Ancient History & Civilisation

Notes

CHAPTER 1

1. Velleius Paterculus, Roman History 2.1.

CHAPTER 2

1. Philip Hardie, Virgil’s Aeneid: Cosmos and Imperium (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1985).

2. Livy, From the Foundation of the City 4.20.

3. Denis Feeney, Caesar’s Calendar: Ancient Time and the Beginnings of History, Sather Classical Lectures (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2007).

4. Paul Zanker, The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus, Jerome Lectures (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1988).

5. Livy, From the Foundation of the City Preface.

6. Emma Dench, Romulus’ Asylum: Roman Identities from the Age of Alexander to the Age of Hadrian (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005); T. Peter Wiseman, Remus: A Roman Myth (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995).

7. Andrew Erskine, Troy between Greece and Rome: Local Tradition and Imperial Power (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001); Greg Woolf, Tales of the Barbarians: Ethnography and Empire in the Roman West (Malden, Mass.: Blackwell Publishers, 2011).

8. Carol Dougherty, The Poetics of Colonization: From City to Text in Archaic Greece (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993).

9. Erich Gruen, Culture and National Identity in Republican Rome (London: Duckworth, 1992); Thomas Habinek, The World of Roman Song from Ritualised Speech to Social Order (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005).

10. William Vernon Harris, War and Imperialism in Republican Rome, 327–70 B.C. (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1979).

11. P. A. Brunt, ‘Laus Imperii’, in Peter Garnsey and C. R. Whittaker (eds.), Imperialism in the Ancient World (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978; repr. in P. A. Brunt, Roman Imperial Themes (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990), 288–323).

12. Mary Beard, The Roman Triumph (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2007).

13. Jean-Louis Ferrary, Philhellénisme et impérialisme: Aspects idéologiques de la conquête romaine du monde hellénistique, de la Seconde Guerre de Macédoine à la Guerre contre Mithridate, Bibliothèque des Écoles Françaises d’Athènes et de Rome (Rome: École Française de Rome, 1988); John S. Richardson, The Language of Empire: Rome and the Idea of Empire from the Third Century BC to the Second Century AD (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008).

14. Catharine Edwards (ed.), Roman Presences: Receptions of Rome in European Culture, 17891945 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999).

15. Dimitri Gutas, Greek Thought, Arab Culture: The Graeco-Arabic Translation Movement in Baghdad and Early Abbasid Society (2nd–4th/8th–10th Centuries) (New York: Routledge, 1998).

16. Alexander Scobie, Hitler’s State Architecture: The Impact of Classical Antiquity, Monographs on the Fine Arts (University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1990); Luisa Quartermaine, ‘ “Slouching towards Rome”: Mussolini’s Imperial Vision’, in Tim Cornell and Kathryn Lomas (eds.), Urban Society in Roman Italy (London: University College London Press, 1995).

17. Matthew P. Canepa, The Two Eyes of the Earth: Art and Ritual of Kingship between Rome and Sasanian Iran, ed. Peter Brown, vol. xlv, The Transformation of the Classical Heritage (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2009).

18. J. H. Kautsky, The Politics of Aristocratic Empires (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1982); Shmuel Eisenstadt, The Political Systems of Empires (London: Free Press of Glencoe, 1963); Susan E. Alcock et al. (eds.), Empires: Perspectives from Archaeology and History (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001); Ian Morris and Walter Scheidel (eds.), The Dynamics of Early Empires: State Power from Assyria to Byzantium (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009); Phiroze Vasunia, ‘The Comparative Study of Empires’, Journal of Roman Studies, 101 (2011); Peter Fibiger Bang and Christopher A. Bayly (eds.), Tributary Empires in Global History, Cambridge Imperial and Post-Colonial Studies Series (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011); C. A. Bayly and P. F. Bang (eds.), Tributary Empires in History: Comparative Perspectives from Antiquity to the Late Medieval, special issue of Medieval History Journal, 6 (2003).

19. V. I. Lenin, Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism: A Popular Outline (Moscow: Co-operative Publishing Society of Foreign Workers in the USSR, 1934).

20. Nicole Brisch (ed.) Religion and Power: Divine Kingship in the Ancient World and beyond, Oriental Institute Seminars (Chicago: Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, 2008).

CHAPTER 3

1. Amanda Claridge, Rome: An Oxford Archaeological Guide, 2nd edn. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010); Filippo Coarelli, Rome and Environs: An Archaeological Guide (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2007); J. C. N. Coulston and Hazel Dodge (eds.), Ancient Rome: The Archaeology of the Eternal City, Oxford University School of Archaeology Monographs (Oxford: Oxford University School of Archaeology, 2000).

2. Pliny, Natural History 36.109.

3. Christopher Smith, ‘The Beginnings of Urbanization in Rome’, in Robin Osborne and Barry Cunliffe (eds.), Mediterranean Urbanization 800–600 BC, Proceedings of the British Academy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005).

4. Anna Maria Bietti Sestieri, The Iron Age Community of Osteria dell’Osa: A Study of Socio-political Development in Central Tyrrenian Italy, New Studies in Archaeology (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993).

5. Maria Eugenia Aubet, The Phoenicians and the West: Politics, Colonies and Trade, 2nd edn. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001); Gocha R. Tsetskhladze, Greek Colonisation: An Account of Greek Colonies and Other Settlements Overseas, 2 vols., Mnemosyne supplements (Leiden: Brill, 2006); John Boardman, Greeks Overseas: Their Early Colonies and Trade, 4th edn. (London: Thames and Hudson, 1999).

6. David Ridgway, The First Western Greeks (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992).

7. Corinna Riva, The Urbanization of Etruria (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010).

8. Filippo Coarelli and Helen Patterson (eds.), Mercator Placidissimus: The Tiber Valley in Antiquity: New Research in the Upper and Middle River Valley, Rome, 27–28 February 2004, Quaderni di Eutopia (Rome: Quasar, 2008).

9. Colin Renfrew and John F. Cherry (eds.), Peer Polity Interaction and Socio-political Change, New Directions in Archaeology (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986).

10. Mauro Cristofani (ed.), La grande Roma dei Tarquini: Roma, Palazzo delle esposizioni, 12 giugno—30 settembre 1990: Catalogo della mostra (Rome: ‘L’Erma’ di Bretschneider, 1990).

11. Nicholas Purcell, ‘Becoming Historical: The Roman Case’, in David Braund and Christopher Gill (eds.), Myth, History and Culture in Republican Rome: Studies in Honour of T. P. Wiseman (Exeter: University of Exeter Press, 2003).

12. Jonathon H. C. Williams, Beyond the Rubicon: Romans and Gauls in Northern Italy, Oxford Classical Monographs (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001).

13. Emma Dench, From Barbarians to New Men: Greek, Roman and Modern Perceptions of Peoples of the Central Apennines (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995).

14. Ennius, Annales Fragment 156.

15. Polybius, Histories 3.22–6.

16. Kurt Raaflaub, ‘Born to be Wolves? Origins of Roman Imperialism’, in Robert W. Wallace and Edward M. Harris (eds.), Transitions to Empire: Essays in Greco-Roman History 360–146 B.C. in Honor of E. Badian (Norman, Okla.: University of Oklahoma Press, 1996).

17. Emilio Gabba, Republican Rome: The Army and the Allies (Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1976).

18. G. E. M. de Sainte Croix, The Class Struggle in the Ancient Greek World: From the Archaic Age to the Arab Conquests (London: Duckworth, 1981).

CHAPTER 4

1. Harry Hine, ‘Seismology and Vulcanology in Antiquity?’, in C. J. Tuplin and T. E. Rihll (eds.), Science and Mathematics in Ancient Greek Culture (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002); Lukas Thommen, Umweltsgeschichte der Antike (Munich: Verlag C. H. Beck, 2009).

2. Pliny, Natural History 36.125.

3. Robert Sallares, The Ecology of the Ancient Greek World (London: Duckworth, 1991), chapter 1.

4. Peter Garnsey, Famine and Food Supply in the Greco-Roman World: Responses to Risk and Crisis (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988), 8–16.

5. André Tchernia, Le Vin d’Italie romaine: Essai d’histoire économique d’après les amphores, Bibliothèque des Écoles Françaises d’Athènes et de Rome (Rome: École Française de Rome, 1986); José María Blázquez Martinez and José Remesal Rodriguez (eds.),Producción y commercio del aceite en la antiguëdad: Congreso I (Madrid: Universidad Complutense, 1980); José María Blázquez Martinez and José Remesal Rodriguez (eds.), Producción y commercio del aceite en la antiguëdad: Congreso II (Madrid: Universidad Complutense, 1982).

6. Paul Erdkamp, The Grain Market in the Roman Empire: A Social, Political and Economic Study (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005).

7. David Mattingly, ‘First Fruit? The Olive in the Roman World’, in Graham Shipley and John Salmon (eds.), Human Landscapes in Classical Antiquity: Environment and Culture (London: Routledge, 1996).

8. Anthony C. King, ‘Diet in the Roman World: A Regional Inter-site Comparison of the Mammal Bones’, Journal of Roman Archaeology, 12/1 (1999).

9. Robert Sallares, ‘Ecology’, in Walter Scheidel, Ian Morris, and Richard P. Saller (eds.), The Cambridge Economic History of the Greco-Roman World (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007).

10. Marshall Sahlins, Stone Age Economics (London: Routledge, 1974); William H. McNeill, Plagues and Peoples (Garden City, NY: Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1976); Paul A. Colinvaux, Why Big Fierce Animals are Rare: An Ecologist’s Perspective (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1978).

11. Barry Cunliffe, Europe Between the Oceans: Themes and Variations, 9000 BC–AD 1000 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2008).

12. Alfred W. Crosby, Ecological Imperialism: The Biological Expansion of Europe, 900– 1900, Studies in Environment and History (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986).

13. Richard Reece, ‘Romanization: A Point of View’, in Tom Blagg and Martin Millett (eds.), The Early Roman Empire in the West (Oxford: Oxbow Books, 1990); Nico Roymans (ed.), From the Sword to the Plough: Three Studies in the Earliest Romanisation of Northern Gaul, Amsterdam Archaeological Studies (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 1996).

14. Peter Garnsey, Food and Society in Classical Antiquity, Key Themes in Ancient History (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999); Nicholas Purcell, ‘The Way We Used to Eat: Diet, Community, and History at Rome’, American Journal of Philology, 124/3 (2003).

15. Robert Thomas and Andrew Wilson, ‘Water Supply for Roman Farms in Latium and South Etruria’, Papers of the British School at Rome, 62 (1994).

16. Andrew Wilson, ‘Machines, Power and the Ancient Economy’, Journal of Roman Studies, 92 (2002).

17. David Mattingly and John Salmon (eds.), Economies beyond Agriculture in the Classical World, Leicester–Nottingham Studies in Ancient Society (London: Routledge, 2001).

CHAPTER 5

1. Arthur M. Eckstein, Mediterranean Anarchy, Interstate War and the Rise of Rome, Hellenistic Culture and Society (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2006).

2. Claude Nicolet (ed.), Rome et la conquête du monde méditerranéen: 264–27 avant J.C. (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1977).

3. William Vernon Harris, ‘Roman Expansion in the West’, in A. E. Astin et al. (eds.), Cambridge Ancient History, viii: Rome and the Mediterranean to 133 BC (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989); Stephen L. Dyson, The Creation of the Roman Frontier (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1985).

4. Nicholas Purcell, ‘The Creation of Provincial Landscape: The Roman Impact on Cisalpine Gaul’, in Tom Blagg and M. Millett (eds.), The Early Roman Empire in the West (Oxford: Oxbow Books, 1990).

5. Saskia T. Roselaar, Public Land in the Roman Republic: A Social and Economic History of Ager Publicus in Italy, 396–89 BC, Oxford Studies in Roman Society and Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010).

6. John Rich, ‘Fear, Greed and Glory: The Causes of Roman War-Making in the Middle Republic’, in John Rich and Graham Shipley (eds.), War and Society in the Roman World (London: Routledge, 1993).

7. Livy, From the Foundation of the City 45.12.

8. Nicholas Purcell, ‘On the Sacking of Carthage and Corinth’, in Doreen Innes, Harry Hine, and Christopher Pelling (eds.), Ethics and Rhetoric: Classical Essays for Donald Russell on his Seventy-Fifth Birthday (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995).

9. Beard, The Roman Triumph.

10. Geoffrey Conrad and Arthur A. Demarest, Religion and Empire: The Dynamics of Aztec and Inca Expansionism, New Directions in Archaeology (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984); Peter R. Bedford, ‘The Neo-Assyrian Empire’, in Morris and Scheidel (eds.), The Dynamics of Ancient Empires.

11. Harris, War and Imperialism in Republican Rome, 327–70 B.C.; Karl-Joachim Hölkeskamp, ‘Conquest, Competition and Consensus: Roman Expansion in Italy and the Rise of the “Nobilitas”’, Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte, 42/1 (1993).

12. Derk Bodde, ‘The State and Empire of Ch’in’, in Denis Twitchett and Michael Loewe (eds.), The Cambridge History of China, i: The Ch’in and Han Empires, 221 B.C.–A.D. 220 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986); R. D. S. Yates, ‘Cosmos, Central Authority and Communities in the Early Chinese Empire’, in Alcock et al. (eds.), Empires.

13. Arthur M. Eckstein, Senate and General: Individual Decision Making and Roman Foreign Relations, 264–194 B.C. (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1987); John S. Richardson, Hispaniae: Spain and the Development of Roman Imperialism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986).

14. Filippo Coarelli, ‘Public Building in Rome between the Second Punic War and Sulla’, Papers of the British School at Rome, 45 (1977).

15. Polybius, Histories 6.17.

16. John S. Richardson, ‘The Spanish Mines and the Development of Provincial Taxation in the Second Century B.C.’, Journal of Roman Studies, 66 (1976).

17. Livy, From the Foundation of the City 38.51.

18. Harriet I. Flower, Ancestor Masks and Aristocratic Power in Roman Culture (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996).

CHAPTER 6

1. David Cannadine, Ornamentalism: How the British Saw their Empire (London: Allen Lane, 2001).

2. Orlando Patterson, Slavery and Social Death: A Comparative Study (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1982).

3. Richard P. Saller, Personal Patronage under the Early Empire (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982); Andrew Wallace-Hadrill (ed.), Patronage in Ancient Society (London: Routledge, 1989).

4. Claude Eilers, Roman Patrons of Greek Cities (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002).

5. Ernst Badian, Foreign Clientelae (26470 BC) (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1958).

6. David Braund, Rome and the Friendly King: The Character of the Client Kingship (London: Croom Helm, 1982).

7. Sallust, Jugurtha 8.

8. The Achievements of the Deified Augustus 26.4.

9. David Johnston, Roman Law in Context, ed. Paul Cartledge and Peter Garnsey, Key Themes in Ancient History (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999).

10. Plutarch, Life of Cato the Elder 21.

11.. Andrea Giardina and Aldo Schiavone (eds.), Società romana e produzione schiavistica (Rome: Laterza, 1981).

12. Dominic Rathbone, ‘The Development of Agriculture in the Ager Cosanus during the Roman Republic: Problems of Evidence and Interpretation’, Journal of Roman Studies, 71 (1981).

13. Nicholas Purcell, ‘The Roman Villa and the Landscape of Production’, in Cornell and Lomas (eds.), Urban Society in Roman Italy; Neville Morley, Metropolis and Hinterland: The City of Rome and the Italian Economy 200 B.C.–A.D. 200 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996).

14. Andrew Wallace-Hadrill, ‘Elites and Trade in the Roman Town’, in John Rich and Andrew Wallace-Hadrill (eds.), City and Country in the Ancient World (London: Routledge, 1991).

15. Susan M. Treggiari, Roman Freedmen during the Late Republic (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1969).

16. Keith Bradley, Slaves and Masters in the Roman Empire: A Study in Social Control (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987).

17. Apuleius, The Golden Ass 9.12.

18. Nicholas Purcell, ‘Wine and Wealth in Ancient Italy’, Journal of Roman Studies, 75 (1985); Tchernia, Le Vin d’Italie romaine; Jean-Paul Morel, ‘The Transformation of Italy 300–133 BC’, in Astin et al. (eds.), Cambridge Ancient History, viii; Jesper Carlsen and Elio Lo Cascio (eds.), Agricoltura e scambi nell’Italia tardo-Repubblicana, Pragmateiai (Bari: Edipuglia, 2009).

19. Strabo, Geography 14.5.4 and 10.5.2.

20. Philip de Souza, Piracy in the Graeco-Roman World (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999).

21. IG IX2. 1.241.

22. William Vernon Harris, ‘Demography, Geography and the Sources of Roman Slaves’, Journal of Roman Studies, 89 (1999).

23. P. A. Brunt, Italian Manpower 225 B.C.–A.D. 14 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1971); Keith Hopkins, Conquerors and Slaves: Sociological Studies in Roman History I (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978); Nathan Stewart Rosenstein, Rome at War: Farms, Families and Death in the Middle Republic (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2004); Keith Bradley, ‘Slavery in the Roman Republic’, in Keith Bradley and Paul Cartledge (eds.), Cambridge World History of Slavery, i: The Ancient Mediterranean World (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011).

CHAPTER 7

1. Erich Gruen, The Hellenistic World and the Coming of Rome, 2 vols. (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1984).

2. Ferrary, Philhellénisme et impérialisme.

3. Elizabeth M. Brumfiel and John W. Fox (eds.), Factional Competition and Political Development in the New World, New Directions in Archaeology (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994).

4. David Braund, ‘Royal Wills and Rome’, Papers of the British School at Rome, 51 (1983).

5. Sallust, Jugurtha 35.

6. Mark Elvin, The Pattern of the Chinese Past: A Social and Economic Explanation (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1973).

7. Crosby, Ecological Imperialism.

8. Brent D Shaw, ‘ “Eaters of flesh, drinkers of milk”: The Ancient Mediterranean Ideology of the Pastoral Nomad’, Ancient Society, 13 (1982); Christopher B. Krebs, ‘Borealism: Caesar, Seneca, Tacitus and the Roman Discourse about the Germanic North’, in Erich Gruen (ed.), Cultural Identity in the Ancient Mediterranean, Issues and Debates (Los Angeles: Getty Research Institute, 2011).

9. David Abulafia, ‘Mediterraneans’, in William Vernon Harris (ed.), Rethinking the Mediterranean (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005).

10. Cunliffe, Europe Between the Oceans.

11. Owen Lattimore, Inner Asian Frontier of China (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1940).

12. John R. Collis, The European Iron Age (London: Batsford, 1984); Barry Cunliffe, Greeks, Romans and Barbarians: Spheres of Interaction (London: Batsford, 1988).

13. Andrew Lintott, ‘Imperial Expansion and Moral Decline in the Roman Republic’, Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte, 21 (1972); Barbara Levick, ‘Morals, Politics and the Fall of the Roman Republic’, Greece & Rome, 29 (1982).

14. Mark Hassall, Michael H. Crawford, and Joyce Reynolds, ‘Rome and the Eastern Provinces at the End of the Second Century BC’, Journal of Roman Studies, 64 (1974).

15. Fergus Millar, ‘The Political Character of the Classical Roman Republic, 200–151 B.C.’, Journal of Roman Studies, 74 (1984); Fergus Millar, ‘Politics, Persuasion and the People before the Social War (150–90 B.C.)’, Journal of Roman Studies, 76 (1986).

16. A. N. Sherwin-White, ‘The Lex Repetundarum and the Political Ideas of Gaius Gracchus’, Journal of Roman Studies, 72 (1982); Andrew Erskine, The Hellenistic Stoa: Political Thought and Action (London: Duckworth, 1990).

17. P. A. Brunt, ‘Italian Aims at the Time of the Social War’, Journal of Roman Studies, 55 (1965); Gabba, Republican Rome, the Army and the Allies; Henrik Mouritsen, Italian Unification: A Study in Ancient and Modern Historiography, Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies Supplements (London: Institute of Classical Studies, 1998).

CHAPTER 8

1. Aelius Aristides, Roman Oration 61.

2. Catharine Edwards, The Politics of Immorality in Ancient Rome (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993).

3. Sallust, Jugurtha 4.5.

4. Tacitus, Agricola 1.

5. Donald Earl, The Moral and Political Tradition in Rome, Aspects of Greek and Roman Life (London: Thames and Hudson, 1967).

6. Elizabeth Rawson, ‘Religion and Politics in the Late Second Century B.C. at Rome’, Phoenix, 28/2 (1974).

7. Livy, From the Foundation of the City Preface.

8. Andrew Wallace-Hadrill, ‘Family and Inheritance in the Augustan Marriage-Laws’, Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society, 207 (1981); Karl Galinsky, Augustan Culture (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996).

9. Zanker, The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus.

10. Andrew Wallace-Hadrill, ‘The Golden Age and Sin in Augustan Ideology’, Past and Present, 95 (1982).

11. John North, ‘Roman Reactions to Empire’, Scripta Classica Israelica, 12 (1993).

12. Dionysius, Roman Antiquities 7.70–3.

13. John Scheid, Quand croire c’est faire: Les rites sacrificiels des Romains (Paris: Aubier, 2005); Clifford Ando, The Matter of the Gods: Religion and the Roman Empire (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2008).

14. John North, ‘Democratic Politics in Republican Rome’, Past and Present, 126 (1990); Mary Beard and John North (eds.), Pagan Priests (London: Duckworth, 1990).

15. Rebecca Preston, ‘Roman Questions, Greek Answers: Plutarch and the Construction of Identity’, in Simon Goldhill (ed.), Being Greek under Rome: Cultural Identity, the Second Sophistic and the Development of Empire (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001); Mary Beard, ‘A Complex of Times: No More Sheep on Romulus’ Birthday’, Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society, 33 (1987).

16. Apuleius, Golden Ass 11.5.

17. Mary Beard, ‘Cicero and Divination: The Formation of a Latin Discourse’, Journal of Roman Studies, 76 (1986); David Sedley, Lucretius and the Transformation of Greek Wisdom (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998).

18. Clifford Ando, ‘Interpretatio romana’, Classical Philology, 100 (2005).

19. Paul Veyne, Did the Greeks Believe in their Myths? An Essay in the Constitutive Imagination, trans. Paula Wissing (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988); Denis Feeney, Literature and Religion at Rome: Culture, Contexts and Beliefs, Latin Literature in Context (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998).

20. Glen Bowersock, ‘The Mechanics of Subversion in the Roman Provinces’, in Adalberto Giovannini (ed.), Oppositions et résistances à l’empire d’Auguste à Trajan, Entretiens sur l’Antiquité Classique (Geneva: Fondation Hardt, 1987).

21. James B. Rives, ‘The Decree of Decius and the Religion of Empire’, Journal of Roman Studies, 89 (1999).

22. Conrad and Demarest, Religion and Empire; John Moreland, ‘The Carolingian Empire: Rome Reborn?’, in Alcock et al. (eds.), Empires.

23. Jörg Rüpke, Domi militiae: Die religiöse Konstruktion des Krieges im Rom (Stuttgart: Steiner, 1990).

24. Beard, The Roman Triumph.

25. Eric Orlin, Temples, Religion and Politics in the Roman Republic, Mnemosyne Supplements (Leiden: Brill, 1996).

26. John Scheid, ‘Graeco ritu: A Typically Roman Way of Honouring the Gods’, Harvard Studies in Classical Philology, 97 Greece in Rome: Influence, Integration, Resistance (1995).

27. Mary Beard, ‘The Roman and the Foreign: The Cult of the “Great Mother” in Imperial Rome’, in Nicholas Thomas and Caroline Humphrey (eds.), Shamanism, History and the State (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1994).

28. Mary Beard, John North, and Simon Price, Religions of Rome, i: A History (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998), 313–63; Clifford Ando, ‘A Religion for the Empire’, in A. J. Boyle and W. J. Dominik (eds.), Flavian Rome: Culture, Image, Text(Leiden: Brill, 2003); Alison Cooley, ‘Beyond Rome and Latium: Roman Religion in the Age of Augustus’, in Celia Schultz and Paul B. Harvey (eds.), Religion in Republican Italy, Yale Classical Studies (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006).

29. Richard Gordon, ‘Religion in the Roman Empire: The Civic Compromise and its Limits’, in Beard and North (eds.), Pagan Priests.

30. Greg Woolf, ‘Divinity and Power in Ancient Rome’, in Brisch (ed.), Religion and Power.

31. Simon Price, Rituals and Power in Roman Asia Minor (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984); Ittai Gradel, Emperor Worship and Roman Religion, Oxford Classical Monographs (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002).

32. Zanker, The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus.

CHAPTER 9

1. Arthur Keaveney, Sulla: The Last Republican, 2nd edn. (London: Routledge, 2005).

2. Flower, Ancestor Masks and Aristocratic Power in Roman Culture.

3. Brunt, ‘Laus Imperii’; Andrew Riggsby, War in Words: Caesar in Gaul and Rome (Austin, Tex.: University of Texas Press, 2006).

4. De Souza, Piracy in the Graeco-Roman World.

5. Erich Gruen, The Last Generation of the Roman Republic (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1974); Liv Mariah Yarrow, Historiography at the End of the Republic: Provincial Perspectives on Roman Rule (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006).

6. Katherine Clarke, ‘Universal Perspectives in Historiography’, in Christina Shuttleworth Kraus (ed.), The Limits of Historiography: Genre and Narrative in Ancient Historical Texts, Mnemosyne Supplements (Leiden: Brill, 1999).

7. Hermann Strasburger, ‘Poseidonios on Problems of the Roman Empire’, Journal of Roman Studies, 55/1–2 (1965); I. G. Kidd, ‘Posidonius as Philosopher-Historian’, in Miriam Griffin and Jonathon Barnes (eds.), Philosophia togata, i: Essays on Philosophy and Roman Society (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989).

8. Barbara Levick, ‘Popular in the Provinces? À Propos of Tacitus Annales 1.2.2’, Acta classica, 37 (1994).

9. Tacitus, Annales 1.2.2.

10. Josef Wiesehöfer (ed.), Die Partherreich und seine Zeugnisse, Historia Einzelschriften (Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 1998).

CHAPTER 10

1. Michael H. Crawford, ‘Rome and the Greek World: Economic Relationships’, Economic History Review, 30/1 (1977).

2. John H. D’Arms, The Romans on the Bay of Naples: A Social and Cultural History of the Villas and their Owners from 150 B.C. to A.D. 100 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1970); Andrew Wallace-Hadrill, Houses and Society in Pompeii and Herculaneum (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994); Eleanor Windsor Leach, The Social Life of Painting in Ancient Rome and on the Bay of Naples (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004).

3. Michael H. Crawford, ‘Greek Intellectuals and the Roman Aristocracy in the First Century BC’, in Peter Garnsey and C. R. Whittaker (eds.), Imperialism in the Ancient World (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978).

4. Elizabeth Rawson, Cicero: A Portrait (London: Allen Lane, 1975).

5. Keith Hopkins, Death and Renewal: Sociological Studies in Roman History II (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983).

6. M. Cébeillac-Gervason (ed.), Les Bourgeoisies municipales italiennes aux IIe et Ier siècles av. J-C (Naples: Éditions du CNRS & Bibliothèque de l’Institut Français de Naples, 1981).

7. Catherine Steel, Cicero, Rhetoric and Empire (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001).

8. Cicero, On Duties 2.27.

9. Cicero, To his Brother Quintus 1.1.

10. Richardson, The Language of Empire.

11. D. S. Levene, ‘Sallust’s Jugurtha: An “Historical Fragment”’, Journal of Roman Studies, 82 (1992).

12. Sallust, Histories 4.69.17.

13. Claude Nicolet, Space, Geography and Politics in the Early Roman Empire, trans. Hélène Leclerc, Jerome Lectures (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1991).

14. Gruen, Culture and National Identity in Republican Rome; Thomas Habinek (ed.), The Politics of Latin Literature: Writing, Identity and Empire in Ancient Rome (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998).

15. Elizabeth Rawson, Intellectual Life in the Late Roman Republic (London: Duckworth, 1985); Andrew Wallace-Hadrill, ‘Review Article: Greek Knowledge, Roman Power’, Classical Philology, 83/3 (1988); Elaine Fantham, Roman Literary Culture from Cicero to Apuleius, Ancient Society and History (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996).

16. Purcell, ‘Becoming Historical’.

17. D’Arms, The Romans on the Bay of Naples: A Social and Cultural History of the Villas and their Owners from 150 B.C. to A.D. 100; M. Frederiksen, Campania (London: British School at Rome, 1984).

18. T. Keith Dix, ‘The Library of Lucullus’, Athenaeum, 88/2 (2000).

19. Mantha Zarmakoupi (ed.), The Villa of the Papyri at Herculaneum: Archaeology, Reception and Digital Reconstruction (Berlin: De Gruyter, 2010).

20. Marcello Gigante, Philodemus in Italy: The Books from Herculaneum, trans. Dirk Obbink, The Body, in Theory: Histories of Cultural Materialism (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1995); David Sider, The Library of the Villa dei Papiri at Herculaneum (Los Angeles: Getty, 2005).

21. E. Bartman, ‘Sculptural Collecting and Display in the Private Realm’, in E. Gazda (ed.), Roman Art in the Private Sphere: New Perspectives on the Architecture and Decor of the Domus, Villa and Insula (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1991).

22. Andrew Wallace-Hadrill, Rome’s Cultural Revolution (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008).

23. David Sedley, ‘Philosophical Allegiance in the Greco-Roman World’, in Griffin and Barnes (eds.), Philosophia togata, i.

24. Simon Swain, ‘Bilingualism in Cicero? The Evidence of Code-Switching’, in J. N. Adams, Mark Janse, and Simon Swain (eds.), Bilingualism in Ancient Society: Language Contact and the Written Text (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002).

25. Ingo Gildenhard, Paideia Romana: Cicero’s Tusculan Disputations, ed. Tim Whitmarsh and James Warren, Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society Supplements (Cambridge: Cambridge Philological Society, 2007).

26. Cicero, Tusculan Disputations 1.1.

CHAPTER 11

1. Elizabeth Rawson, ‘Caesar’s Heritage: Hellenistic Kings and their Roman Equals’, Journal of Roman Studies, 65 (1975).

2. Suetonius, Life of the Deified Augustus 101.

3. Nicholas Purcell, ‘Livia and the Womanhood of Rome’, Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society, 32 (1986).

4. Susan Wood, ‘Messalina, Wife of Claudius: Propaganda Successes and Failures of his Reign’, Journal of Roman Archaeology, 5 (1992); Susan Wood, ‘Diva Drusilla Panthea and the Sisters of Caligula’, American Journal of Archaeology, 99/3 (1995).

5. R. R. R. Smith, ‘The Imperial Reliefs from the Sebasteion at Aphrodisias’, Journal of Roman Studies, 77 (1987).

6. Zvi Yavetz, Plebs and Princeps (London: Oxford University Press, 1969).

7. Richard J. A. Talbert, The Senate of Imperial Rome (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984).

8. Ségolène Demougin, Hubert Devijver, and Marie-Thérèse Raepsaet-Charlier (eds.), L’Ordre équestre: Histoire d’une aristocratie (IIe siècle av. J.-C.–IIIe siècle ap. J.-C.), Collection de l’École Française de Rome (Rome: École Française de Rome, 1999).

9. Averil Cameron, ‘The Construction of Court Ritual: The Byzantine Book of Ceremonies’, in David Cannadine and Simon Price (eds.), Rituals of Royalty: Power and Ceremonial in Traditional Societies, Past and Present Publications (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987).

10. Yates, ‘Cosmos, Central Authority and Communities in the Early Chinese Empire’; Michael J. Puett, To Become a God: Cosmology, Sacrifice, and Self-Divinization in Early China, Harvard-Yenching Institute monograph series (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2002).

11. Amélie Kuhrt, ‘Usurpation, Conquest and Ceremonial: From Babylon to Persia’, in Cannadine and Price (eds.), Rituals of Royalty; Maria Brosius, ‘New out of Old? Court and Court Ceremonies in Achaemenid Persia’, in Antony Spawforth (ed.), The Court and Court Society in Ancient Monarchies (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007).

12. Herodotus, Histories 3.80–2, Cassius Dio, Roman History 52.2–40.

13. Lucretius, On the Nature of Things 5.1105–60. Karl August Wittfogel, Oriental Despotism: A Comparative Study of Total Power (New York: Yale University Press, 1957).

14. John A. Hall, Powers and Liberties: The Causes and Consequences of the Rise of the West (Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1985); Patricia Crone, Pre-industrial Societies, New Perspectives on the Past (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1989).

15. Clifford Geertz, ‘Centers, Kings and Charisma: Reflections on the Symbolics of Power’, in Joseph Ben-David and Terry Nichols Clarke (eds.), Culture and its Creators: Essays in Honor of Edward Shils (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1977; reprint,Local Knowledge: Further Essays in Interpretive Anthropology (New York: Basic Books, 1983), 121–46).

16. Jonathon Spence, Emperor of China: Self Portrait of K’ang-hsi (London: Cape, 1974).

17. Michel Austin, ‘Hellenistic Kings, War and the Economy’, Classical Quarterly, 36/2 (1986).

18. Saller, Personal Patronage under the Early Empire; Claude Nicolet, ‘Augustus, Government and the Propertied Classes’, in Fergus Millar and Erich Segal (eds.), Caesar Augustus: Seven Aspects (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1984).

19. Fergus Millar, The Emperor in the Roman World (London: Duckworth, 1977).

20. Norbert Elias, The Court Society (Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1983).

21. Keith Hopkins, ‘Divine Emperors, or the Symbolic Unity of the Roman Empire’, in Conquerors and Slaves: Sociological Studies in Roman History, i (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978).

22. Price, Rituals and Power in Roman Asia Minor.

23. Brian Campbell, The Emperor and the Roman Army 31 BC–AD 235 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1984).

24. Andrew Wallace-Hadrill, ‘The Imperial Court’, in Alan Bowman, Edward Champlin, and Andrew Lintott (eds.), Cambridge Ancient History, x: The Augustan Empire 43 B.C.–A.D. 69 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996); Aloys Winterling, Aula Caesaris: Studien zur Institutionalisierung des römischen Kaiserhofes in der Zeit von Augustus bis Commodus (31 v. Chr.–192 n. Chr.) (Munich: R. Oldenburg, 1999); Jeremy Paterson, ‘Friends in High Places: The Creation of the Court of the Roman Emperor’, in Spawforth (ed.), The Court and Court Society in Ancient Monarchies.

25. Elias, The Court Society; Jeroen Duindam, Myths of Power: Norbert Elias and the Early Modern European Court (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 1994).

26. Paul Zanker, ‘Domitian’s Palace on the Palatine and the Imperial Image’, in Alan Bowman et al. (eds.), Representations of Empire: Rome and the Mediterranean World, Proceedings of the British Academy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002).

27. Andrew Wallace-Hadrill, ‘Civilis princeps: Between Citizen and King’, Journal of Roman Studies, 72 (1982); Wallace-Hadrill, ‘The Imperial Court’.

28. Helmut Halfmann, Itinera principum: Geschichte und Typologie der Kaiserreisen im Römischen Reich, Heidelberger althistorische Beiträge und epigraphische Studien (Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 1986).

29. Catharine Edwards and Greg Woolf (eds.), Rome the Cosmopolis (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003).

CHAPTER 12

1. Keith Hopkins, ‘The Political Economy of the Roman Empire’, in Ian Morris and Walter Scheidel (eds.), The Dynamics of Ancient Empires: State Power from Assyria to Byzantium, Oxford Studies in Early Empires (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009).

2. Michael H. Crawford, Coinage and Money under the Roman Republic: Italy and the Mediterranean Economy (London: Methuen, 1985).

3. Peter Rhodes, ‘After the Three-Bar Sigma Controversy: The History of Athenian Imperialism Reassessed’, Classical Quarterly, 58/2 (2008).

4. J. G. Manning, ‘Coinage as Code in Ptolemaic Egypt’, in William Vernon Harris (ed.), The Monetary Systems of the Greeks and Romans (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008).

5. Bang and Bayly, Tributary Empires in History.

6. Galinsky, Augustan Culture.

7. Peter Fibiger Bang, The Roman Bazaar: A Comparative Study of Trade and Markets in a Tributary Empire, Cambridge Classical Studies (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008).

8. P. A. Brunt, ‘The Revenues of Rome’, Journal of Roman Studies, 71 (1981); P. A. Brunt, ‘Publicans in the Principate’, in Roman Imperial Themes (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990); Michel Cottier et al. (eds.), The Customs Law of Asia, Oxford Studies in Ancient Documents (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008).

9. Chapter 4 above.

10. Garnsey, Famine and Food Supply in the Greco-Roman World.

11. Peregrine Horden and Nicholas Purcell, The Corrupting Sea: A Study of Mediterranean History (Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 2000); Nicholas Purcell, ‘The Boundless Sea of Unlikeness? On Defining the Mediterranean’, Mediterranean Historical Review, 18/2 (2004).

12. Alan Bowman and Andrew Wilson (eds.), Quantifying the Roman Economy: Methods and Problems, Oxford Studies on the Roman Economy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009).

13. Anthony John Parker, Ancient Shipwrecks of the Mediterranean and the Roman Provinces, British Archaeological Reports International Series (Oxford: Tempus Reparatum, 1992); Andrew Wilson, ‘Approaches to Quantifying Roman Trade’, in Bowman and Wilson (eds.), Quantifying the Roman Economy.

14. Purcell, ‘Wine and Wealth in Ancient Italy’; Greg Woolf, ‘Imperialism, Empire and the Integration of the Roman Economy’, World Archaeology, 23/3 (1992).

15. Wilson, ‘Machines, Power and the Ancient Economy’; François de Callataÿ, ‘The Graeco-Roman Economy in the Super Long Run: Lead, Copper, and Shipwrecks’, Journal of Roman Archaeology, 18/1 (2005); Dennis P. Kehoe, ‘The Early Roman Empire: Production’, in Scheidel, Morris, and Saller (eds.), Cambridge Economic History of the Greco-Roman World.

16. J. B. Ward-Perkins, ‘From Republic to Empire: Reflections on the Early Provincial Architecture of the Roman West’, Journal of Roman Studies, 60 (1970).

17. Greg Woolf, Becoming Roman: The Origins of Provincial Civilization in Gaul (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998), 169–205.

18. Susan E. Alcock, Graecia capta: The Landscapes of Roman Greece (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993).

19. Keith Hopkins, ‘Economic Growth and Towns in Classical Antiquity’, in Philip Abrams and E. A. Wrigley (eds.), Towns in Societies: Essays in Economic History and Historical Sociology, Past and Present Publications (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978); R. F. J. Jones, ‘A False Start? The Roman Urbanisation of Western Europe’, World Archaeology, 19/1 (1987); Greg Woolf, ‘The Roman Urbanization of the East’, in Susan E. Alcock (ed.), The Early Roman Empire in the East (Oxford: Oxbow Books, 1997).

20. Keith Hopkins, ‘Rome, Taxes, Rents and Trade’, Kodai, 6/7 (1995/6); R. P. Duncan-Jones, ‘Taxes, Trade and Money’, in Structure and Scale in the Roman Economy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990).

21. R. P. Duncan-Jones, ‘The Impact of the Antonine Plague’, Journal of Roman Archaeology, 9 (1996).

22. Christer Bruun, ‘The Antonine Plague and the “Third-Century Crisis”’, in Olivier Hekster, Gerda de Kleijn, and Daniëlle Slootjes (eds.), Crises and the Roman Empire, Impact of Empire (Leiden: Brill, 2007).

23. Orlin, Temples, Religion and Politics in the Roman Republic.

24. Roselaar, Public Land in the Roman Republic.

25. Coarelli, ‘Public Building in Rome between the Second Punic War and Sulla’.

26. Brunt, ‘Publicans in the Principate’.

27. Cottier et al., The Customs Law of Asia.

28. Jérôme France, Quadragesima Galliarum: L’organisation douanière des provinces alpestres, gauloises et germaniques de l’Empire romain, 1er siècle avant J.-C.–3er siècle après J.-C., Collections de l’École Française à Rome (Rome, 2001).

29. Richardson, ‘The Spanish Mines and the Development of Provincial Taxation in the Second Century B.C.’.

30. Dominic Rathbone, ‘The Imperial Finances’, in Bowman, Champlin, and Lintott (eds.), Cambridge Ancient History, x.

CHAPTER 13

1. Tacitus, Germany 37.

2. Rolf Michael Schneider, Bunte Barbaren: Orientalenstatuen aus farbigem Marmor in der römischen Repräsentationskunst (Worms: Wernersche Verlagsgeselschaft, 1986); R. R. R. Smith, ‘Simulacra gentium: The Ethne from the Sebasteion at Aphrodisias’,Journal of Roman Studies, 78 (1988); M. Sapelli (ed.), Provinciae fideles: Il fregio del templo di Adriano in Campo Marzio (Milan: Electa, 1999).

3. Erich Gruen, ‘The Expansion of the Empire under Augustus’, in Alan Bowman, Edward Champlin, and Andrew Lintott (eds.), Cambridge Ancient History, x: The Augustan Empire 43 B.C.–A.D. 69 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996).

4. Nicolet, Space, Geography and Politics in the Early Roman Empire.

5. Strabo, Geography 4.5.32.

6. Appian, Preface.

7. Garnsey and Saller, The Roman Empire.

8. A. N. Sherwin-White, The Roman Citizenship, 2nd edn. (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1973); Peter Garnsey, ‘Roman Citizenship and Roman Law in Late Antiquity’, in Simon Swain and Mark Edwards (eds.), Approaching Late Antiquity: The Transformation from Early to Late Empire (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004).

9. Paul Veyne, Le Pain et le cirque: Sociologie historique d’un pluralisme politique (Paris: Seuil, 1976); Arjan Zuiderhoek, The Politics of Munificence in the Roman Empire: Citizens, Elites and Benefactors in Asia Minor, Greek Culture in the Roman World (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009).

10. Edward N. Luttwak, The Grand Strategy of the Roman Empire: From the First Century AD to the Third (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1976).

11. Fergus Millar, ‘Emperors, Frontiers and Foreign Relations, 31 BC to AD 378’, Britannia, 13 (1982).

12. Tacitus, Annales 4.4–5.

13. Alan Bowman, Life and Letters on the Roman Frontier: Vindolanda and its People (London: British Museum Press, 1994).

14. Benjamin Isaac, The Limits of Empire: The Roman Army in the East (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990).

15. Campbell, The Emperor and the Roman Army 31 BC–AD 235.

16. Egon Flaig, Den Kaiser herausfordern: Die Usurpation im römischen Reich (Frankfurt-am-Main: Campus Verlag, 1992).

17. Brent D. Shaw, ‘Soldiers and Society: The Army in Numidia’, Opus, 2 (1983).

18. Ramsay MacMullen, Soldier and Civilian in the Later Roman Empire (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1963).

19. Lattimore, Inner Asian Frontier of China.

20. Jürgen Kunow, Der römische Import in der Germania libera bis zu den Markomannenkrieg: Studien zu Bronze- und Glasgefässen, Göttinger Schriften zur Vor- und Frühgeschichte (Neumunster: K. Wachholtz, 1983); L. Hedeager, ‘Empire, Frontier and the Barbarian Hinterland: Rome and Northern Europe from A.B. 1–400’, in Michael Rowlands, Møgens Trolle Larsen, and Kristian Kristiansen (eds.), Centre and Periphery in the Ancient World (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987); Michael G. Fulford, ‘Roman and Barbarian: The Economy of Roman Frontier Systems’, in J. C. Barrett (ed.), Barbarians and Romans in North-West Europe from the Later Republic to Late Antiquity, International Series (Oxford: British Archaeological Reports, 1989).

21. Michael Kulikowski, Rome’s Gothic Wars from the Third Century to Alaric, Key Conflicts of Classical Antiquity (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007); John Drinkwater, The Alamanni and Rome 213–496 (Caracalla to Clovis) (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007).

22. Kulikowski, Rome’s Gothic Wars from the Third Century to Alaric.

23. Brian Campbell, ‘War and Diplomacy: Rome and Parthia 31 BC–AD 235’, in John Rich and Graham Shipley (eds.), War and Society in the Roman World (London: Routledge, 1993).

CHAPTER 14

1. Miriam Griffin, ‘Claudius in Tacitus’, Classical Quarterly, 40/2 (1990).

2. Sherwin-White, The Roman Citizenship.

3. Garnsey, ‘Roman Citizenship and Roman Law in Late Antiquity’.

4. Fergus Millar, ‘Empire and City, Augustus to Julian: Obligations, Excuses and Statuses’, Journal of Roman Studies, 73 (1983).

5. J. P. V. D. Balsdon, Romans and Aliens (London: Duckworth, 1979); Benjamin Isaac, The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2004).

6. Scheid, ‘Graeco ritu’.

7. Julián Gonzáles, ‘Lex Irnitana: A New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law’, Journal of Roman Studies, 76 (1986).

8. Acts 21–2.

9. MacMullen, Soldier and Civilian in the Later Roman Empire; Adrian Goldsworthy and Ian Haynes (eds.), The Roman Army as a Community, Journal of Roman Archaeology Supplements (Portsmouth, RI: Journal of Roman Archaeology, 1999).

10. Fikret K. Yegul, Baths and Bathing in the Roman World (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1992).

11. I. Nielsen, Thermae et Balnea: The Architecture and Cultural History of Roman Baths, 2 vols. (Aarhus: Aarhus University Press, 1990).

12. Michael Wörrle, Stadt und Fest in kaiserzeitlichen Kleinasien: Studien zu einer agonistischen Stiftung aus Oinoanda, Vestigia (Munich: C. H. Beck, 1988); Onno van Nijf, ‘Local Heroes: Athletics, Festivals and Elite Self-Fashioning in the Roman East’, in Goldhill (ed.), Being Greek under Rome; Jason König, Athletics and Literature in the Roman Empire, ed. Susan E. Alcock, Jas Elsner, and Simon Goldhill, Greek Culture in the Roman World (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005); Zahra Newby,Greek Athletics in the Roman World: Victory and Virtue, ed. Simon Price, R. R. R. Smith, and Oliver Taplin, Oxford Studies in Ancient Culture and Representation (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005).

13. William J. Slater (ed.), Dining in a Classical Context (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1991); Emily Gowers, The Loaded Table: Representations of Food in Roman Literature (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993); Oswyn Murray and Manuela Tecusan (eds.), In vino veritas (London: British School at Rome, 1995); Garnsey, Food and Society in Classical Antiquity; Purcell, ‘The Way We Used to Eat’; Jason König, ‘Sympotic Dialogue in the First to Fifth Centuries CE’, in Simon Goldhill (ed.), The End of Dialogue in Antiquity (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008).

14. Simon Swain, Hellenism and Empire: Language, Classicism and Power in the Greek World, AD 50–250 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996); Tim Whitmarsh, Greek Literature and the Roman Empire: The Politics of Imitations (Oxford: Oxford, 2001); Susan E. Alcock, John F. Cherry, and Jas Elsner (eds.), Pausanias: Travel and Memory in Roman Greece (New York: Oxford University Press, 2001).

15. Greg Woolf, ‘Becoming Roman, Staying Greek: Culture, Identity and the Civilizing Process in the Roman East’, Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society, 40 (1994); Stephen Hinds, Allusion and Intertext: Dynamics of Appropriation in Roman Poetry, Latin Literature in Context (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998); Wallace-Hadrill, Rome’s Cultural Revolution.

16. John Percival, The Roman Villa: An Historical Introduction (London: Batsford, 1976); Roger Ling, Roman Painting (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991); Jas Elsner, Imperial Rome and Christian Triumph: The Art of the Roman Empire, AD 100–450, Oxford History of Art (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998); Katherine M. Dunbabin, Mosaics of the Greek and Roman World (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999); Leach, The Social Life of Painting in Ancient Rome and on the Bay of Naples.

17. David Mattingly (ed.), Dialogues in Roman Imperialism: Power, Discourse and Discrepant Experience in the Roman Empire, Journal of Roman Archaeology Supplements (Portsmouth, RI: Journal of Roman Archaeology, 1997); Robert Witcher, ‘Globalisation and Roman Imperialism: Perspectives on Identities in Roman Italy’, in Edward Herring and Kathryn Lomas (eds.), The Emergence of State Identities in Italy in the First Millennium B.C. (London: Accordia Research Institute, 2000); Richard Hingley, Globalizing Roman Culture: Unity, Diversity and Empire (London: Routledge, 2005); Rebecca J. Sweetman, ‘Roman Knossos: The Nature of a Globalized City’, American Journal of Archaeology, 111/1 (2007); R. Bruce Hitchner, ‘Globalization avant la lettre: Globalization and the History of the Roman Empire’, New Global Studies, 2/2 (2008).

18. T. C. Champion, ‘Mass Migration in Later Prehistoric Europe’, in Per Sörbom (ed.), Transport Technology and Social Change: Papers Delivered at Tekniska Museet Symposium No. 2, Stockholm, 1979 (Stockholm: Tekniska Museet, 1980); Nicholas Purcell, ‘Mobility and the Polis’, in Oswyn Murray and Simon Price (eds.), The Greek City from Homer to Alexander (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990).

19. John F. Matthews, ‘Hostages, Philosophers, Pilgrims, and the Diffusion of Ideas in the Late Roman Mediterranean and Near East’, in F. M. Clover and R.S. Humphreys (eds.), Tradition and Innovation in Late Antiquity (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1989).

20. David Noy, Foreigners at Rome: Citizens and Strangers (London: Duckworth, 2000); Edwards and Woolf, Rome the Cosmopolis; L. Wierschowski, Fremde in Gallien: ‘Gallier’ in der Fremde: Die epigraphisch bezeugte Mobilität in, von und nach Gallien vom 1. bis 3. Jh. n. Chr, Texte-Übersetzungen-Kommentare 159, Historia Einzelschriften (Stuttgart: F. Steiner, 2001); Hella Eckart (ed.), Roman Diasporas: Archaeological Approaches to Mobility and Diversity in the Roman Empire, Journal of Roman Archaeology Supplements (Portsmouth, RI: Journal of Roman Archaeology, 2010).

21. Millar, ‘Empire and City, Augustus to Julian’; WIlliam Broadhead, ‘Migration and Transformation in Northern Italy in the 3rd–1st Centuries BC’, Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies, 44 (2000); Claudia Moatti (ed.), La Mobilité des personnes en Méditerranée de l’antiquité à l’époque moderne: Procédures de contrôle et documents d’identification, Collection de l’École Française de Rome (Rome: École Française de Rome, 2004); Claudia Moatti and Wolfgang Kaiser (eds.), Gens de passage en Méditerranée de l’antiquité à l’époque moderne: Procédures de contrôle et d’identification, Collection L’Atelier Méditerranéen (Paris: Maisonneuve & Larose, 2007).

22. Erich Gruen, Diaspora: Jews among Greeks and Romans (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2002); Christopher P. Jones, ‘A Syrian at Lyon’, American Journal of Philology, 99/3 (1978).

23. Ramsay MacMullen, Paganism in the Roman Empire (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1981).

24. Swain, Hellenism and Empire; Seth Schwartz, Imperialism and Jewish Society 200 BCE to 640 CE, ed. R. Stephen Humphreys, William Chester Jordan, and Peter Schäfer, Jews, Christians and Muslims from the Ancient to the Modern World (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001).

25. Elias Bickermann, ‘Origines Gentium’, Classical Philology, 47 (1952); T. Peter Wiseman, ‘Domi nobiles and the Roman Cultural Élite’, in Cébeillac-Gervason (ed.), Les Bourgeoisies municipales italiennes aux IIe et Ier siècles av. J.-C.; Erskine, Troy between Greece and Rome; Alan Cameron, Greek Mythography in the Roman World, ed. Donald J. Mastronarde, American Philological Association: American Classical Studies (New York: Oxford University Press, 2004); Simon Price, ‘Local Mythologies in the Greek East’, in Christopher Howgego, Volker Heuchert, and Andrew Burnett (eds.), Coinage and Identity in the Roman Provinces (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005); Hans-Joachim Gehrke, ‘Heroen als Grenzgänger zwischen Griechen und Barbaren’, in Erich Gruen (ed.), Cultural Borrowings and Ethnic Appropriations in Antiquity, Oriens et Occidens: Studien zu antiken Kulturkontakten und ihren Nachleben (Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2005); Woolf, Tales of the Barbarians.

CHAPTER 15

1. Matthew B. Roller, Constructing Autocracy: Aristocrats and Emperors in Julio-Claudian Rome (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001).

2. Averil Cameron and Stuart G. Hall, Eusebius’ Life of Constantine: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1999); Anthony Bowen and Peter Garnsey, Lactantius’ Divine Institutes, vol. xl, Translated Texts for Historians (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2003); Roger Rees, Diocletian and the Tetrarchy, Debates and Documents in Ancient History (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2004).

3. Canepa, The Two Eyes of the Earth, 45.

4. Christopher Kelly, Attila the Hun: Barbarian Terror and the Fall of the Roman Empire (London: The Bodley Head, 2008); Roger Batty, Rome and the Nomads: The Pontic-Danubian Realm in Antiquity (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007).

5. Roger Blockley, The Fragmentary Classicising Historians of the Later Roman Empire: Eunapius, Olympiodorus, Priscus and Malchus, 2 vols. (Liverpool: Francis Cairns, 1981–3).

6. Swain, Hellenism and Empire.

7. Ewan Bowie, ‘The Greeks and their Past in the Second Sophistic’, Past and Present, 46 (1970); Philip A. Stadter, Arrian of Nicomedia (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1980); Fergus Millar, A Study of Cassius Dio (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1964); G. J. D. Aalders, ‘Cassius Dio and the Greek World’, Mnemosyne, 39/3–4 (1986).

8. Graeme Clarke (ed.), Reading the Past in Late Antiquity (Rushcutters Bay, NSW: Australian National University Press, 1990); Roger Rees (ed.), Romane memento: Vergil in the Fourth Century (London: Duckworth, 2003); Gavin Kelly, Ammianus Marcellinus: The Allusive Historian (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008).

9. John F. Matthews, Western Aristocracies and Imperial Court, A.D. 364–425 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1975).

10. Simon Corcoran, Empire of the Tetrarchs: Imperial Pronouncements and Government, AD 284–324 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996).

11. A. H. M. Jones, The Later Roman Empire, 284–602, 2 vols. (Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1964).

12. Christopher Kelly, Ruling the Later Roman Empire (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2004).

13. Ramsay MacMullen, Corruption and the Decline of Rome (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988).

14. Garnsey and Humfress, The Evolution of the Late Antique World, 9–51.

15. Sabine MacCormack, Art and Ceremony in Late Antiquity, Transformation of the Classical Heritage (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1981).

16. Julian, Caesars 315A.

17. Wallace-Hadrill, ‘Civilis princeps’.

18. Michael McCormick, Eternal Victory: Triumphal Rulership in Late Antiquity, Byzantium and the Early Medieval West, Past and Present Publications (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986).

19. W. Liebeschuetz, The Decline and Fall of the Roman City (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001).

20. Jill Harries and Ian Wood (eds.), The Theodosian Code: Studies in the Imperial Law of Late Antiquity (London: Duckworth, 1993); John F. Matthews, Laying down the Law: A Study of the Theodosian Code (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000).

21. Peter Heather, Goths and Romans 332–489 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991); Hugh Elton, Warfare in Roman Europe, AD 350–425 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996). Kulikowski, Rome’s Gothic Wars from the Third Century to Alaric.

22. Drinkwater, The Alamanni and Rome 213–496.

23. Edith Mary Wightman, Roman Trier and the Treveri (London: Hart-Davis, 1970).

24. John Drinkwater and Hugh Elton (eds.), Fifth Century Gaul: A Crisis of Identity (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992).

25. Raymond Van Dam, Leadership and Community in Late Antique Gaul, Transformation of the Classical Heritage (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1985).

26. Jill Harries, Sidonius Apollinaris and the Fall of Rome, AD 407–485 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994).

27. Christian Courtois, Les Vandales et l’Afrique (Paris: Arts et Métiers Graphiques, 1955).

28. Julia M. H. Smith, Europe after Rome: A New Cultural History, 500–1000 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005).

29. Chris Wickham, ‘The Other Transition: From the Ancient World to Feudalism’, Past and Present, 103 (1984).

30. Peter Heather, ‘Cassiodorus and the Rise of the Amals: Genealogy and the Goths under Hun Domination’, Journal of Roman Studies, 79 (1989).

31. Peter H. Sawyer and Ian Wood (eds.), Early Medieval Kingship (Leeds: The School of History, University of Leeds, 1977).

CHAPTER 16

1. Steven Mithen and Pascal Boyer, ‘Anthropomorphism and the Evolution of Cognition’, Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 2/4 (1996); Stewart E. Guthrie, ‘Anthropological Theories of Religion’, in Michael Martin (ed.), Cambridge Companion to Atheism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007).

2. Arthur Darby Nock, Conversion: The Old and the New in Religion from Alexander the Great to Augustine of Hippo (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1933).

3. Wilfred Cantwell Smith, The Meaning and End of Religion: A New Approach to the Religious Traditions of Mankind, Mentor Books (New York: New American Library, 1964); Jonathon Z. Smith, Drudgery Divine: On the Comparison of Early Christianities and the Religions of Late Antiquity (Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1990); Talad Asad, Genealogies of Religion: Discipline and Reasons of Power in Christianity and Islam (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993); Tomoko Masuzawa, The Invention of World Religions: Or, How European Universalism was Preserved in the Language of Pluralism (Chicago: Chicago University Press, 2005).

4. John North, ‘The Development of Religious Pluralism’, in Judith Lieu, John North, and Tessa Rajak (eds.), The Jews among Pagans and Christians in the Roman Empire (London: Routledge, 1992); John North, ‘Pagan Ritual and Monotheism’, in Stephen Mitchell and Peter van Nuffelen (eds.), One God: Pagan Monotheism in the Roman Empire (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010).

5. MacMullen, Paganism in the Roman Empire.

6. Walter Burkert, Ancient Mystery Cults, Carl Newell Jackson Lectures (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1987).

7. Jas Elsner and Ian Rutherford (eds.), Pilgrimage in Graeco-Roman and Early Christian Antiquity: Seeing the Gods (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005).

8. H. S. Versnel, Inconsistencies in Greek and Roman Religion 1: Ter unus: Isis, Dionysos, Hermes; Three Studies in Henotheism, Studies in Greek and Roman Religion (Leiden: Brill, 1990); John North, ‘Pagans, Polytheists and the Pendulum’, in William Vernon Harris (ed.), The Spread of Christianity in the First Four Centuries: Essays in Explanation, Columbia Studies in the Classical Tradition (Leiden: Brill, 2005).

9. Mitchell and van Nuffelen (eds.), One God.

10. Luke 9: 59–62.

11. Paul, Letter to the Galatians, 5: 28.

12. Wayne A. Meeks, The First Urban Christians: The Social World of the Apostle Paul (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1983); Keith Hopkins, ‘Christian Number and its Implications’, Journal of Early Christian Studies, 6/2 (1998); Judith Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004).

13. Daniel Boyarin, Border Lines: The Partition of Judaeo-Christianity, Divinations: Rereading Late Antique Religion (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004).

14. Averil Cameron, ‘How to Read Heresiology’, Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies, 33/3 (2003).

15. Rives, ‘The Decree of Decius and the Religion of Empire’.

16. Olivier Hekster, Commodus: An Emperor at the Crossroads, Dutch Monographs on Ancient History and Archaeology (Amsterdam: J. C. Gieben, 2002).

17. John Curran, Pagan City and Christian Capital: Rome in the Fourth Century, Oxford Classical Monographs (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2000).

18. T. D. Barnes, ‘Constantine and the Christians of Persia’, Journal of Roman Studies, 75 (1985).

19. W. Liebeschuetz, Antioch: City and Imperial Administration in the Later Roman Empire (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1972); Isabella Sandwell, Religious Identity in Late Antiquity: Greeks, Jews, and Christians in Antioch, Greek Culture in the Roman World (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007).

20. Michele Renee Salzman, The Making of a Christian Aristocracy: Social and Religious Change in the Western Roman Empire (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2004); Alan Cameron, The Last Pagans of Rome (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011).

21. Glen Bowersock, Hellenism in Late Antiquity, Thomas Spenser Jerome Lectures (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990).

CHAPTER 17

1. Joseph A. Tainter, The Collapse of Complex Societies (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988); Norman Yoffee and George L. Cowgill (eds.), The Collapse of Ancient States and Civilizations (Tucson, Ariz.: University of Arizona Press, 1988); Mario Liverani, ‘The Fall of the Assyrian Empire: Ancient and Modern Interpretations’, in Alcock et al. (eds.), Empires; Jared M. Diamond, Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Survive (London: Allen Lane, 2005).

2. Glen Bowersock, ‘The Dissolution of the Roman Empire’, in Yoffee and Cowgill (eds.), The Collapse of Ancient States and Civilizations.

3. S. J. B. Barnish, ‘Transformation and Survival in the Western Senatorial Aristocracy, c. A.D. 400–700’, Papers of the British School at Rome, 56 (1988); Chris Wickham, Early Medieval Italy: Central Power and Local Society 400–1000 (London: Macmillan, 1981).

4. James J. O’Donnell, Cassiodorus (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1979).

5. Walter Goffart, Barbarians and Romans, A.D. 418–584: The Techniques of Accommodation (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1980).

6. Averil Cameron, Procopius and the Sixth Century (London: Duckworth, 1985).

7. Michael Maas, John Lydus and the Roman Past: Antiquarianism and Politics in the Age of Justinian (London: Routledge, 1992).

8. John F. Haldon, Byzantium in the Seventh Century: The Transformation of a Culture, rev. edn. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997).

9. Cameron, ‘The Construction of Court Ritual’.

10. Judith Herrin, The Formation of Christendom (Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1987).

11. McNeill, Plagues and Peoples.

12. Roger Bagnall, Egypt in Late Antiquity (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993).

13. Tainter, The Collapse of Complex Societies.

14. Gilbert Dagron, Emperor and Priest: The Imperial Office in Byzantium (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003).

15. Edmund Thomas, Monumentality and the Roman Empire: Architecture in the Antonine Age (New York: Oxford University Press, 2007).

16. Veyne, Le Pain et le cirque; Vivian Nutton, ‘The Beneficial Ideology’, in Garnsey and Whittaker (eds.), Imperialism in the Ancient World; Zuiderhoek, The Politics of Munificence in the Roman Empire.

17. Bryan Ward-Perkins, From Classical Antiquity to the Middle Ages: Urban Public Building in Northern and Central Italy AD 300–850, Oxford Historical Monographs (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1984).

18. John Rich (ed.), The City in Late Antiquity, vol. iii, Leicester–Nottingham Studies in Ancient Society (London: Routledge, 1992); Liebeschuetz, The Decline and Fall of the Roman City; Kenneth G. Holum, ‘The Classical City in the Sixth Century: Survival and Transformation’, in Michael Maas (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Justinian (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005).

19. Clive Foss, Ephesus after Antiquity: A Late Antique, Byzantine and Turkish City (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979); S. T. Loseby, ‘Marseille: A Late Antique Success Story?’, Journal of Roman Studies, 82 (1992); Neil Christie and S. T. Loseby (eds.), Towns in Transition: Urban Evolution in Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages (Aldershot: Scolar, 1996).

20. Michael Kulikowski, Late Roman Spain and its Cities (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004).

21. Claude Lepelley, Les Cités de l’Afrique romaine au bas-empire, 2 vols. (Paris: Études Augustiniennes, 1979–81).

22. Hugh Kennedy, ‘From Polis to Madina: Urban Change in Late Antique and Early Islamic Syria’, Past and Present, 106/1 (1985).

23. Millar, ‘Empire and City, Augustus to Julian’.

24. Mark Whittow, ‘Ruling the Late Roman and Early Byzantine City: A Continuous History’, Past and Present, 129 (1990).

25. McNeill, Plagues and Peoples.

26. De Ste Croix, The Class Struggle in the Ancient Greek World.

27. Haldon, Byzantium in the Seventh Century.

28. Garth Fowden, Empire to Commonwealth: Consequences of Monotheism in Late Antiquity (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993).

CHAPTER 18

1. Greg Woolf, ‘The Uses of Forgetfulness in Roman Gaul’, in Hans-Joachim Gehrke and Astrid Möller (eds.), Vergangenheit und Lebenswelt: Soziale Kommunikation, Traditionsbildung und historisches Bewußtsein, ScriptOralia (Tübingen: Gunter Narr Verlag, 1996); Erskine, Troy between Greece and Rome; Woolf, Tales of the Barbarians.

2. Heather, ‘Cassiodorus and the Rise of the Amals’; Ian Wood, ‘Defining the Franks: Frankish Origins in Early Mediaeval Historiography’, in Simon Forde, Lesley Johnson, and Alan V. Murray (eds.), Concepts of National Identity in the Middle Ages (Leeds: Leeds University Press, 1995); Andrew Gillett (ed.), On Barbarian Identity: Critical Approaches to Ethnicity in the Early Middle Ages, Studies in the Early Middle Ages (Turnhout: Brepols, 2002).

3. Fergus Millar, The Roman Near East, 31 BC–AD 337 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1993); Fergus Millar, ‘Ethnic Identity in the Roman Near East, 325–450: Language, Religion and Culture’, in Graeme Clarke (ed.), Identities in the Eastern Mediterranean in Antiquity: Mediterranean Archaeology, Australian and New Zealand Journal for the Archaeology of the Mediterranean World: A Round up of Material and Problems. Not Really an Argumentative Piece (1998); Stephen Mitchell and Geoffrey Greatrex (eds.), Ethnicity and Culture in Late Antiquity (London: Duckworth and Classical Press of Wales, 2000).

4. Fergus Millar, ‘The Phoenician Cities: A Case Study in Hellenization’, Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society, 29 (1983); Price, ‘Local Mythologies in the Greek East’; John Dillery, ‘Greek Historians of the Near East: Clio’s “Other” Sons’, in John Marincola (ed.), A Companion to Greek and Roman Historiography (Malden, Mass.: Blackwell Publishers, 2007).

5. Bowie, ‘The Greeks and their Past in the Second Sophistic’; Swain, Hellenism and Empire; Susan E. Alcock, Archaeologies of the Greek Past: Landscape, Monuments and Memories (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002); Simon Price, ‘Memory and Ancient Greece’, in Anders Holm Rasmussen and Suzanne William Rasmussen (eds.), Religion and Society: Rituals, Resources and Identity in the Ancient Graeco-Roman World: The BOMOS Conferences 2002–5 (Rome: Edizioni Quasar, 2008); Christopher P. Jones, ‘Ancestry and Identity in the Roman Empire’, in Whitmarsh (ed.), Local Knowledge and Microidentities in the Imperial Greek World.

6. Hazel Dodge and Bryan Ward-Perkins (eds.), Marble in Antiquity: Collected Papers of J. B. Ward-Perkins (London: British School at Rome, 1992).

7. Sorcha Carey, Pliny’s Catalogue of Culture: Art and Empire in the Natural History, Oxford Studies in Ancient Culture and Representation (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003); Catharine Edwards, ‘Incorporating the Alien: The Art of Conquest’, in Edwards and Woolf (eds.), Rome the Cosmopolis.

8. Sarah Macready and F. H. Thompson (eds.), Roman Architecture in the Greek World, Society of Antiquaries of London Occasional Papers (London: Society of Antiquaries, 1987); Thomas, Monumentality and the Roman Empire; Serafina Cuomo, Technology and Culture in Greek and Roman Antiquity, ed. Paul Cartledge and Peter Garnsey, Key Themes in Ancient History (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007).

9. Keith Hopkins and Mary Beard, The Colosseum, ed. Mary Beard, Wonders of the World (London: Profile Books, 2005); Elke Stein-Hölkeskamp and Karl-Joachim Hölkeskamp (eds.), Erinnerungsorte der Antike: Die römische Welt (Munich: C. H. Beck Verlag, 2006).

10. Alain Schnapp, The Discovery of the Past (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1997); Claudia Moatti, In Search of Ancient Rome, New Horizons (London: Thames and Hudson, 1993); David Karmon, The Ruin of the Eternal City: Antiquity and Preservation in Renaissance Rome (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011).

11. Wiseman, Remus; Purcell, ‘Becoming Historical’.

12. Jean-Claude Golvin, L’Amphithéâtre romain: Essai sur la théorisation de sa forme et de ses fonctions, 2 vols., Publications du Centre Pierre Paris (UA 991) (Paris: De Boccard, 1988).

13. Werner Eck, ‘Senatorial Self-Representation: Developments in the Augustan Period’, in Millar and Segal (eds.), Caesar Augustus.

14. Ramsay MacMullen, ‘The Epigraphic Habit in the Roman Empire’, American Journal of Philology, 103 (1982); Greg Woolf, ‘Monumental Writing and the Expansion of Roman Society’, Journal of Roman Studies, 86 (1996).

15. Habinek, The Politics of Latin Literature: Writing, Identity and Empire in Ancient Rome.

16. J. van Sickle, ‘The Elogia of the Cornelii Scipiones and the Origins of Epigram at Rome’, American Journal of Philology, 108 (1987).

17. Greg Woolf, ‘The City of Letters’, in Catharine Edwards and Greg Woolf (eds.), Rome the Cosmopolis (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003).

18. Antony Spawforth, ‘Symbol of Unity? The Persian-Wars Tradition in the Roman Empire’, in Simon Hornblower (ed.), Greek Historiography (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994); Newby, Greek Athletics in the Roman World: Victory and Virtue.

19. Robert A. Kaster, Guardians of Language: The Grammarian and Society in Late Antiquity (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1988); Clarke, Reading the Past in Late Antiquity.

20. Leighton D. Reynolds and Nigel G. Wilson, Scribes and Scholars: A Guide to the Transmission of Greek and Latin Literature, 2nd edn., revised and enlarged (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1974).

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