NOTES

ABBREVIATIONS

Abbreviations follow the conventions in S. Hornblower and A. Spawforth (eds.), The Oxford Classical Dictionary, 3rd edn. (Oxford, 1996); D. N. Freedman (ed.), The Anchor Bible Dictionary (New York, 1992), for biblical and apocryphal texts and for Jewish and Christian texts not in OCD; H. Danby, The Mishnah (Oxford, 1933), 806, for rabbinic texts; G. Vermes, The Complete Dead Sea Scrolls in English (Harmondsworth, 1997), for Dead Sea scrolls; E. Schürer, rev. G. Vermes et al., The History of the Jewish People in the Age of Jesus Christ, 3 vols. (Edinburgh, 1973–87), vol. 3, pp. 812–13, for the works of Philo not in OCD.

OTHER ABBREVIATIONS

ben (“son of”)

b. Babylonian Talmud

CPJ V. A. Tcherikover et al., Corpus Papyrorum Judaicarum, 3 vols. (Cambridge, Mass., 1957–64)

DJD D. Barthélemy et al., Discoveries in the Judaean Desert, 39 vols. (Oxford, 1956-2002)

JIWE D. Noy, Jewish Inscriptions of Western Europe, 2 vols. (Cambridge, 1993-5)

JJS Journal of Jewish Studies

m. Mishnah

P Yadin B. A. Levine et al., The Documents from the Bar Kokhba Period in the Cave of Letters, 2 vols. (Jerusalem, 1989–2002)

R. Rabbi

RPC Roman Provincial Coinage

t. Tosefta

y. Palestinian Talmud

INTRODUCTION: THE MAIN WITNESS

1On Josephus' career, see T. Rajak, Josephus: The Historian and His Society (London, 1983).

2On Josephus' private sentiments: Joseph. BJ 1. 9; for scholarship on his writings, see L. H. Feldman, Josephus and Modern Scholarship, 1937–80 (Berlin, 1984); idem, Josephus: A Supplementary Bibliography (New York and London, 1986); and the introductions to the new translations of Josephus' works published by Brill, S. Mason et al. (eds.),Flavius Josephus, Translation and Commentary (Leiden, 2000–).

PROLOGUE: THE DESTRUCTION OF JERUSALEM, 66-70 CE

1Joseph. BJ 2. 305-7.

2Ibid. 2. 326-7.

3Ibid. 2. 409.

4Ibid. 2. 451-5.

5Ibid. 2. 540.

6Ibid. 2. 532.

7Ibid. 2. 648-9.

8Tac. Hist. 5. 10.

9For the different coin types, see Y. Meshorer, A Treasury of Jewish Coins from the Persian Period to Bar Kokhba (Jerusalem and Nyack, NY, 2001).

10M. Goodman, “Coinage and Identity: The Jewish Evidence,” in C. Howgego, V. Heuchert and A. Burnett (eds.), Coinage and Identity in the Roman Provinces (Oxford, 2005), 163–6.

11H. Eshel, “Documents of the First Jewish Revolt from the Judaean Desert,” in A. M. Berlin and J. A. Overman (eds.), The First Jewish Revolt: Archaeology, History and Ideology (London and New York, 2002), 157-63.

12Euseb. Hist. eccl. 3. 5. 2-3.

13On Ananus: Joseph. BJ 4. 319.

14Ibid. 4. 560-63.

15Tac. Hist. 5. 12. The statement by Tacitus that John was known as Bargioras is confused. This was in fact the name of Simon, eventually commander-in-chief of the Jewish forces.

16Joseph. BJ 7. 263-71.

17Luke 19: 43.

18Joseph. BJ 5. 427-30, 512-15, 567, 569-71; 6. 197.

19Ibid. 6. 201–13. The story may well be apocryphal, since the eating of children was a standard motif in biblical descriptions of the horrors of siege (cf. Lev. 26: 29).

20Joseph. BJ 5. 450-51.

21Ibid. 5. 299.

22Ibid. 5. 334.

23Ibid. 5. 349-53.

24Ibid. 5. 362, 375, 420, 422.

25Ibid. 6. 54-5, 58-66.

26Ibid. 6. 222-6, 228.

27Ibid. 6. 271-6.

28Ibid. 6. 316.

29Ibid. 6. 322.

30Ibid. 7. 1-3.

CHAPTER ONE: A TALE OF TWO CITIES

1Joseph. AJ 15. 310; Livy 40. 29.

2Deut. 11: 14-15 (Heb.); Mic. 4: 4.

3Joseph. BJ 3. 516-21.

4Threefold division: Joseph. BJ 3. 35–58; on Palmyra, see I. Browning, Palmyra (London, 1979).

5“Not a country with a sea coast”: Joseph. Ap. 1. 60; on Babylonian Jews, see J. Neusner, A History of the Jews in Babylonia, vol. 1: The Parthian Period (London, rev. edn. 1969).

6F. Millar, The Roman Near East, 31 BC—AD 331 (Cambridge, Mass., and London, 1993).

7Plin. HN 5. 15 (70).

8Augustus, RG 19–20 (new temples); Suet. Aug. 28. 3; 29. 5.

9On the gardens: Suet. Iul. 83. 2.

10W. Scheidel, “Human Mobility in Roman Italy, 1: The Free Population,” JRS 94 (2004), 1–26; N. Purcell, “Rome and Its Development Under Augustus and His Successors,” CAH vol. 10 (Cambridge, 1996), 782-811.

11Strabo, Geog. 5. 3. 2, 7-8.

12Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 3. 67. 5.

13Ov. Pont. 1. 29 (city life), 33-8.

14Strabo, Geog. 5. 3. 8.

15Ibid.

16Plin. HN 3. 5. 67.

17Vitr. De arch. 2. 8. 17.

18Juv. 10. 81.

19See in general J. Carcopino, Daily Life in Ancient Rome, trans. E. O. Lorimer (London, 1941).

20Polyb. 26. 10 (=26.1 in W. R. Paton [ed.], Polybius: The Histories, vol. 5 [London, 1927], 480).

21F. Millar, “The Background to the Maccabean Revolution,” JJS 29 (1978), 1–21.

22On the early Hasmonaeans, see J. Sievers, The Hasmonaeans and Their Supporters: From Mat-tathias to the Death of John Hyrcanus I (Atlanta, 1990); on the date of composition of 1 Maccabees, see S. Schwartz, “Israel and the Nations Roundabout: I Maccabees and the Hasmonean Expansion,” JJS 42 (1991), 16–38.

23m. B.K. 6. 6.

24On Alexander Jannaeus, see E. Schürer, rev. G. Vermes et al., The History of the Jewish People in the Age of Jesus Christ, 3 vols. (Edinburgh, 1973–87), vol. 1, pp. 219–28.

25See D. R. Schwartz, “Josephus on Hyrcanus II,” in F. Parente and J. Sievers (eds.), Josephus and the History of the Greco-Roman Period (Leiden, 1994), 210–32.

26Joseph. AJ 14. 77-8.

27Ibid. 14. 403.

28Palace: Joseph. BJ 5. 177–81; theatre and amphitheatre: AJ 15. 268, 272, 279; hippodrome: AJ 17. 255; BJ 2. 44; Memorial of Herod: BJ 5. 108, 507; in general, P. Richardson, Herod: King of the Jews and Friend of the Romans (Columbia, SC, 1996); D. W. Roller, The Building Program of Herod the Great (London, 1998).

29Let. Arist. 83–4, 116; Polybius ap. Joseph. AJ 12. 136.

30Joseph. AJ 15. 380-82, 384-5, 387.

31Ibid. 15. 392, 394-6.

32Ibid. 15. 412-13.

33m. Ab. 5. 5.

34Acts 2: 5, 9–11; on pilgrimage: M. Goodman, “The Pilgrimage Economy of Jerusalem in the Second Temple Period,” in L. I. Levine (ed.), Jerusalem: Its Sanctity and Centrality to Judaism, Christianity, and Islam (New York, 1999), 69–76.

3518,000 unemployed: Joseph. AJ 20. 219-22; on Helena, AJ 20. 35, 49, 51, 101; on the monument: AJ 20. 95; BJ 5. 55; Paus. 8. 16. 4-5.

36On population figures, see the salutary caution of B. McGing, “Population and Prose-lytism: How Many Jews Were There in the Ancient World?,” in J. R. Barlett (ed), Jews in the Hellenistic and Roman Cities (London, 2002), 88–106.

37Joseph. BJ 6. 420-25; Philo, Spec. Leg. 1. 69.

38m. Bikk. 3. 3.

CHAPTER TWO: ONE WORLD UNDER ROME

1Joseph. BJ 2. 355–64, 370, 378; T. Rajak, “Friends, Romans, Subjects: Agrippa II's Speech in Josephus's Jewish War,” in L. Alexander (ed.), Images of Empire (Sheffield, 1991), 122–34.

2Aelius Aristides, To Rome, with analysis by J. H. Oliver, “The Ruling Power,” TAPA 43 (1953), 871–1003; S. L. Dyson, “Native Revolt Patterns in the Roman Empire,” ANRW II. 3 (1975), 138-75.

3Arr. Peripl. M. Eux. 17. 2.

4BM Coins, Rom. Emp. vol. 2, nos. 301–8.

5Plin. Ep. 10. 74; see, in general, K. Hopkins, Conquerors and Slaves (Cambridge, 1978), chapter 5.

6C. F. Noreña, “The Communication of the Emperor's Virtues,” JRS 91 (2001), 146–68.

7A. S. Hunt and C. C. Edgar, Select Papyri, 2 vols. (London, 1932–4), no. 211; text of Senate decree: W. Eck, A. Caballos and F. Fernández, Das Senatus Consultum de Cn. Pisone Patre (Munich, 1996).

8On the false Neros, see G. W. Bowersock, “The Mechanics of Subversion in the Roman Provinces,” in A. Giovannini (ed.), Opposition et résistances à l'empire d'Auguste à Trajan (Genoa, 1987), 291-320.

9Smallwood, Docs… . Gaius, no. 43.

10FIRA, vol. 1, no. 74, lines 8-10.

11Joseph. AJ 14. 263-4.

12See Chapter 12.

13P Yadinno. 11.

14Plin. Ep. 10. 27–8; Apul. Met. 9. 39; F. Millar, “The World of the Golden Ass,” JRS 71 (1981), 63-75.

15Acts 25: 10-12.

16Philo, In Flacc. 97-101.

17Plin. Ep. 3. 4; 10. 65 (foundlings).

18Ibid. 10. 41-2; 10. 17b-18.

19P. Garnsey and R. Saller, The Roman Empire: Economy, Society and Culture (London, 1987), chapter 2; J. E. Lendon, Empire of Honour: The Art of Government in the Roman World (Oxford, 1997).

20Joseph. Vit. 13-16.

21Acts 12: 1–19; D. R. Schwartz, Agrippa I: The Last King of Judaea (Tübingen, 1990).

22m. Sot. 7. 8.

23Joseph. AJ 18. 159.

24Suet. Calig. 37. 1.

25Joseph. AJ 18. 203–4; Tac. Ann. 6. 50 (rumoured suffocation by order of Macro); Joseph. AJ 18. 239.

26Suet. Calig. 11, 37; Joseph. AJ 18. 256; J. P. V. D. Balsdon, The Emperor Gaius (Caligula) (Oxford, 1934).

27Philo, Spec. Leg. 278-9, 290-91, 327.

28Joseph. AJ 19. 1-273.

29Cass. Dio 60. 8. 2-3; Suet. Claud. 25. 5; Joseph. AJ 19. 275.

30Joseph. AJ 19. 341.

31Acts 12: 23; OGI no. 419 (titles of Agrippa).

32Citations from Pliny: Plin. HN 36. 9 (51) (trans. Eicholz) (marble); 33. 21 (66) (trans. Rack-ham) (gold); 36. 66 (193–5) (trans. Eicholz) (glass); 12. 32 (63–5) (trans. Rackham, adapted) (frankincense). On the ecology of the Mediterranean in general, see especially P. Hordern and N. Purcell, The Corrupting Sea: A Study of Mediterranean History(Oxford, 2000).

33Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 20. 15. 1—2.

34Strabo, Geog. 3. 2. 5 (144); 15. 1-2.

35Plin. HN-j}. 46 (160-61).

36Ibid. 36. 1 (1-3).

37Ibid. 13. 27(89).

38Strabo, Geog. 2. 2. 3.

39Cass. Dio 55. 31.

40Strabo, Geog. 4. 4. 3 (197).

41Ibid. 5. 2. 12 (218).

42Suet. Dom. 7. 2.

43On the archaeological evidence for trade: K. Greene, The Archaeology of the Roman Economy (London, 1986); on the role of entrepreneurs, see P. Temin, “A Market Economy in the Early Roman Empire,” JRS 91 (2001), 169—81; on the role of the state, L. Casson, “The Role of the State in Rome's Grain Trade,” in J. H. D'Arms and E. C. Kopff (eds.), The Seaborne Commerce of Ancient Rome (Rome, 1980), 21—33 o

44S. Hong, J.-P. Candelone, C. C. Patterson and C. F. Boutron, “Greenland Ice Evidence of Hemispheric Lead Pollution Two Millennia Ago by Greek and Roman Civilizations,” Science 265 (1994), 1841-3.

45Vitr. De arch. 10. 2. 8—10. See in general A. Wilson, “Machines, Power and the Ancient Economy,” JRS 92 (2002), 1-32.

46Suet. Vesp. 18.

47ILS no. 5863.

48Plin. HN 18. 7 (35).

49FIRA vol. 1, no. 103, lines 19-27.

50P Yadin no. 16, lines 29-33.

51Isoc. Paneg. 50.

52H. I. Marrou, History of Education in Antiquity (London, 1956), 168.

53A. I. Baumgarten, The Phoenician History of Philo of Byblos (Leiden, 1981).

54Hor. Epist. 2. 1. 156-7.

55A. E. Astin, Cato the Censor (Oxford, 1978); on Apollo: Livy 4. 25. 3; J. Gagé, Apollon romain (Paris, 1955).

56Dan. 7-12; 1 Macc. 5. 6-9; Wis. 13. 10.

57Joseph. Ap. i. 6-7;Juv. 3. 58-61.

58Eupolemus, frag. 1, and Artapanus, frag. 3, in C. R. Holladay, Fragments from Hellenistic Jewish Authors, 4 vols. (Chico, Calif, 1983—); Josephus on Plato: Ap. 2. 257; on Philo: AJ 18. 259; on Philo, see S. Sandmel, Philo of Alexandria: An Introduction (New York and Oxford, 1979).

59A. Erskine, Troy between Greece and Rome (Oxford, 2001); 1 Macc. 12. 5—23 (citation from 12: 20—21); E. Rawson, The Spartan Tradition in European Thought (Oxford, 1969).

60On the ancient construction of contrasts between Greek and Roman attitudes to knowledge, see e.g., S. Cuomo, Ancient Mathematics (London, 2002), 192—201; on the Maccabean revolt as a clash of cultures: Tac. Hist. 5. 8; 2 Macc. 2. 21 and 14. 3 8 (ioudaismos) and 4. 13 (hel-lenismos); M. Goodman, “Jewish Attitudes to Greek Culture in the Period of the Second Temple,” in G. Abramson and T. Parfitt (eds.), Jewish Education and Learning (Reading, PA, 1994), 167-74.

612 Macc. 4. 12—16; on Aristobulus: Joseph. AJ 12. 318; on Hasmonaean tombs: 1 Macc. 13. 25—30; on coins of Alexander Jannaeus: Y. Meshorer, A Treasury of Jewish Coins from the Persian Period to Bar Kokhba (Jerusalem and Nyack, NY, 2001), 37—41, 301—3.

62For all these discussions, see Y. Shavit, Athens in Jerusalem: Classical Antiquity and Hellenism in the Making of the Modern Secular Jew (London, 1997).

63Rom. 2: 9-10.

64Joseph. AJ 18. 183; 20. 173-8; BJ 2. 266-8; 3. 409; M. Hengel, Hellenism and Judaism, 2 vols. (Philadelphia, 1974); idem, The “Hellenization” of Judaea in the First Century after Christ (Philadelphia, 1989).

65L. I. Levine, Judaism and Hellenism in Antiquity: Conflict or Confluence? (Seattle, 1998); M. Goodman, “Epilogue,” in J. J. Collins and G. E. Sterling (eds.), Hellenism in the Land of Israel (Notre Dame, Ind., 2001), 302–5; m. Sot. 9. 14; S. Lieberman, Hellenism in Jewish Palestine, 2nd edn. (New York, 1962); E. S. Gruen, Heritage and Hellenism: The Reinvention of Jewish Tradition (Berkeley and London, 1998).

66L. Robert, Les Gladiateurs dans l' Orient grec (Paris, 1940).

67On Nepos: H.-G. Pflaum, Les Carrières procuratoriennes équestres sous le Haut-Empire romain, 2 vols. (Paris, 1960–61), no. 95; Hamian archers: Smallwood, Docs… . Nerva, no. 323a; Virilis: ILS no. 2653; Tac. Hist. 2. 80.

68Joseph. AJ 14. 226-7.

69Let. Arist. 12–14 (captives taken to Egypt); Philo, Spec. Leg. 281–2.

70CPJ nos. 14, 38, 43, 46, 48; Philo, Spec. Leg. 129 (seizure of merchandise); In Flacc. 56–7 (pillaging); Acts 18: 1–3 (Aquila); Joseph. Ap. 2. 44; AJ 12. 150; letter of Claudius: CPJ no. 153.

71Tac. Hist. 5. 5; Let. Arist. 181;Gal. 2: 12 (Peter); 3 Macc. 3. 4; Diod. Sic. 34/35. 1. 2.

72Herod Antipas: Luke 13: 32; Joseph. AJ 18. 113; Antiochus of Commagene: Joseph. AJ 20. 139; Drusilla and Felix: Joseph. AJ 20. 141–4; on Berenice, see Chapter 12.

73Timothy: Acts 16: 1–3; on endogamy: Philo, Spec. Leg. 3. 29.

CHAPTER THREE: DIVERSITY AND TOLERATION

1App. Mith. 116-17.

2Verg. Aen. 8. 722-3.

3Strabo, Geog. 3. 4. 20.

4Ibid. 11. 8. 4; Acts 18: 2; S. Mitchell, “In Search of the Pontic Community in Antiquity,” in A. K. Bowman et al. (eds.), Representations of Empire: Rome and the Mediterranean World (Oxford, 2002), 35-64.

5J. M. C. Toynbee, The Hadrianic School (Cambridge, 1934), 29, 55–6, 123–5.

6R. R. R. Smith, “Simulacra Gentium: The ethne from the Sebasteion at Aphrodisias,” JRS 78 (1988), 50-77; on Augustus' portico: Serv. Ad Aen. 8. 721.

7Augustus, RG 26-7, 30-32.

8Smith, “Simulacra”; Toynbee, Hadrianic School, 152–9.

9Plin. HN 3. 5 (43); on itineraria, see O. A. W. Dilke, Greek and Roman Maps (London, 1985), 112–29; K. Brodersen, Terra Cognita (Hildesheim, 1995), 165–94; on ethnography and politics, see C. Nicolet, Space, Geography and Politics in the Early Roman Empire (Ann Arbor, 1991).

10On the Celts, see Strabo, Geog. 4. 4. 2–6 (from Posidonius?), citation from 4. 4. 4; on Varro and Cicero, see A. Momigliano, Alien Wisdom: The Limits of Hellenization (Cambridge, 1975), 69-72.

11Strabo, Geog. 17. 3. 24-5.

12Ibid. 17. 3. 7 (trans. Jones); K. Clarke, Between Geography and History: Hellenistic Conceptions of the Roman World (Oxford, 1999).

13Tac. Germ. (citations from 2; 4; 15; 18; 23-4; 26; 5. 3; 19. 2-3).

14Ubii: Tac. Germ. 28–9; W. Eck, Köln in römischer Zeit (Cologne, 2004); Batavi: Tac. Germ. 29; Arminius: Tac. Ann. 2. 88; auxiliaries: A. K. Goldsworthy, The Roman Army at War, 100 BC—AD 200 (Oxford, 1996), 68.

15Phlegon, Mir. 9, 34-5.

16Ibid. 13-14.

17Plin. HN 7.3 (35) (hippocentaur), 10. 2 (5) (phoenix); Tac. Ann. 6. 28.

18See Chapter 2, pp. 86-92.

19Plin. HN Praef. 13, 17 (aims), 12. 54 (in—23) (balsam); 31. 18 (24) (sabbatical stream); on the elder Pliny's working methods: Plin. Ep. 3. 87; on the Joppe skeleton: Plin. HN 9. 4 (11).

20Ibid. 30. 2 (11) (magic); 31. 44 (95) (fish sauce); 5. 15 (73) (Essenes).

21Ibid. 37. 77 (203) (on Spain); on the origins of Latin authors, CHCL, vol. 2.

22Strabo, Geog. 3. 2. 13 (Turdetania); S. Keay, “Recent Archaeological Work in Roman Iberia,” JRS 93 (2003), 146-211.

23R. Batty, “Mela's Phoenician Geography,” JRS 90 (2000), 70.

24Pomponius Mela, De Chorographia 2. 6 (96) (Tingentera), 1. 12 (66) (Tyre and Sidon), 1. 8 (41) (“our custom”), 2. 7 (105) (“Roman disaster”).

25Ibid. 2. 6 (86) (Spain); 2. 5 (83); 3. 6 (57) (“our authors”); 3. 6 (46) (Gades); 3. 10 (108) (“our strait”); Batty, “Mela's Phoenician Geography,” 88; on the manuscript tradition of De Chorographia, A. Silberman, Pomponius Mela: Chronographie (Paris, 1988), pp. xliii–li.

26ILS no. 8794, lines 25—6 (Nero's speech); Plut. Prae. ger. reip. 10 (805A).

27Plut. Quaest. Rom. 6 (265B), 7 (265E), 10 (266C), 105 (289A); on Plutarch's career, see C. P. Jones, Plutarch and Rome (Oxford, 1971).

28On Athenian laws, see J. H. Oliver, The Civic Tradition and Roman Athens (Baltimore, 1983), 103—4; on Polemo: Philostr. VS 535.

29Plut. Lyc. 28.6 (on the character of Lycurgus); P. Cartledge and A. J. Spawforth, Hellenistic and Roman Sparta: A Tale of Two Cities (London, 1989), 190, 203—7.

30Paus. 8. 52. 1; C. Habicht, Pausanias' Guide to Ancient Greece (Berkeley and London, 1985).

31Philostr. VS 580 (Aristogeiton), 588—9 (Hypereides); on coins: RPC, 171 (Nysa), 144 (Perga-mum).

32On Arrian, see P. A. Stadter, Arrian of Nicomedia (Chapel Hill, NC, 1980); in general, G. Woolf, “Becoming Roman, Staying Greek,” PCPS 40 (1994), 116—43 o

33Dio Chrys. Or. 7.

34Paus. 10. 4. 1.

35Smallwood, Docs… . Gaius, nos. 373 (a) and (b).

36Augustus, RG 27; names: A. K. Bowman, Egypt after the Pharaohs (London, 1986), 124; Diod. Sic. 1. 271; N. Lewis, Life in Egypt under Roman Rule (Oxford, 1983), 69—70 (Kronion archive), 158 (census document), 44 (brother-sister marriage); imperial edict: Cod. Iust. 5. 4. 17.

37A. S. Hunt and C. C. Edgar, Select Papyri, 2 vols. (London, 1932—4), vol. 2, no. 278.

38Bowman, Egypt, 174—8.

39P Oxy. 1029 (hieroglyph cutters).

40Bowman, Egypt, 183 (Socnopaiou Nesos); P. W. van der Horst, Chaeremon (Leiden, 1984), frag. 10.

41M. Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature: A Book of Readings, 3 vols. (Berkeley, 1973—80), vol. 3, p. 141 (Setne), pp. 184—209 (wisdom text [Papyrus Insinger]); S. West, “The Greek Version of the Legend of Tefnut,” JEg. Arch. (1969), 161—83.

42P Oxy. 2332 (Oracle of the Potter); CPJ, no. 156b, col. I, lines 17—18; no. 156c, col. II, lines 22—6; no. 156d, col. III, lines 9—12 (Isidorus).

43Acts 14: 11 (Lystra); in general, R. MacMullen, “Provincial Languages in the Roman Empire,” AJPhil. 87 (1966), 1—17; F. Millar, “Local Cultures in the Roman Empire: Libyan, Punic and Latin in Roman Africa,” JRS 58 (1968), 126—34.

44H. J. W. Drijvers (ed.), The Book of the Laws of Countries: Dialogue on Fate of Bardaisan of Edessa (Assen, 1965), 57.

45Tac. Agr. 21.

46Cass. Dio 57. 4. 6 (ed. Boissevain); I. M. Ferris, Enemies of Rome: Barbarians Through Roman Eyes (Stroud, 2000); B. Isaac, The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity (Princeton, 2004).

47Ptol. Tetr. 2. 3. 65-6.

48Suet. Claud. 25. 5; Plin. HN 30. 4 (13).

49On Gordianus, see L'année épigraphique 1954, no. 138.

50On Agrippa I, see above, pp. 76–85; on Philo, see above, p. 82.

51On Tiberius Iulius Alexander: Tac. Ann. 15. 28; Hist. 1. 11; Juv. 1. 130–31; V. A. Burr, Tiberius Julius Alexander (Bonn, 1955).

CHAPTER FOUR: IDENTITIES

1Acts 22: 24-6, 28.

2A. N. Sherwin-White, Roman Citizenship, 2nd edn. (Oxford, 1973).

3Cic. Arch. 9 (19, 21).

4Suet. Aug. 40. 3; A. M. Duff, Freedmen in the Early Roman Empire (Oxford, 1928); K. R. Bradley, Slaves and Masters in the Roman Empire (Oxford, 1984), chapter 3.

5S. J. D. Cohen, The Beginnings of Jewishness: Boundaries, Varieties, Uncertainties (Berkeley and London, 1999).

6Story of Adiabene conversions: Joseph. AJ 20. 17–96.

7Ibid. 20. 18, 34-5, 38-42, 43-8.

8M. Goodman, “Identity and Authority in Ancient Judaism,” Judaism 39 (1990), 192–201.

9Gen. 41: 50-52 (Asenath); t. Kidd. 4. 16; Acts 16: 1-3.

10“Ambrosiaster,” commentary on Galatians 2: 4–5 (CSEL 81. 3. 20–21). But see the sceptical discussion in Cohen, Beginnings, 360–77.

11Joseph. BJ 2. 466-8.

12There is a good introduction to much of this literature in G. W. E. Nickelsburg, Jewish Literature between the Bible and the Mishnah, 2nd edn. (Minneapolis, 2005).

13Deut. 23: 13-15.

14Joseph. BJ 2. 137, 148-9.

15Philo, Legum allegoriae 3. 153.

16b. Yoma 75b.

17b. Ket. 5a.

18On Samaritan identity: A. D. Crown (ed.), The Samaritans (Tübingen, 1989); temple in Heliopolis: BJ 7. 427–32; on self-description of Samaritans in relation to Jews: Joseph. AJ 9. 291.

19Cic. Rep. 4. 20; see C. Nicolet, Space, Geography and Politics in the Early Roman Empire (Ann Arbor, 1991).

20Tac. Agr. 10.

21Augustus, RG 26.

22Ov. Fast. 2. 683-4.

23Jerusalem as navel: LXX Ezek 38: 12, cf. M. Tilly, Jerusalem—Nabel der Welt (Stuttgart, 2002); on levels of “centrality” in the world: Tanhuma (Buber), Kedoshim 10 (on Lev. 19: 23ff); Pilate and the standards: Joseph. AJ 18: 55–9; gentiles in Temple: Acts 21: 28–9.

241Q ApGen 21. 10-12.

25Sifre on Deuteronomy 51 (ed. Horovitz-Finkelstein, pp. 117–18).

26Lev. 18: 24, 28.

27On Roman ethnography, see Chapter 3; on rabbinic caricatures, see S. Stern, Jewish Identity in Early Rabbinic Writings (Leiden, 1994), chapter 1; on Josephus' geography, see Y. Shahar,Josephus Geographicus: The Classical Context of Geography in Josephus (Tübingen, 2004), 269–70.

28Deut. 17: 8; Sifre on Deuteronomy 152 (ed. Horovitz-Finkelstein, p. 206).

29Table of the nations: Gen. 10: 32.

30Jub. 8. 10–9. 15; 10. 27–35 (see J. M. Scott, Geography in Early Judaism and Christianity: The Book of Jubilees [Cambridge, 2002]).

31Joseph. AJ 1. 128 (Chethimos), 129 (Noah), 121 (Greeks invent names).

321 En. 33. 1–3 (in M. A. Knibb [ed.], The Ethiopic Book of Enoch [Oxford, 1978], 123).

33Suet. Aug. 7. 2.

34Horatius: Cic. Dom. 54 (139); Livy 2. 86-8.

35For numerous stories about the younger Cato, see Plut. Cat. Min.

36Macrob. Sat. 1. 16. 2 (festivals).

37Ibid. 1. 16. 16 (days wrong for war); 1. 16. 20 (defence permitted); Plut. Luc. 27. 7.

38Joseph. Ap. 1. 209-11.

39Plut. De superst. 8 (169B).

40m. Ber. 1. 1.

41On Pentecost and the omer: Lev. 23: 15; m. Men. 10.3 (on the dispute over dating with the “Boethusians”).

42Lev. 25: 10; Joseph. AJ 14. 202 (Julius Caesar); DJD vol. 2, no. 18; m. Shebi., passim.

43Joseph. AJ 3. 280–86 (Jubilee).

44C. R. Holladay, Fragments from Hellenistic Jewish Authors, vol. 1: Historians (Chico, Calif, 1983), with citation of Pseudo-Eupolemus on p. 174; Cleodemus in Joseph. AJ 1. 240–41; on the Christian motivation for preserving these texts, S. Inowlocki, Eusebius and the Jewish Authors: His Citation Technique in an Apologetic Context(Leiden, 2006).

45m. Ab. 1. 1-12.

46Joseph. Ap. 1. 41 (on historiography); AJ 18. 314–70 (Asinaeus and Anilaeus).

47Joseph. Ap. 1. 37–9; Philo, Migr. 1–2; QpHab 9. 8–10; on names: T. Ilan, Lexicon of Jewish Names in Late Antiquity, vol. 1 (Tübingen, 2002), with M. H. Williams, in ZPE 140 (2002), 279–83 (on Moses), and S. Honigman, in ZPE 146 (2004), 279–97 (on Abraham).

48Rabbinic discussion in m. Ber. 1. 2 (blue and white); for the claim that Jews had a distinctive notion of time, see S. Stern, Time and Process in Ancient Judaism (Oxford, 2003).

49Verg. G. 3. 284; Sen. Ep. 1. 3; Joseph. Ap. 2. 279, 290.

50t. Sot. 13. 3; Joseph. AJ 3. 218 (Urim and Thummim); m. Sot. 9. 12 (death of first prophets).

51Nostalgia for Second Temple: m. Sot. 9. 12; sin brings disaster: Pss. Sol. 8. 8, 13–15, 19–20.

52Lucr. 2. 77-9; Eccl. 1: 2-4.

53Sen. Ep. 71. 15; Verg. Ecl. 4. 4–7, 21–2, 43–5 (trans. Fairclough, adapted); aeterna urbs: Tib. 2. 5. 23; Ov. Fast. 3. 72; for the coins: BM Coins, Rom. Emp. vol. 2, nos. 423–4; RIC vol. 2, p. 51, no. 309; H. Mattingly, Roman Coins (London, 1927), 160.

54Joseph. AJ 10. 209, 277, 278, 280.

55Dan. 2: 35.

56Joseph. AJ 10. 210.

57m. Taan. 4. 6; Joseph. BJ 6. 267-8.

581QM 9. 5-6.

594 Ezra 6. 22-8.

60Pss. Sol. 11. 1-9.

61On prayer text, E. Schürer, rev. G. Vermes et al., The History of the Jewish People in the Age of Jesus Christ, 3 vols. (Edinburgh, 1973–87), vol. 2, p. 457; Jubilees text: Jub. 23. 30–31.

62Leviathan: 2 Bar. 29. 4.

63Philo, Praem. 85, 89-90; Isa. 11: 6-9.

64Pss. Sol. 17. 21-2, 32.

652 Bar. 30. 1-2, 4.

66lQS 9. 9–11.

67J. Neusner, W. S. Green and E. Frerichs (eds.), Judaisms and Their Messiahs at the Turn of the Christian Era (Cambridge, 1987) (“Judaism without Messiah”).

68On Herod on the Temple: Joseph. AJ 17. 161–3.

69Ibid. 1. 14.

70Pss. Sol. 17. 34.

712 Bar. 72. 2-4, 6.

72Isa. 2: 2-3.

73On the new Jerusalem: 5Q 15; Ezek. 40–48.

CHAPTER FIVE: COMMUNITIES

1Hor. Carm. 3. 2. 13.

22 Macc. 7. 1-3.

3R. Mellor, Thea Roma (Göttingen, 1975), 201 (on cult in Rome itself); Sall. Cat. 10. 6.

4Joseph. BJ 7. 259-60; 2. 264; 5. 19.

5Augustus, RG 6; Cass. Dio 53. 17. 1–2.

6Plin. Pan. 63. 2-8; Suet. Calig. 30. 2.

7Joseph. BJ 4. 320; 1 Macc. 14: 28 (Simon); Joseph. BJ 1. 457–66; M. Goodman, The Ruling Class of Judaea (Cambridge, 1987), chapter 9.

8Joseph. Ap. 2. 164-6.

91 Sam. 8: 5, 7.

10Joseph. Ap. 2. 185; AJ 20. 251; 4. 223.

11Joseph. AJ 11. 111-12.

12Hecataeus ap. Diod. Sic. 40. 3. 4–6.

13Joseph. BJ 2. 118.

14Ibid. 4. 154-7.

151 Sam. 8: 5.

16Philo, Moses 1. 148.

17On this power struggle, see J. J. Price, Jerusalem Under Siege: The Collapse of the Jewish State, 66—yo C.E. (Leiden, 1992). For arguments that Jews are naturally disposed to monarchy, see D. Goodblatt, The Monarchic Principle: Studies in Jewish Self-Government in Antiquity (Tübingen, 1994).

18See in general S. Treggiari, Roman Marriage (Oxford, 1991).

19Sen. Dial. 12. 14. 3 (Seneca's mother); 6. 24. 1 (Marcia).

20Mart. 4. 13. 9-10; Plin. Ep. 6. 33.

21Plin. Ep. 10. 65–6; M. Corbier (ed.), Adoption et fosterage (Paris, 1999).

22Sen. De Ira 2. 21. 1.

23Sen. Controv. 1. 1. 1; E. Cantarella, “Fathers and Sons in Rome,” Classical World 96 (2003), 281-98.

24Plut. Cat. Mai. 20. 2.

25Cic. Off. 1. 17(55).

26On the allocation of citizens to tribes in the late Republic, see L. R. Taylor, Roman Voting Assemblies (Ann Arbor, 1966), chapter 4; C. Nicolet, The World of the Citizen in Republican Rome (London, 1980), 226-34.

27Joseph. AJ 11. 133.

28m. Sanh. 10. 3.

29Acts 26: 7.

30Rom. 11: 1; Phil. 3: 5.

31Joseph. A] 20. 206-7, 216, 218.

32Lev. 25: 49 (redeeming from slavery); Gen. 46: 5, 7, 26 (Jacob's family); Deut. 25: 5–10 (Levirate marriage); Matt. 22: 24–8; m. Bekh. 1. 7.

33Deut. 21: 18–21; m. Sank. 8. 1, 5; t. Sank. 11. 6 (“never was and never will be”).

34Tac. Ann. 12. 5–6; Cass. Dio 68. 2. 4; Lev. 18: 12–13 (woman forbidden to her nephew); CD 5. 9-11; t. Kidd. 1. 4.

35Family as economic unit: m. Ket. 9. 4 (shopkeeper); m. Yel). 15. 2 (agriculture); m. Kef. 5. 5 (work of wife).

36On Babatha, P Yadin; see in general M. L. Satlow, Jewish Marriage in Antiquity (Princeton, 2001).

37B. S. Jackson, “How Jewish is Jewish Family Law?,” JJS 55 (2004), 201–29; m- Kidd. 1. 1 (means of betrothal), 2. 1–2 (statements by groom); m. Ket. 1. 2 (amounts on divorce).

38m. Sot. 9. 14 (bridal parties); Jer. 2: 2.

39Mal. 2: 14.

40Deut. 24: 1-2.

41Matt. 1: 19.

42m. Gitt. 9. 10 (grounds for divorce).

43Joseph. A] 15. 259.

44On rabbis and divorce by women, see Jackson, “How Jewish …”; m. Ket. 7. 9–10 (grounds for compelling divorce).

45Joseph. BJ 1. 477; A] 17. 14.

46m. Ket. 10. 5.

47Justin, Dial. Trypho 134.

48TS 57. 15-18.

49Deut. 17: 17; m. Sank. 2. 4.

50P Yadin no. 26.

51Philo, Prob. 79.

52Joseph. 4/18. 21.

53On Tabi: m. Pes. 7. 2 (Passover offering); m. Sukk. 2. 1 (Sukkah); m. Ber. 2. 7 (condolence).

54On slave women: Joseph. AJ 13. 380 (Alexander Jannaeus); on the sexual exploitation of maidservants, see T. Ilan, Jewish Women in Greco-Roman Palestine (Tübingen, 1995), 205–11.

55Ruth 4: 13, 16-17.

56Esther 2: 7, 15; 9: 29.

57G. G. Porton, The Stranger Within Your Gates: Converts and Conversion in Rabbinic Literature (Chicago, 1994), 83.

58Mekilta de-Rabbi Ishmael Pisha 18. 110–13 (Lauterbach); 4 Mace. 18. 11–12; see S. J. D. Cohen (ed.), The Jewish Family in Antiquity (Atlanta, 1993).

59m. Shab. 2. 6–7. The erub was a legal device to permit food to be carried from one house to another on the Sabbath when both opened onto a common courtyard.

60Cic. Amic. 16 (56); 20 (76); Plin. Ep. 2. 20.

61Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 2. 9. 2–3; Sen. Dial. 10. 14. 4.

62Plin. Ep. 2. 6.

63FIRA vol. 3, no. 35, lines 11–13 (Lanuvium, 136 CE); CIL vol. 4, no. 710 (goldsmiths).

64Sen. Ben. 1. 1. 9, cf. M. Griffin, “De Beneficiis and Roman Society,” JRS 93 (2003), 92–113; Ov. Tr. 5. 8. 5-6, 13-14.

65m. Peah 8. 7 (minimum charity); t. Gitt. 3. 13; Mart. Epigr. 12. 57. 13.

661 Sam. 18: 1; 20; Joseph. Vit. 192, 204; B. D. Shaw, “Tyrants, Bandits and Kings: Personal Power in Josephus,”j[/S 44 (1993), 176-204; Joseph. AJ 18. 328-9.

67On prohibition of usury: Lev. 25: 36–7; fine for late repayment: DJD vol. 2, no. 18; hurling of stones: Joseph. AJ 20. 213.

68t. B.M. 11. 23 ;JIWE 2, no. 96 (Annius); Philo, Spec. Leg. 156 (Augustus); Acts 6: 9; CIJ 1404 (Theodotus inscription).

69Philo, Prob. 76–7, 85–6, 82; on John the Essaean: Joseph. BJ 2. 567.

70On Essenes and the Dead Sea sectarians: M. Goodman, “A Note on the Qumran Sectarians, the Essenes and Josephus,” JJS 46 (1995), 161–6; on the relationship of those who produced the Community Rule to those who produced the Damascus Document, see C. Hempel, The Laws of the Damascus Document (Leiden, 1998); citations from theCommunity Rule: lQS 2. 19-23; 8. 13 (separation); 8. 1-10; 7. 2-18 (trans. Vermes).

71Acts 4: 32.

CHAPTER SIX: PERSPECTIVES

1Tabulae Vindolandenses II. 291, lines 3–7; Prop. 3. 10. 1–6 (trans. Butler).

2Plin. HN 29. 27(85).

3Ov. Am. 2. 14. 36–40; Sor. Gyn. 1. 20 (ed. Burguière, Gourevitch and Malinas, p. 64, lines 1-4).

4Ov. Met. 9. 678-79; Heliod. Aeth. 4. 8.

5Joseph. Ap. 2. 202; Tac. Hist. 5. 5; Hecataeus ap. Diod. Sic. 40. 3. 8; Gen. 1: 28.

6Onan: Gen. 38: 9–10; b. Yeb. 65b; m. Ohol. 7. 6; Philo, Spec. Leg. 3. 108–9.

7Philo, Spec. Leg. 3. 114-15, 117-18; m. Kidd. 4. 2.

8On slavery and Apuleius, K. Bradley, “Animalizing the Slave: The Truth of Fiction,” JRS 90 (2000), 110–25; Cato, Agr. 2. 7; Suet. Iul. 4. 1–2 (Caesar and the pirates); Sen. Ep. 47 (Stoic view); ILS 8731 (Zoninus).

9Exod. 21: 26; m. Ab. 2. 7; Deut. 28: 57; on the haggadah, see B. M. Bokser, The Origins of the Seder: The Passover Rite and Early Rabbinic Judaism (Berkeley, 1984).

10ILS no. 8164 (tombstone); Verg. Aen. 6. 702 (the image of Anchises which his son Aeneas tried to embrace); Ov. Fast. 5. 483–8 (Lemuria).

11Cic. Rep. 6.13 (13); Att. 12. 36.

12Suet. Iul. 88.

13Paulus, Sent. 1. 21. 2.

14Sen. Dial. 6. 1. 1; 25. 1 (trans. Basore); Cic. Fam. 4. 5. 6; R. Lattimore, Themes in Greek and Latin Epitaphs (Urbana, Ill., 1942).

15Gen. 2: 7.

16Wis. 8. 19–20; Joseph. BJ 2. 154–5, 156–8; on rabbinic attitudes, see D. Boyarin, Carnal Israel: Reading Sex in Talmudic Culture (Berkeley and London, 1993).

17Deut. 30: 19; Gen. 2: 7; Dan. 12: 2; Ps. 115: 17; Eccl. 9: 4.

18Acts 23: 6; Matt. 22: 23–30; m. Sanh. 10. 1 (the bracketed words are missing in some manuscripts).

19On Pharisees: Joseph. Vit. 11–12; AJ 18. 14; BJ 2. 163; on suicide: Joseph. BJ 3. 374.

20Gen. 9: 5; on martyrdom: Joseph. Ap. 1. 42; S. Weitzman, “Josephus on How to Survive Martyrdom,” JJS 55 (2004), 230-45.

21Joseph. Ap. 2. 217–18; on the Palestinian recension of the amidah, E. Schürer, rev. G. Vermes et al., The History of the Jewish People in the Age of Jesus Christ, 3 vols. (Edinburgh, 1973–87), vol. 2, pp. 459–62; on priests burying their kin: Lev. 21: 2–3.

22Tac. Hist. 5. 5; S. Fine, “A Note on Ossuary Burial and the Resurrection of the Dead in First-Century Jerusalem,” JJS 51 (2000), 69–76.

23m. Taan. 4. 2-3; Jub. 2. 2; Joseph. AJ 1. 5, 27, 21; Philo, Opif. 3, 7.

24Ov. Met. 1. 5—9, 21—5, 76—88 (trans. Miller, slightly adapted); Cic. Nat. D. 2. 15—16.

25Joseph. Ap. 2. 239-42.

26Ptol. Tetr. 1. 1; Manilius 1. 1—6 (trans. Goold).

27Artapanus ap. Euseb. Praep. evang. 9. 18. 1; 4Q 186 (frag. 1, col. 2, 11. 7—9); Bereshit Rabbah 10. 6 (ed. Albeck, p. 79); b. Shab. 156a.

28b. Shab. 156a (“no mazal”); Jub. 12. 16—18; Joseph. BJ 5. 214, 217—18; on symbolism in general: Joseph. AJ 3. 179—87.

29Joseph. AJ 1. 155—6; D. Boyarin on “binitarianism” in Harv. Theol. Rev. 94 (2001), 243—84; P. Schäfer, Mirror of His Beauty: Feminine Images of God (Princeton, 2002).

30Angels in Bible: Gen. 22: 11 (Abraham); 1 Kgs. 19: 5 (Elijah); Ps. 91: 11 (protecting the faithful); Gen. 28: 12 (Jacob's ladder); 2 Sam. 22: 11 (cherubim); Isa. 6: 2—6 (seraphim); angels in late Second Temple times: Acts 23: 6—8; 1 En. 40: 8—10; Joseph. BJ 2. 142 (Essenes); Tob. 12: 15 (ed. Hanhart); 2 Bar. 51. 11 (angelic army); on Moses, see Philo, Mos. 1. 158 (Moses “named god”); Artapanus ap. Euseb. Praep. evang. 9. 27. 6; Philo, Mos. 2. 288; Joseph. AJ 4. 326; cf. W. A. Meeks, “Moses as God and King,” in J. Neusner (ed.), Religions in Antiquity (Leiden, 1968), 354—71; on sectarians believing themselves both human and angelic or divine, see C. H. T. Fletcher-Louis, All the Glory of Adam (Leiden, 2002), with more cautious analysis in K. P. Sullivan, Wrestling with Angels (Leiden, 2004); 4Q 405, frags. 20, col. 2, 11.7—10 (Songs of the Sabbath Sacrifice); 11Q 13. 4—6 (Melchizedek).

31Isa. 34: 14 (Lilith); shedim: Deut. 32: 17; Ps. 106: 37; IQS 3. 20-2-j;Jub. 10. 8-9.

32Joseph. AJ 8. 45—9; Matt. 10: 1 (Jesus); Acts 16: 18 (Paul); 19: 13—15 (sons of Sceva).

33Job 1: 7—8; b. B.B. 16a; b. R. Sh. 16b; t. Levi 18.12 (defeat of Belial); t. Jud. 25. 3 (cast into fire).

34Gen. 1: 31; 8: 22 (after flood); Ps. 19: 2 (Hebrew); Strabo, Geog. 5. 4. 6.

35R. Walzer, Galen on Jews and Christians (Oxford, 1949); cf. E. Segal, “ ‘The Few Contained the Many’: Rabbinic Perspectives on the Miraculous and the Impossible,” JJS 54 (2003), 273-82; Sen. Q Nat. 6. 1. 12; 6. 3. 1.

36Joseph. Ap. 1. 141 (gardens of Babylon); on Herod's palace, see Chapter 1, p. 55.

37K. D. White, Roman Farming (Ithaca, NY, 1970), chapter 4 (agrarian writers); sabbatical year: Lev. 25: 2, 23;Joseph. AJ 14. 202 (see above, p. 178); Tac. Hist. 5. 4.

38Num. 22: 28, 30 (Balaam's ass); b. Shab. 128b; Tob. 6: 2; 11: 4 (on Jewish attitudes to cats and dogs, see J. Schwartz in JJS 52 (2001), 211-34; 55 (2004), 246-77); Deut. 22: 7 (taking birds from nests).

39Cic. Fam. 7. 1. 3 (elephants); Joseph. BJ 1. 429.

40CIL vol. 10. no. 659, lines 1—4; Plin. HN 10. 59 (120); Catull. 2—3 (for arguments against an obscene interpretation of “sparrow” in these poems, see D. F. S. Thompson, Catullus [Toronto, Buffalo and London, 1997], 202—3).

41Joseph. AJ 19. 32; M. Gigante, Philodemus in Italy: The Books from Herculaneum (Ann Arbor, 1995).

42F. H. Sandbach, The Stoics, 2nd edn. (Bristol, 1989); Sen. Dial. 7. 25. 1—2.

43Lucian, De mort. Peregr.

44H.-F. Mueller, Roman Religion in Valerius Maximus (London, 2002); Epictetus, Diss. 2. 8. 11-14.

45Joseph. Ap. 2. 170—71 (Moses); Theophrastus, De Pietate, cited in Porph. Abst. 2. 26. 3; Joseph. Vit. 12 (Pharisees); AJ 15. 371 (Essenes); BJ 2. 164 (Sadducees and Epicureans).

46On Philo's ethical teachings, see S. Sandmel, Philo of Alexandria: An Introduction (New York and Oxford, 1979).

47Joseph. Ap. 2. 175, 178; Philo, Mos. 2. 216.

48Joseph. BJ 2. 164 (Sadducees), 162—3 (Pharisees); m. Ab. 3. 15 (Albeck) (R. Akiva); on original sin: J. L. Kugel, Traditions of the Bible (Cambridge, Mass., 1998), 98; H. Reuling, After Eden (Utrecht, 2004); Hos. 3: 1; on penitence: m. Yom. 8. 8—9.

CHAPTER SEVEN: LIFESTYLES

1For portraits: S. Walker, Greek and Roman Portraits (London, 1995).

2CIL vol. 6, no. 37965, lines 22—3 (see M. R. Lefkowitz and M. B. Fant, Women's Life in Greece and Rome [London, 1982], 137); Clement, Paed. 3.5 (32.2).

3Suet. Ner. 28-9; Sen. Ep. 95. 20-21.

4J. Klawans, Impurity and Sin in Ancient Judaism (New York and Oxford, 2000); idem, Purity, Sacrifice and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (New York and Oxford, 2006); contrasting view in H. Maccoby, Ritual and Morality: The Ritual Purity System and Its Place in Judaism (Cambridge, 1999).

5Joseph. BJ 2. 123, 149.

6Biblical taboos: Lev. 11; Mishnah on fowl and milk: m. Hull. 8. 1. 3; Mishnah on other foodstuffs: m. A. Zar. 2. 6; oil: Joseph. AJ 12. 119—20; BJ 2. 591—2; discussion in M. Goodman, “Kosher Olive Oil in Antiquity,” in idem, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (Leiden, 2007), 187-203.

7Let. Arist. 305-6.

8m. A. Zar. 3. 4 (baths in Akko); t. Bikk. 2. 3 (androgyne).

9Joseph. BJ 6. 417; 4Q 186.

10Num. 5: 11—31; m. Sot. 1. 5.

11Plin. Ep. 1. 15.

12Suet. Aug. 77.

13Innkeeper's bill: ILS no. 7478.

14Suet. Iul. 49. 4 (trans. Rolfe); Aug. 68.

15Tib. 3. 13; on Vistilia: Tac. Ann. 2. 85; Suet. Tib. 35. 2.

16Tac. Ann. 16. 18 (Petronius); Mart. Epig. 11. 39 (“Tyrian” clothes); Suet. Otho 12. 1.

17Ov. Medic. 51-2, 67-8.

18Sall. Cat. 14. 2 (accusation by Cicero); Hor. Carm. 2. 15. 1—2; Stat. Silv. 2. 2. 83—97; Plin. Ep. 2. 17; 5. 6; Suet. Nero 31. 1-2.

19Plin. Ep. 6. 15.

20Sen. Ep. 84. 10; on Tigellius: Cic. Fam. 7. 24 (on Tigellius' influence); Hor. Sat. 1. 3. 1—4.

21N. Horsfall, The Culture of the Roman Plebs (London, 2003), 31—47; on Ummidia Quadratilla: Plin. Ep. 7. 24; Apul. Met. 10. 30, 31.

22Suet. Calig. 27. 4.

23August. Conf. 6. 8; Tert. Apol. 15. 5; Mart. Spect. 21; cf. K. M. Coleman, “Fatal Charades: Roman Executions Staged as Mythological Enactments,” JRS 80 (1990), 44—73.

24Suet. Calig. 55. 2-3.

25Matt. 14: 1—11 (Herod the Tetrarch's party; on birthdays, see Chapter 6, p. 232); m. Pes. 10. 1 (wine for the poor at Passover eve); on drinking: b. B.B. 58b; Prov. 31: 6—7; b. B.B. 60b; Lev. 10: 8—11 (priests not to be intoxicated); Joseph. Ap. 2. 204; Deut. 21:20 (rebellious son); b. Meg. 7b (Purim).

26On contrast to Christians: D. Boyarin, Carnal Israel: Reading Sex in Talmudic Culture (Berkeley and London, 1993); Joseph. Ap. 2. 199; Rahab: Josh. 2: 1; Joseph. AJ 5. 7; Gen. 38: 7—10 (Onan); Lev. 18: 22—3 (homosexuality and bestiality); Joseph. Ap. 2. 199 (homosexuality); AJ 15. 29 (Aristobulus); m. Kidd. 4.14; b. Kidd. 82A (“Israelites … not suspected”); on lesbianism: R. Biale, Women and Jewish Law (New York, 1984), 192—7.

27Wool and linen: Deut. 22: 11; Joseph. AJ 4. 208; m. Kil. 9. 1 (worn by priests); Matt. 23: 5 (phylacteries); Tert. De Corona 4. 2 (veils); m. Shab. 6. 1 (jewellery).

28m. Sot. 1. 8 (Absalom); hairstyles as idolatrous: t. Shab. 6. 1; on the smell: Amm. Marc. Res Gestae 22. 5. 5 (see Chapter 12).

29Joseph. AJ 15. 268, 273-4.

30Ibid. 15. 275–6, 280–91; 17. 255; for later centuries, Z. Weiss, “The Jews of Ancient Palestine and the Roman Games,” Zion 66 (2001), 427–50 (in Hebrew); Philo in Alexandria: Philo, Prob. 141.

31Joseph. AJ 18. 259–60 (Philo the philosopher); Euseb. Praep. evang. 9. 37. 1–3 (Philo the poet).

32Joseph. BJ 2. 295; b. BM 83b; cf. Boyarin, Carnal Israel, 197–200.

33m. Sukk. 5. 4; Jud. 15: 12–13; m. Taan. 4. 8 (15 Ab); t. Sanh. 12. 10 (Song of Songs).

34Philo on “Israel”: Philo, Abr. 57 and passim; Herod and eagle: Joseph. AJ 17. 149–54; biblical prohibition: Exod. 20: 4–5.

35Suet. Aug. 76 (letter to Tiberius); on the nazirate, S. Chepey, Nazirites in Late Second Temple Judaism (Leiden, 2005); on fasting: Tac. Hist. 5. 4; Pompeius Trogus ap. Just. Epit. 36. 2. 14.

36m. Taan. 3. 4, 6; on rabbinic attitudes, E. Diamond, Holy Men and Hunger Artists: Fasting and Asceticism in Rabbinic Culture (Oxford, 2004).

CHAPTER EIGHT: GOVERNMENT

1See D. W. Rathbone, “The Imperial Finances,” CAH vol. 10 (Cambridge, 1996), 309–23.

2Cic. Leg. 2. 23 (59); M. H. Crawford (ed.), Roman Statutes (London, 1996), no. 40, tables 7 and 8; Gai. Inst. 2. 2–6.

3m. Hag. 1. 8; b. Shab. 31a (oral Torah).

4CD 1. 11; 1QS 9. 13, 17-18; on prozbul: Deut. 15: 1-2, 9; m. Shebi. 10. 3-4 (Hillel).

5m. B.K. 10. 10.

6L. Bove, Documenti di operazioni finanzarie dall' archivio dei Sulpici (Naples, 1984); Dig. 14. 2. 2. 2, cited by J. A. Crook, Law and Life of Rome (London, 1967), 224–5.

7J. F. Gardner, Being a Roman Citizen (London and New York, 1993); G. P. Burton, “Proconsuls, Assizes and the Administration of Justice Under the Empire,” JRS 65 (1975), 92–106; P Yadin nos. 28–30 (Greek version of text from Gai. Inst. 4. 47); see M. Goodman, State and Society in Roman Galilee, AD 132—212, 2nd edn. (London and Portland, Ore., 2000), chapter 10.

8Cass. Dio 51. 19. 7 (emperor hears appeals); Acts 25: 10–11.

9m. Sanh. 4. 1; 1. 6; Joseph. BJ 2. 570-71; Vit. 79; AJ 4. 214, 287.

10On the Sanhedrin: M. Goodman, The Ruling Class of Judaea (Cambridge, 1987), 112–16; Acts 5: 21 (Peter), 23: 6 (Paul); Joseph. AJ 20. 200 (“Jacob,” i.e. James); AJ 20. 216 (Agrippa II); BJ 2. 25 (Augustus); Mark 14: 53 (Caiaphas); Joseph. Vit. 79; Ap. 2. 194.

11Tac. Ann. 2. 30 (slaves of Drusus); 15. 57(Epicharis); Joseph. AJ 16. 245, 247 (Herod); Lev. 5: 1; Sifre on Deuteronomy 275 (ed. Horovitz-Finkelstein, p. 294) (on Miriam).

12CD 9. 16-23; m. Yeb. 15. 1.

13P. Garnsey, Social Status and Legal Privilege in the Roman Empire (Oxford, 1970); on Iustitia and other imperial virtues, F. Millar, The Emperor in the Roman World (31 BC–AD 337) (London, 1977), 516–17; C. F. Noreña, “The Communication of the Emperor's Virtues,” JRS 91 (2001), 156-7.

14Exod. 21: 24 (“eye for an eye”); Joseph. AJ 4. 280; b. B.K. 83b; m. Sanh. 7. 1; John 18: 31–2; P. Winter, On the Trial of Jesus, 2nd edn., rev. T. A. Burkill and G. Vermes (Berlin and New York, 1974); G. Vermes, The Passion (London, 2005).

15Joseph. AJ 16. 1–3; m. Makk. 3. 10, 12–13 (procedures for flogging); 2 Cor. 11: 24.

16Cic. Off. 1. 11 (36); Polyb. 16. 34. 3–4 (demands on Philip V); Tac. Agr. 30. 4–5.

17Tac. Agr. 30. 1-2; 31. 2.

18Vell. Pat. 2. 119. 1–2 (Varus); Cass. Dio 49. 30. 1–3 (testudo); D. B. Saddington, The Development of the Roman Auxiliary Forces from Caesar to Vespasian (Harare, 1982); Brooklyn Museum Papyri no. 24, in JRS 67 (1977), 51-2.

19Livy 30. 34. 1 (Zama); Tac. Ann. 2. 88 (Arminius); A. Ziolkowski, “Urbs Direpta, or How the Romans Sacked Cities,” in J. Rich and G. Shipley (eds.), War and Society in the Roman World (London and New York, 1993), 69–91.

20Cic. Off. 1. 11 (35) (reasons for war), 24(82) (cities); on Musonius: Tac. Hist. 3. 81.

21Deut. 20: 1–17 (citations from 20: 13-16); Josh. 8: 24-8; Isa. 2: 2-4.

22m. Sot. 8. 7 (R. Judah); 1 Sam. 15 (Saul); Deut. 25: 19; Exod. 17: 14 (Amalekite commandment); Joseph. AJ 3. 60; m. Ab. 1. 12 (Hillel).

23On Judas Maccabee: 1 Macc. 5: 51 (Ephron); 3. 44, 47–50, 56 (call to arms); Cass. Dio 66. 5. 4 (welcome to deserters); 1QM 9. 5–9.

24Joseph. Ap. 2. 211-14; BJ 3. 532-41 (Tarichaeae).

25Philo, Spec. Leg. 4. 219, with note by Colson in Loeb edn. ad loc; 4. 224–5; on Essenes: Philo, Prob. 78.

CHAPTER NINE: POLITICS

1Livy 2. 12. 9; Cic. Prov. cons. 13 (32–3); Augustus, RG 4; on Claudius' self-representation, see Chapter 2, p. 71.

21 Sam. 18: 7–8 (Saul and David); L. H. Feldman, Josephus's Interpretation of the Bible (Berkeley and London, 1998), 106–9; Joseph. Ap. 2. 148; on Simon bar Gioras: Cass. Dio 66. 7. 1; Joseph. BJ 4. 503-4.

31QM 11. 1-5.

4Polyb. 6. 53. 1-2, 4-6; 54. 1; Tac. Ann. 2. 37-8.

5C. H. V. Sutherland, Roman Coins (London, 1974), no. 166 (divi filius in 40 BCE).

6Cic. 2 Verr. 5. 70–71 (180–81); on Clodius, E. S. Gruen, The Last Generation of the Roman Republic (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1974).

7Joseph. Vit. 1-2, 6.

8Joseph. Ap. 2. 186-7; Vit. 80, 63.

9Joseph. Ap. 1. 30-33.

10m. Kidd. 4. 1.

11Joseph. AJ 15. 22, 40(Ananel); Ezek. 44: 15; on Phannias: Joseph. BJ 4. 148; AJ 20. 227; Acts 4: 6.

12Joseph. AJ 20. 214 (Costobar and Saul); Hegesippus ap. Euseb. Hist. eccl. 3. 12 (Vespasian), 19-20 (Domitian), 32. 3-4 (Trajan); Matt. 1: 1; Luke 2: 4; 1: 34-5; Rom. 1: 3; Rev. 22: 16; Matt. 1: 24; on adoption, see Chapter 5.

13ILS no. 977 (Atina); Plin. Ep. 6. 34; P. Veyne, Bread and Circuses (London, 1990).

14Sen. Constant. 5. 4.

15Petron. Sat. 37, 75-6.

16Tiberius cited in Tac. Ann. 3. 53, 55.

17Joseph. AJ 16. 156-9.

18m. Yom. 3. 10 (Monobaz); t. Kippurim 2. 4 (Nicanor gate); m. Yom. 3. 10 (name of Nicanor).

19Joseph. AJ 18. 15 (Pharisees and Sadducees); 20. 181 (poor priests).

20Cic. Sen.; K. Cokayne, Experiencing Old Age in Ancient Rome (London, 2003); T. G. Parkin, Old Age in the Roman World (Baltimore, 2003); Lucian, Macr. 4, 8, 9, 29 (promised work), 17 (Asander).

21m. Ab. 5. 21; minimum age limits for Levites: 1 Chr. 23: 24; Num. 8: 24; 4: 3; Aristobulus: Joseph. AJ 15. 34, 24, 51; Josephus as boy: Joseph. Vit. 9; Jesus: Luke 2: 46–7.

22Elders: Deut. 19: 12; 21: 2; Job 12: 12; Philo, Prob. 87; Num. 8: 24-6; CD 10. 5-10, citing Jub. 23. 11; Joseph. AJ 15. 40–41 (High Priests); 14. 366 (Hyrcanus).

23Joseph. Vit. 418.

24Mark 12: 3 8-40.

25Joseph. BJ 6. 291; C. Schams, Jewish Scribes in the Second Temple Period (Sheffield, 1998); Philo, Hypoth. ap. Euseb. Praep. evang. 8. 7. 13; Philo, Spec. Leg. 2. 62.

26Luke 4: 16–17; cf. M. Goodman, “Texts, Scribes and Power in Roman Judaea,” in A. K. Bowman and G. Woolf (eds.), Literacy and Power in the Ancient World (Cambridge, 1994), 99–108.

27Deut. 34: 10 (“face to face”); 1 Macc. 4: 46; 14. 41; Joseph. BJ 1. 68–9 (John Hyrcanus); on Urim and Thummim: Joseph. AJ 3. 218; m. Sot. 9. 12.

28Joseph. BJ 3. 351-2 (Josephus as prophet); AJ 20. 167, 169-72.

29C. C. Rowland, The Open Heaven: A Study of Apocalyptic in Judaism and Early Christianity (London, 1982).

30Suet. Aug. 69. 1; Calig. 24. 1 (incest); 32. 3 (consuls).

31FIRA vol. 1, no. 15, lines 17–21, 29–33 (Vespasian); Augustus, RG 34; R. J. A. Talbert, The Senate of Imperial Rome (Princeton, 1984).

32Suet. Claud. 13. 2.

33On the praetorians in 41 CE, see Chapter 2; on the death of Gaius, Suet. Calig. 58.

34Vell. Pat. 2. 127. 4-128. 1.

35Suet. Aug. 101. 4.

36N. Purcell, “Livia and the Womanhood of Rome,” PCPS (1986), 78–105; Joseph. Vit. 13, 16; Tac. Ann. 16. 6 (Poppaea).

37M. Goodman, The Ruling Class of Judaea (Cambridge, 1987), chapter 2.

38Joseph. BJ 1. 457–66 (Herod's sons), 437 (Aristobulus III); AJ 20. 121–3 (Cumanus and Samaritans); on the Sanhedrin, see Chapter 8; Acts 23: 6–9.

39Berenice: Joseph. BJ 2. 310, 314 (in 66 CE); relationship to Agrippa: Joseph. AJ 20. 145; Juv. 6. 156–60 (trans. Ramsay); wealth: Joseph. Vit. 119; Berenice and Justus: Vit. 342–3.

40On Agrippa and Festus: Acts 25: 12–26: 32.

41Acts 21: 30-34 (tribune).

42Joseph. AJ 20. 158 (Aristobulus); 19. 362 (Agrippa I in Rome); 20. 211 (Neronias); on coins: Y. Meshorer, A Treasury of Jewish Coins from the Persian Period to Bar Kokhba (Jerusalem and Nyack, NY, 2001), no. 129; Joseph. BJ 2. 250–51 (vices of Nero).

CHAPTER TEN: ROMANS AND JEWS

1Erotian, in M. Stern (ed.), Greek and Latin Authors on Jews and Judaism, 3 vols. (Jerusalem, 1974-84), vol. 1, p. 446; Columella, Rust. 3. 8. 2.

2Hor. Sat. 1. 5. 100 (credulity); Pers. 5. 179–84 (trans. Ramsay, amended Stern); Petron. Sat. 102; Pompeius Trogus ap. Just. Epit. 36. 2. 14; Seneca, De Superstitione, ap. August. De civ. D. 6. 11; Philo, Spec. Leg. 361. On all these texts, see P. Schäfer, Judeophobia: Attitudes Toward the Jews in the Ancient World (Cambridge, Mass., 1997).

3Joseph. AJ 14. 215; cf. M. Pucci Ben Zeev, Jewish Rights in the Roman World (Tübingen, 1998), 107–18. See in general on the Jews in the city of Rome, H. J. Leon, The Jews of Ancient Rome (Philadelphia, 1960); L. V. Rutgers, The Jews in Late Ancient Rome: Evidence of Cultural Interaction in the Roman Diaspora (Leiden, 1995).

4Philo, Spec. Leg. 160–61 (Sejanus); Cass. Dio 60. 6. 6 (meetings prohibited by Claudius); expulsion in 19 CE: Tac. Ann. 2. 85; Suet. Tib. 36; Joseph. AJ 18. 81–4; in general, E. S. Gruen, Diaspora: Jews Amidst Greeks and Romans (Cambridge, Mass., and London, 2002).

5Suet. Claud. 25. 4; Acts 18: 2; Joseph. AJ 19. 290 (on Claudius); Cass. Dio 60. 6. 6; for a very different interpretation of the evidence, H. D. Slingerland, Claudian Policymaking and the Early Imperial Repression of Judaism at Rome (Atlanta, 1997).

6Gruen, Diaspora, 38–41.

7Acts 28: 17–28; Rom. 1: 7 (greeting); 16: 3 (Priscilla and Aquila); Joseph. Vit. 16.

8Z. Yavetz, “Latin Authors on Jews and Dacians,” Historia 47 (1998), 77–107; Varro ap. August. De Consensu Evangelistarum 1. 22. 30; August. De civ. D. 4. 31.

9Cic. Prov. cons. 5. 10-12.

10Cic. Flac. 28. 67, 69.

11August. De civ. D. 6. 11. Gruen, Diaspora, 44, notes that “what Seneca himself meant remains obscure.” On an Egyptian connection: Yavetz, “Latin Authors,” 87; on date of composition: K. Münschel, Senecas Werke (Leipzig, 1922), 80; but note the date 40–41 CE proposed by R. Turcan, Sénèque et les religions orientales (Brussels, 1967), 12–14, 21–4; on persecution of Christians in Rome in 64 CE, see Chapter 13.

12On these Roman attitudes to Jews before 70 CE, see Gruen, Diaspora, 52–3; on Jews as different in maintaining distinctiveness: D. Noy, Foreigners at Rome: Citizens and Strangers (London, 2000).

13Joseph. AJ 18. 257–8 (Apion); 18. 264 (Gaius' statue); BJ 7. 50–51 (sacrifice test in Antioch); 7. 58-60 (Collega); see pp. 440-41.

14Joseph. Ap. 2. 282; Sen. Ep. 108. 22.

15August. De civ. D. 6. 11; on proselytes, Philo, Spec. Leg. 4. 177–8; see the (maximizing) arguments by L. H. Feldman, Jew and Gentile in the Ancient World (Princeton, 1993), with more cautious arguments by B. McGing “Population and Proselytism: How Many Jews Were There in the Ancient World?,” in J. R. Bartlett (ed.), Jews in the Hellenistic and Roman Cities (London, 2002), 88–106. On Romans and the Jerusalem Temple: Joseph. BJ 5. 562–3 (gifts by Augustus); AJ 16. 14 (hecatomb sacrificed by Agrippa); sacrifice for emperor: BJ 2. 197, 408-21; Ap. 2. 77; Philo, Spec. Leg. 157.

CHAPTER ELEVEN: THE ROAD TO DESTRUCTION, 37 BCE-70 CE

1Joseph. AJ 17. 149-63.

2Ibid. 17. 187.

3Ibid. 17. 221, 252-3, 262, 264(Sabinus).

4Herod's troops: Joseph. AJ 17. 266, 269–70; BJ 2. 52; disturbances in 4 BCE : Joseph. AJ 17. 271-98.

5Tac. Hist. 5. 9; Joseph. Ap. 1. 34–5.

6Cass. Dio 54. 36. 2 (Dalmatia in 10 BCE); 56. 16. 3 (Bato); opposition to census: Joseph. AJ 18. 3-4, 23; BJ 2. 118; Acts 5: 37; Luke 2: 1, 3.

7Joseph. BJ 2. 196-201; Tac. Hist. 5. 9.

8Philo, Leg. 303; Joseph. BJ 2. 176–7; Tac. Hist. 5. 9.

9Tac. Hist. 5. 9; Joseph. AJ 2. 97-8; Acts 5: 36.

10Joseph. AJ 20. 112 (“twenty thousand”); BJ 2. 228-9; AJ 20. 114-17.

11Tac. Ann. 12. 54; on Cumanus and the Samaritans, see pp. 360–61.

12Joseph. BJ 2. 264, 253 (Eleazar), 254–7 (sicarii); AJ 20. 163–4 (murder of Jonathan); on “deceivers and impostors”: Joseph. BJ 2. 258–9; AJ 20. 168.

13“The Egyptian”: Joseph. BJ 2. 261–3; AJ 20. 170–72; Acts 21: 38 (see above, p. 352); charlatan under Festus: Joseph. AJ 20. 188.

14Joseph. BJ 2. 265 (looting); 7. 259–61 (class warfare); on debt: M. Goodman, The Ruling Class of Judaea (Cambridge, 1987), 57–8; on faction struggles within the elite, ibid., chapter 9.

15Joseph. BJ 2. 273–5 (Albinus), 277–8 (Florus); Tac. Agr. 6. 2.

16On Caesarea: Joseph. AJ 20. 173; BJ 2. 266; AJ 20. 183-4; Florus: Joseph. BJ 2. 280-81; Florus' wife: AJ 20. 252.

17Joseph. AJ 20. 214.

18Joseph. BJ 6. 300–309 (Jesus b. Ananias); J. S. McLaren, Turbulent Times? Josephus and Scholarship on Judaea in the First Century C.E. (Sheffield, 1998) (on the dangers of hindsight).

19Joseph. AJ 18. 8-9, 23, 25; 20. 102; BJ 2. 433-4, 442-3.

20On the messianic oracle: Joseph. BJ 6. 311–13; Tac. Hist. 5. 13; Suet. Vesp. 4. 5; eschatologi-cal hopes in 70 CE: Joseph. BJ 6. 283, 285; on early Christians, see Chapter 13.

21Mark 12: 16; on coins issued by the procurators: RPC vol. 1, nos. 4954–72; for Tyrian shekels, RPCvol. 1, pp. 655–8.

22Joseph. AJ 14. 186, 188; M. Pucci Ben Zeev, Jewish Rights in the Roman World: The Greek and Roman Documents Quoted by Josephus Flavius (Tübingen, 1998); T. Rajak, “Was There a Roman Charter for the Jews?,” JRS 74 (1984), 107–23.

23For the contrasting fortunes of Jews in Alexandria and Asia, see E. S. Gruen, Diaspora: Jews Amidst Greeks and Romans (Cambridge, Mass., and London, 2002), chapters 2–3.

24Joseph. AJ 17. 324–38 (false Alexander).

25Philo, Flacc. 27–8 (Agrippa unobtrusive); Joseph. Ap. 2. 35–6; BJ 2. 487; H. A. Musurillo, The Acts of the Pagan Martyrs (Oxford, 1954); Joseph. AJ 19. 285 (Claudius' edict).

26On Claudius' letter to Jews and Greeks in Alexandria, see above, p. 118; diaspora pogroms in 66 CE: Joseph. BJ 2. 457-98.

27Joseph. BJ 2. 301-8.

28On Josephus' career in these years, see S. J. D. Cohen, Josephus in Galilee and Rome: His Vita and Development as a Historian (Leiden, 1979).

29Joseph. AJ 17. 300 (deputation in 4 BCE); BJ 2. 409 (end of loyal sacrifices).

30Cass. Dio 66. 4. 3; Joseph. BJ 6. 356–7 (Adiabeneans).

31Joseph. BJ 2. 487-98.

32Ibid. 2. 477-80.

33Joseph. Vit. 25; BJ 2. 458–60 (provocation by Jerusalem rebels), 457 (Caesarea massacre); AJ 19. 357-8, 364-6.

34Joseph. BJ 7. 47-62.

35Tac. Hist. 2. 1-2.

36Smallwood, Docs… . Gaius, no. 70 (a) and (d) (Vindex coins); Plin. Ep. 919 (epitaph of Verginius Rufus).

37Smallwood, Docs… . Gaius, no. 72 (b) (Galba coins); Suet. Nero 48. 1, 3; 49. 1, 3–4.

38Suet. Galb. 19. 2-20. 1.

39Tac. Hist. 2. 47.

40Suet. Vesp. 4. 5.

41Ibid. 5. 4, 6; 6. 2-4.

42Suet. Vit. 17.

43For a clear narrative of the civil war in terms of Roman politics, see K. Wellesley, The Long Year A.D. 69 (London, 1975).

44Joseph. BJ 7. 5–16 (parade); 6. 46 (immortality).

45Ibid. 6. 241.

46Sulpicius Severus, Chronica 2. 30. 6–7 (trans. Stern).

47Joseph. BJ 6. 252–9, 261–6 (trans. Thackeray).

48Philostr. VA 6. 29.

CHAPTER TWELVE: REACTIONS, 70-312 CE

1Joseph. BJ 6. 442 (lament); on portents: BJ 6. 289–300; Tac. Hist. 5. 13. 1.

2DJD vol. 2,no. 19 (on the date, Y. Yadin, in IEJ 15 [1965], 119, n. 112); 4 Ezra 5.23, 25-30; 6. 25.

3Joseph. Ap. 2. 193—4; M. Goodman, “Sadducees and Essenes after 70 CE,” in S. E. Porter, P. Joyce and D. E. Orton (eds.), Crossing the Boundaries (Leiden, 1994), 347—56; R. J. Bauck-ham, “Josephus' Account of the Temple in ‘Contra Apionem’ 2. 102—109, ” in L. H. Feldman and J. R. Levison (eds.), Josephus' Contra Apionem (Leiden, 1996), 327—47.

4J. Neusner, The Development of a Legend: Studies on the Traditions Concerning Yohanan ben Zakkai (Leiden, 1970); m. Sukk. 3. 12 (Sukkot); Joseph. BJ 6. 250, 268 (parallels between destructions); b. Gitt. 6b.

5Joseph. BJ 7. 122—34,: 39—57 (trans. Thackeray); for a sophisticated hypothesis about the complex publication history of this part of Josephus' work, see S. Schwartz, “The Composition and Publication of Josephus's Bellum Iudaicum Book 7,” Harv. Theol. Rev. 79 (1986), 373-86.

6M. Beard, J. North and S. Price (eds.), Religions of Rome, 2 vols. (Cambridge, 1998), vol. 1, pp. 132—4 (on evocatio); D. Barag, “Brickstamp Impressions of the Legio X Fretensis,” Bon-ner Jahrbücher 167 (1967), 244-67.

7Joseph. BJ 7. 160—62; F. Millar, “Last Year in Jerusalem: Monuments of the Jewish War in Rome,” in J. Edmondson, S. Mason and J. B. Rives (eds.), Flavius Josephus and Flavian Rome (Oxford, 2005), 101-28; BM Coins, Rom. Emp. vol. 2, nos. 31-44 (JUDAEA CAPTA); ILS 264 (inscription in Circus Maximus); G. Alföldy, “Eine Bauinschrift aus dem Colosseum,” ZPE 109 (1995), 195-226; on Jewish tax: Joseph. BJ 7. 218; Cass. Dio 66. 7. 2; CPJ vol. 2, nos. 160—229 (ostraka from Edfu).

8Joseph. BJ 6. 418, 420; Vit. 419-21.

9Joseph. BJ 7. 163 (Herodium), 164, 196—209 (Machaerus); on Masada: Joseph. BJ 7. 252—401 (citation from BJ 7. 318).

10Plin. HN 5. 15 (73).

11Joseph. BJ 7. 252 (Flavius Silva), 323—36, 341—88 (speeches of Eleazar), 399 (survivors).

12Joseph. Vit. 422.

13Joseph. BJ 3. 443; 7. 23-4; Cass. Dio 66. 15. 3-4.

14For a different view, see D. Goodblatt, The Monarchic Principle: Studies in Jewish Self-Government in Antiquity (Tübingen, 1994), chapters 5—6.

15Joseph. BJ 7. 17; H. M. Cotton, “A New Inscription from Caesarea Maritima and the Local Elite from Caesarea Maritima,” in L. V. Rutgers (ed.), What Athens Has to Do with Jerusalem: Essays in Honor of Gideon Foerster (Leuven, 2002), 383, 385; Luke 24: 13.

16On the collection of the tax in Egypt, see CPJ vol. 2, no. 421 (list of taxpayers in Arsinoe in 73 CE, giving ages).

17Joseph. BJ 409—16 (Alexandria), 421—36 (Leontopolis), 442—51 (Cyrene).

18Joseph. Vit. 424-5; on Antioch: BJ 7. 54-61, 107-10.

19Joseph. Vit. 423, 425; on Jews as testes veritatis: J. Juster, Les Juifs dans l'empire romain, 2 vols. (Paris, 1914), vol. 1, pp. 227—30; J. Cohen, Living Letters of the Law: Ideas of the Jew in Medieval Christianity (London, 1999), chapter 1.

20Julian. Adversus Galilaeos 306B.

21Suet. Dom. 2. 1-2.

22Ibid. 2. 1 (participation in triumph over Judaea); RIC vol. 2, p. 189, no. 280 (coins); Suet. Dom. 12. 2.

23Cass. Dio 67. 14. 1— 2; Joseph. Ap. 2. 125—6; M. Goodman, “The Fiscus Judaicus and Gentile Attitudes to Judaism in Flavian Rome,” in J. Edmondson, S. Mason and J. Rives (eds.), Flavius Josephus and Flavian Rome (Oxford, 2005), 167—77.

24Suet. Dom. 23. 1; on coins in general: D. C. A. Shotter, “The Principate of Nerva: Some Observations on the Coin Evidence,” Historia 32 (1983), 215—26.

25Fiscus Iudaicus coins: RIC vol. 2, p. 227, no. 58; p. 228, no. 82; M. Goodman, “The Meaning of ‘Fisci Iudaici Calumnia Sublata’ on the Coinage of Nerva,” in S. J. D. Cohen and J. Schwartz (eds.), Josephus and the Varieties of Ancient Judaism: Louis H. Feldman Jubilee Volume (Leiden, 2007), 81-9.

26Joseph. Ap. 2. 293—4; L. Troiani, Commento storico al Contra Apione di Giuseppe (Pisa, 1977), 26—9 (on date); 5 Sibyllines 40—41; Ep. Barn. 16. 3—4, citing Isa. 49: 17; cf. J. Carleton Paget, The Epistle of Barnabas (Tübingen, 1994), 17—30.

27Shotter, “Principate of Nerva”; for this argument, see M. Goodman, “Trajan and the Origins of Roman Hostility to the Jews,” P&P 182 (2004), 3—29.

28Suet. Dom. 23. 1; RIC vol. 2, p. 223, nos. 2—3 (coins); Plin. Pan. 8. 1; on the conspiracy: W. Eck, “An Emperor is Made: Senatorial Politics and Trajan's Adoption by Nerva in 97,” in G. Clark and T. Rajak (eds.), Philosophy and Power in the Graeco-Roman World (Oxford, 2002), 211-26.

29Joseph. BJ 3. 298-300, 304-5.

30Ibid. 4. 366, 592—604; Tac. Hist. 2. 76. 1; G. Alföldy, “Traianus Pater und die Bauinschrift des Nymphäums von Milet,” Rev. Ét. Anc. 100 (1998), 367—99.

31Plin. Pan. 9. 2; 58. 3; 89. 1—2; on deification of Traianus: BM Coins, Rom. Emp. vol. 3, no. 498.

32CPJ vol. 2, no. 194 (Dosarion).

33CPJ, vol. 2, nos. 195—229 (tax receipts); F. Lepper and S. S. Frere, Trajan's Column (Gloucester, 1988); Smallwood, Docs… . Nerva, no. 50 (coins with Armenia legend); Cass. Dio 68. 17. 1 (cf. F. A. Lepper, Trajan's Parthian War [Oxford, 1948]).

34Cass. Dio 68. 32. 1-2; Euseb. Hist. eccl. 4. 2. 1-5.

35CPJ vol. 2, no. 438, lines 1-9.

36CPJ vol. 2, no. 443, col. 2, lines 4-9.

37On confiscations of Jewish property: CPJ vol. 2, nos. 447—9; on lucky escape: App. Arabicus Liber, FK)(in M. Stern [ed.], Greek and Latin Authors on Jews and Judaism, 3 vols. [Jerusalem, 1974-84], vol. 2, pp. 185-6).

38App. B Civ. 2. 13 (90) (Pompey's tomb); Arr. Parth. ap. Suda (in Stern [ed.], Greek and Latin Authors, vol. 2, p. 152); G. Luederitz, Corpus jüdischer Zeugnisse aus der Cyrenaika (Wiesbaden, 1983), nos. 17, 19, 22—5; CPJ no. 450 (festival at Oxyrhynchus); Cass. Dio 68. 32. 3.

39S. Applebaum, Jews and Greeks in Ancient Cyrene (Leiden, 1979); M. Goodman, “Diaspora Reactions to the Destruction of the Temple,” in J. D. G. Dunn (ed.), Jews and Christians (Tübingen, 1992), 27-38.

40Euseb. Hist. eccl. 4. 2. 5 (Lusius Quietus); B. Isaac and I. Roll, “Judaea in the Early Years of Hadrian's Reign,” Latomus 38 (1979), 54—66.

41A. R. Birley, Hadrian: The Restless Emperor (London, 1997); Beard, North and Price (eds.), Religions of Rome, vol. 1, pp. 257—9 (temple to Roma).

42D. J. Breeze and B. Dobson, Hadrian's Wall, 3rd edn. (London, 1987); BM Coins, Rom. Emp., vol. 3, nos. 1628-71 (ADVENTUS coins).

43F. Millar, The Roman Near East, 31 BC–AD 337 (Cambridge, Mass., and London, 1993), 106 (Jerash arch); on Tel Shalem inscription, W. Eck and G. Foerster, “Ein Triumphbogen für Hadrian im Tal von Beth Shean bei Tel Shalem,” JRA 12(1999), 2943:3J G. W. Bowersock, “The Tel Shalem Arch and P. Nahal Hever/Seiyal 8,” in P. Schäfer (ed.),The Bar Kokhba War Reconsidered (Tübingen, 2003), 171—80.

44BM Coins, Rom. Emp. vol. 3, nos. 493—4; Cass. Dio 69. 12. 1.

45SHA Hadr. 14. 2; M. Goodman, “Trajan and the Origins of the Bar Kokhba War,” in Schäfer (ed.), Bar Kokhba War Reconsidered, 28—9.

465 Sibyllines 397—402, 408—13 (Temple), 162—3, 166—70 (trans. Collins) (Rome), 1—50 (survey of Latin history).

47L. Kadman, Coins of Aelia Capitolina (Jerusalem, 1956); Y. Meshorer, The Coinage of Aelia Capitolina (Jerusalem, 1989); N. Belayche, Judaea—Palaestina: The Pagan Cults in Roman Palaestina (Second to the Fourth Century) (Tübingen, 2001); Cass. Dio 69. 12. 1—13. 3 (trans. Cary).

48P. Schäfer, “Bar Kokhba and the Rabbis,” in Schäfer (ed.), Bar Kokhba War Reconsidered, 1—22; App. Syr. 50. 252—3; Fronto, De Bello Parthico 2 (in Stern [ed.]), Greek and Latin Authors, vol. 2, p. 177).

49G. S. Alexsandrov, “The Role of ‘Aqiba in the Bar Kokhba rebellion,” in J. Neusner, Eliezer ben Hyrcanus, vol. 2 (Leiden, 1973), 422—36; P. Schäfer, “Rabbi Aqiva and Bar Kokhba,” in W. S. Green (ed.), Approaches to AncientJudaism, vol. 2 (Ann Arbor, 1980), 113—30; L. Mildenberg, The Coinage of the Bar Kokhba War (Aarau, 1984); Y. Yadin, Bar-Kokhba (London, 1971), 126.

50Apollodorus of Damascus, Poliorcetica (in Stern [ed.], Greek and Latin Authors, vol. 2, p. 136); Cass. Dio 69. 13. 2 (Severus); W. Eck, “The Bar Kokhba Revolt: The Roman Point of View,” JRS 89 (1999), 76—89; A. Kloner and B. Zissu, “Hiding Complexes in Judaea: An Archaeological and Geographical Update on the Area of the Bar Kokhba Revolt,” in Schäfer (ed.), Bar Kokhba War Reconsidered, 181—216; Y. Shahar, “The Underground Hideouts in Galilee and Their Historical Meaning,” ibid., 217—40; Cass. Dio 69. 13. 1—2.

51Mildenberg, Coinage; Y. Meshorer, A Treasury of Jewish Coins from the Persian Period to Bar Kokhba (Jerusalem and Nyack, NY, 2001), 135—65.

52y. Taan. 68d (Venice ed.=P. Schäfer et al., Synopse zum Talmud Yerushalmi (Tübingen, 1991—), vol. 2, p. 261, 11. 43—6), but note that P. Schäfer, Der Bar Kokhba Aufstand (Tübingen, 1981), 168—9, argues that Rabbi Akiva should be excised from the text.

53Cass. Dio 69. 14. 1-3.

54For the evidence of Roman commemoration of the revolt, but a different interpretation of its significance, see Eck, “The Bar Kokhba Revolt,” 76—89; Justin. 1 Apol. 1. 1; 47. 4—6; Isa. 64: 10 (Hebrew); 1: 7; Justin. Dial. Trypho 16; Euseb. Hist. eccl. 4. 6. 3 (Ariston), 4 (Eusebius).

55Quint. Inst. 3. 7. 21; Tac. Hist. 5. 5; 4. 1; Flor. Epitoma 1. 40. 30; M. F. Smith, “Excavations at Oinoanda 1997: The New Epicurean Texts,” Anatolian Studies 48 (1998), p. 132, III, line 7—IV, line 2.

56Kadman, Coins, 46, 73; E. Stern (ed.), The New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land, 4 vols. (Jerusalem, 1993), vol. 2, pp. 759—67; J. Magness, “In the Footsteps of the Tenth Roman Legion in Judaea,” in A. M. Berlin and J. A. Overman (eds.), The First Jewish Revolt: Archaeology, History and Ideology (London and New York, 2002), 189—212; memorial medallion: Kadman, Coins, no. 87.

57Amm. Marc. Res Gestae 22. 5. 5; SHA Ant. Pius 5. 4; Sev. 16. 7(Caracalla); Jer. Chron. p. 211, lines 19—20 (=GCS 7, Eusebius, ed. Helm).

58Matt. 24: 1—2 (prophecy by Jesus of Temple destruction); Amm. Marc. Res Gestae 23. 1. 2—3; Gregorius Nazianzenus, Orat. 5 (=Adversus Julianum imperatorem II), 3—4.

59b. Sanh. 74a.

60S. Schwartz, Imperialism and Jewish Society, 200 B.C.E. to 640 C.E. (Princeton, 2001) (on abandonment of Jewishness).

61See M. Hadas-Lebel, Jérusalem contre Rome (Paris, 1990), 460—82; on Edom: Gen. 25: 36; 36: 8.

62b. Ber. 61b; y. Ber. 9: 5; discussion in D. Boyarin, Dying for God: Martyrdom and the Making of Christianity and Judaism (Stanford, Calif, 1999), chapter 4.

63Dan. 7—12; Joseph. AJ 10. 267—81; cf. Mekilta de-Rabbi Ishmael Bahodesh 9. 31—41 (Lauter-bach).

64b. Gitt. 56b.

651 Sam. 5: 2—7; E. R. Goodenough, Jewish Symbols in the Greco-Roman Period, 13 vols. (New York, 1953—68), vol. 11, no. 334; for a more detailed interpretation of the frescoes as religious polemic, see J. Elsner, “Cultural Resistance and the Visual Image: The Case of Dura Europos,” C Phil. 96 (2001), 269-304.

66CIJ no. 972 (dedication); Dan. 11: 34; Jerome, In Danielem (iv) 11. 34/35 (=CCSL 75 A, p. 924, lines 228–30); SHA Alex. Sev. 22. 4 (privileges); 51.7; Ulpian in Dig. 50. 2. 3. 3.

67b. Gitt. 59a.

68y. Meg. 3. 2, 74a (Venice)=Schäfer et al., Synopse vol. 2, p. 297, lines 23–8; S. J. D. Cohen, “The Conversion of Antoninus,” in P. Schäfer (ed), The Talmud Yerushalmi and Graeco-Roman Culture, vol. 1 (Tübingen, 1998), 141–71; y. Shebi. 6. 1, 36d (Venice)=Schäfer et al., Synopse, vol. 1/3-5, p. 266, lines 20-21.

69L. H. Feldman, “Some Observations on Rabbinic Reaction to Roman Rule in Third-Century Palestine,” Hebrew Union College Annual 63 (1992), 39–81; on citizenship: Cass. Dio 78. 9. 5.

70Origen, Ep. ad Afric. 20. (14), lines 7–13 (ed. de Lange, p. 566).

71See M. Goodman, “The Roman State and the Jewish Patriarch in the Third Century,” in L. I. Levine (ed.), The Galilee in Late Antiquity (New York and Jerusalem, 1992), 127–39.

72See D. Noy, Jewish Inscriptions of Western Europe, vol. 2: The City of Rome (Cambridge, 1995); L. V. Rutgers, The Jews in Late Ancient Rome: Evidence of Cultural Interaction in the Roman Diaspora (Leiden, 1995).

73On Josephus' self-portrayal: M. Goodman, “Josephus as Roman Citizen,” in F. Parente and J. Sievers (eds.), Josephus and the History of the Greco-Roman Period (Leiden, 1994), 329–38.

74On Cresces Sinicerius: JIWE, vol. 2, no. 491.

75Modestinus in Dig. 48. 8. 11; SHA Sev. 17. 1; Paulus, Sent. 5. 22. 3–4.

76Tac. Hist. 5. 5; Cass. Dio 37. 17. 1.

77Cass. Dio 37. 17. 1.

78Ibid. 37. 17. 3.

CHAPTER THIRTEEN: THE GROWTH OF THE CHURCH

1Infancy Gospel of Thomas 1. 1; 4. 1 (from W. Schneemelcher and R. McL. Wilson [eds.], New Testament Apocrypha, 2nd edn. [Cambridge, 1991], vol. 1, p. 444).

2Coptic Gospel of Thomas 1, 114 (from Schneemelcher and Wilson, New Testament Apocrypha, vol. 1, pp. 117, 129).

3Justin, 2. Apol. 10. 1; Acts of John 101 (from Schneemelcher and Wilson, New Testament Apocrypha, vol. 2, pp. 185–6) (composed between 150 and 250 CE).

4Joseph. AJ 18. 63–4 (the text was altered in antiquity by Christian copyists, but it is probable that at least some of the original words written by Josephus have been preserved); Tac. Ann. 15. 44.

5For this procedure in studying the historical Jesus, see E. P. Sanders, Jesus and Judaism (Lon-don and Philadelphia, 1985).

6Acts 2: 41 (3,000 souls); 5: 36-9 (Gamaliel).

71 Cor. 9: 16; Rom. 11: 25-32; 15: 9-27.

8See M. Goodman, Mission and Conversion: Proselytizing in the Religious History of the Roman Empire (Oxford, 1994), chapter 5.

91 Cor. 12: 28–9; Origen, C. Cels. 3. 9. 2–8 (ed. Borret); The Acts of the Scillitan Martyrs 12 in H. A. Musurillo, The Acts of the Christian Martyrs (Oxford, 1972), 88; Paul's vision: 1 Cor. 9: 1; 15: 8-10.

10Tatianus, Ad Gr. 29; Justin, 2 Apol. 1. 2.

11Apostates: Plin. Ep. 10. 96; Lucian, De mort. Peregr. 16.

12See M. Goodman, “The Persecution of Paul by Diaspora Jews,” in M. Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (Leiden, 2007), 145–52.

13Matt. 10: 34-5, 37.

14Acts 4: 32.

15Justin, 2 Apol. 2. 11, 15-18.

16Epistula ad Diognetum 5. 6; cf. R. Stark, The Rise of Christianity: A Sociologist Reconsiders History (Princeton, 1996).

17Acts 2: 46; 10: 11-17; 1 Cor. 9: 20-21; Acts 21: 20-26; Joseph. AJ 20. 200 (James); Rom. 15: 7-9.

18M. Goodman, “Modeling the ‘Parting of the Ways,’” in A. H. Becker and A. Y. Reed (eds.), The Ways that Never Parted: Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages (Tübingen, 2003), 119–29; M. Taylor, Anti-Judaism and Early Christian Identity: A Critique of the Scholarly Consensus (Leiden, 1995); J. M. Lieu,Image and Reality: The Jews in the World of the Christians in the Second Century (Edinburgh, 1996).

19Justin, Dial. Trypho 47.

201 Thess. 2: 15; G. N. Stanton, A Gospel for a New People: Studies in Matthew (Edinburgh, 1992), 97-8; Mart. Pol. 13. 1; Melito, Peri Pascha 72 (505-7), 81 (582-8), 92 (673-7) (trans. Hall).

21Justin, Dial. Trypho 11, 130; Gal. 6: 16.

22A. Harnack, Marcion: The Gospel of the Alien God, trans. J. E. Steely and L. D. Bierma (Durham, NC, 1990); Gal. 4: 22-4.

23Justin, 1 Apol. 1. 1.

24Tert. Apol. 18. 8;J. M. Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (Oxford, 2004); on pagan names for Jews, M. Stern (ed.), Greek and Latin Authors on Jews and Judaism, 3 vols. (Jerusalem, 1974–84), index.

25Euseb. Hist. eccl. 3. 1. 2 (Peter); 2. 25. 5 (Paul); Rev. 17: 5; Tatianus, Ad Gr. 28 (trans. Whit-taker); Melito in Euseb. Hist. eccl. 4. 26. 7; Luke 23: 4, 22; Acts 25: 8.

26Min. Fel. Oct. 10. 2; Joseph. Ap. 2. 258–9; Epistula ad Diognetum 5; Matt. 22: 21; Tert. Apol. 5. 6; Euseb. Hist. eccl. 5. 5. 2.

27Tert. Apol. 50. 12 (“good governors”); 9. 6 (“panting for … blood”); Euseb. Hist. eccl. 4. 3. 1; Melito in Euseb. Hist. eccl. 4. 26. 5–6; Euseb. Hist. eccl. 5. 1 (Lyons).

28Tac. Ann. 15. 44; Suet. Nero 16. 2.

29J. B. Rives, “The Decree of Decius and the Religion of Empire,” JRS 89 (1999), 135–54; W. H. C. Frend, Martyrdom and Persecution in the Early Church (Oxford, 1965).

30Mart. Pol. 9. 2; 12. 1; Plin. Ep. 10. 96–7 (trans. Radice).

31On trophies of Peter and Paul: Euseb. Hist. eccl. 2. 25. 5–7; M. Beard, J. North and S. Price (eds.), Religions of Rome, 2 vols. (Cambridge, 1998), vol. 1, pp. 268–9; vol. 2, p. 347; on calendars: ibid., vol. 2, pp. 74–6; Tert. Apol. 50. 13.

32Plin. Ep. 10. 96; Tac. Ann. 15. 44; Joseph. BJ 7. 50–51 (Jews in Antioch); Suet. Nero 16.

33Acts 11: 26; Rom. 1: 7; Acts 26: 28; 1 Pet. 4: 16.

34Tac. Ann. 15. 44; Ign. Eph. 11; Magn. 4; 10 (Christianismos); Phld. 6; Did. 12. 1–5; The Acts of Justin and Companions A. 3. 4, in Musurillo, Acts, 44 (Justin); Euseb. Hist. eccl. 5. 1. 20 (Sanctus).

35Lact. De mort. Pers. 44. 5-6, 9.

36Euseb. Vit. Const. 1. 28.

37Acts 15: 2, 4-31; Euseb. Hist. eccl. 6. 43. 11-12 (Cornelius).

38A. Hastings, “150–550,” in A. Hastings (ed.), A World History of Christianity (London, 1999), 32-3.

39Cod. Iust. 1. 9. 3; Euseb. Vit. Const. 3. 18. 2, 4 (trans. Cameron and Hall) (date of Easter); N. H. Baynes, Constantine the Great and the Christian Church, 2nd edn. (London, 1972).

40Cod. Theod. 9. 40. 2 (branding); Euseb. Hist. eccl. 9. 9. 5, 7.

41Euseb. Vit. Const. 2. 60. 2 (trans. Cameron and Hall) (idolatry); 4. 28 (charity); Cod. Iust. 5. 26. 1 (concubines); Cod. Theod. 9. 24. 1. 1 (nurses); P Oxy. 3759, lines 37–9 (Sundays).

42Joseph. Ap. 2. 167, 179, 193; Euseb. Oratio 3. 5-7.

43Euseb. Vit. Const. 4. 60. 3–4 (trans. Cameron and Hall).

CHAPTER FOURTEEN: A NEW ROME AND A NEW JERUSALEM

1Amm. Marc. Res. Gestae 14. 6. 4–5.

2G. F. Snyder, Ante Pacem: Archaeological Evidence of Church Life Before Constantine, 2nd edn. (Macon, Ga., 2003); R. Krautheimer, Rome: Profile of a City, 312–1308 (Princeton, 1980); for Constantine as competing with Maxentius, see E. D. Hunt, “Imperial Building at Rome: The Role of Constantine,” in K. Lomas and T. Cornell (eds.),“Bread and Circuses”: Ever-getism and Municipal Patronage in Roman Italy (London, 2003), 105–24.

3Euseb. Hist. eccl. 9. 9. 10–11 (“saving sign” and statue); CIL vol. 6, no. 1139 (inscription on arch).

4Socrates, Hist. eccl. 1. 16. 1 (ed. Hansen); Publii Optatiani Porphyrii Carmina, ed. L. Müller, 4. 5. 5–6 (altera Roma); G. Dagron, Naissance d'une capitale: Constantinople et ses institutions de 330à 451 (Paris, 1974).

5Euseb. Vit. Const. 3. 48–9 (trans. Cameron and Hall); Zos. 2. 31. 2–3; Euseb. Vit. Const. 4. 36. 1, 3–4 (trans. Cameron and Hall) (letter to Eusebius); Vita S. Danielis Stylitae 10 (ed. Delehaye, p. 12, line 13).

6Cic. Flac. 28 (66–9); on Jews in fourth-century Byzantium, C. Roth et al. (eds.), Encyclopaedia Judaica (Jerusalem, 1971), vol. 5, p. 918.

7Lactant. De mort. pers. 48. 3, 6 (edict of Milan); L. V. Rutgers, The Jews in Late Ancient Rome: Evidence of Cultural Interaction in the Roman Diaspora (Leiden, 1995).

8Lactant. De mort. pers. 34. 4–5 (Galerius).

9M. Beard, J. North and S. Price (eds.), Religions of Rome, 2 vols. (Cambridge, 1998), vol. 2, pp. 67, 75.

10Mosaicarum et Romanarum Legum Collatio6. 7. 1 (divine law); 1. 1. 1 (Moses); 7. 1. 1 (priority); 16. 1. 1 (divine scripture); 12. 1. 1–2. 1 (incendiarism); in general, see Rutgers, Jews in Late Ancient Rome, 213–53.

11Euseb. Vit. Const. 3. 33. 1–2 (trans. Cameron and Hall).

12Euseb. Onomasticon; E. D. Hunt, Holy Land Pilgrimage in the Later Roman Empire, AD 312–460 (Oxford, 1982), 148-9; Euseb. Mart. Pal. 11. 9-12.

13Euseb. Hist. eccl. 4. 26. 14 (on Melito); on Alexander: Hist. eccl. 6. 11. 2; 6. 39. 2–3; Rev. 21: 10–11, 22–4 (and on Jewish writings about the new Jerusalem, see Chapter 4); J. E. Taylor, Christians and the Holy Places: The Myth of Jewish-Christian Origins (Oxford, 1993).

14Nicaea Canon 7; Euseb. Vit. Const. 3. 25; 26. 2-3, 7; 28; 33. 3; 36. 1-2; 40 (trans. Cameron and Hall).

15Hunt, Holy Land Pilgrimage, 37–40; on the site of the Holy Sepulchre, A. J. Wharton, Refig-uring the Post-Classical City: Dura Europos, Jerash, Jerusalem and Ravenna (Cambridge, 1995), 88–91; on 13 September, E. D. Hunt, “Constantine and Jerusalem,” Journal of Ecclesiastical History 48 (1997), 405-24.

16Itinerarium Burdigalense (CCSL 175) 591. 4 (statues); J. Wilkinson, “Christian Pilgrims in Jerusalem During the Byzantine Period,” Palestine Exploration Quarterly 108 (1976), 75–101; Jer. Commentariorum in Esaiam 1. 2. 9 (CCSL 73, p. 33).

17Zos. 5. 8. 2; O. Irsai, “Historical Aspects of the Christian-Jewish Polemic Concerning the Church of Jerusalem in the Fourth Century,” unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 1993 (in Hebrew); J. Elsner, “The Itinerarium Burdigalense: Politics and Sal-vation in the Geography of Constantine's Empire,” JRS 90 (2000), 181–95;Itinerarium Burdigalense (CCSL 175) 549. 1–5 (title); 572. 4 (Hannibal); 578. 1 (Apollonius); description of Jerusalem: 589. 7-8, 589. 11-590. 6, 591. 1-3, 592. 5-593. 1, 595. 2-4, 598. 4-9.

18Itinerarium Burdigalense (CCSL 175) 591. 4–5; Bereshit Rabba 32. 10 (ed. Albeck, p. 296); 81. 4; S. Safrai, “The Holy Congregation in Jerusalem,” Scripta Hierosolymitana 23 (1972), 62–78; on Eutychius, see Irsai, “Historical Aspects,” 53–76.

19Epiph. Adv. haeres. 30. 11. 9; 30. 12. 1, 4-9; on patriarch: ibid. 30. 4. 3-4; 30. 11. 1; on reasons for the silence of the rabbis, see M. Goodman, “Palestinian Rabbis and the Conversion of Constantine to Christianity,” in P. Schäfer and C. Hezser (eds.), The Talmud Yerushalmi and Graeco-Roman Culture, vol. 2 (Tübingen, 2000), 1–9; attacks on apostates: Cod. Theod. 16. 8. 1 (329 CE); Const. Sirmondiana 4 (335 CE).

20S. Schwartz, Imperialism andJewish Society, 200 B.C. E. to640C.E. (Princeton, 2001); on Essenes and the sun: Joseph. BJ 2. 128–9, 148–9; Sifre on Deuteronomy 49 (ed. Horovitz-Finkelstein, p. 114) (on God as fire).

21Julian. Or. 4; on Theos Hypsistos: S. Mitchell, “The Cult of Theos Hypsistos between Pagans, Jews and Christians,” in P. Athanassiadi and M. Frede (eds.), Pagan Monotheism in Late Antiquity (Oxford, 1999), 81–148; H. Erbse, Theosophorum Graecorum Fragmenta (Leipzig, 1995), 8 (Oenoanda oracle); M. Goodman, “The Jewish Image of God in Late Antiquity,” in R. Kalmin and S. Schwartz (eds.), Jewish Culture and Society under the Christian Roman Empire (Leuven, 2003), 133–45; M. Wallraff, Christus Verus Sol: Sonnenverehrung und Christentum in der Spätantike (Münster, 2001) (Constantine and the sun god); Jewish references to Theos Hypsistos: Philo,Spec. Leg. 278; Joseph.AJ 16. 163.

22J. M. Reynolds and R. Tannenbaum, Jews and Godfearers at Aphrodisias (Cambridge, 1987); on the Temple site: Y. Eliav, God's Mountain: The Temple Mount in Time, Place, and Memory (Baltimore, 2005). For scepticism about recent theories that there was a revival of priestly power in the fifth and sixth centuries, see Schwartz,Imperialism,273, n. 86; on the inscription: H. M. Cotton and J. J. Price, “A Bilingual Tombstone from Zo'ar (Arabia),” ZPE 134 (2001), 277–83; on the dates on the Zo'ar inscriptions more generally: S. Stern, Calendar and Community (Oxford, 2001), 87-91.

23J. W. Drijvers, Cyril of Jerusalem: Bishop and City (Leiden, 2004); Cyril of Jerusalem, Epistula ad Constantium 4, 6; Matt. 24: 30; Cyril of Jerusalem, Fifteenth Catechetical Lecture 22.

24Jer. In Sophoniam 1. 15. 16 (CCSL 76A, p. 673, lines 669–84).

25t. Sot. 15. 12–14 (memorials of Jerusalem); Shemot Rabbah 15. 21; last sentence from E. Schürer, rev. G. Vermes et al., The History of the Jewish People in the Age of Jesus Christ, 3 vols. (Edinburgh, 1973–87), vol. 1, p. 557; it was added by the revisers, Geza Vermes and Fergus Millar, to Schürer's original ending of the narrative of Jewish history up to 135 CE. I have cited it here as an acknowledgement of all that I owe to both of them for all they have taught me over many years.

EPILOGUE: THE ORIGINS OF ANTISEMITISM

1For a good summary of scholarship on the origins of antisemitism in antiquity, see P. Schäfer, Judeophobia: Attitudes Toward the Jews in the Ancient World (Cambridge, Mass., 1997).

2Cass. Dio 66. 7. 2.

3Acts 5: 40, 42.

4John 11: 50; see G. Vermes, The Passion (London, 2005).

5M. Hess, Rom und Jerusalem, die letzte Nationalitätsfrage (Leipzig, 1862); the citation is from M. Hess, Rome and Jerusalem, trans. M. J. Bloom (New York, 1958), 8.

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