Ancient History & Civilisation



HERODOTUS. Roman portrait bust, second century A.D. (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, Gift of George F. Baker, 91.8)


THEMISTOCLES. Roman portrait bust, possibly a copy of a Greek original. (Ostia Museum)


CYNOSURA PENINSULA. A view from the Salamis straits, looking southwest. Another part of the island of Salamis is in the background. (Barry Strauss)


ATHENIAN TRIREME. Olympias under oar at sea, a modern reconstruction of an Athenian trireme of the fourth century B.C. Note the ram. (Mary Pridgen by courtesy of the Trireme Trust)


XERXES. Relief sculpture of Crown Prince Xerxes standing behind King Darius on his throne, ca. 500 B.C. From the Treasury at Persepolis, Iran. (Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago)


CLASH OF CIVILIZATIONS. Greek infantryman attacking a Persian soldier. Attic red-figure amphora, 480–470 B.C. (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, Rogers Fund, 06.1021.117)


PERSIAN ATTENDANT. Relief sculpture of a beardless attendant with a cosmetic bottle and towel, possibly a royal eunuch. From the Palace of Darius at Persepolis, Iran. (Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago)


SPARTAN WARRIOR. Note the helmet and its transverse crest, the braided long hair, and the thin cloak draped tightly around the body. Greek bronze, 510–500 B.C. (Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford, Connecticut. Gift of A. Pierpont Morgan)


CARIAN TREASURE. The skull and gold jewelry found in the tomb of an aristocratic lady of Halicarnassus of the fourth century B.C., the so-called Carian princess, indicating the kind of ornaments that Artemisia might have worn. (Don Frey)


CARIAN RINGS. Three gold rings from the Halicarnassian tomb of the fourth century B.C. Note in particular the chalcedony signet ring of a Persian soldier (bottom), suggesting the loyalty that Artemisia had to Xerxes. (Don Frey)


PHALERON BAY. A view of the harbor where the Persian fleet moored, looking southeast toward Mount Hymettus. (Barry Strauss)


SALAMIS STRAITS. A view from the island looking toward the mainland and the hills from which Xerxes watched the battle. These are the waters in which the battle was fought. (Barry Strauss)


AMBELAKI BAY. The ancient harbor of Salamis Town, where part of the Greek fleet was moored before the battle of Salamis. The mainland of Greece is on the right (east) in the background, and the hills of Salamis are on the left (west). (Barry Strauss)


AESCHYLUS. Roman portrait bust of the Athenian tragedian, possibly a copy of a Greek original. (Capitoline Museums, Rome)


PHOENICIAN TRIREME. Clay seal depicting a Sidonian warship and a palm tree. From the Treasury at Persepolis, Iran. (Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago)


ATHENIAN OARSMEN. Sculptured relief of the middle part of the starboard side of an oared ship, ca. 400 B.C., about eighty years after the battle of Salamis. Known as the Lenormant Relief, it is displayed in the Acropolis Museum in Athens. (Deutsches Archäologisches Institut, Athens)


PSYTALLEIA. A view northwest toward the islet, with its modern lighthouse and transmission tower visible. Note the rugged, windswept terrain. (Barry Strauss)


PHAYLLOS OF CROTON. Painting of the young athlete. Attic red-figure amphora, 515–510 B.C., painted by Euthymides. (J. Paul Getty Museum, Malibu, California)


VICTORY AT SEA. The goddess Athena as patroness of the fleet, holding an ornament from a captured ship. Attic red-figure lekythos, 480–470 B.C., attributed to the Brygos Painter. (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, funds from various donors, 25.189.1)

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