliny, Letters 1.12 and 1.22.8–10; M. T. Griffin, in Greece and Rome (1986), 64–77 and 192–202.

4. Pliny, Letters 4.19.

5. Ibid. 4.19.2.

6. Ibid. 7.24.5.

7. Ibid. 7.24.3 and 6.

8. Ibid. 5.6 with P. Barconi and Jose Uroz Saez, La Villa di Plinio… (1999).

9. David R. Coffin, The Villa in the Life of Renaissance Rome (1979), 248; also 266–7, on Pliny’s impact on the Villa Trivulziana, near Salone.

10. Martial, Epigrams 12.18, 12.31, 12.57.

11. Pliny, Letters 9.6; contrast Pope Damasus, in John Matthews, The Roman Empire of Ammianus (1989), 422.

12. Hagith Sirvan, Ausonius of Bordeaux (1993), an excellent introduction; G. P. O’Daly, ‘Cassiciacum’, in C. Mayer (ed.), Augustinus-Lexikon, volume I (1986–94), 771–82, for the happy life.

CHAPTER 53. REGIME CHANGE, HOME AND AWAY

1. Pliny, Panegyric 81.1 and 3.

2. M. P. Speidel, Roman Army Studies, volume I (1984), 173 and 408.

3. Anthologia Palatina, 6.332; Arrian, Parthica F 85 (Jacoby).

4. Sallust, Histories 4.78.

5. The crucial point is the death of Pedo, consul for 115, replaced in that year by a suffect; John Malalas is wrong to date his death by earthquake to 13 December 115, wrongly followed by F. A. Lepper, Trajan’s Parthian War (1949), 54 and 99, as already observed by Isobel Henderson, in Journal of Roman Studies (1949), 121–4. Coins support an earlier date for the earthquake: British Museum Catalogue, volume III.100. The correct dating is now revived by Anthony R. Birley too, Hadrian: The Restless Emperor (1997), 324 note 13.

6. John Malalas, Chronicle 11.6 (274), which then mentions Arrian’s account of ‘the war’, the source, I suspect, of the letter to the Senate in the previous sentence.

7. Samuel N. C. Lieu, Manichaeism in Mesopotamia and the Roman East (1994), 84–7; G. Luttikhuizen, The Revelation of Elchasai… (1985).

CHAPTER 54. PRESENTING THE PAST

1. G. E. M. de Sainte Croix, in British Journal of Sociology (1954), 33–48, a brilliant study.

2. Suetonius, Life of Nero 29.

3. Corpus Inscriptionum Latinum, VI.1574, with the very good discussion by Anthony R. Birley, in Historia (2000), 230–47.

4. R. Syme, Ten Studies in Tacitus (1970), 1–10 and 119–40.

5. Good description in Simon Schama, Landscape and Memory (1996).

6. J. H. Elliott and L. W. B. Brockliss, The World of the Favourite (1999), especially 2 and 300.

HADRIAN: A RETROSPECTIVE

1. Historia Augusta, Life of Hadrian 5.3.

2. Dio, 69.4.2.

3. H. I. Bell, in Journal of Roman Studies (1940), 133–47.

4. B. Isaac and A. Oppenheimer, in Journal of Jewish Studies (1985), 33–60.

5. Tertullian, Apology 46 and On the Prescription of Heretics 7.

6. Mary Boatwright, Hadrian and the City of Rome (1987), 190.

7. I emphasize this as an antidote to ‘Hadrian the intellectual’, the theme of R. Syme, Roman Papers, volume VI (1991), 103.

8. Historia Augusta, Hadrian 7.6, 20.1 and 20.8: ‘plebis iactantissimus amator’.

9. For the skills of Salvius Julianus, see H. Dessau (ed.), Inscriptiones Latinae Selectae, 8973, and R. Syme, in Bonner Historia Augusta Colloquium 1986–9 (1991), 201–17.

10. Peter Garnsey, Social Status and Legal Privilege in the Roman Empire (1970), with Digest 48.19.15, 48.28.13 and 18.21.2; very importantly reviewed by P. A. Brunt, in Journal of Roman Studies (1972), 166–70.

11. Inscriptiones Graecae ad Res Romanas Pertinentes, volume IV (1927), number 84; also 85–7.

12. Digest, 5.3.20.

13. F. Millar, in Journal of Roman Studies (1965), 141–60, and P. A. Brunt, in Athenaeum (1977), 19–48, two notable studies of the context.

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