Ancient History & Civilisation


This bibliography includes all books and articles referred to or quoted in the main text and the notes.

Abdel Haleem, M.A.S., The Qur’an: A New Translation. Oxford World’s Classics. Oxford, 2004.

Agius, D.A., Classic Ships of Islam: From Mesopotamia to the Indian Ocean. Leiden. 2007.

Alster, B., Wisdom of Ancient Sumer. Maryland, 2005.

Amiet, P., La Glyptique Mesopotamienne Archaique. Paris, 1961.

Anderson, W.W., Solving the Mystery of the Biblical Flood. [America], 2001.

Badalanova Geller, F., ‘The Folk Bible’, Sophia 3 (2009): 8–11.

Badge, P., Coracles of the World. Llanrwst, 2009.

Bailey, L.R., Noah: The Person and the Story in History and Tradition. South Carolina, 1989.

Barnett, R.D. and A. Lorenzini, Assyrian Sculpture in the British Museum. London, 1975.

Becking, B. (with H. Stadhouders), ‘The Identity of Nabu-sharrussu-ukin, the Chamberlain. An Epigraphic Note on Jeremiah 39,3’ (‘Appendix on the Nebu(!)sarsekim Tablet’ contributed by Stadhouders), Biblische Notizen. Aktuelle Beiträge zur Exegese der Bibel und ihrer Welt 140: 35–46.

Bell, G.L., Amurath to Amurath. London, 1911.

Best, R.M., Noah’s Ark and the Ziusudra Epic. Florida, 1999.

Black, J.A., ‘Sumerian’, in J.N. Postgate (ed.), Languages of Iraq Ancient and Modern. Cambridge, 2007: 4–30.

de Breucker, G., ‘Berossus between Tradition and Innovation’, in K. Radner and E. Robson (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Cuneiform Culture. Oxford, 2011: 637–57.

Budge, E.A.W., Assyrian Sculptures in the British Museum. London, 1914.

—, By Nile and Tigris, Vols 1–2. London, 1920 [reprint: Hardinge Simpole, Kilkerran, 2011].

Budge, E.A.W., The Rise and Progress of Assyriology. London, 1925.

Burstein, S.M., The Babyloniaca of Berossus: Sources from the Ancient Near East, Vol. 1, fasc. 5. Malibu, 1978.

Butler, S.A.L., Mesopotamian Conceptions of Dreams and Dream Rituals. Alter Orient und Altes Testament, Vol. 258. Munster, 1998.

Carter, R.A., ‘Watercraft’, in D.T. Potts (ed.), A Companion to the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East, Vol. 1. Oxford, 2012: 347–72.

Cavigneaux, A. ‘Aux sources du Midrash; l’herméneutique babylonienne’, Aula Orientalis 5:243–55.

Charpin, D., Reading and Writing in Babylon. Cambridge, MA and London, 2010.

Chesney, F.R., The Expedition for the Survey of the rivers Euphrates and Tigris carried on by Order of the British Government in the Years 1835, 1836 and 1837. Vol. 2. London, 1850.

Civil, M., ‘The Sumerian Flood Story’, in Lambert and Millard 1969: 138–45, 167–72.

Civil, M., ‘Lexicography’, in S.J. Lieberman (ed.), Sumerian Studies in Honor of Thorkild Jacobsen on his Seventieth Birthday, June 7, 1974. Assyriological Studies 20. Chicago, 1975: 123–57.

Cohn, N., Noah’s Flood: The Genesis Story in Western Thought. Yale, 1996.

Collins, P., From Egypt to Babylon: The International Age 1550–500 bc. London, 2008.

Cooper, J.S., ‘Babbling On: Recovering Mesopotamian Orality’, in M. E. Vogelzang and H.L.J. Vanstiphout (eds), Mesopotamian Epic Literature: Oral or Aural?’ Lewiston, Queenston and Lampeter, 1992: 103–21.

Cory, I.P., Ancient Fragments of the Phoenician, Chaldaean, Egyptian, Tyrian, Carthaginian, Indian, Persian and other Writers with an Introductory Dissertation: and an Enquiry into the Philosophy and Trinity of the Ancients. Second edition. London, 1832.

Crouse, B. and G. Franz, ‘Mount Cudi – True Mountain of Noah’s Ark’, Bible and Spade 19/4 (2006): 99-111.

Damrosch, D., The Buried Book: The Loss and Rediscovery of the Great Epic of Gilgamesh. New York, 2006.

de Graeve, M.-C., The Ships of the Ancient Near East (c. 2000–500 B.C.). Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta, Vol. 7. Leuven, 1981.

Da Riva, R., ‘Nebuchadnezzar II’s Prism (ES 7834): A New Edition’, Zeitschrift für Assyriologie und Vorderasiatische Archäologie, forthcoming.

Drews, R., ‘The Babylonian Chronicles and Berossus, Iraq 37 (1975): 39–55.

Driver, S.R., The Book of Genesis. London, 1909.

Dundes, A. (ed.), The Flood Myth. California, 1988.

Farber, W., Schlaf, Kindchen, Schlaf! Mesopotamische Baby-Beschwörungen und -Rituale. Mesopotamian Civilizations 2. Winona Lake, 1989.

Finkel, I.L., ‘Bilingual Chronicle Fragments’, Journal of Cuneiform Studies 32 (1980): 65–80.

Finkel, I.L., ‘The Dream of Kurigalzu and the Tablet of Sins’, Anatolian Studies 33 (1983a): 75–80.

Finkel, I.L., ‘Necromancy in Ancient Mesopotamia’, Archiv für Orientfotschung 29 (1983b): 1–16.

Finkel, I.L., ‘A Join to the Map of the World: A Notable Discovery’, British Museum Magazine: The Journal of the British Museum Friends, 23 (1995): 26–7.

Finkel, I.L., ‘The Lament of Nabū-šuma-ukīn’, in J. Renger (ed.), Babylon: Focus mesopotamischer Geschichte, Wiege früher Gelehrtsamkeit, Mythos in der Moderne. Saarbrücken, 1999: 323–41.

Finkel, I.L., ‘The Game and the Play of the Royal Game of Ur’, in I.L. Finkel (ed.), Ancient Board Games in Perspective. Papers of the 1991 Board Game Colloquium at the British Museum. London, 2008a: 22–38.

Finkel, I.L., ‘The Babylonian Map of the World, or the Mappa Mundi’, in I.L. Finkel and M.J. Seymour (eds), Babylon: Myth and Reality. London, 2008b: 17.

Finkel, I.L., ‘Drawings on Tablets’, Scienze dell’Antichità 17 (2011): 337–44.

Finkel, I.L., ‘Assurbanipal’s Library: An Overview’, in K. Ryholt and G. Barjamovic (eds), Libraries Before Alexandria. Oxford, forthcoming (a).

Finkel, I.L., ‘Remarks on Cuneiform Scholarship and the Babylonian Talmud’, in U. Gabbay and Sh. Secunda (eds), Encounters by the Rivers of Babylon: Scholarly Conversations between Jews, Iranians, and Babylonians in Antiquity. Tübingen, forthcoming (b).

Forbes, R.J., Studies in Ancient Technology, Vol. 1. Leiden, 1955.

Foster, B., Before the Muses, Vol. 1. Maryland, 1993.

Foster, B., ‘Assyriology and English Literature’, in M. Ross (ed.), From the Banks of the Euphrates: Studies in Honor of Alice Louise Slotsky. Winona Lake, 2008.

Frahm, E. Babylonian and Assyrian Text Commentaries. Guides to the Mesopotamian Textual Record 5. Münster, 2011.

Frazer, J.G., Folklore in the Old Testament. London, 1918.

Fulanain, Haji Rikkan: Marsh Arab. London, 1927.

Gaster, M., The Chronicle of Jerahmeel; or the Hebrew Bible Historiale. Being a Collection of Apocryphal and Pseudo-epigraphical Books (by Various Authors: Collected by Eleazar ben Asher, the Levite) Dealing with the History of the World from the Creation to the Death of Judas Maccabeus. Oriental Translation Fund. New Series 4. London, 1899.

Gaster, T.H., Myth, Legend and Custom in the Old Testament. New York and London, 1969.

Geller, M.J., ‘The Last Wedge’, Zeitschrift für Assyriologie 87 (1997): 43–95.

Geller, M.J., ‘West Meets East: Early Greek and Babylonian Diagnosis’, Archiv für Orientforschung 18/19 (2001/2): 50–75.

Geller, M.J., Akkadian Healing Therapies in the Babylonian Talmud. Preprint, Max Planck Institute for the History of Science no. 259. Berlin, 2004.

Geller, M.J., ‘Berossos on Kos from the View of Common Sense Geography’, in K. Geus and M. Thiering (eds), Common Sense Geography and Mental Modelling. Preprint, Max Planck Institute for the History of Science. Berlin, 2012: 101–9.

George, A.R., The Epic of Gilgamesh: The Babylonian Epic Poem and Other Texts in Akkadian and Sumerian. London and New York, 1999.

George, A.R., The Babylonian Gilgamesh Epic. Introduction, Critical Edition and Cuneiform Texts, Vols 1–2. Oxford, 2003.

George, A.R., ‘Babylonian and Assyrian: A History of Akkadian’, in J.N. Postgate (ed.), Languages of Iraq Ancient and Modern. Cambridge, 2007: 31–71.

George, A.R., ‘The Truth about Etemenanki, the Ziggurat of Babylon’, in I.L. Finkel and M.J. Seymour (eds), Babylon: Myth and Reality. London, 2008: 126–9.

George, A.R., Babylonian Literary Texts in the Schϕyen Collection. Cornell University Studies in Assyriology and Sumerology, Vol. 10. Manuscripts in the Schϕyen Collection, Cuneiform Texts IV. Maryland, 2009.

George, A.R., ‘The Sign of the Flood and the Language of Signs in Babylonian Omen Literature’, in L. Kogan (ed.), Language in the Ancient Near East. Winona Lake, 2010: 323–35.

George, A.R. and F.N.H. Al-Rawi, ‘Tablets from the Sippar Library VI: Atra-hasis’, Iraq 58 (1996): 147–90.

Gesche, P., Schulunterricht in Babylonien im ersten Jahrtausend v. Chr. Alter Orient und Altes Testament, Vol. 275. Münster, 2000.

Gmirkin, R.E., Berossus, Genesis, Manetho and Exodus: Hellenestic Histories and the Date of the Pentateuch. New York and London: 2006.

Goldstein, R., ‘Late Babylonian Letters on Collecting Tablets and their Hellenistic Background’, Journal of Near Eastern Studies 69 (2010): 109–207.

Grayson, A.K., Assyrian and Babylonian Chronicles. Texts from Cuneiform Sources, Vol. 5. New York, 1975.

Grayson, A.K., Assyrian Rulers of the Early First Millennium BC I (1114–859 bc). The Royal Inscriptions of Mesopotamia. Assyrian Periods, Vol. 2. Toronto, Buffalo and London, 1991.

Grayson, A.K., Assyrian Rulers of the Early First Millennium BC II (858–745 bc). The Royal Inscriptions of Mesopotamia: Assyrian Periods. Vol. 3. Toronto, Buffalo and London, 1996.

Grayson, A.K. and J. Novotny, The Royal Inscriptions of Sennacherib, King of Assyria (704–681 bc), Part 1. Royal Inscriptions of the Neo-Assyrian Period 3/1. 2012.

Hess, R.S., ‘The Genealogies of Genesis 1–11 and Comparative Literature’, in R.S. Hess and D.T. Tsumura (eds), ‘I Studied Inscriptions from before the Flood’. Ancient Near Eastern, Literary and Linguistic Approaches to Genesis 1–11. Winona Lake, 1994: 58–72.

Hess, R.S. and D.T. Tsumura (eds), ‘I Studied Inscriptions from before the Flood’. Ancient Near Eastern, Literary and Linguistic Approaches to Genesis 1–11. Winona Lake, 1994.

Hilprecht, H., The Earliest Version of the Babylonian Deluge Story and the Temple Library of Nippur. The Babylonian Expedition of the University of Pennsylvania Series D: Researches and Treatises, Vol. 5, fasc. 1, 1910.

Holder, P.A., The Roman Army in Britain. London, 1982.

Hornell, J., ‘The Coracles of the Tigris and Euphrates’, The Mariner’s Mirror [Quarterly Journal of the Society for Nautical Research] 24/2: April 1938: 153–9 [reprint: British Coracles and Irish Curraghs with a Note on the Quffah of Iraq, London, 1938].

Hornell, J., Water Transport: Origins & Early Evolution. Cambridge, 1946.

Horowitz, W., ‘The Babylonian Map of the World’, Iraq 50 (1988): 147–65.

Horowitz, W., Babylonian Cosmic Geography. Mesopotamian Civilisations 8. Winona Lake, 1998.

Ismail, M., Wallis Budge: Magic and Mummies in London and Cairo. Kilkerran, 2011.

Jacobsen, T., The Sumerian King List. Assyriological Studies 11. Chicago, 1939.

Jacobsen, T., The Treasures of Darkness. New Haven and London, 1976.

Jacobsen, T., The Harps that Once … New Haven and London, 1987.

Jacoby, F., Die Fragmente der griechischen Historiker, Vol. 3. Leiden, 1958.

Jullien, C. and F., La Bible en Exil. Civilisations du Proche-Orient 3. Religions et Culture 1. Paris, 1995.

Jursa, M., ‘Nabû-šarrūssu-ukīn, und ‘Nebusarsekim’ (Jer. 39:3)’, Nouvelles Assyriologiques Bréves et Utilitaires 1 (2008): 10.

Jursa, M., ‘Der neubabylonische Hof’, in B. Jacobs and R. Rollinger (eds), Der Achamenidenhof: The Achaemenid Court. Akten des 2. Internationalen Kolloqiuims zum Thema ‘Vorderasien im Spannungsfeld klassicher und altorientalischer Überlieferungen’. Landgut Castelen bei Basel, 23–25 May 2007. Wiesbaden, 2010: 67–95.

Kaysel, R., Arche Noah. Schweizer Kindermuseum Baden, 1992.

Kilmer, A.D., ‘The Mesopotamian Concept of Overpopulation and Its Solution as Reflected in the Mythology’, Orientalia New Series 41 (1972): 160–77.

Kilmer, A.D., ‘Sumerian and Akkadian Names for Designs and Geometric Shapes’, in A.C. Gunter (ed.), Investigating Artistic Environments in the Ancient Near East. Washington, 1990: 83–6.

Kilmer, A.D., ‘The Symbolism of the Flies in the Mesopotamian Flood Myth and some Further Implications’, in F. Rochberg-Halton (ed.), Language, Literature and History: Philological and Historical Studies Presented to Erica Reiner. New Haven, 1987: 175–80.

Kwasman, T., ‘Loanwords in Jewish Babylonian Aramaic: Some Preliminary Observations’, in M.J. Geller and S. Shaked (eds), Babylonian Talmudic Archaeology, Leiden, forthcoming.

Lambert, W.G., ‘An Address of Marduk to the Demons’, Archiv für Orientforschung 17 (1954–6): 310–21.

Lambert, W.G., Babylonian Wisdom Literature. Oxford, 1960a.

Lambert, W.G., ‘New Light on the Babylonian Flood’, Journal of Semitic Studies 5 (1960b): 113–23.

Lambert, W.G., ‘The Reign of Nebuchadnezzar I: A Turning Point in the History of Ancient Mesopotamian Religion’, in W.S. McCullough (ed.), The Seed of Wisdom: Essays in Honor of T. J. Meek. Toronto, 1964.

Lambert, W.G., ‘Berossus and Babylonian Eschatology’, Iraq 38 (1976): 171–3.

Lambert, W.G., ‘Niṣir or Nimuš?’ Revue d’Assyriologie 80 (1986): 185–6.

Lambert, W.G., ‘A New Look at the Babylonian Background of Genesis’, in Hess and Tsumura (eds), 1994: 96–113.

Lambert, W.G. and A.R. Millard, Atra-Ḫasīs: The Babylonian Story of the Flood. Oxford, 1969.

Landsberger, B., Die Fauna des alten Mesopotamien nach der 14. Tafel der Series HAR-RA = HUBULLU. Leipzig, 1934.

Landsberger, B., The Fauna of Ancient Mesopotamia, First Part. Materialen zum sumerisches Lexikon, Vol. 8/1. Rome, 1960.

Landsberger, B., The Fauna of Ancient Mesopotamia, Second Part. Materialen zum sumerisches Lexikon, Vol. 8/2. Rome, 1962.

Leemans, W.F., Review of Forbes 1955, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 3 (1960): 218–21.

Lewis, B., The Sargon Legend: A Study of the Akkadian Text and the Tale of the Hero Who was Exposed at Birth. American Schools of Oriental Research Dissertation Series 4. Cambridge, 1980.

Lewis, J.P., A Study of the Interpretation of Noah and the Flood in Jewish and Christian Literature. Leiden, 1978.

Lieberman, S. ‘A Mesopotamian Background for the So-called Aggadic “Measures” of Biblical Hermeneutics?’ Hebrew Union College Annual 58 (1987): 157–225.

Livingstone, A., ‘Ashurbanipal: Literate or Not?’ Zeitschrift für Assyriologie 97 (2007): 98–118.

Lynche, R., An Historical Treatise of the Travels of Noah into Europe: Containing the first inhabitation and peopling thereof. As also a breefe recapitulation of the Kings, Governors, and Rulers commanding in the same, even unto the first building of Troy by Dardanus. Done into English by Richard Lynche, Gent. London, 1601.

Malamat, A., ‘King Lists of the Old Babylonian Period and Biblical Genealogies’, in R. S. Hess and D.T. Tsumura (eds), ‘I Studied Inscriptions from Before the Flood’. Ancient Near Eastern, Literary and Linguistic Approaches to Genesis 1–11. Winona Lake, 1994: 183–99.

Mallowan, M.E.L., ‘Noah’s Flood Reconsidered’, Iraq 26 (1964): 62–82.

Marinkovi´c, P., ‘Urartu in der Bibel’, in S. Kroll, C. Gruber, U. Hellwag, M. Roaf and P. Zimansky (eds), Biainili-Urartu. The Proceedings of the Symposium held in Munich 12–14 October 2007. Acta Iranica, Vol. 51. Louvain, 2012.

Michalowski, P., ‘How to Read the Liver – in Sumerian’, in A. K. Guinan, M. deJ. Ellis, A.J. Ferrara, S.M. Freedman, M.T. Rutz, L. Sassmannshausen, S. Tinney and M.W. Waters (eds), If a Man Builds a Joyful House: Assyriological Studies in Honor of Erle Verdun Leichty. Leiden, 2006: 247–57.

Millard, A.R., ‘A New Babylonian “Genesis” Story’, in Hess and Tsumura (eds), 1994: 114–28.

Millard, A.R., ‘Transcriptions into Cuneiform’, in Geoffrey Khan (ed), Encyclopedia of Hebrew Language and Linguistics Vol 3, 2013: 838–47.

Montgomery, J.W., The Quest for Noah’s Ark. Minneapolis, 1972.

Moorey, P.R.S., Kish Excavations 1923–1933. Oxford, 1978.

Nissen, H., P. Damerow and R.K. Englund, Archaic Bookkeeping: Writing and Techniques of Economic Administration in the Ancient Near East. Trans. P. Larsen. Chicago, 1993.

Ochsenschlager, E.L., ‘Ethnographic Evidence for Wood, Boars, Bitumen and Reeds in Southern Iraq: Ethnoarchaeology at al-Hiba’, Bulletin on Sumerian Agriculture 6 (1992): 47–78.

Ochsenschlager, E.L., Iraq’s Marsh Arabs in the Garden of Eden. Philadelphia, 2004.

Oppenheim, A.L., The Interpretation of Dreams in the Ancient Near East with a Translation of an Assyrian Dream-Book. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. New Series 46/3 (1956).

Oppenheim, A.L., Letters from Mesopotamia: Official, Business and Private Letters on Clay Tablets from Two Millennia. Chicago, 1967.

Oppenheim, A.L., ‘A Babylonian Diviner’s Manual’, Journal of Near Eastern Studies 33 (1974): 197–220.

Oppenheim, A.L., Ancient Mesopotamia, revised edition. Chicago, 1977.

Parpola, S. ‘A Letter from Šamaš-šum-ukīn to Asarhaddon’, Iraq 34 (1972): 21–34.

Parpola, S., ‘The Murder of Sennacherib’, in B. Alster (ed.), Death in Mesopotamia. Papers read at the XXVIE Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale. Mesopotamia 8. Copenhagen, 1980: 171–86.

Parpola, S., ‘The Assyrian Cabinet’, in M. Dietrich and O. Loretz (eds), Vom Alten Orient zum Alten Testament. Festschrift fur Wolfram Freiherrn von Soden. Alter Orient und Altes Testament 240. Neukirchen-Vluyn, 1995: 379–401.

Parpola, S. and K. Watanabe, Neo-Assyrian Treaties and Loyalty Oaths. State Archives of Assyria 2. Helsinki, 1998.

Parrot, A., The Flood and Noah’s Ark. Translated from the French by Edwin Hudson. Studies in Biblical Archaeology 1. London, 1955.

Patai, R., The Children of Noah: Jewish Seafaring in Ancient Times. With Contributions by J. Hornell and J.M. Lundquist. Princeton, 1998.

Peake, H., The Flood: New Light on an Old Story. London, 1930.

Pedersén, O., Archive und Bibliotheken in Babylon: Die Tontafeln der Grabung Robert Koldeweys 1899–1917. Abhandlungen der deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft 25. Saarbrücken, 2005a.

Pedersén, O., ‘Foreign Professionals in Babylon: Evidence from the Archive in the Palace of Nebuchadnezzar II’, in W.H. van Soldt (ed.), Ethnicity in Ancient Mesopotamia: Papers Read at the 48th Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale, Leiden, 1–4 July2002. Leiden, 2005b: 267–72.

Peters, J.P., Nippur, or Explorations and Adventures on the Euphrates. The Narrative of the University of Pennsylvania Expedition to Babylonian in the Years 1888–1890, Vol. 1. Pennsylvania, 1899.

Pinches, T.G., ‘EXIT GIŠṬUBAR!’ The Babylonian and Oriental Record 4 (1889–90): 264.

Pinches, T.G., ‘The Religious Ideas of the Babylonians’, Journal of the Transactions of the Victoria Institute 28 (1896): 1–3.

Pingree, D., ‘Legacies in Astronomy and Celestial Omens’, in S. Dalley (ed.), The Legacy of Mesopotamia (1998): 125–37.

Potts, D., Mesopotamian Civilization: The Material Foundations. London, 1997.

Powell, M.A., ‘Timber Production in Presargonic Lagaš’, in J.N. Postgate (ed.), Trees and Timber in Mesopotamia: Bulletin on Sumerian Agriculture, Vol. 6. Cambridge, 1992: 99–122.

Raikes, R.L., ‘The Physical Evidence for Noah’s Flood’, Iraq 28 (1966): 62–3.

Reade, J.E., ‘Archaeology and the Kuyunjik Archives’, in K.R. Veenhof (ed.), Cuneiform Archives and Libraries. Papers read at the 30E Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale Leiden, 4–8 July 1983. 1986.

Reade, J.E., ‘An Eagle from the East’, Britannia 30 (1999): 266–8.

Reade, J.E., ‘Retrospect: Wallis Budge – For or Against?’ in Ismail 2011: 444–63.

Riem, J., Die Sinflut in Sage und Wissenschaft. Hamburg, 1925.

Robson, E., Mesopotamian Mathematics 2100–1600 BC: Technical Constants in Bureaucracy and Education. Oxford Editions of Cuneiform Texts, Vol. 24. Oxford, 1999.

Robson, E., Mathematics in Ancient Iraq. Princeton, 2008.

Salim, S.M., Marsh Dwellers of the Euphrates Delta. London School of Economics Monographs on Social Anthropology no. 23. London, 1962.

Salonen, A., Die Wasserfahrzeuge in Babylonien. Studia Orientalia, Edidit Societas Orientalis Fennica VIII.4. Helsinki, 1939.

Sandars, N.K., The Epic of Gilgamesh. Penguin Books, 1960.

Schnabel, P., Berossus und die babylonisch-hellenistische Literatur. Leipzig and Berlin, 1923.

Shehata, D., Annotierte Bibliographie zum altbabylonische Atramhasīs-Mythos Inūma ilū awīlum. Göttinger Arbeitshefte zur Altorientalischen Literatur, Vol. 3. Göttingen, 2001.

Smith, G., ‘The Chaldean Account of the Deluge’, Transactions of the Society of Biblical Archaeology 2 (1873): 213–34.

Smith, G., ‘The Eleventh Tablet of the Izdubar Legends: The Chaldean Account of the Deluge’, Transactions of the Society of Biblical Archaeology 3 (1874): 534–87.

Smith, G., Assyrian Discoveries: An Account of Explorations and Discoveries on the Site of Nineveh during 1873 and 1874. London, 1875.

Smith, G., The Chaldean Account of Genesis containing the Description of the Creation, the Fall of Man, the Deluge, the Tower of Babel, the Times of the Patriarchs, and Nimrod; Babylonian Fables and the Legends of the Gods; from the Cuneiform Inscriptions. London, 1876.

Spar, I. and W.G. Lambert (eds), Cuneiform Texts in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Vol. II. Literary and Scholastic Texts of the First Millennium B.C. New York, 2005.

Speiser, E.A., ‘Southern Kurdistan in the Annals of Ashurnasirpal and Today’, Annals of the American Schools of Oriental Research 8 (1928, for 1926–7): 1–42.

Stevens, E.S., By Tigris and Euphrates. London, 1923.

Streck, M.P., ‘NIṢIR’, Reallexikon der Assyriologie 9 7/8 (2001): 589–60.

Thesiger, W., The Marsh Arabs. London, 1964.

Tigay, J., The Evolution of the Gilgamesh Epic. Philadelphia, 1982.

van Koppen, F., ‘The Scribe of the Flood Story and his Circle’, in K. Radner and E. Robson (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Cuneiform Culture. Oxford, 2011: 140–66.

Velduis, N., ‘Levels of Literacy’, in K. Radner and E. Robson (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Cuneiform Culture. Oxford, 2001: 68–89.

Watelin, L.C., Excavations at Kish, Vol. 4. Paris, 1934.

Weidner, E.F., ‘Jojachin, König von Juda, in babylonischen Keilschrifttexten’, Mélanges syriens offerts à Monsieur Rene Dussaud, Vol. 2. Bibliothèque Archéologique et Historique 30 (1939): 923–35.

Westenholz, A., ‘The Graeco-Babyloniaca Once Again’, Zeitschrift für Assyriologie und Vorderasiatische Archäologie 97 (2007): 262–313.

Westenholz, J.G., Legends of the Kings of Akkade: The Texts. Mesopotamian Civilizations 7. Winona Lake, 1997.

Westermann, C., Genesis 1–11: A Continental Commentary. Trans. J.J. Scullion. Minneapolis, 1984.

Weszeli, M., ‘Schiff und Boot. B. in Mesopotamischen Quellen des 2. und 1. Jahrtausends’, Reallexikon der Assyriologie 12. Berlin, 2009: 160–71.

Wiggermann, F.A.M., Mesopotamian Protective Spirits: The Ritual Texts. Cuneiform Monographs 1. Groningen, 1992.

Wiggermann, F.A.M., ‘Agriculture as Civilization: Sages, Farmers and Barbarians’, in K. Radner and E. Robson (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Cuneiform Culture. Oxford, 2011: 663–89.

Wilcke, C., Wer las und schrieb in Babylonien und Assyrien. Sitzungberichte der Bayersichen Akademie der Wissenschaften Philosophisch-historische Klasse 200/6. Munich, 2000.

Wilcke, C., The Sumerian Poem Enmerkar and En-suhkeš-ana: Epic, Play, Or? Stage Craft at the Turn from the Third to the Second Millennium B.C. with a Score-Edition and a Translation of the Text. American Oriental Series Essay 12. New Haven, 2012.

Wilson, I., Before the Flood: Understanding the Biblical Flood Story as Recalling a Real-Life Event. London, 2001.

Wilson, R.R., ‘The Old Testament Genealogies in Recent Research’, in R.S. Hess and D.T. Tsumura (eds), ‘I Studied Inscriptions from before the Flood’. Ancient Near Eastern, Literary and Linguistic Approaches to Genesis 1–11. Winona Lake, 1994: 200–23.

Woolley, C.L., Excavations at Ur. London.

Young, G. and N. Wheeler, Return to the Marshes. London, 1977.

Zaccagnini, C., ‘Maps of the World’, in G. B. Lanfranchi, D. M. Bonacossi, C. Pappi and S. Ponchia, Leggo! Studies Presented to Frederick Mario Fales on the Occasion of His 65th Birthday. Wiesbaden, 2012: 865–73.

Zarins, J., ‘Magan Shipbuilders at the Ur III Lagash State Dockyards (2062–2025 B.C.)’, in E. Olijdam and R.H. Spoor (eds), Intercultural Relations between South and Southwest Asia: Studies in Commemoration of E.C.L. During Caspers (1934–1996). BAR International Series 1826. 2008: 209–29.

Zgoll, A., Traum und Welterleben im antiken Mesopotamien. Alter Orient und Altes Testament 333. Munster, 2006.

Ziolkowski, T., Gilgamesh Among Us: Modern Encounters with the Ancient Epic. Cornell, 2011.

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