Ancient History & Civilisation

Notes

1 Skeletons as artefacts

1 House (VIII, ii, 39). This event is commemorated in an illustration by Mazois. E.C.C. Corti, The Destruction and Resurrection of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Translated by K. Smith and R.G. Smith. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1951, 147–48; A. De Vos, and M. De Vos. Pompei, Ercolano, Stabia. Rome: Laterza, 1982, 59; R. Etienne,Pompeii: The Day a City Died. Translated by C. Palmer. London: Thames & Hudson, 1992, 22.

2 M. Brion, Pompeii and Herculaneum: The Glory and the Grief. London: Cardinal, 1973/1960. F.M. Bullard, Volcanoes of the Earth. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1984, 54; A.E. Cooley, Pompeii. London: Duckworth, 2003; 76; E. Lazer, ‘Human skeletal remains in Pompeii: Vols I and II’, unpublished PhD thesis, Department of Anatomy and Histology. Sydney: University of Sydney, 1995, 54; E. Lazer, ‘The people of Pompeii’,in Pompeii Revisited: The Life and Death of a Roman Town, ed. Harrison, D. Sydney: Meditarch, 1994, 144; E. Lazer, ‘Resti umani scheletrici nella Casa del Menandro’,in Menander: La Casa del Menandro di Pompei. Edited by G. Stefani. Milan: Electa, 2003, 65; W. Leppmann, Pompeii in Fact and Fiction. London: Elek, 1968, 86; R. Ling, Pompeii: History, Life and Afterlife. Stroud, Gloucestershire: Tempus, 2005, 163.

3 The history of the excavations at Pompeii and the nearby site of Herculaneum has been well documented, e.g. by J.W. Alexander, ‘The impact of discoveries’,in The Buried Cities and the Eruption of Vesuvius: The 1900th Anniversary. Edited by H.W. Benario and G.W. Lawall (Amherst: NECN & University of Massachusetts, 1979), 23–29; C. Amery and B. Curran, The Lost World of Pompeii. London: Frances Lincoln, 2002, 30–47; Brion, 1973/ 1960, op. cit., 42–72; E.C.C. Corti, The Destruction and Resurrection of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Translated by K. Smith, and R.G. Smith. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1951, 92–213; R. Etienne, Pompeii: The Day a City Died. Translated by C. Palmer. London: Thames & Hudson, 1992, 16–41; P. Gusman, Pompei: The City, its Life and Art. Translated by F. Simmonds and M. Jourdain. London: Heinemann, 1900, 22–26; W. Leppmann, Pompeii in Fact and Fiction. London: Elek, 1968, 48–91; R. Ling, Pompeii: History, Life and Afterlife. Stroud, Gloucestershire: Tempus, 2005, 157–70; A. Mau, Pompeii: Its Life and Art. Translated by Kelsey, F.W. London: Macmillan, 1907, 25–30; C.C. Parslow, Rediscovering Antiquity: Karl Weber and the Excavation of Herculaneum, Pompeii and Stabiae. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995; R. Trevelyan, The Shadow of Vesuvius: Pompeii AD 79. London: Michael Joseph, 1976, 39–117. See Appendix for a chronology of the excavations.

4 Amery and Curran, 2002, op cit., 34 –35; Cooley, 2003, op. cit., 69; A. De Simone, ‘Archaeology and science’,in Rediscovering Pompeii: IBM Gallery of Science and Art. Edited by Conticello, B. Rome: ‘L’Erma’ di Bretschneider, 1990, 71; J.W. Goethe, Italian Journey (17861788), Translated by W.H. Auden and E. Mayer. Middlesex: Penguin, 1970, 211; Leppmann, 1968, op. cit., 59–60; Ling, 2005, op. cit., 160–61; Parslow, 1995, op. cit., 3–4; Trevelyan, 1976, op. cit., 44.

5 Cooley, 2003, op. cit., 69 –70; Corti, 1951, op. cit., 113, 122; Leppmann, 1968, op. cit., 55–56; Trevelyan, 1976, op. cit., 45–48.

6 Corti, 1951, op. cit., 125–42; G.E. Daniel, A Short History of Archaeology, London: Thames & Hudson, 1981, 17; Etienne, 1992, op. cit., 18, 146–49; Leppmann, 1968, op. cit., 70– 77; Ling, 2005, op. cit., 161; R. Lullies and W. Schiering, Archäologenbildnisse: Porträts und Kurzbiograhien von Klassischen Archäologen Deutscher Sprache. Zabern: Verlag, 1988, 5–7; Trevelyan, 1976, op. cit., 52–53.

7 A. De Vos, ‘Casa dei quadretti teatrali’,in Pompei: Pitturi e Mosaici. Rome: Istituto dell’Enciclopedia, 1990, 361–96; W. Ehrhardt, Stilgeschichte Untersuchungen an Römischen Wandmalereien von der Späten Republik bis zur zeit Neros, Mainz am Rhein: Philip von Zabern, 1987; K. Schefold, ‘Die bedeutung der malerei Pompejis’,inPompejanische Wandmalerei. Edited by G. Cerulli Irelli, M. Aoyagi and D. Stefano. Zurich: Belser, 1990, 107–14.

8 Amery and Curran, 2002, op. cit., 155–60; F. Bologna, ‘The rediscovery of Herculaneum and Pompeii in the artistic culture of Europe in the eighteenth century’,in Rediscovering Pompeii: IBM Gallery of Science and Art. Edited by B. Conticello. Rome: ‘L’Erma’ di Bretschneider, 1990, 79; Etienne, 1992, op. cit., 16–18; Leppmann, 1968, op. cit., 61; Ling, 2005, op. cit., 161; Trevelyan, 1976, op. cit., 50, 55, 74.

9 Alexander, 1979, op. cit., 27–28; Bullard, 1984, op. cit., 209–10; Corti, 1951, op. cit., 138; P. Francis, Volcanoes: A Planetary Perspective, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993, 69; Goethe, 1970, op. cit., 315; W. Hamilton, Observations on Mt Vesuvius, Mt Etna and Other Volcanoes in a Series of Letters Addressed To the Royal Society To Which Are Added Notes by the Author, Hitherto Unpublished. London: Royal Society, 1774; Trevelyan, 1976, op. cit., 55–59. 10 See, e.g., Francis, 1993, op. cit., 69; Leppmann, 1968, op. cit., 55.

11 Goethe, 1970, op. cit., 203.

12 E. Clay and M. Fredericksen (eds), Sir William Gell in Italy: Letters to the Society of Dilettanti, 18311835, London: Hamilton, 1976, 1, 19; Daniel, 1981, op. cit., 15; Trevelyan, 1976, op. cit., 75.

13 Clay and Frederikson, 1976, op. cit. 3, 18, 21, 23, 29–30, 147; Trevelyan, 1976, op. cit., 127, n. 59.

14 T.H. Dyer, Pompeii: Its History, Buildings and Antiquities. 2nd edn. London: George Bell & Sons, 1883, 4–5.

15 For example, W. Gell, Pompeiana: The Topography, Edifices and Ornaments of Pompeii: The Results of Excavations since 1819. London: Jennings & Chaplin, 1832, 6, 44. 16 Bologna, 1990, op. cit., 89, 95; Brion, 1973, op. cit., 63–68; Cooley, 2003, op. cit., 92–95; Corti, 1951, op. cit., 189; Etienne, 1992, op. cit. 29–30; Ling, 2005, op. cit., 164–65; Trevelyan, 1976, op. cit. 85.

17 E. De Carolis, and G. Patricelli. Vesuvius, AD 79: The Destruction of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Translated by The J. Paul Getty Trust. Rome: ‘L’Erma’ di Bretschneider, 2003b, 111.

18 Lazer, 1995, op. cit., Appendix 2, 376–79.

19 For example, see W.F. Jashemski, ‘Pompeii and Mt Vesuvius AD 79’,in Volcanic Activity and Human Ecology. Edited by P.D. Sheets and D.K. Grayson. New York: Academic Press, 1979b, 587–622.

20 J.-P. Descœudres, Pompeii Revisited: The Life and Death of a Roman Town, Sydney: Meditarch, 1994, 152–68; Lullies and Schiering, 1988, op. cit., 78–79; Mau, 1907, op. cit., 446–60; J.B. Ward-Perkins and A. Claridge. Pompeii AD79: Treasures from the National

Archaeological Museum, Naples and the Pompeii Antiquarium, Italy, 2nd edn. Sydney: Australian Gallery Directors’ Council, 1980, 59–64.

21 For example, F.L. Bastet and M. De Vos, Proposta per una Classificazione del Terzo Stile Pompeiano. Translated by De Vos, A. Vol. 4, Archeologische Studien van het Nederlands Instituut te Rome. s-Gravenhage: Staatsuitgeverij, 1979; M.G. Cerulli Irelli, ‘Der letzten Pompejanische stil’,in Pompejianische Wandmalerei. Edited by G. Cerulli Irelli, M. Aoyagi and D. Stefano. Zürich: Belser, 1990, 233–38; Ehrhardt, 1987, op. cit.

22 Corti, 1951, op. cit., 201 –2; Etienne, 1992, op. cit., 38–41; Trevelyan, 1976, op. cit., 95–97,107. See Chapter 11 for consideration of this issue in relation to the casts.

23 G. Luongo et al., ‘Impact of the AD 79 explosive eruption on Pompeii, II: Causes of death of the inhabitants inferred by stratigraphic analysis and areal distribution of the human casualties’, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, Vol. 126, Nos 3–4, 2003: 169– 200; S.C. Nappo, ‘Il rinvenimento delle vittime dell’eruzione del 79 d.C. nella Regio 1 insula 22’, Hydria, Vol. 63, No. 19, 1992: 16–18.

24 See, for example, Cooley, 2003, op. cit., 80–96; A. De Simone, ‘Archaeology and science’, in Rediscovering Pompeii: IBM Gallery of Science and Art. Edited by B. Conticello. Rome: ‘L’Erma’ di Bretschneider, 1990, 62–77.

25 Corti, 1951, op. cit., 117; Machiarelli pers. comm.

26 As demonstrated in the works of Brion, 1973, op. cit., 40; Corti, 1951, 117, 148, 158, 170–71,182,197; Gell, 1832, op. cit., 6, 44, 150–51,177; M. Grant, Cities of Vesuvius: Pompeii and Herculaneum, Middlesex: Penguin, 1976, 36–37; Gusman, 1900, op. cit., 15– 16; Trevelyan, 1976, op. cit., 16.

27 A version of this section was originally published in Italian; see Lazer, 2003, op. cit., 64–69.

28 Ling, R., ‘La Casa del Menandro’,in Menander: La Casa del Menandro di Pompei. Edited by G. Stefani. Milan: Electa, 2003, 11.

29 A. Maiuri, La Casa del Menandro e il Suo Tesoro di Argenteria. Roma: La Libreria dello Stato, 1933, 11–12.

30 Ibid., 12.

31 Ibid.

32 Ibid.

33 P.M. Allison, ‘The Distribution of Pompeiian House Contents and Its Significance. Vols. I and II’, unpublished PhD thesis, School of Archaeology, Classics and Ancient History. Sydney: The University of Sydney, 1992, 170.

34 Maiuri, 1933, op. cit., 14.

35 E. Lazer, ‘Human skeletal remains in the Casa del Menandro: Appendix F’,in The Insula of the Menander at Pompeii. Edited by R. Ling. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997, 342–43; Lazer, 2003, op. cit.

36 For example, F.P. Maulucci, Pompeii, Naples: Carcavallo, 1987, 177.

37 Lazer, 1997, op. cit., 343.

38 Maiuri, 1933, op. cit., 13, Fig. 5.

39 Ibid.

40 For a summary of the literary evidence for this claim, see E.M. Moorman, ‘Literary evocations of ancient Pompeii’,in Tales from an Eruption: Pompeii, Herculaneum, Oplontis: Guide to the Exhibition. Edited by P.G. Guzzo. Milan: Electa, 2003, 20–24.

41 E. Bulwer-Lytton, The Last Days of Pompeii. New York: Putnam, 1897, 374–75.

42 Ibid.

43 E. Prettejohn, ‘Recreating Rome: Catalogue II’,in Imagining Rome: British Artists and Rome in the Nineteenth Century. Edited by M.J.H. Liversidge and C. Edwards. London: Merrell Holberton, 1996a, 126–28, illustrated on 126.

44 Cooley, 2003, op. cit., 85.

45 Dyer, 1883, 531.

46 Moormann, 2003, op. cit., 23–25.

47 For example, De Carolis and Patricelli, 2003b, op. cit., 113–14.

48 Civale in Tales from an eruption 2003: 95; De Carolis and Patricelli Vesuvius, 2003, op. cit., 115–17; Grant, 1976, op. cit., 36.

49 Bulwer-Lytton 1897, op. cit., 371–74.

50 A. Civale, ‘Pompeii: The Temple of Isis’,in Tales from an Eruption: Pompeii, Herculaneum, Oplontis: Guide to the Exhibition, ed. Guzzo, P.G. (Milan: Electa, 2003), p. 95.

51 Brion, 1973, op. cit., 38; De Carolis and Patricelli, 2003, op. cit., 114–15; Grant, 1976, op. cit., 37; Leppmann, 1968, op. cit., 75; Trevelyan, 1976, op. cit., 13; T. Rocco, ‘The Quadriporticus of the theatres (VIII, 7, 16–17)’,in Storie da unEruzione: Pompei, Ercolano, Oplontis: Guida alla Mostra. Edited by A. d’Ambrosio, P.G. Guzzo and M. Mastroroberto. Milano: Electa, 2003b, 99.

52 Rocco, 2003b, op. cit., 99.

53 This has been reviewed by various scholars, for example: Leppmann, 1968, op. cit., 129– 54 and Moormann, 2003, op. cit., 14–33. Literary works that were based on human finds from Pompeii are discussed by Leppmann, 1968, op. cit., 129–54; Moormann, 2003, op. cit., and De Carolis and Patricelli 2003, op. cit., 110–11.

54 L. Alma Tadema, 1867, Cleveland Museum of Art, USA, Catalogue No. 1977.128.

55 C. Edwards, ‘The roads to Rome’,in Imagining Rome: British Artists and Rome in the Nineteenth Century, ed. M.J.H. Liversidge, and C. Edwards (London: Merrell Holberton, 1996), 14; Prettejohn, 1996, op. cit., 65, 127; M.J.H. Liversidge, ‘Representing Rome: Catalogue I’,in Imagining Rome: British Artists and Rome in the Nineteenth Century, ed. Liversidge, M.J.H. and C. Edwards. London: Merrell Holberton, 1996, 116–17.

56 F. Pesando,‘Shadows of light: Cinema, peplum and Pompeii’,in Tales from an Eruption: Pompeii, Herculaneum, Oplontis: Guide to the Exhibition, ed. P.G. Guzzo. Milan: Electa, 2003, 35–42.

57 Bulwer-Lytton is particularly famous for the astonishing prose of his 1830 novel Paul Clifford, which starts with the words: ‘It was a dark and stormy night; the rain fell in torrents – except at occasional intervals, when it was checked by a violent gust of wind which swept up the streets (for it is in London that our scene lies), rattling along the housetops, and fiercely agitating the scanty flame of the lamps that struggled against the darkness.’ E. Bulwer-Lytton, Paul Clifford. London: Routledge, 1875, 1.

58 Bulwer-Lytton, 1897, op. cit., 95.

59 Bulwer-Lytton, 1897, op. cit., iii, v.

60 Ibid., 300; Leppmann, 1968, op. cit., 136.

61 S.J. Gould, The Mismeasure of Man. Middlesex: Pelican, 1984, 92; Bulwer-Lytton, 1897, op. cit., 300.

62 Ibid., 392; T. Rocco, ‘The Villa of Diomedes’,in Tales from an Eruption: Pompeii, Herculaneum, Oplontis: Guide to the Exhibition. Edited by P.G. Guzzo. Milan: Electa, 2003a, 92.

63 Moormann, 2003, op. cit., 15.

64 T. Gautier, Arria Marcella: A Souvenir of Pompeii. Translated by De Sumichrast, F.C. New York: C.T. Brainard, 1901, 316.

65 Ibid., 328.

66 Ibid., 334.

67 Ibid., 335.

68 Ibid., 340–43.

69 Ibid., 355.

70 Ibid., 356.

71 Ibid., 361–62.

72 Ibid., 363–64.

73 Ibid., 366.

74 Leppmann, 1968, op. cit., 135–36; Rocco, 2003a, op. cit., 92.

75 Various claims have been made for the number of bodies in this house. Depending on the publication, the number generally ranges between 11 and 22 bodies. Though Corti (1951, op. cit., 73) claimed that 34 people and one goat met their deaths in this villa the larger figure is probably more accurate. See Moormann, 2003, op. cit., 25 and Rocco, 2003a, op. cit., 92.

76 Ibid.

77 Bulwer-Lytton, 1897, op. cit., xi.

78 Bulwer-Lytton, 1897, op. cit., 304 n. V (a).

79 J.L. Campbell, Edward Bulwer-Lytton. Boston: Twayne, 1986, 4–5, 21, 72, 132; Leppmann, 1968, op. cit., 132, 136.

80 Clay and Frederikson, 1976, op. cit., 155. Bulwer-Lytton’s novel inspired works in a number of media, including painting, opera, pyrodramas and films (See M. Wyke, Projecting the Past: Ancient Rome, Cinema, and History. London: Routledge, 1997, 147–82.) That The Last Days of Pompeii has continued to exert an influence on the popular imagination can be seen in the fact that the most recent film version was made at Pompeii in 1985, starring major actors including Franco Nero and Laurence Olivier.

81 Anonymous quoted in Dyer, 1883, op. cit., 477.

82 Corti, 1951, op. cit., 69–78.

83 P. Ciprotti, ‘Der letzte tag von Pompeji’, Altertum, Vol. 10, 1964, 47–48, 51, 53, 54.

84 S.C. Bisel and J.F. Bisel, ‘Health and nutrition at Herculaneum: An examination of human skeletal remains’,in The Natural History of Pompeii. Edited by W.F. Jashemski, and F.G. Meyer. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002, 451; S.C. Bisel et al., The Secrets of Vesuvius. Toronto: Madison Press, 1990, 10–11.

85 For example, Bisel and Bisel, 2002, op. cit.

86 Bisel et al., 1990, op. cit.

87 Bisel et al., 1990, op. cit., 14, 43; Bulwer-Lytton, 1897, op. cit., 155, 285–86.

88 R. Gore, ‘After 2000 years of silence: The dead do tell tales at Vesuvius’, National Geographic, Vol. 165, No. 5, 1984, 556–613; G.M. Grosvenor, ‘An exciting year of discovery’, National Geographic, Vol. 162, No. 6, 1982, 820–21; J. Judge, ‘On the slope of Vesuvius a buried town gives up its dead’, National Geographic, Vol. 162, No. 6, 1982: 686–93.

89 J.J. Deiss, Herculaneum: Italys Buried Treasure. 2nd edn. New York: Harper & Row, 1985, 194; Gore, 1984, op. cit., 572–73, 588–89, 600, 604–5.

90 Gore, 1984, op. cit., 597–600.

91 Suetonius, The Twelve Caesars. Translated by R. Graves. Middlesex: Penguin, 1957, Augustus, 79.

92 D.R. Brothwell, The Bog Man and the Archaeology of People. London: British Museum Publications, 1986, 110; J. Hay, Ancient China. London: Bodley Head, 1973, 94–99; T. H.G. Oettlé (former Director of the New South Wales Forensic Institute, Sydney) to E. Lazer, 1983, personal communication.

93 C. Renfrew and P. Bahn, Archaeology: Theory, Methods and Practice. London: Thames & Hudson, 1991, 175–76.

94 Bisel et al., 1990, op. cit., 23.

95 A.L. Zihlman, The Human Evolution Colouring Book. New York: Barnes & Noble, 1982, 105.

96 S.C. Bisel to E. Lazer 1988c, Physical anthropologist, Herculaneum.

97 Deiss, 1985, op. cit., 189–96.

98 Maiuri in Deiss, 1985, op. cit., xii.

99 S.C. Bisel, ‘The skeletons of Herculaneum, Italy’,in Wet Site Archaeology: Proceedings of the International Conference on Wet Site Archaeology, Gainesville, Florida, December 1214, 1986; sponsored by the National Endowment for the Humanities and University of Florida. Edited by B. A. Purdy. Caldwell, New Jersey: Telford Press, 1988b, 209.

100 Bisel, 1988b, op. cit. 209–10; Bisel and Bisel, 2002, op. cit., 468, (Erc 26).

101 S.C. Bisel, ‘Human bones at Herculaneum’, Rivista di Studi Pompeiani, Vol. 1, 1987, 127– 28; S.C. Bisel, ‘The human skeletons of Herculaneum’, International Journal of Anthropology, Vol. 6, No. 1, 1991, 14, 16.

102 Bisel, 1987, op. cit., 127.

103 Bisel, 1988b, op. cit., 65.

104 Bisel and Bisel, 2002, op. cit.

105 As can be seen, for example, in C. Pellegrino, Ghosts of Vesuvius: A New Look at the Last Days of Pompeii, How Towers Fall and Other Strange Connections. New York: William Morrow, 2004, 219–28.

106 P. Wilkinson, Pompeii: The Last Day. London: BBC Books, 2003, 158–59.

107 Wilkinson, 2003, op. cit., 159.

108 A. Butterworth and A. Laurence. Pompeii: The Living City. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2005, 304–6.

109 A. Civale, ‘Pompeii: The house of Julius Polybius (IX, 13, 1–3)’,in Tales from an Eruption: Pompeii, Herculaneum, Oplontis: Guide to the Exhibition. Edited by P.G. Guzzo. Milan: Electa, 2003e, 163.

110 Ibid.

111 G. Di Bernardo et al., ‘Analisi dei reperti ossei della Casa Grado di conservazione ed amplificazione del DNA antico’,in La Casa di Giulio Polibio: Studi Interdisciplinari. Edited by A. Ciarollo and E. De Carolis. Pompeo: Centro Studi arti Figurative, Università di Tokio, 2001, 79–91; M. Henneberg, and R. Henneberg, ‘Skeletal material from the house of C. Iulius Polybius in Pompei, 79AD’,in La Casa di Giulio Polibio: Studi Interdisciplinari. Edited by A. Ciarallo and E. De Carolas. Pompei: Centro Studi arti Figurative, Università di Tokio, 2001, 79–92; P. Oriente et al., ‘Studio della densità minerale ossea negli scheletri di età Romana rinvenuti in Pompei nella Casa di Polibio’,in La Casa di Giulio Polibio: Studi Interdisciplinari. Edited by A. Ciarallo and E. De Carolas. Pompei: Centro Studi arti Figurative, Università di Tokio, 2001, 107–10; M. Torino and G. Fornaciari, ‘Paleopatologia degli individui nella Casa di Giulio Polibio’,in La Casa di Giulio Polibio: Studi Interdisciplinari. Edited by A. Ciarallo and E. De Carolis. Pompei: Centro Studi arti Figurative, Università di Tokio, 2001, 93–106.

112 Bernardo et al., 2001, op. cit.; M. Cipollaro et al., ‘Histological analysis and ancient DNA amplification of human bone remains found in Caius Iulius Polybius House in Pompeii’, Croatian Medical Journal, Vol. 40, No. 3, 1999a: 392–97.

113 Henneberg and Henneberg, 2001, op. cit., 80–85.

114 Henneberg and Henneberg, 2001, op. cit., 81–82, 84.

115 A.C. Aufderheide and C. Rodriguez-Martin. The Cambridge Encyclopaedia of Human Palaeopathology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998, 61–62; C. Roberts, and K. Manchester. The Archaeology of Disease. 2nd edn. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1995, 36; T.W. Sadler, Langmans Medical Embryology. 10th edn. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2006, 293–94.

116 Henneberg and Henneberg, 2001, op. cit., 84.

117 This assumption has been used by various scholars to reconstruct the number of pregnancies that had come to term in Pompeii and Herculaneum. See, for example, Bisel and Bisel, 2002, op. cit., 461, 467, 472; L. Capasso, I Fuggiaschi di Ercolano: Paleobiologia delle Vittime dellEruzione Vesuviana del 79 d.C. Roma: ‘L’Erma’ di Bretschneider, 2001, 973– 78; M. Henneberg et al., ‘Skeletal material from the house of C. Iulius Polybius in Pompeii, 79 AD’, Human Evolution, Vol. 11, No. 3, 1996: 255.

118 M.A. Kelley, ‘Parturition and pelvic changes’, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 51, 1979, 545.

119 Butterworth and Laurence, 2005, op. cit., 297.

120 Butterworth and Laurence, 2005, op. cit., 305.

2 An Egyptian interlude

1 A.C. Aufderheide, The Scientific Study of Mummies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003, 515–18; A. Cockburn et al. (eds), Mummies, Disease and Ancient Cultures.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998, 1; A.R. David and R. Archbold, Conversations with Mummies: New Light on the Lives of the Ancient Egyptians. Sydney: Allen & Unwin, 2000, 40; S. Ikram and A. Dodson, The Mummy in Ancient Egypt: Equipping the Dead for Eternity. London: Thames & Hudson, 1998, 64.

2 This mummy was unwrapped in 1792 by Blumenbach. David and Archbold, 2000, op. cit., 40; Ikram and Dodson, 1998, op. cit., 66.

3 Aufderheide, 2003, op. cit. 8–9, David and Archbold, 2000, op. cit, 40, 44; Ikram and Dodson, 1998, op. cit., 66–67, G. Néret (ed.), Napoleon and the Pharaohs: Description of Egypt. Cologne: Taschen, 2001, 5–7.

4 Petrie in Ikram and Dodson, 1998, op. cit., 67–69; Pettigrew in Aufderheide, 2003, op. cit., 521, 530.

5 Ikram and Dodson, 1998, op. cit., 69.

6 Aufderheide, 2003, op. cit., 9–10, 522–23, 528–29, Ikram and Dodson, 1998, op. cit., 69–71.

7 Aufderheide, 2003, op. cit., 523–25, B. Brier, The Encyclopedia of Mummies. New York: Checkmark, 1998, 112–13; Cockburn et al., 1998, op. cit., 1, 4; David and Archbold, 2000, op. cit., 42; Ikram and Dodson, 1998, op. cit., 70–71; H. Pringle, The Mummy Congress: Science, Obsession, and the Everlasting Dead. London: Fourth Estate, 2001, 188–211; M. Twain, The Innocents Abroad. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1903, 421.

8 Brier, 1998, op. cit., 14–15; B. Brier, Egyptian Mummies: Unravelling the Secrets of an Ancient Art. London: Brockhampton Press, 1999/1994, 157; David and Archbold, 2000, op.cit., 45; Ikram and Dodson, 1998, op. cit., 7–71, 73.

9 An example of this is the song ‘In Old Tutenkhamen’s Day’, by Billy Jones and Ernest Hare. It was performed on Edison Diamond zdisc 51155–L in 1923. http://www.turtlese rviceslimited.org/jukebox.htm Brier, 1998, op. cit., 184; Ikram and Dodson, 1998, op. cit., 74, 76–79, 84, 86–89; J. Tyldesley, The Mummy: Unwrap the Ancient Secrets of the Mummies Tombs. London: Carlton, 1999, 82–83.

10 Aufderheide, 2003, op. cit., 531–35.

11 Aufderheide, 2003, op. cit., 532; Shakespeare, Macbeth Act IV, Scene 1, Othello Act III, Scene 4. 12 For examples of the range and quantity of literature and films that have been produced, see Aufderheide, 2003, op. cit., 531–35; Brier, 1998, op. cit., 64.

13 T. Gautier, Romance of a Mummy. New York: C.T. Brainard, 1898; T. Gautier, The Mummys Foot. Translated by F.C. De Sumichrast, 1901 edn. New York: C.T. Brainard. 14 Gautier, 1901, op. cit., 334.

15 Ibid., 342.

16 Aufderheide, 2003, op. cit., 10; Ikram and Dodson, 1998, op. cit., 95; S.G. Morton, Crania Aegyptiaca; or Observations on Egyptian Ethnography Derived from Anatomy, History and the Monuments. Philadelphia: John Pennington, 1844.

17 Wood Jones in Cockburn et al., op. cit., 2. Aufderheide, 2003, op. cit., 531; David and Archbold, 2000, op. cit., 51.

18 Aufderheide, 2003, op. cit., 12–13; Cockburn et al., 1998, op. cit., 2–4; David and Archbold, 2000, op. cit., 50–55.

19 Aufderheide, 2003, op. cit., 13; Cockburn et al., 1998, op. cit., 3; David and Archbold, 2000, op. cit., 54, Ikram and Dodson, 1998, op. cit., 95.

20 Aufderheide, 2003, op. cit., 11–13; Ikram and Dodson, 1998, op. cit., 95. 21 Aufderheide, 2003, op. cit., 14–15; David and Archbold, 2000, op. cit., 34–39; Ikram and Dodson, 1998, op. cit., 92.

22 David and Archbold, 2000, op. cit., 59; Ikram and Dodson, 1998, op. cit., 92. 23 D.R. Brothwell et al. (eds), Science in Archaeology: A Comprehensive Survey of Progress and Research. New York: Basic Books, 1963; D.R. Brothwell and A.T. Sandison. Diseases in Antiquity. Springfield, Illinois: Basic Books, 1967.

24 Aufderheide, 2003, op. cit., 16–17.

25 Cockburn et al., 1998, op. cit.

26 Aufderheide, 2003, op. cit., 18–21; David and Archbold, 2000, op. cit., 16–32; Ikram and Dodson, 1998, op. cit., 95, 99, 101.

3 An anthropological resource

1 A.E. Cooley, Pompeii. London: Duckworth, 2003, 86–87, 92; E. De Carolis and G. Patricelli, ‘Le vittime dell’eruzione’,in Storie da unEruzione: Pompei, Ercolano, Oplontis: Guida alla Mostra, ed. A. d’Ambrosio, P.G. Guzzo and M. Mastroroberto. Milano: Electa, 2003a, 66; E. De Carolis, and G. Patricelli. Vesuvius, AD 79: The Destruction of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Translated by The J. Paul Getty Trust. Rome: ‘L’Erma’ di Bretschneider, 2003b, 109–10.

2 S. Delle Chiaie, ‘Cenno Notomico–patologico sulle ossa umane scavate in Pompei: Letto dal Socio ordinario Stefano delle Chiaie nella tornata de’ 15 settembre 1853’, FiliatreSebezio, Vol. 48, 1854: 3–30; De Carolis and Patricelli, 2003a, op. cit., 66; De Carolis and Patricelli, 2003b, op. cit., 110; G. Nicolucci, ‘Crania Pompeiana: Descrizione de’ crani umani rinvenuti fra le ruine dell’ antica Pompei’, Atti della R. Accademia delle Scienze Fisiche e Matematiche, Vol. 9, No. 10, 1882, 8–9.

3 Nicolucci, 1882, op. cit., 8 –10.

4 Delle Chiaie, 1854, op. cit., 7–11; Nicolucci, 1882, op. cit., 8–9.

5 Nicolucci, 1882, op. cit., 9.

6 S.J. Gould, The Mismeasure of Man. Middlesex: Pelican, 1984, 98–99; Nicolucci in 1864 in Nicolucci, 1882, op. cit., 9; Nicolucci in 1867 in Nicolucci, 1882, op. cit., 9; Sandifort 1838–39: Tab XII in Nicolucci, 1882, op. cit., 9; Vrolik and Van der Hoeven 1859 in Nicolucci, 1882, op. cit., 9.

7 Presuhn 1881 in Nicolucci 1882, op. cit., 10.

8 J.L. Angel, ‘Skeletal material from Attica’, Hesperia, Vol. 14, 1945, 286–87.

9 Such as by A.L. Kroeber, Anthropology: Race, Language, Culture, Psychology, Prehistory. 2nd edn. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1948, 132.

10 Amabile 1868 in P. Ciprotti, ‘Der letzte tag von Pompeji’, Altertum, Vol. 10, 1964, 53. 11 Nicolucci, 1882, op. cit., 2; Ciprotti, 1964, op. cit., 53.

12 Nicolucci, 1882, op. cit., 2–3; Strabo. The Geography. Translated by H.R. Jones. Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1988, V, IV, 8; Pliny the Elder, ‘Natural Histories,’ in Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1938/1962, 3, 60–2.

13 Nicolucci, 1882, op. cit., 1;

14 Gould, 1984, op. cit., 98–100; Nicolucci, 1882, op. cit., 10.

15 Gould, 1984, op. cit., 35; Kroeber, 1948, op. cit., 141; Nicolucci, 1882, op. cit., 11–12. 16 Nicolucci, 1882, op. cit., 12–21, 24.

17 Kroeber, 1948, op. cit., 127, 132, 135–36,142.

18 Nicolucci, 1882, op. cit., 24–25.

19 B. Conticello, Villa dei Misteri. Milan: FMR/Museum, 1987, 35.

20 For example R.E.L.B. de Kind, ‘Two Tondo heads in the Casa dell’Atrio a Mosaico (IV, 1–2) at Herculaneum: Some remarks on portraits in Campanian wall paintings’, Kölner Jahrbuch für Vorund Frühgeschichte, Vol. 24, 1991, 165–69; K.J. Francis, ‘The Pompeian Bust Medallion’, unpublished MA thesis, Department of Archaeology. Sydney: University of Sydney, 1983; D.L. Thomas, ‘Portraiture at Pompeii’,in Pompeii and the Vesuvian Landscape, ed. AIA. Washington, DC: The Archaeological Institute of America & The Smithsonian, 1979.

21 De Kind, 1991, op. cit., 166–67,169; J.B. Ward-Perkins and A. Claridge. Pompeii AD 79: Treasures from the National Archaeological Museum, Naples and the Pompeii Antiquarium, Italy. 2nd edn. Sydney: Australian Gallery Directors’ Council, 1980, Fig. 17, 96–97. 22 A. Busignani, Botticelli: The Life and Work of the Artist. London: Thames & Hudson, 1968, pl 26–32; M. Rosci, Leonardo. New York: Mayflower Books, 1981, 129, 148. 23 Hartman 1876 in Nicolucci, 1882, op. cit., 23; Nicolucci, 1882, op. cit., 21–22; Retzius 1864 in Nicolucci, 1882, op. cit., 23.

24 See, for example, Gould, 1984, op. cit., 24–26, 35, 74.

25 A.M. Brues, People and Races. New York: Macmillan, 1977, 232; S.J. Gould, ‘Morton’s ranking of races by cranial capacity: Unconscious manipulation of data may be a scientific norm’, Science, Vol. 200, No. 43, 41, 1978, 503; Gould, 1984, op. cit., 89–112; Morton, S.G. Crania Aegyptiaca; or Observations on Egyptian Ethnography Derived from Anatomy, History and the Monuments. Philadelphia: John Pennington, 1844.

26 Gould, 1978, op. cit., 505; Gould, 1984, op. cit., 53–54.

27 J.L. Angel, ‘A racial analysis of the ancient Greeks: An essay on the use of morphological types’, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 2, 1944, 329–76; Angel, 1945, op. cit., 279–363; J.L. Angel, ‘Skeletal change in ancient Greece’, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 4, 1946, 69–97; M.F. Ashley Montagu, Mans Most Dangerous Myth: The Fallacy of Race. 3rd edn. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1952, 34; C.M. Fürst, ‘Zur anthropologie der prähistorischen Griechen in Argolis’, Lunds Arsskrift, Vol. 26, No. 8, 1930, 130; C.M. Fürst, ‘Zur Kenntniss der anthropologie prähistorischen bevölkerung der Insel Cypern’, Lunds Arsskrift, Vol. 29, No. 6, 1933, 1–106; S.J. Gould, ‘The geometer of race,’ Discover, Vol. 15, No. 11, 1994, 65, 67; Nicolucci, 1882, op. cit., 12; S.R. Saunders, ‘Nonmetric skeletal variation’,in Reconstruction of Life from the Skeleton ed. M.Y. Iscan and K.A.R. Kennedy. New York: Alan R. Liss, 1989, 95–96.

28 Ashley Montagu, 1952, op. cit., 34; D.C. Cook, ‘The old physical anthropology and the New World: A look at the accomplishments of an antiquated paradigm’,in Bioarchaeology: The Contextual Analysis of Human Remains, ed. J.E. Buikstra and L.A. Beck. Amsterdam: Academic Press, 2006, 29–34; J. Diamond, ‘Race without colour’,Discover, Vol. 15, No. 11, 1994, 82–89; J. Ferguson,‘The laboratory of racism’, New Scientist, Vol. 103, 1984, 18; Gould, 1984, op. cit., 50–69; S.G. Morton, Crania Americana or, a Comparative View of the Skulls of Various Aboriginal Nations of North and South America. Philadelphia: John Pennington, 1839. 29 F. Boas, ‘Changes in bodily form of descendants of immigrants (reprint of 1912 article)’, in Frontiers of Anthropology, ed. M.F. Ashley Montagu. New York: Capricorn Books, 1974, 321–32; Ferguson, 1984, op. cit. Subsequent studies in different parts of the world have confirmed the plasticity of certain traits as a result of altered environment for example Ashley Montagu, 1952, op. cit., 4; P.M. Buzarbaruah, ‘Changes in anthropometric measurements due to migration and environment: A preliminary observation’, Anthropologie,Vol. 30, No. 2, 1992: 189–95; C.C. Gravlee et al., ‘Boas’s changes in bodily form: The immigrant study, cranial plasticity, and Boas’s physical anthropology’, American Anthropologist,Vol. 105, No. 2, 2003, 326–32; C.U.A. Kappers, and L.W. Parr, An Introduction to the Anthropology of the Near East in Ancient and Recent Times. Amsterdam: Noord–Hollandsche uitgeversmaatschappij, 1934, 5; A.L. Kroeber, 1948, op. cit., 167–68.

30 L.E. St Hoyme and M.Y. Iscan, ‘Determination of sex and race: Accuracy and assumptions’ in Reconstruction of Life from the Skeleton, ed. M.Y. Iscan and K.A.R. Kennedy. New York: Alan R. Liss, 1989, 56. For the validity of European racial classification, especially for the so-called European races compare with W.Z. Ripley, The Races of Europe: A Sociological Study. London: Kegan Paul, 1899. This issue is discussed at length by Ashley Montagu, 1952, op. cit., M.F. Ashley Montagu (ed.), The Concept of Race. New York: Free Press, 1964; W.C. Boyd, Genetics and the Races of Man. Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1950, 3–26; C.S. Coon, The Origin of Races. London: Jonathan Cape, 1963; C.S. Coon, and E.E. Hunt (eds), The Living Races of Man.(London: Jonathan Cape, 1965; C. D’Amore et al., ‘Primi risultati degli studi sull’antropologia Pompeiana del 79 d.C.’,in La Regione Sotterrata dal Vesuvio: Studi e Prospettive, Atti del Convegno Internazionale 1115 Novembre 1979. Napoli: Università degli Studi, 1982, 927–43.

31 T.D. White and P.A. Folkens, The Human Bone Manual. Boston: Academic Press, 2005, 400–403; also for discussion of the ‘race concept’ and its impact on physical anthropology, see M. Cartmill, and K. Brown, ‘Surveying the race concept: A reply to Lieberman, Kirk, and Littlefield’, American Anthropologist, Vol. 105, No. 1, 2003, 114–15; R. Caspari, ‘From types to populations: A century of race, physical anthropology, and the American Anthropological Association’, American Anthropologist, Vol. 105, No. 1, 2003, 65–76; K.A. Kaszycka, and J. Strziko. ‘“Race”– Still an issue for physical anthropology? Results of Polish studies seen in the light of the US findings’, American Anthropologist, Vol. 105, No. 1, 2003, 116–24; L. Lieberman, et al., ‘Exchange across difference: The status of the race concept – Perishing paradigm: Race – 1931–99’, American Anthropologist, Vol. 105, No. 1, 2003, 110–13.

32 N.A. Barnicot and D.R. Brothwell, ‘The evaluation of metrical data in the comparison of ancient and modern bones’,in CIBA Foundation Symposium on Medical Biology and Etruscan Origins, ed. G.E.W. Wolstenholme and C.M. O’Connor. London: J. & A. Churchill, 1959, 131–48.

33 Barnicott and Brothwell, 1959, op. cit., 136, 138.

34 C. D’Amore et al., ‘Antropologia pompeiana del 79 d.C.: Sesso ed età di morte’, Archivio per lAntropologia e la Etnologia, Vol. 109, 1979, 298, 300–301, 304; D’Amore et al., 1982, op. cit., 928. For a short discussion on the importance of the skull as a basis of most physical anthropological studies until the latter part of the twentieth century see W.M. Krogman, The Human Skeleton in Forensic Medicine. Springfield, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas, 1962, 114.

35 D’Amore et al., 1982, op. cit., 927.

36 D’Amore et al., 1979, op. cit., 300–301; D’Amore et al., 1982, op. cit., 928.

37 D’Amore et al., 1979, op. cit., 297–308; D’Amore, et al., 1982, op. cit., 929; Nicolucci, 1882, op. cit., 10.

38 D’Amore, et al., 1982, op. cit., 927–38.

39 Ibid.

40 For example, M. Cipollaro et al., ‘Ancient DNA in human bone remains from Pompeii archaeological site,’ Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol. 247, 1999b, 901–4; G. Di Bernardo et al., ‘Analisi dei reperti ossei della Casa Grado di conservazione ed amplificazione del DNA antico’,in La Casa di Giulio Polibio: Studi Interdisciplinari, ed. A. Ciarollo and E. De Carolis. Pompeo: Centro Studi arti Figurative, Università di Tokio, 2001, 79–91; H. Etani et al., ‘La campagna di scavo del Japan Institute of Palaeological Studies di Kyoto del 2002’, Opuscula Pompeiana, Vol. 12, 2004, 125–37; F.M. Guarino et al., ‘Bone preservation in human remains from the Terme del Sarno at Pompeii using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy’, Journal of Archaeological Science, Vol. 33, 2006: 513–20; M. Henneberg, and R. Henneberg, ‘Skeletal material from the house of C. Iulius Polybius in Pompei, 79 AD’,in La Casa di Giulio Polibio: Studi Interdisciplinari, ed. A. Ciarallo and E. De Carolis. Pompei: Centro Studi arti Figurative, Università di Tokio, 2001, 79–92; M. Henneberg and R.J. Henneberg, ‘Reconstructing medical knowledge in ancient Pompeii from the hard evidence of bones and teeth’, presented at a conference at Deutsches Museum, Munich 21–22 March 2000, in Homo Faber: Studies in Nature, Technology and Science at the Time of Pompeii, ed. Renn, J. and G. Castagnetti. Roma: L’Erma di Bretschneider, 2002, 169–87; M. Henneberg et al., ‘Skeletal material from the house of C. Iulius Polybius in Pompeii, 79 AD’, Human Evolution, Vol. 11, No. 3, 1996, 249–59; P. Oriente et al., ‘Studio della densità minerale ossea negli scheletri di età Romana rinvenuti in Pompei nella Casa di Polibio,’ in La Casa di Giulio Polibio: Studi Interdisciplinari, ed. A. Ciarallo and E. De Carolas. Pompei: Centro Studi arti Figurative, Università di Tokio, 2001, 107–10; M. Torino and G. Fornaciari, ‘Paleopatologia degli individui nella Casa di Giulio Polibio’,in La Casa di Giulio Polibio: Studi Interdisciplinari, ed. Ciarallo, A. and E. De Carolis. Pompei: Centro Studi arti Figurative, Università di Tokio, 2001, 93–106.

41 S.C. Bisel, ‘The Herculaneum Project: Preliminary Report’, Palaeopathology Newsletter, Vol. 41, 1983, 6–7; S.C. Bisel, ‘Human bones at Herculaneum’, Rivista di Studi Pompeiani, Vol. 1 1987, 123–31; S.C. Bisel, ‘The human skeletons of Herculaneum,’ International Journal of Anthropology, Vol. 6, No. 1, 1991, 1–20; S.C. Bisel, ‘Nutrition in first century Herculaneum’, Anthropologie, Vol. 26 1988a: 61–66; S.C. Bisel, ‘The people of Herculaneum’, Helmartica, Vol. 37, 1986, 11–23; S.C. Bisel, ‘The skeletons of Herculaneum, Italy’,in Wet Site Archaeology: Proceedings of the International Conference on Wet Site Archaeology, Gainesville, Florida, December 1214, 1986; sponsored by the National Endowment for the Humanities and University of Florida, ed. Purdy, B.A. Caldwell, New Jersey: Telford Press, 1988b; S.C. Bisel and J.F. Bisel, ‘Health and nutrition at Herculaneum: An examination of human skeletal remains’,in The Natural History of Pompeii, ed. W.F. Jashemski and F.G. Meyer. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002, 451–75; L. Capasso, I Fuggiaschi di Ercolano: Paleobiologia delle Vittime dellEruzione Vesuviana del 79 d.C. Roma: “L’Erma” di Bretschneider, 2001, 11; M. Pagano, ‘L’antica Ercolano,’ in Vesuvio 79 AD: Vita e Morte ad Ercolano, ed. Petrone, P.P. and F. Fedele. Naples: Fredericiana Editrice Universitaria, 2002, 55–66; P.P. Petrone et al., ‘La popolazione di Ercolano’,in Vesuvio 79 AD: Vita e Morte ad Ercolano, ed. P.P. Petrone and F. Fedele. Naples: Fredericiana Editrice Universitaria, 2002, 70; P.P. Petrone, ‘Le vittime dell’eruzione del 79 AD’,in Storie da uneruzione. In margine alla mostra, Atti della Tavola Rotonda, Napoli, 2003, Associazione Internazionale Amici di Pompei, Dipartimento di Discipline Storiche, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, ed. P.G. Guzzo. Pompei: Litografia Sicignano, 2005, 31; Sigurdsson, 1985, op. cit., 364.

42 D.C. Cook and M.L. Powell, ‘The evolution of American paleopathology,’ in Bioarchaeology: The Contextual Analysis of Human Remains, ed. J.E. Buikstra and L.A. Beck. Amsterdam: Academic Press, 2006, 300. See also Chapter 8.

43 S.C. Bisel (Physical anthropologist, Herculaneum) to E. Lazer., 1988c, personal communication.

44 Bisel and Bisel, 2002, op. cit., 451.

45 Capasso, 2001, op. cit.

46 For example, see Torino and Fornaciari, 2000, op. cit., 60–63.

47 Capasso, 2001, op. cit., 7–8.

48 For example, L. Capasso, ‘Indoor pollution and respiratory diseases in ancient Rome’, The Lancet, Vol. 356, No. 9243, 2000b, 1774; L. Capasso and G. Di Tota, ‘Tuberculosis in Herculaneum (AD 79)’,in Tuberculosis Past and Present, ed. G. Pálfi, O. Dutour, J. Deák and I. Hutás. Budapest: Golden Books & Tuberculosis Foundation, 1999, 463–67; L. Capasso, ‘Infectious diseases and eating habits at Herculaneum (1st century AD, Southern Italy),’ International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, Vol. 17, No. 4, 2007, 350–57.

49 P.P. Petrone et al., ‘La popolazione di Ercolano,’ in Vesuvio 79 AD: Vita e Morte ad Ercolano, ed. Petrone, P.P. and F. Fedele. Naples: Fredericiana Editrice Universitaria, 2002, 67–73; P.P. Petrone, L. Fattore and V. Monetti, ‘Alimentazione e malattie ad Ercolano’,in Vesuvio79AD: Vita e Morte ad Ercolano, ed. P.P. Petrone and F. Fedele. Naples: Fredericiana Editrice Universitaria, 2002, 75–83.

50 P.P. Petrone to E. Lazer, 2008, personal communication.

4 Context of a mass disaster

1 R. Ascher, ‘Analogy in archaeological interpretation’, SouthWestern Journal of Anthropology, Vol. 17, 1961, 324; L.R. Binford, ‘Behavioural archaeology and the “Pompeii Premise” in archaeology’, Journal of Anthropological Research, Vol. 37, 1981: 195–208; but also see M.B. Schiffer, Formation Processes of the Archaeological Record. Albuquerque, New Mexico: University of New Mexico, 1987, 237; M.B. Schiffer, ‘Is there a “Pompeii Premise” in archaeology?’, Journal of Anthropological Research, Vol. 41, 1985, 18–41. The concept of the ‘Pompeii Premise’ can be traced back to Ascher, an archaeologist who had never worked on the sites destroyed by the AD 79 eruption and did not appreciate their complexity and who apparently only had limited contact with the academic literature on Pompeii. This is also the case for the other proponents of the Pompeii Premise. This is suggested by the bibliographies of Binford, 1981, op. cit., 207–8; and Schiffer, 1985, op. cit. 39–41.

2 This skeleton was found on 19 April 1748. E.C.C. Corti, The Destruction and Resurrection of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Translated by K. Smith and R.G. Smith. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1951, 117.

3 E.C.C. Corti, The Destruction and Resurrection of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Trans. K. Smith and R.G. Smith. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1951, 135–36; M. Grant, Cities of Vesuvius: Pompeii and Herculaneum. Middlesex: Penguin, 1976, 31.

4 In one passage she describes the site as a re flection of the last moments of the town. De Staël in W. Leppmann, Pompeii in Fact and Fiction. London: Elek, 1968, 106.

5 For example, P.M. Allison, ‘Artefact assemblages: Not the “Pompeii Premise”’,in Papers of the Fourth Conference of Italian Archaeology, University of London, 1990, ed. E. Herring, R. Whitehouse and J. Wilkins. London: Accordia Research Centre, 1992a, 49; P.M. Allison, Pompeian Households: An Analysis of the Material Culture, Monograph 42. Los Angeles: Cotsen Institute for Archaeology, University of California, 2004, 4; A.E. Cooley, Pompeii. London: Duckworth, 2003, 13.

6 For example, J.W. Alexander, ‘The impact of discoveries’,in The Buried Cities and the Eruption of Vesuvius: The 1900th Anniversary, ed. H.W. Benario and G.W. Lawall. Amherst: NECN & University of Massachusetts, 1979, 26; W. Jongman, P.W. De Neeve and H.W. Pleket (eds), The Economy and Society of Pompeii. Vol. 4, Dutch Monographs on Ancient History and Archaeology. Amsterdam: J.C. Gieber, 1988, 55–56.

7 J.-P. Descœudres, ‘Rome and Roman art’,in The Enduring Past: Archaeology of the Ancient World for Australians, ed. A. Cremin. Sydney: NSW University Press, 1987, 174.

8 Seneca, ‘Naturales Quaestiones’,in Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1972, VI, 1.1–3, 10; VI.27.1,VI.31.

9 Tacitus, ‘Annals of Imperial Rome’. Trans. B. Radice and R. Baldick. Middlesex: Penguin, 1971, 22.

10 P.M. Allison, ‘The Distribution of Pompeiian House Contents and its Significance. Vols. I and II’, unpublished PhD thesis, School of Archaeology, Classics and Ancient History. Sydney: University of Sydney, 1992b, 5; P.M. Allison, Pompeian Households: An Analysis of the Material Culture, Monograph 42. Los Angeles: Cotsen Institute for Archaeology, University of California, 2004, 17–18; J. Andreau, ‘Il terremoto del 62’,in Pompei 79: Raccolta di Studi per il Decimonono Centenario dellEruzione Vesuviana, ed. F. Zevi. Napoli: Gaetano Macchiaroli, 1979, 40; H.W. Benario, ‘The land, the cities, the event’,in The Buried Cities and the Eruption of Vesuvius: The 1900th Anniversary, ed. Benario, H.W. and G.W. Lawall, Lectures presented at Emory University on May 7, 1979 in a symposium sponsored by the Dept. of Modern Languages and Classics, Alpha Sigma chapter of Eta Sigma Phi, and the Atlanta Society of the Archaeological Institute of America. Amherst: NECN & University of Massachusetts, 1979, 3; A.E. Cooley, Pompeii. London: Duckworth, 2003, 127, note 4; L. Richardson, Pompeii: An Architectural History. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1988, xxi, 18. The discrepancy is the result of the different consular dates given by Seneca, op. cit., 6, 1, 2; and Tacitus, op. cit., 15, 22. The event was dated to AD 63 by Seneca and AD62 by Tacitus. The AD 62 date is now most commonly accepted by scholars. 11 Allison, op. cit. 1992b, 8–9; Andreau, 1979, op. cit., 40–44; M. Brion, Pompeii and Herculaneum: The Glory and the Grief. London: Cardinal, 1973/1960, 21–24; Corti, 1951, op. cit., 44–45, 48; Corti, 1951, op. cit., 44–45, 48; J.-P. Descœudres, ‘A brief history of Pompeii’,in Pompeii Revisited: The Life and Death of a Roman Town, ed. D. Harrison. Sydney: Meditarch, 1994a, 34–37; L. Richardson, ‘Life as it appeared when Vesuvius engulfed Pompeii’, Smithsonian, Vol. 9, No. 1, 1978, 84, 86; L. Richardson, Pompeii: An Architectural History. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1988, xxi–xxii, 18–22. 12 CIL X 846 = ILS 6367. For the full inscription see A.E. Cooley and M.G.L. Cooley. Pompeii: A Sourcebook. London: Routledge, 2004, 31.

13 For an illustration, see Cooley and Cooley, 2004. op. cit., 30.

14 Allison, 1992b, 86–97; P.M. Allison, ‘On-going seismic activity and its effects on the living conditions in Pompeii in the last decades’,in La Regione Vesuviana dal 62 al 79 d. C.: Problemi Archeologici e Sismologici, ed. Frölich, T. and L. Jacobelli. Munich: 1995, 162– 69; Allison, 2004, op. cit., 17–19; Cooley, 2003, op. cit., 23; E. De Carolis, and G. Patricelli. Vesuvius, AD 79: The Destruction of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Translated by The J. Paul Getty Trust. Rome: ‘L’Erma’ di Bretschneider, 2003b, 71–76; J.-P. Descœudres, ‘Did some Pompeians return to their city after the eruption of Mt. Vesuvius in AD 79? Observations in the house of the coloured capitals,’ in Ercolano 17381988: 250 Anni di Ricerca Archeologica, ed. L.F. Dell’Orto. Rome: ‘L’Erma’ di Bretschneider, 1993, 173; Descoeudres, op. cit., 1994a, 35.

15 For example by Allison, 1992a, op. cit., Allison, 1995, op. cit.

16 Seneca, op. cit., VI,12.

17 Suetonius, ‘The Twelve Caesars.’ Middlesex: Penguin, 1957, Nero, 20.

18 Seneca, op. cit., XV, 34:1.

19 Pliny the Younger, ‘Letters and Panegyrics’,in Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1969, VI, 20.

20 See, for example, Allison, 2004, op. cit., 17–19; Cooley, 2003, op. cit., 23–25. 21 For example R.J. Blong, Volcanic Hazards: A Sourcebook on the Effects of Eruptions. Sydney: Academic Press, 1984, 189; F.M. Bullard, Volcanoes of the Earth. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1984, 190; P. Francis, Volcanoes: A Planetary Perspective. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993, 65, 67; H. Sigurdsson, and S.N. Carey, ‘The eruption of Vesuvius in AD 79’, in The Natural History of Pompeii, ed. W.F. Jashemski, and F.G. Meyer. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002, 33–34.

22 Allison, 1992b, op. cit., 10; Allison, 2004, op. cit., 17; K. Schefold, Die Wände Pompejis. Berlin: Topographisches Verzeichnis der Bildemotive, 1957, 152.

23 Allison, 1992b, op. cit., 86–97; Allison, 1995, op. cit., 162–69; Allison, 2004, op. cit., 16–19. Other studies that provide convincing evidence of repairs resulting from continued seismic events between AD 62 and 79 are summarized by Cooley, 2003, op. cit., 23. 24 De Carolis and Patricelli, 2003b, op. cit., 75–76 also conclude that the archaeological record supports the notion of a series of earthquakes between AD 62 and 79. 25 Allison, 1992b, op. cit., 86, Allison, 1995, op. cit., 162; Allison, 2004, op. cit., 201–3. 26 D.K. Grayson and P.D. Sheets, ‘Volcanic disasters and the archaeological record’,in Volcanic Activity and Human Ecology, ed. P.D. Sheets and D.K. Grayson. New York: Academic Press, 1979, 626–27.

27 Though see Allison, 1992b, op. cit., 97; Allison, 2004, op. cit., 202–3. 28 M. Biddle, ‘The archaeology of Winchester’, ScientificAmerican, Vol. 230, No. 5, 1974: 35–43. 29 Seneca, op. cit., VI, I, 10–12.

30 Leppmann, 1968, op. cit., 73.

31 Lippi and Tondi in P. Ciprotti, ‘Der letzte tag von Pompeji’, Altertum, Vol. 10, 1964, 40. 32 For example, Allison, 1992b, op. cit., 97; Allison, 2004, op. cit., 20; Corti, 1951, op. cit., 46–47; A. Maiuri, La Casa del Menandro e il Suo Tesoro di Argenteria. Roma: La Libreria dello Stato, 1933, 11–16.

33 For example, by Corti, 1951, op. cit., 82–83; Richardson, 1988, op. cit., 25–27. 34 For example, Allison, 1992b, op. cit., 97; Descœudres, 1993, op. cit., 173. Though for an alternative view see Cooley, 2003, op. cit., 34.

35 Maggi in R. Gore, ‘After 2000 years of silence: The dead do tell tales at Vesuvius’, National Geographic, Vol. 165, No. 5, 1984: 570.

36 Cooley, 2003, op. cit., 25–35; J.J. Dobbins, ‘Problems of chronology, decoration and urban design in the forum at Pompeii’, American Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 98, 1994, 629–94; J.J. Dobbins, ‘The Pompeii Forum Project 1994–95’,in Sequence and Space in Pompeii, ed. S.E. Bon and R. Jones. Oxford: Oxbow Monograph 77, 1997, 86. Though Allison, 2004, op. cit., 21 argues that the evidence is complex and conflicting and that further investigation is required before conclusions can be drawn.

37 De Carolis and Patricelli, 2003b, op. cit., 76.

38 For W. Engelmann, New Guide to Pompeii. Leipzig: Wilhelm Engelmann, 1925, 2; R. Etienne, Pompeii: The Day a City Died. Translated by C. Palmer. London: Thames & Hudson, 1992, 44. 39 Strabo, op. cit. (V, iv, 8).

40 P. Carafa, ‘Recent work on early Pompeii’,in The World of Pompeii, ed. J.J. Dobbins and P.W. Foss. London: Routledge, 2007, 63–72; W. Engelmann, New Guide to Pompeii. Leipzig: Wilhelm Engelmann, 1925, 2; W.F. Jashemski, The Gardens of Pompeii, Herculaneum and the Villas Destroyed by Vesuvius. New York: Caratzas Brothers, 1979a, 4; J.B. Ward-Perkins and A. Claridge. PompeiiAD 79: Treasures from the National Archaeological Museum, Naples and the Pompeii Antiquarium, Italy. 2nd edn. Sydney: Australian Gallery Directors’ Council, 1980, 11.

41 J.A.K. De Waele, ‘The “doric” temple in the Forum Triangulare’,in Pompeii, Opuscula Pompeiana, III (1993), 112; Engelmann, 1925, op. cit., 2; Etienne, 1992, op. cit., 44; Grant, 1976, op. cit., 15, 17.

42 De Waele, 1993, op. cit., 108–13.

43 Brion, 1973, op. cit., 11–17; Cooley, 2003, op. cit., 17–19.; Cooley and Cooley, 2004, op. cit., 17; Engelmann, 1925, op. cit., 2–3; Etienne, 1992, op. cit., 44, 48–49; Grant, 1976, op. cit., 15, 17, 20, 22–23; Jashemski, 1979a, op. cit., 4; P. Wilkinson, Pompeii: The Last Day. London: BBC Books, 2003, 8–14.

44 For example, by A. Maiuri, Pompeii: The New Excavations, the Villa dei Misteri, the Antiquarium. Translated by Priestley, V. 7th ed. Roma: Istituto Poligrafico dello Stato, 1962, 17; A. Mau, Pompeii: Its Life and Art. Translated by F.W. Kelsey, 1907 edn. London: Macmillan, 1907, 16; G. Nicolucci, ‘Crania Pompeiana: Descrizione de’ crani umani rinvenuti fra le ruine dell’ antica Pompei’, Atti della R. Accademia delle Scienze Fisiche e Matematiche, Vol. 9, No. 10, 1882, 3–5,21–23.

45 C. Giordano, and I. Kahn. The Jews in Pompeii, Herculaneum, Stabiae and in the Cities of Campania Felix. Napoli: Procaccini, 1979, 44; Mau, 1907, op. cit., 16–18; Ward-Perkins and Claridge, 1980, op. cit., 15, 33.

46 For example, by Corti 1951, op. cit., 208.

47 Mau, 1907, op. cit., 18.

48 Naples Museum 73879 from house (VIII, vi, 6).

49 Giordano and Kahn, 1979, op. cit., 56–58, 60–70; Mau, 1907, op. cit., 17; V. Tran Tam Tinh, Essai sur le Culte dIsis à Pompei. Paris: de Boccard, 1964; R.E. Witt, Isis in the Graeco-Roman World. London: Thames & Hudson, 1971.

50 Allison, 1992b, op. cit., 97; P.M. Allison, ‘Recurring tremors: The continuing impact of theAD 79 eruption of Mt Vesuvius’,in Natural Disasters and Cultural Change, ed. R. Torrence and J. Gratton. London: Routledge, 2002, 112; Corti, 1951, op. cit., 48, 204; Descœudres, 1994a, op. cit., 36; Maiuri, 1933, op. cit., 11–16.

51 Corti, 1951, op. cit., 52; M. Della Corte, Casa ed Abitanti di Pompei. 3rd edn. Napoli: Fausto Fiorentino, 1965, 67–71; Richardson, 1988, op. cit., 324; R. Trevelyan, The Shadow of Vesuvius: Pompeii AD 79. London: Michael Joseph, 1976, 17.

52 Cooley, 2003, op. cit., 27. For a detailed consideration of whether the site was abandoned by certain sections of the population, see Cooley, 2003, op. cit., 25–35. 53 Corti, 1951, op. cit., 54; Descœudres, 1994, op. cit., 36.

54 E. Lazer, ‘Pompeii AD 79: A population in flux?’,in Sequence and Space in Pompeii, ed. S.E. Bon and R. Jones. Oxford: Oxbow Monograph 77, 1997a, 102–20.

55 Jashemski, 1979a, op. cit., 343, n. 56; W. Jongman, P.W. De Neeve and H.W. Pleket, (eds), The Economy and Society of Pompeii. Vol. 4, Dutch Monographs on Ancient History and Archaeology. Amsterdam: J.C. Gieber, 1988; 55, 108–12; J.C. Russell, The Control of Late Ancient and Medieval Population. Philadelphia: The American Philosophical Society, 1985, 1–4; A. Wallace-Hadrill, ‘Houses and households: Sampling Pompeii and Herculaneum’,in Marriage, Divorce and Children in Ancient Rome, ed. B. Rawson. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991, 191–202; A. Wallace-Hadrill, Houses and Society in Pompeii and Herculaneum. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1994, 95–98. 56 G. Fiorelli, Gli Scavi di Pompei dal 1861 al 1872. Napoli: Tipografica nel Liceo V. Emmanuele, 1873, 14; E. La Rocca, M. De Vos and A. De Vos. Guida Archeologica di Pompei. 1st edn. Verona, Italy: Arnoldo Mondadori, 1976, 21; Russell, 1985, op. cit., 1. 57 Fiorelli, 1873, op. cit., App. 3, 14; S. Pheasant,Bodyspace: Anthropology, Ergonomics and Design. London: Taylor & Francis, 1986, 189; P. Tutt and D. Adler (eds), New Metric Handbook. London: Architectural Press, 1979, 221.

58 Dio Cassius, ‘Dio’s Roman history’,in Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1914–27, LXVI, 24.

59 Tacitus, op. cit., xiv, 17; Corti, 1951, op. cit., 42–43; Engelmann, 1925, op. cit., 3; Russell, 1985, op. cit., 2; Trevelyan, 1976, op. cit., 11. This event is commemorated on a painting from the House of Anicetus (I, iii, 23); Naples Museum inv. 112222. 60 Fiorelli, 1873, op. cit., App. 3, 12–13; Jashemski, 1979a, op. cit., 343 n. 56; Russell, 1985, op. cit., 2; Wallace-Hadrill, 1991, op. cit., 201.

61 Nissen 1877 in Jongman, 1988, op. cit., 110 and Nissen 1877 in Mau, 1907, op. cit., 16. See also Jashemski, 1979a, op. cit., 343 n. 56; Wallace-Hadrill, 1991, op. cit., 201. 62 For example, with Bullard, 1984, op. cit., 200; Engelmann, 1925, op. cit., 4; P. Francis, Volcanoes: A Planetary Perspective. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993, 70; N. Hammond, ‘Ancient cities’, Scientific American, Vol. 5, No. 1: Special Issue, 1994, 8. 63 Mau, 1907, op. cit., 16; Maiuri, 1962, op. cit., 17.

64 Beloch 1898 in Jashemski, 1979a, op. cit., 343 n. 56; Jongman, 1988, op. cit., 108. 65 Cary and Scullard 1975 in Jashemski, 1979a, op. cit., 343 n. 56.

66 Jashemski 1979a, op. cit., 343 n. 56; Russell, 1985, op. cit., 3; Wallace-Hadrill, 1991, op. cit., 199.

67 H. Eschebach et al., Pompeji: Erlebte Antike Welt. Leipzig: Seeman, VEB, 1978, 6; Jongman, 1988, op. cit., 110; Jashemski, 1979a, op. cit., 343 n. 56; La Rocca et al., 1976, op. cit., 21. 68 Jashemski, 1979, op. cit., 24, 343 n. 56.

69 Jongman, 1988, op. cit., 108–12; Wallace-Hadrill, 1991, op. cit., 199–201; WallaceHadrill, 1994, op. cit., 93–96.

70 Jongman, ibid., 55, 110–12.

71 Wallace-Hadrill, 1991, op. cit., 200–203; Wallace-Hadrill, 1994, op. cit., 97–98. 72 Wallace-Hadrill, 1991, op. cit., 202.

73 Wallace-Hadrill, ibid., 203, 225; Wallace-Hadrill, 1994, op. cit., 98.

74 One issue that is seldom addressed is the definition of the extent of the site and whether estimates only relate to the area inside the walls of the town.

75 W. Gell, Pompeiana: The Topography, Edifices and Ornaments of Pompeii: The Results of Excavations since 1819. London: Jennings & Chaplin, 1832, xix.

76 E. Bulwer-Lytton, The Last Days of Pompeii. New York: Putnam, 1897, 304. 77 T.H. Dyer, Pompeii: Its History, Buildings and Antiquities. 2nd edn. London: George Bell & Sons, 1883, 46; Fiorelli, 1873, op. cit., 172; Russell, 1985, op. cit., 4. 78 For example, S.C. Bisel et al., The Secrets of Vesuvius. Toronto: Madison Press, 1990, 31; Brion, 1973, op. cit., 34; Corti, 1951, op. cit., 81; Engelmann, 1925, op. cit., 4; Grant, 1976, op. cit., 34; Mau, 1907, op. cit., 23; Wilkinson, 2003, op. cit., 73. 79 For example, Bullard, 1984, op. cit., 201; Cerulli Irelli in Russell, 1985, op. cit., 5 n. 22; G. Perl, ‘Pompeji-geschichte und untergang’,in Pompeji: 791979: Beiträge Zum Vesuvausbruch und seiner Nachwirkung, ed. M. Kunze. Stendal: Beiträge der Winckelmann Gesellschaft, 1982, 22; H. Sigurdsson, S. Cashdollar, and S.R.J. Sparks. ‘The Eruption of Vesuvius in AD 79: Reconstruction from historical and volcanological evidence’, American Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 86, 1982, 51.

80 For example P. Gusman, Pompei: The City, its Life and Art. Translated by F. Simmonds and M. Jourdain. London: Heinemann, 1900, 15.

81 Blong, 1984, op. cit., 79; Russell, 1985, op. cit., 5.

82 De Carolis and Patricelli, 2003b, op. cit., 111–12; E. Lazer, ‘Human Skeletal Remains in Pompeii: Vols. I and II’, unpublished PhD thesis, Department of Anatomy and Histology. Sydney: University of Sydney, 1995, 69–70; Lazer, 1997a, op. cit., 107. 83 Blong, 1984, op. cit., 79; D. Herbet and F. Bardossi. Kilauea: Case History of a Volcano. New York: Harper & Row, 1968, 12–13.

84 See Chapter 5 and S. De Caro (Ex–director, Superintendency of Pompeii) to E. Lazer., 1988, personal communication; De Carolis and Patricelli, 2003a, op. cit., 66–67. 85 De Carolis and Patricelli, 2003a, op. cit., 64–72; De Carolis and Patricelli, 2003b, 111– 12; E. De Carolis, G. Patricelli and A. Ciarallo. ‘Rinvenimenti di corpi umani nell’area urbana di Pompei’, Rivista di Studi Pompeiani, Vol. 9, 1998, 75–123.

86 Francis, 1993, op. cit., 67; Sigurdsson et al., 1982, op. cit., 47; Ward-Perkins and Claridge, 1980, op. cit., 13.

87 Strabo, ‘The Geography’,in Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1988, 5.4.8.

88 Pliny the Elder, op. cit., III, 62.

89 Sigurdsson, 2002, op. cit., 32; H. Sigurdsson, ‘The environmental and geomorphological context of the volcano’,in The World of Pompeii, ed. P.W. Foss and J.J. Dobbins. London: Routledge, 2007, 45.

90 For example, by Trevelyan, 1976, op. cit., 9; F.L. Sutherland, ‘The volcanic fall of Pompeii’,in Pompeii Revisited: The Life and Death of a Roman Town, ed. D. Harrison. Sydney: Meditarch, 1994, 74.

91 Pliny the Younger, op. cit., VI, 16; VI, 20.

92 Allison, 1992b, op. cit., 11; H.W. Benario, ‘The land, the cities, the event’,in The Buried Cities and the Eruption of Vesuvius: The 1900th Anniversary, ed. H.W. Benario and G.W. Lawall, Lectures presented at Emory University on May 7, 1979 in a symposium sponsored by the Dept. of Modern Languages and Classics, Alpha Sigma chapter of Eta Sigma Phi, and the Atlanta Society of the Archaeological Institute of America. Amherst: NECN & University of Massachusetts, 1979, 1–7; Ciprotti, 1964, op. cit., 44; Ciprotti, 2004, op. cit., 19–20; Descœudres, 1993, op. cit., 168,171–72; U. Eco, ‘A portrait of the Elder as a Young Pliny: How to build fame’,in On Signs, ed. M. Blonsky. Oxford: Blackwell, 1985, 289. 93 For example, by Bullard, 1984, op. cit., 195; E. De Carolis, and G. Patricelli, ‘Le vittime dell’eruzione’,in Storie da unEruzione: Pompei, Ercolano, Oplontis: Guida alla Mostra, ed. A. d’Ambrosio, P.G. Guzzo and M. Mastroroberto. Milano: Electa, 2003a, 56; Sigurdsson et al., 1982, op. cit., 39–40; H. Sigurdsson et al., ‘The eruption of Vesuvius inAD 79,’ National Geographic Research, Vol. 1, No. 3, 1985: 332–87; Sigurdsson, 2002, op. cit., 41. 94 Eco, 1985, op. cit., 290, 294–96, 301.

95 Anonymous. The Etna Poem. Translated by J.W. Duff and A.M. Duff. Revised edn. Vol. 1, Minor Latin Poets in Two Volumes. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1982. The arguments for this claim have been summarized by Allison, 1992b, op. cit., 11; Allison, 2002, op. cit., 110; Allison, 2004, op. cit., 20.

96 Dio Cassius, Dios Roman history. Translated by E. Carey. Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1914–27, LXVI, 21–23. 97 Suetonius, Titus, 8.

98 Allison, 2004, op. cit., 19.

99 For example, De Carolis and Patricelli, 2003a, op. cit., 56; De Carolis and Patricelli, 2003b, op. cit., 77; Descœudres, 1994, op. cit., 37; Perl, 1982, op. cit., 21; Sigurdsson et al., 1982, op. cit., 39; Sigurdsson, 2004, op. cit., 44–50; Trevelyan, 1976, op. cit., 28; Ward-Perkins and Claridge, 1980: 8. The arguments in favour of the 24 August date have been reviewed by Ciprotti, 1964, op. cit., 41–42.

100 Ward-Perkins and Claridge, 1980, op. cit., 9.

101 Strabo, op. cit., 5.4.8.

102 A. De Franciscis, The Pompeian Wall Paintings in the Roman Villa of Oplontis. Recklinghausen, Germany: Aurel Bongers, 1975, 14–15; Grant, 1976, op. cit., 74; Richardson, 1988, op. cit., xv; Trevelyan, 1976, op. cit., 25; Ward-Perkins and Claridge, 1980, op. cit., 9. For problems associated with the establishment of ownership of Pompeian houses on the basis of epigraphy, see P.M. Allison, ‘Placing individuals: Pompeian epigraphy in context’, Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology, Vol. 14, No. 1, 2001: 53–74. 103 Ciprotti, 1964, op. cit., 41.

104 Dio Cassius, op. cit., LXVI, 24.

105 For example, Mau, 1907, op. cit., 19.

106 For example, Ciprotti, 1964, op. cit., 42 makes a point of mentioning this event in his summary of the arguments for the different dates of the eruption.

107 U. Pappalardo, ‘L’eruzione pliniana del Vesuvio nel 79 d.C.: Ercolano’,in Volcanology and Archaeology, ed. C. Albore Livadie and F. Widerman. Strasburg: Council of Europe, 1900, 209–10. See also A.M. Ciarello and E. De Carolis. ‘La data dell’ eruzione’, Rivista di Studi Pompeiani, Vol. 9, 1998: 63–73, for a discussion of the eruption date.

108 Pliny the Younger, op. cit., VI, 16.

109 Ciprotti, 1964, op. cit., 48.

110 G. Stefani, ‘La Vera Data dell’Eruzione’, Archeo, Vol. 260, No. 10, 2006: 10–13. 111 For example, F.M. Bullard, ‘Volcanoes and their activity’,in Volcanic Activity and Human Ecology, ed. P.D. Sheets and D.K. Grayson. New York: Academic Press, 1979, 31; Bullard, 1984, op. cit., 184, 200–201, A. Maiuri, ‘Last moments of the Pompeians’,National Geographic, Vol. 120 1961, 51–55. For a discussion of the different views about the form of the AD 79 eruption, see H. Sigurdsson and S.N. Carey, ‘The eruption of Vesuvius in AD 79’,in The Natural History of Pompeii, ed. W.F. Jashemski and F.G. Meyer. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002, 37.

112 Bullard, 1979, op. cit., Bullard, 1984, op. cit., 184.

113 Pliny the Younger, op. cit., VI, 16.

114 Bullard, 1984, op. cit., 195; Francis, 1993, op. cit., 69; Sigurdsson et al., 1985, op. cit., 336. 115 P.J. Baxter, ‘Medical effects of volcanic eruptions’, Bulletin of Volcanology, Vol. 52, 1990, 532; Francis, 1993, op. cit., 208, 213, 236; W.E. Scott, ‘Volcanic and related hazards’, in Volcanic Hazards, ed. Tilling, R.I., Short Course in Geology. Washington, DC: American Geophysical Union, 1989, 11–14; Sigurdsson, 1985, op. cit., 337–38; Sigurdsson and Carey, 2002, op. cit., 44.

116 Baxter, 1990, op. cit., 539; M. Krafft, Volcanoes: Fire from the Earth. Translated by P.G. Bahn, London: Thames & Hudson, 1993, 118; L. Lirer et al., ‘Two Plinian pumice-fall deposits from Somma-Vesuvius, Italy’, Geological Society of America Bulletin, Vol. 84, 1973, 759; Sigurdsson et al., 1982, op. cit., 85–86; Sigurdsson and Carey, 2002, op. cit., 37; Trevelyan, 1976, op. cit., 24.

117 Francis, 1993, op. cit., 198–202, 241–44; Carey and Sigurdsson, 1987, 303–14; Sigurdsson et al., 1982, op. cit., 47–50; Sigurdsson et al., 1985, op. cit., 339–63; Sigurdsson and Carey, 2002, op. cit., 37–64; Sutherland, 1994: 72–75. 118 For example, Sigurdsson et al., 1982, op. cit., 86; H. Sigurdsson, Melting the Earth: The History of Ideas on Volcanic Eruptions, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999, 67–68; Sigurdsson and Carey, 2002, op. cit., 38, 41, 44–50; Sigurdsson, 2007, op. cit., 51–52. 119 Sigurdsson, 1999, op. cit., 1.

120 For example, by Cooley, 2003, op. cit., 38–45; De Carolis and Patricelli, 2003a, op. cit., 56–59; De Carolis and Patricelli, 2003b, op. cit., 83–108.

121 De Carolis and Patricelli, 2003b, op. cit., 78.

122 Pliny the Younger, op. cit., VI, 16.

123 Pliny the Younger, op. cit., VI, 20.

124 M.S. Greenberg et al., ‘When believing is seeing: The effect of scripts on eyewitness memory’, Law and Human Behavior, Vol. 22, No. 6, 1998: 685–86.

125 J.M. Brown, ‘Eyewitness memory for arousing events: Putting things into context’, Applied Cognitive Psychology, Vol. 17, No. 1, 2003, 104; B.L. Cutler et al., ‘The reliability of eyewitness identification’, Law and Human Behavior, Vol. 11, No. 3, 1987, 233–58; Greenberg et al., 1998, op. cit.

126 Bullard, 1979, op. cit., 31; Bullard, 1984, op. cit., 200–201. The interpretation of the letters of the Younger Pliny by Sigurdsson and his team has been used to demonstrate that he did describe these events; for example, see Sigurdsson and Carey, 2002, op. cit., 50. 127 Francis, 1993, op. cit., 186, 201–2; Sigurdsson et al., 1982, op. cit., 48; Sigurdsson and Carey, 2002, op. cit., 47–48.

128 Sigurdsson et al., 1982, op. cit., 48–49; Sigurdsson and Carey, 2002, op. cit., 48. 129 Baxter, 1990, op. cit., 540; Blong, 1984, op. cit, 79–80; Sigurdsson et al., 1982, op. cit., 39; Sigurdsson and Carey, 2002, op. cit., 48.

130 De Carolis and Patricelli, 2003b, op. cit., 83–98; Sigurdsson et al., 1982, op. cit., 42, 49; Sigurdsson et al., 1985, op. cit., 351–52, 364; Sigurdsson and Carey 2002: 49–50, 53– 54; Sigurdsson, 2007, op. cit., 51–54.

131 Bullard, 1979, op. cit., 200–201; Sigurdsson et al., 1982, op. cit., 50. 132 For example, near the necropolis outside the Nocera Gate of Pompeii. Sigurdsson et al., 1982, op. cit., Pl. 4, Fig. 2; Sigurdsson et al., 1985, op. cit., 350.

133 De Carolis and Patricelli, 2003b, op. cit., 111–12; De Carolis and Patricelli, 1998, op. cit., 75–123; G. Luongo et al., ‘Impact of the AD 79 explosive eruption on Pompeii, II: Causes of death of the inhabitants inferred by stratigraphic analysis and areal distribution of the human casualties’, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, Vol. 126, Nos 3– 4, 2003b: 169–200.

134 Sigurdsson et al., 1985, op. cit., 364–66; Sigurdsson and Carey, 2002, op. cit., 49. 135 J.W. Eisele et al., ‘Deaths during the May 18, 1980, eruption of Mt St Helens’, The New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 305, No. 16, 1981, 936.

136 P.J. Baxter et al., ‘Medical aspects of volcanic disasters: An outline of the hazards and emergency response measures’, Disasters, Vol. 6, No. 4, 1982, 269; Baxter, 1990, op. cit., 533–34; Eisele et al., 1981, op. cit., 933–35; Francis, 1993, op. cit., 98; Sigurdsson et al., 1985, op. cit., 365; Sigurdsson and Carey, 2002, op. cit., 49.

137 Sigurdsson et al., 1985, op. cit., 365; Sigurdsson and Carey, 2002, op. cit., 58. 138 De Carolis and Patricelli, 2003a, op. cit., 66–72; De Carolis and Patricelli, 2003b, op. cit., 111–12; De Carolis et al., 1998, op. cit., 78–123; Luongo et al., 2003b, 174–98. 139 Luongo et al., 2003a, op. cit., 221–22; Luongo et al., 2003b, op. cit., 178–80. 140 Luongo et al., 2003b, op. cit., 180.

141 Blong, 1984, op. cit., 79; W. Hamilton, Observations on Mt Vesuvius, Mt Etna and Other Volcanoes in a Series of Letters Addressed To the Royal Society To Which Are Added Notes by the Author, Hitherto Unpublished. London: Royal Society, 1774, 95.

142 Skull TF 111. This interpretation was confirmed by T.H.G. Oettlé (former Director of the New South Wales Forensic Institute, Sydney) to E. Lazer, 1983, personal communication.

143 Baxter, 1990, op. cit., 532; Scott, 1989, op. cit., 11–14; Sigurdsson et al., 1982, op. cit., 49; Sigurdsson et al., 1985, op. cit., 364–65; Sigurdsson, 2002, op. cit., 48–49. 144 S.C. Nappo, ‘Il rinvenimento delle vittime dell’eruzione del 79 d.C. nella Regio 1 insula 22’, Hydria, Vol. 63, No. 19, 1992: 16–18.

145 De Carolis and Patricelli, 2003a, op. cit., 66–72; De Carolis and Patricelli, 2003b, op. cit., 111–12; De Carolis et al., 1998, op. cit., 78–123; Luongo et al., 2003b, op. cit., 178. 146 Luongo et al., 2003a, op. cit., 219–20; Luongo et al., 2003b, op. cit., 181. 147 L. Giacomelli et al., ‘The eruption of Vesuvius of AD 79 and its impact on human environment in Pompeii’, Episodes, Vol. 26, No. 3, 2003: 237–38.

148 Ibid.

149 Luongo et al., 2003b, op. cit., 181.

150 Giacomelli et al., 2003, op. cit., 238.

151 Baxter, 1990, op. cit., 539; Blong, 1984, op. cit., 95–103; D’Amore et al., ‘Antropologia pompeiana del 79 d.C.: Sesso ed età di morte’, Archivio per lAntropologia e la Etnologia, Vol. 109 1979, 300; Francis, 1993, op. cit., 70–71; Sigurdsson et al., 1982, op. cit., 49–50. 152 Baxter, 1990, op. cit., 539.

153 Baxter, 1990, op. cit., 535–37, 539, 541; B. Knight, Forensic Pathology. 2nd edn. London: Arnold, 1996, 309–10; S. Cole (forensic dentist, New South Wales Institute of Forensic Medicine, Sydney) to E. Lazer, 2002, personal communication; C. Lawrence (former forensic pathologist, New South Wales Institute of Forensic Medicine, Sydney) to E. Lazer, 1994, personal communication; A. Middleton (forensic dentist, New South Wales Institute of Forensic Medicine, Sydney) to E. Lazer, 2002, personal communication; V.D. Plueckhahn, Ethics, Legal Medicine and Forensic Pathology. Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Press, 1983, 168.

154 Baxter, 1990, op. cit., 542; Knight, 1996, op. cit., 63–64.

155 Baxter, 1990, op. cit., 532; A.L. Hansell et al., ‘The health hazards of volcanoes and geothermal areas’, Occupational & Environmental Medicine, Vol. 63, No. 2, 2006, 152; Sigurdsson et al., 1985, op. cit., 365. Though it has been noted that post-eruption epidemic disease and famine actually account for more deaths than pyroclastic density currents. J.-C. Tanguy et al., ‘Victims from volcanic eruptions: A revised database’, Bulletin of Volcanology, Vol. 60, No. 2, 1998, 137.

156 Baxter, 1990, op. cit., P.J. Baxter et al., ‘Physical modelling and human survival in pyroclastic flows’, Natural Hazards, Vol. 17, No. 2, 1998: 166–68; Hansell et al., 2006, op. cit., 153.

157 L. Gurioli et al., ‘Interaction of pyroclastic density currents with human settlements: Evidence from ancient Pompeii’, Geology, Vol. 33, No. 6, 2005, 441–44. 158 Baxter, 1990, op. cit., 533, 540–41; Baxter et al., 2005, op. cit., 310. 159 Baxter, 1998, op. cit., 166; Lawrence, op. cit.

160 De Carolis and Patricelli, 2003a, op. cit., 72; De Carolis and Patricelli, 2003b, op. cit., 101, P.P. Petrone, ‘Le vittime dell’eruzione del 79 AD’,in Storie da uneruzione. In margine alla mostra, Atti della Tavola Rotonda, Napoli, 2003, Associazione Internazionale Amici di Pompei, Dipartimento di Discipline Storiche, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, ed. P. G. Guzzo. Pompei: Litografia Sicignano, 2005, 31; Sigurdsson and Carey, 2002, op. cit., 55. 161 L. Capasso, ‘Herculaneum victims of the volcanic eruptions of Vesuvius in 79 AD’, The Lancet, Vol. 356, No. 9238, 2000a: 1344–46; L. Capasso, I Fuggiaschi di Ercolano: Paleobiologia delle Vittime dellEruzione Vesuviana del 79 d.C. Roma: ‘L’Erma’ di Bretschneider, 2001, 21–67, 1053–54.

162 G. Mastrolorenzo and P.P. Petrone, ‘Nuove evidenze sugli effetti dell’eruzione del 79d.C. ad Ercolano da ricerche biogeoarcheologiche’, Forma Urbis, Vol. 10, No. 3: Edizione speciale: La rinascita di Ercolano, 2005, 31–34; G. Mastrolorenzo et al., ‘Archaeology: Herculaneum victims of Vesuvius in AD 79’, Nature, Vol. 410, No. 6830, 2001, 769–70; P.P. Petrone, ‘Le vittime dell’eruzione del 79 AD, in Storie da uneruzione. In margine alla mostra, Atti della Tavola Rotonda, Napoli, 2003, Associazione Internazionale Amici di Pompei, Dipartimento di Discipline Storiche, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, ed. P.G. Guzzo. Pompei: Litografia Sicignano, 2005, 31–44.

163 Allison, 1992b, op. cit., 10–11; Allison, 2004, op. cit., 19.

164 Diodorus Siculus, ‘Diodorus Siculus,’ in Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1933–67, 4, 21, 5.

165 Suetonius, op. cit., Caligula, 51.

166 The Etna Poem, op. cit., Leppmann, 1968, op. cit., 25.

167 Strabo, op. cit., 5, 4, 8.

168 The Etna Poem, op. cit., 352–53, 431–32.

169 Allison, 1992b, op. cit., 10; Allison, 2004, op. cit., 19.

170 Pliny the Elder, op. cit., II, 200; Allison, 1992b, op. cit., 10–11; Sigurdsson, 1999, op. cit., 56.

171 Bullard, 1984, op. cit., 188–89

172 Plutarch, Makers of Rome: Nine Lives, Translated by Scott-Kilvert, I. Harmondsworth, England: Penguin, 1965, 2: 279.

173 Pliny the Younger, op. cit., IV, 16.

174 Especially Suetonius, op. cit., Titus 8 and Dio Cassius, op. cit., LXV, 24. 175 Luongo et al., 2003b, op. cit., 179.

176 Francis, 1993, op. cit., 98.

177 Francis 1993, op. cit., 244; M.L. Nolan, ‘Impact of paricutin on five communities’,in Volcanic Activity and Human Ecology, ed. P.D. Sheets and D.K. Grayson. New York: Academic Press, 1979, 302–3; R.S. Punongbayan and R.I. Tilling, ‘Some recent case histories’,in Volcanic Hazards, ed. R.I. Tilling, Short Course in Geology. Washington, DC American Geophysical Union, 1989, 82– 83, 90–91, 93, 96–99.

178 Blong, 1984, op. cit., 72–73, 79–80; Grayson and Sheets, 1979, op. cit., 626–27; S. Manning (Department of Classics, University of Reading, UK) to E. Lazer, 1989, personal communication; Russell, 1985, op. cit., 7–8.

179 For example, Allison, 1992b, op. cit., 17–19; Cooley, 2003, op. cit., 51 ff.; Descœudres, 1993, op. cit., 165–78.

180 Brion, 1973, op. cit., 53; Gusman, 1900, op. cit., 19; Trevelyan, 1976, op. cit., 39. 181 Corti, 1951, op. cit., 134; Dyer, 1883, op. cit., 47; Jashemski, 1979b, op. cit., 612–15; Leppmann, 1968, op. cit., 74; Richardson, 1988, op. cit., 25–27; Russell, 1985, op. cit., 6; Ward-Perkins and Claridge, 1980, op. cit., 14.

182 For example by Bullard, 1984, op. cit., 202; M.G. Cerulli Irelli, ‘Intorno al problema della rinascita di Pompei’,in Neue Forschungen in Pompeji, ed. Andreae, B. and H. Kyrieleis. Recklinghausen: Aurel Bongers, 1975, 292; Corti, 1951, op. cit., 82; De Carolis and Patricelli, 2003b, op. cit., 106; Gusman, 1900, op. cit., 22; Jashemski, 1979b, op. cit., 612; and Ward-Perkins and Claridge, 1980, op. cit., 14.

183 Various scholars have suggested that the highest parts of some structures were still visible after Vesuvius erupted. For example, Bullard, 1984, op. cit., 202; Cerulli Irelli, 1975, op. cit., 292; Corti, 1951, op. cit., 82; Gusman, 1900, op. cit., 22; Jashemski, 1979b, op. cit., 612; and Ward-Perkins and Claridge, 1980, op. cit., 14. Descœudres examined the literature and concluded that there was insufficient evidence to support this view. Allison, 2004, op. cit., 23; Descœudres, 1993, op. cit., 167–69.

184 Corti, 1951, op. cit., 89; Leppmann, 1968, op. cit., 48; F.L. Sutherland, ‘The volcanic fall of Pompeii’,in Pompeii Revisited: The Life and Death of a Roman Town, ed. D. Harrison, D. Sydney: Meditarch, 1994, 72.

185 The same evidence has also been cited as indicative of post-earthquake abandonment. Allison, 1992b, op. cit., 18; Jashemski, 1979b, op. cit., 612; Parslow, 1995, op. cit., 113; Richardson, 1988, op. cit., 25–26; Ward-Perkins and Claridge, 1980, op. cit., 14. 186 Cooley, 2003, op. cit., 34.

187 Allison, 1992b, op. cit., 18; Allison, 2004, op. cit., 24; Grayson and Sheets, 1979; op. cit., 626; K. Neumann, Rabaul: Yu Swit Moa Yet: Surviving the 1994 Volcanic Eruption. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996, 79–88. However, Allison cites evidence of looting, mostly for necessities like food and shelter, as well as some household goods, after the 1994 Rabaul eruption. Allison, 1992b, op. cit., 17–19, 37–39, Cooley, 2003, op. cit., 53–55 and Descœudres, 1993, op. cit., 167–71, have also reviewed the evidence for post-eruption disturbances to the site.

188 For example, by Jashemski, 1979b, op. cit., 612 and Ward-Perkins and Claridge, 1980, op. cit., 14.

189 Allison, 1992b, op. cit., 18; Cerulli Irelli, 1975, op. cit., 295.

190 Cerulli Irelli, 1975, op. cit., 295; Cooley, 2003, op. cit., 55; Jashemski, 1979b, op. cit., 613. 191 Cerulli Irelli, 1975, op. cit., 295.

192 From the skeletons associated with Skull Numbers 4, 7, and 9. See Fig. 1.2. Lazer, 1995, op. cit., 54–58; E. Lazer, ‘Resti umani scheletrici nella Casa del Menandro’,in Menander: La Casa del Menandro di Pompei, ed. G. Stefani. Milan: Electa, 2003, 66–67. 193 Allison, 1992b, op. cit., 19, 171; Maiuri, 1933, op. cit., 12; Allison, 1992b, op. cit., 19, 171. 194 For example, Descœudres, 1993, op. cit., 169–70.

195 Richardson, 1988, op. cit., 26–27.

196 Allison, 1992b, op. cit., 38; Allison, 2002, op. cit., 114; Parslow, 1995, op. cit., 113.

5 The nature of the evidence

1 T.H. Dyer, Pompeii: Its History, Buildings and Antiquities. 2nd edn. London: George Bell & Sons, 1883, 479; G. Nicolucci, ‘Crania Pompeiana: Descrizione de’ crani umani rinvenuti fra le ruine dell’ antica Pompei’, Atti della R. Accademia delle Scienze Fisiche e Matematiche, Vol. 9, No. 10, 1882, 2.

2 A. Kosloski –Ostrow, The Sarno Bath Complex: Architecture in Pompeiis Last Years. Monographie 4, Ministero per i Beni Culturali ed Ambientali, Soprintendenza Archeologia di Pompei. Rome: ‘L’Erma’ di Bretschneider, 1990, 10–11.

3 A. De Vos. and M. De Vos, Pompei, Ercolano, Stabia. Rome: Laterza, 1982, 58.

4C.D’Amore et al., ‘Primi risultati degli studi sull’antropologia Pompeiana del 79 d.C.’,in La Regione Sotterrata dal Vesuvio: Studi e Prospettive, Atti del Convegno Internazionale 1115 Novembre 1979. Napoli: Università degli Studi, 1982, 928.

5 S. De Caro (Ex–director, Superintendency of Pompeii) to E. Lazer, 1988, personal communication.

6 See, for example, S.C. Bisel (Physical anthropologist, Herculaneum) to E. Lazer, 1988c, personal communication.

7D’Amore et al., 1979, op. cit; C. D’Amore et al., ‘Primi risultati degli studi sull’antropologia Pompeiana del 79 d.C.’,in La Regione Sotterrata dal Vesuvio: Studi e Prospettive, Atti del Convegno Internazionale 1115 Novembre 1979. Napoli: Università degli Studi, 1982, 927–43.

8 The fact that there will be loss or bias in all classes of archaeological evidence is well documented, for example S. Mays, The Archaeology of Human Bones. London: Routledge, 1998, 13–25, discusses these problems in relation to skeletal evidence.

9 For example, Bisel, 1988c, op. cit.

10 D’Amore et al., 1982, op. cit., 928.

11 M. Brion, Pompeii and Herculaneum: The Glory and the Grief. London: Cardinal, 1973/1960, 126. 12 D’Amore et al., 1979, op. cit., 301.

13 The majority of the fieldwork for this project was carried out over five seasons, from 1986 to 1990, with additional field seasons in 1995 and 1996.

14 E. De Carolis and G. Patricelli. Vesuvius, AD 79: The Destruction of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Translated by The J. Paul Getty Trust. Rome: ‘L’Erma’ di Bretschneider, 2003b, 110. 15 W. Leppmann, Pompeii in Fact and Fiction. London: Elek, 1968, 136.

16 Hester Lynch Piozzi 1789 Observations and Reflections made in the Course of a Journey through France, Italy and Germany II, London in: E.M. Moorman, ‘Literary evocations of ancient Pompeii’,in Tales from an Eruption: Pompeii, Herculaneum, Oplontis: Guide to the Exhibition, ed. P.G. Guzzo. Milan: Electa, 2003, 27.

17 Quoted in De Carolis and Patricelli, 2003b, op. cit., 109.

18 This house is in the insula of the Menander.

19 De Caro, 1988, op. cit.

20 Ibid.

21 S.C. Bisel, ‘The skeletons of Herculaneum, Italy’,in Wet Site Archaeology: Proceedings of the International Conference on Wet Site Archaeology, Gainesville, Florida, December 1214, 1986; sponsored by the National Endowment for the Humanities and University of Florida, ed. B.A. Purdy. Caldwell, New Jersey: Telford Press, 1988b, 208.

22 A.T. Chamberlain, Demography in Archaeology, Cambridge Manuals in Archaeology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006, 70; P. Drackett, The Book of Great Disasters. Berkshire: Purnell, 1977, 115; G. Luongo et al., ‘Impact of the AD 79 explosive eruption on Pompeii, II: Causes of death of the inhabitants inferred by stratigraphic analysis and areal distribution of the human casualties’, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, Vol. 126, Nos 3–4, 2003b: 169–200; G. Nicolucci, ‘Crania Pompeiana: Descrizione de’ crani umani rinvenuti fra le ruine dell’ antica Pompei’, Atti della R. Accademia delle Scienze Fisiche e Matematiche, Vol. 9, No. 10, 1882, 1.

23 Strabo. The Geography. Translated by H.R. Jones, Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1988, V, IV, 8; Pliny the Elder, ‘Natural Histories’,in Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1938/1962, 3.60–62.

24 A 5 cm thick layer of dust covered the floor of the Sarno Baths. As it was partially the result of wind-borne dust from the site, it could not be permanently cleared without sealing the structure. Since the building was damp, the dirt often hardened around the bones which meant that its removal could be time-consuming. The Forum Baths were partially sealed and the disarticulated bones were stored on shelves. Nonetheless, a certain quantity of fine dust was able to enter the building and settle on the bones between visits. In addition to the annual deposit of dust, there was a build-up of excreta from animals which inhabited these buildings.

25 D’Amore et al., 1982, op. cit., 928.

26 Ibid.

27 D’Amore et al., 1979, op. cit.; D’Amore et al., 1982, op. cit.

28 The bones were arbitrarily marked with consecutive numbers. A prefix was assigned which denoted the building in which the bone was housed (TF = Terme Feminile del Foro; TdS = Terme del Sarno). Sometimes an extra prefix was added which referred to either an exact location (e.g. BQ = Basket Q) or a recently excavated skeleton of known provenance (NS 84 = Nuovo scavo 1984).

29 D’Amore et al., 1982, op. cit., 928.

30 A.T. Chamberlain, Demography in Archaeology, Cambridge Manuals in Archaeology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006, 89; T.I. Molleson, ‘The archaeology and anthropology of death: What the bones tell us,’ in Mortality and Immortality: The Anthropology and Archaeology of Death, ed. S.C. Humphreys and H. King. London: Academic Press, 1981, 20–21; H.V. Vallois, ‘Vital statistics in prehistoric population as determined from archaeological data’,in The Application of Quantitative Methods in Archaeology, ed. R.F. Heizer and S.F. Cook. Chicago: Quadrangle, 1960, 186.

31 Compare with D.R. Brothwell, Digging up Bones: The Excavation, Treatment and Study of Human Skeletal Remains. 3rd edn. London: British Museum (Natural History) & Oxford University Press, 1981/1965, 78, Fig. 4.1. Long bone and some pelvic measurements (maximum iliac breadth in juveniles) were made using an osteometric board based on the design in Brothwell (1981: 78). Vernier callipers were also used for some long bone measurements. Maximum circumference of long bone measurements were made with a 3– metre plastic tape measure that was cut into 25 cm strips. The strips were all calibrated to ensure there was no difference between them. Each strip was replaced as soon as evidence of stretching was observed. Skull measurements were made with a pair of spreading callipers. To ensure stability whilst it was being measured, the skull was placed on a bean bag.

32 J.E. Buikstra and D.H. Ubelaker (eds), Standards for Data Collection from Human Skeletal Remains: Proceedings of a Seminar at the Field Museum of Natural History Organized by Jonathon Haas. Fayetteville, Arkansas, 1994.

33 M. Smith (Department of Econometrics, University of Sydney) to E. Lazer, circa 1993, personal communication.

34 W.W. Howells, Cranial Variation in Man: A Study by Multivariate Analysis of Patterns of Difference among Recent Populations. Vol. 67, Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University, 1973, 34–35. See also E. Lazer, ‘Human Skeletal Remains in Pompeii: Vols. I and II’, unpublished PhD thesis, Department of Anatomy and Histology. Sydney: The University of Sydney, 1995, 94–102.

35 Lazer 1995, op. cit., GOL: Fig. 4.2, 96.

36 Ibid., FRC: Fig. 4.11, 100.

37 Ibid., PAC: Fig. 4.12, 101.

38 Ibid., XCB: Fig. 4.6, 98.

39 Ibid., XFB: Fig. 4.7, 98.

40 Ibid., ZYB: Fig. 4.8, 99.

41 Ibid., NOL: Fig. 4.3, 96.

42 Ibid., ASB: Fig. 4.10, 100.

43 Ibid., BNL: Fig. 4.4, 97.

44 Ibid., OCC: Fig. 4.13, 101.

45 Ibid., FRC: Fig. 4.11, 100.

46 Ibid., BBH: Fig. 4.5, 97.

47 Ibid., AUB: Fig. 4.9, 99.

48 Compare with C. Pardoe, ‘Prehistoric Human Morphological Variation in Australia’, unpublished PhD thesis. Canberra: Australian National University, 1984, 25.

49 Discriminant function analysis is based on the assumption that all groups have the same intrapopulation covariance matrix. In the case of sex, interpopulation variability is great enough to require the development of separate sets of equations for different populations for sex attribution. In addition, it relies on the use of data derived from known populations to place unknown individuals into ‘correct’ groups with a high probability, such as for sex. This highlights the questionable value of applying this technique to an unknown population, as it will probably produce results that are artefacts.

50 W. Haglund, ‘Forensic “art” in human identification’,in Craniofacial Identification in Forensic Medicine, ed. J.G. Clement and D.L. Ranson. London: Arnold, 1998, 235.

51 Haglund, 1998, op. cit., 237–40.

52 K.T. Taylor, Forensic Art and Illustration. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 2001, 85.

6 Attribution of sex

1 P. Drackett, The Book of Great Disasters. Berkshire: Purnell, 1977, 115; G. Nicolucci, ‘Crania Pompeiana: Descrizione de’ crani umani rinvenuti fra le ruine dell’ antica Pompei’, Atti della R. Accademia delle Scienze Fisiche e Matematiche, Vol. 9, No. 10, 1882, 1.

2 A. Massa, The World of Pompeii. London: Routledge, 1972, 135–36.

3 E. De Carolis et al., ‘Rinvenimenti di corpi umani nell’area urbana di Pompei’, Rivista di Studi Pompeiani, Vol. 9, 1998, 79, 84, 113.

4 B.E. Anderson, ‘Ventral arc of the os pubis: Anatomical and developmental considerations’, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 83, 1990, 454; M.Y. El-Najjar, and K.R. McWilliams, Forensic Anthropology: The Structure, Morphology and Variation of Human Bone and Dentition. Springfield, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas, 1978, 76; W.M. Krogman, and M.Y. Iscan, The Human Skeleton in Forensic Medicine. 2nd edn. Springfield, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas, 1986, 190; S. Mays, The Archaeology of Human Bones. London: Routledge, 1998, 38–42; F.W. Rösing, ‘Sexing immature human skeletons’, Journal of Human Evolution, Vol. 12, 1983, 149; L. Scheuer and S. Black, The Juvenile Skeleton. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2004, 19–21; L.E. St Hoyme and M.Y. Iscan, ‘Determination of sex and race: Accuracy and assumptions’,in Reconstruction of Life from the Skeleton, ed. M.Y. Iscan and K.A.R. Kennedy. New York: Alan R. Liss, 1989, 54.

5 S.M.C. Holcomb and L.W. Konigsberg, ‘Statistical study of sexual dimorphism in the human foetal sciatic notch’, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 97, 1995, 113– 25, Mays, 1998, op. cit., 39.

6 H. Schutkowski, ‘Sex determination of infant and juvenile skeletons: 1. Morphognostic features’, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 90, 1993, 199–205.

7 K.M. Bowden, Forensic Medicine. 2nd edn. Brisbane: Jacaranda, 1965, 481; G. Gustafson, Forensic Odontology. London: Staples Press, 1966, 91; St Hoyme and Iscan, 1989, op. cit., 54, 69; D.H. Ubelaker, Human Skeletal Remains: Excavation, Analysis, Interpretation. 2nd edn. Vol. 2, Manuals on Archaeology. Washington: Taraxacum, 1989, 52.

8 Mays, 1998, op. cit., 39–42; Scheuer and Black, 2004, op. cit., 20.

9 D. Donlon, ‘The Value of Postcranial Nonmetric Variation in Studies of Global Populations in Modern Homo Sapiens’, unpublished PhD thesis. Armidale: University of New England, 1990, 109, 128; Scheuer and Black, 2004, op. cit., 20.

10 A.C. Stone et al., ‘Sex determination of ancient human skeletons using DNA’, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 99, 1996, 231–38.

11 To gain an appreciation of some of the problems, it is worth considering an example. An attempt was made to obtain samples of DNA from skeletons from an historic nineteenth– early-twentieth-century cemetery site at Cadia in Central Western NSW, Australia. Small samples were extracted from juvenile and adult dental material using techniques that were established for the skeletal study of the cemetery site at the Destitute Children’s Asylum at the Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, Australia (Donlon et al., 1997, op. cit., 7– 178.) Genetic material can often be obtained from the pulp cavity of the tooth, especially in the case of adults when the root has fully formed and provides a seal against contamination. Genetic material is also bound with the dentine. Whilst it is still possible to obtain genetic material from juvenile teeth, they are less likely to provide a good yield of DNA. The material extracted from these skeletons appeared promising but ultimately did not yield any readable sequences of DNA. (E. Lazer, Report on the Excavation of the Cadia Cemetery, Cadia Road, Cadia, NSW, 199798. Vol. 4: Skeletal Report: Unpublished report for Cadia Holdings. Orange, NSW: Edward Higginbotham & Associates, 2001, 8, 20.) 12 Scheuer and Black, 2004, op. cit., 21.

13 D.R. Brothwell, Digging up Bones: The Excavation, Treatment and Study of Human Skeletal Remains. 3rd edn. London: British Museum (Natural History) & Oxford University Press, 1981/1965; Krogman and Iscan, 1986, op. cit., 195; Ubelaker, 1989, op. cit., 53; T.D. White, Human Osteology. 1st edn. San Diego, California: Academic Press, 1991, 320. 14 El-Najjar and McWilliams, 1978, op. cit., 76; St Hoyme and Iscan, 1989, op. cit., 54, 59. 15 V. Higgins, ‘A model for assessing health patterns from skeletal remains’,in Burial Archaeology: Current Research, Methods and Developments, ed. C.A. Robert, F. Lee and J. Bintliff, 211. Oxford: BAR, 1989, 182, 191–94; St Hoyme and Iscan, 1989, op. cit., 59. 16 S. Genovés, ‘Sex determination in earlier man’,in Science in Archaeology: A Survey of Progress and Research, ed. Brothwell, D. and E. Higgs. London: Thames & Hudson, 1969a, 431–32. 17 Higgins, 1989, op. cit, 194.

18 Brothwell, 1981, op. cit., 59; El-Najjar and McWilliams, 1978, op. cit., 75; St Hoyme and Iscan, 1989, op. cit., 59; White, 1991, op. cit., 322.

19 The standard scoring system takes into account the difficulties involved with the identification of sexual markers in biological material where there can be considerable overlap between males and females for particular features. In addition, there can be diversity within and between populations, respectively known as intrapopulation and interpopulation variation. I modified the standard five point system with the addition of two further scores to include equivocal cases for which a sexual attribution could be inferred. Observations made on skulls and innominate bones were therefore scored in terms of a seven point scale which ranged from hyperfemale (1) to hypermale (7) See Table 6.1.

20 The data for each measurement and observation were visualized as a series of histograms to determine whether any individual measurement displayed significant bimodality (define bimodality), which could be used as an indicator of sex separation in the sample. Histograms using Z-scores, standardized about the mean, were employed to demonstrate whether there was any skewing. The pooled measurements were subjected to a k means cluster analysis. Principal components analysis was also employed as a descriptive technique. E. Lazer, ‘Human Skeletal Remains in Pompeii: Vols. I and II’, unpublished PhD thesis, Department of Anatomy and Histology. Sydney: The University of Sydney, 1995, 130. 21 Brothwell, 1981, op. cit., 62; El-Najjar and McWilliams, 1978, op. cit., 76; Krogman and Iscan, 1986, op. cit., 200; Ubelaker, 1989, op. cit., 53.

22 Anderson, 1990, op. cit., 453.

23 M.A. Kelley, ‘Phenice’s visual sexing technique for the os pubis: A critique’, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 48, 1978, 121–22; T.W. Phenice, ‘A newly developed visual method of sexing the os pubis’, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 30, 1967, 297–301. 24 For these reasons the pubic index was not used. The measurement of this index has also been found to be very time-consuming. Brothwell, 1981, op. cit., 62–63; Phenice, 1969, op. cit., 297–98; White, 1991, op. cit., 325; was not used.

25 Krogman and Iscan, 1986, op. cit., 247; Ubelaker, 1989, op. cit., 55, 60. 26 Brothwell, 1981, op. cit., 62; El-Najjar and McWilliams, 1978, op. cit., 80–81; P. Houghton, ‘The relationship of the pre-auricular groove of the ilium to pregnancy’, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 41, 1974, 381.

27 Genovés, 1969a, op. cit., 430.

28 S. Genovés, ‘Estimation of age and mortality’,in Science in Archaeology: A Survey of Progress and Research, ed. D. Brothwell and E. Higgs. London: Thames & Hudson, 1969b, 449; T. D. Stewart, ‘Distortion of the pubic symphyseal surface in females and its effect on age determination’, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 15, 1957, 9–18. 29 A.T. Chamberlain, Demography in Archaeology, Cambridge Manuals in Archaeology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006, 96; J.M. Suchey et al., ‘Analysis of dorsal pitting in the os pubis in an extensive sample of modern American females’, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 51, 1979, 522; T.D. White, and P.A. Folkens, The Human Bone Manual. Boston: Academic Press, 2005, 380.

30 M.A. Kelley, ‘Parturition and pelvic changes’, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 51, 1979, 541.

31 Tague 1988 in T.D. White, Human Osteology. 2nd ed. San Diego, California: Academic Press, 2000, 354–55.

32 M. Cox and A. Scott, ‘Evaluation of the obstetric significance of some pelvic characters in an 18th century British sample of known parity status’, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 89, 1992, 431–40; T. Molleson et al., The Spitalfields Project. Vol. 2: The Anthropology: The Middling Sort, Council for British Archaeology Research Report 86. York, UK: Council for British Archaeology, 1993, 214.

33 Brothwell, 1981, op. cit., 66; D. Ferembach et al., ‘Recommendations for age and sex diagnoses of skeletons (Workshop of European Anthropologists)’, Journal of Human Evolution, Vol. 9, No. 7, 1980, 517–49.

34 For example, R.G. Tague, ‘Bone resorption of the pubis and preauricular area in humans and nonhuman mammals’, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 76 1988, 255. 35 Lazer, 1995, op. cit., 114–17.

36 Kelley, 1978, op. cit., 121–22.

37 V. Higgins (University of Notre Dame, Rome) to E. Lazer, 1989–90, personal communication. 38 Ibid.

39 Molleson, 1981, op. cit., 20.

40 Lazer, 1995, op. cit., 119–21.

41 W.M. Bass, Human Osteology: A Laboratory and Field Manual of the Human Skeleton. 2nd edn. Columbia: Missouri Archaeological Society, 1984, 114–15; Brothwell, 1981, op. cit., 85; D.L. France, ‘Osteometry at muscle origin and insertion in sex determination’, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 76, 1988, 517–20.

42 France, 1988, op. cit., 517.

43 J. Dittirick and J.M. Suchey, ‘Sex determination of prehistoric central California skeletal remains using discriminant analysis of the femur and humerus’, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 70, 1986, 3.

44 Bass, 1984, op. cit., 114–15; Brothwell, 1981, op. cit., 85.

45 France, 1988, op. cit., 515–26; Dittrick and Suchey, 1986, op. cit., 3–9. 46 Dittrick and Suchey, 1986, op. cit., 8–9.

47 France, 1988, op. cit., 523.

48 France, 1988, op. cit., 523; Dittrick and Suchey, 1986, op. cit., 8.

49 France, 1988, op. cit., 523.

50 France, 1988, op. cit., 524.

51 Lazer, 1995, op. cit., 136–37.

52 Lazer, 1995, op. cit., 117–19

53 Dittrick and Suchey, 1986, op. cit., 8–9.

54 Lazer, 1995, op. cit., 121–24.

55 Brothwell, 1981, op. cit., 59–61; J.E. Buikstra et al. (eds), Standards for Data Collection from Human Skeletal Remains: Proceedings of a Seminar at the Field Museum of Natural History Organized by Jonathon Haas. Fayetteville, Arkansas, 1994, 19–20; Ferembach et al., 1980, op. cit., 523–25; El-Najjar and McWilliams, 1978, op. cit., 83–84; Krogman and Iscan, 1986, op. cit., 192–93; White, 1991, op. cit., 322–23.

56 Ferembach et al., 1980, op. cit., 523.

57 Compare with White, 1991, op. cit., 322.

58 These were supraorbital ridges, zygomatic processes and overall shape (Lazer, 1995, op. cit., 137, Figs. 5.31, 5.32 and 5.33).

59 For example, temporal line, glabella, mastoid process and nuchal crest (Lazer, 1995, op. cit., 137).

60 Features that were skewed towards female attribution were overall shape, degree of angling of the frontal bone, supraorbital ridges, glabella, orbital shape, orbital rims, parietal bosses, mastoid process, nuchal crest, external occipital protuberance, zygomatic bone and dental arch. Features that were apparently skewed towards male attribution were posterior root of the zygomatic process, frontal eminences and the temporal line. Only one feature, the zygomatic process, separated into equal numbers of each sex. Lazer, 1995, op. cit., 137. 61 Ferembach et al., 1980, op. cit., 523.

62 Five factors were extracted from a principal components analysis of 12 of the skull observations. BZYG, ZYGP and DEN were excluded. Overall shape was also excluded because it appeared to operate more like a sex index than an individual feature. Lazer, 1995, op. cit., 139. 63 D’Amore et al., 1979, op. cit., 304.

64 For example, D’Amore et al., 1964, op. cit.

65 S.C. Bisel (Physical anthropologist, Herculaneum) to E. Lazer, 1988c, personal communication. 66 W.W. Howells, Cranial Variation in Man: A Study by Multivariate Analysis of Patterns of Difference among Recent Populations. Vol. 67, Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University, 1973, 7–8; Howells, W. W. Skull Shapes and the Map: Craniometric Analyses in the Dispersion of Modern Homo. Vol. 79, Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University, 1989, 3.

67 Brothwell, 1981, op. cit., 83; Howells, op. cit., 1973, 174–76; Lazer, 1995, op. cit., 124–28.

68 Brothwell, 1981, op. cit., 61; Krogman and Iscan, 1986, op. cit., 193–98; Ubelaker, 1989, op. cit., 55.

69 Ubelaker, 1989, op. cit., 55.

70 Lazer, 1995, op. cit., 140–41.

71 B. Flury, and H. Riedwyl, Multivariate Statistics: A Practical Approach. London: Chapman & Hall, 1988, 218–28.

72 Lazer, 1995, op. cit., 128–29.

73 Brothwell, 1981, op. cit., 59–61; Buikstra and Ubelaker 1994: 19–20; El-Najjar and McWilliams, 1978, op. cit., 83–84; Ferembach et al., 1980, op. cit., 523–25; Krogman and Iscan, 1986, op. cit., 192–93; White, 1991, op. cit., 322–23. Since a mandible board was not available, sex was assessed purely from visual inspection.

74 Brothwell, 1981, op. cit., 59; Ferembach et al., 1980, op. cit., 525; S. Hillson, Teeth, Cambridge Manuals in Archaeology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986, 240–41; Krogman and Iscan, 1986, op. cit., 193, 366–69; Lazer, 1995, op. cit., 129– 30.

75 Compare with B.C.W. Barker, ‘Concerning the possibility of estimating the original dimensions of worn Aboriginal teeth’, Australian Dental Journal, Vol. 17, 1972, 448–53. 76 G. Nicolucci, 1882, op. cit., 10.

77 The measurements for my study were based on the definitions of Howells and Brothwell (see note 68 above). It is highly probable that Nicolucci’s method of measurement for at least some of these measurements differed substantially from these definitions. 78 Such as the vertical index (INDVER), the alveolar index (INDALV), the nasal index (INDNAS), the orbital index (INDORB) and the cephalic index (CEFI). 79 Brothwell, 1981, op. cit., 87.

80 Brothwell, 1981, op. cit., 84.

81 Lazer, 1995, op. cit., 141.

82 D’Amore et al., 1979, op. cit., 297–308.

83 W.M. Krogman, The Human Skeleton in Forensic Medicine. Springfield, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas, 1962, 114–22.

84 D’Amore et al., 1979, op. cit., 301, 304.

85 D’Amore et al., 1979, op. cit., 304; Nicolucci, 1882, op. cit., 10.

86 For example Brothwell, 1981, op. cit., 59–60; Ferembach et al., 1980, op. cit., 523–25. 87 St Hoyme and Iscan, 1989, op. cit., 70.

88 St Hoyme and Iscan, 1989, op. cit., 70.

89 S.J. Gould, The Mismeasure of Man. Middlesex: Pelican, 1984, 26, 74.

90 D’Amore et al., 1979, op. cit., 304.

91 D’Amore et al., 1979, op. cit., 304.

92 K.M. Weiss, ‘On the systematic bias in skeletal sexing,’ American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 37 1972, 239–49.

93 D’Amore et al., 1979, op. cit., 304–5.

94 D’Amore et al., 1979, op. cit., 305.

95 The ratio of males to females from examination of the pelvis was 103 : 83, the mandible, 63 : 48 and the skull, 148 : 187. M. Henneberg, and R.J. Henneberg, ‘Reconstructing medical knowledge in ancient Pompeii from the hard evidence of bones and teeth (Presented at a conference at Deutsches Museum, Munich 21–22 March 2000)’,inHomo Faber: Studies in Nature, Technology and Science at the Time of Pompeii, ed. J. Renn and G. Castagnetti. Roma: L’Erma di Bretschneider, 2002, 173.

96 S.C. Bisel, ‘The human skeletons of Herculaneum’, International Journal of Anthropology, Vol. 6, No. 1, 1991, 2; S.C. Bisel, ‘Nutrition in first century Herculaneum’, Anthropologie, Vol. 26, 1988a, 61.

97 L. Capasso, I Fuggiaschi di Ercolano: Paleobiologia delle Vittime dellEruzione Vesuviana del 79 d.C. Roma: ‘L’Erma’ di Bretschneider, 2001, 73, 948–54, 956–57. He used standard morphological observations for adults and less accepted techniques for infants. For example, see H. Schutkowski, ‘Sex determination of infant and juvenile skeletons: 1. Morphognostic features’, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 90, 1993: 199–205.

98 P.P. Petrone et al., ‘La popolazione di Ercolano’,in Vesuvio 79 AD: Vita e Morte ad Ercolano, ed. P.P. Petrone and F. Fedele. Naples: Fredericiana Editrice Universitaria, 2002, 67–71.

99 St Hoyme and Iscan, 1989, op. cit.

100 St Hoyme and Iscan, 1989, op. cit., 53–54.

7 Determination of age-at-death

1 For issues associated with the relationship between biological and chronological age, see A. Kemkes-Grottenthaler, ‘Aging through the ages: Historical perspectives on age indicator methods’,in Paleodemography: Age Distributions from Skeletal Samples, ed. R.D. Hoppa and J.W. Vaupel, Cambridge Studies in Biological and Evolutionary Anthropology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002, 48–50.

2 H.M. Liversidge, ‘Accuracy of age estimation from developing teeth of a population of known age (0–5.4 years)’, International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, Vol. 4,1994, 37–45; S. Mays, The Archaeology of Human Bones. London: Routledge, 1998, 42–49; T.D. White, Human Osteology. 2nd edn. San Diego, California: Academic Press, 2000, 340–42, 349.

3 D.R. Brothwell, Digging up Bones: The Excavation, Treatment and Study of Human Skeletal Remains. 3rd edn. London: British Museum (Natural History) & Oxford University Press, 1981/1965, 64–73; A.T. Chamberlain, Demography in Archaeology, Cambridge Manuals in Archaeology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006, 105; Kemkes-Grottenthaler, 2002, op. cit., 48; D.H. Ubelaker, Human Skeletal Remains: Excavation, Analysis, Interpretation. 2nd edn. Vol. 2, Manuals on Archaeology. Washington: Taraxacum, 1989, 74; T.D. White, Human Osteology. 1st edn. San Diego, California: Academic Press, 1991, 308–9.

4 Kemkes-Grottenthaler, 2002, op. cit., 58 –66. Also, the lack of survival of certain skeletal elements, like ribs, meant that many well established ageing techniques could not be employed.

5 Brothwell, 1981, op. cit., 64–72; Kemkes-Grottenthaler, 2002, op. cit., 57–58; Krogman and Iscan, 1986, op. cit., 129–30, 146–69; P. Shipman et al., The Human Skeleton. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1985, 255–70; White, 1991, op. cit., 308–27.

6 Kemkes-Grottenthaler, 2002, op. cit., 58–60, 62, 65–66; Krogman and Iscan, 1986, op. cit., 95, 97; C.O. Lovejoy et al., ‘Multifactorial determination of skeletal age at death: A method and blind tests of its accuracy’, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 68, 1985a, 1–14, Shipman et al., 1985, op. cit., 264–65.

7 J. Ahlqvist, and D. Damsten, ‘A modification of Kerley’s method for the microscopic determination of age in human bone’, Journal of Forensic Sciences, Vol. 14, 1969, 205–12; Chamberlain, 2006, op. cit., 111–12; M.Y. El-Najjar, and K.R. McWilliams, Forensic Anthropology: The Structure, Morphology and Variation of Human Bone and Dentition. Springfield, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas, 1978, 70–72; G. Gustafson, Forensic Odontology. London: Staples Press, 1966, 120–23; E.R. Kerley, ‘The microscopic determination of age in human bone’, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 23, 1965, 149–64; Krogman and Iscan, 1986, op. cit., 180–84, 364–65; S. Pfeiffer, ‘Comparison of adult age estimation techniques using an ossuary sample’, Canadian Review of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 4, No. 1, 1985, 21–25.

8 J.G. Clement (Victorian Institute of Forensic Pathology, Melbourne) to E. Lazer, 1994, personal communication.

9 M.Y. Iscan and S.R. Loth,‘Osteological manifestations of age in the adult’,in Reconstruction of Life from the Skeleton, ed. M.Y. Iscan and K.A.R. Kennedy. New York: Alan R. Liss, 1989, 31–34. 10 White, 1991, op. cit., 313.

11 S. Brooks and J.M. Suchey, ‘Skeletal age determination based on the os pubis: A comparison of the Acsádi–Nemeskéri and Suchey–Brooks methods’, Human Evolution, Vol. 5, No. 3, 1990, 223; J.E. Buikstra et al. (eds), Standards for Data Collection from Human Skeletal Remains: Proceedings of a Seminar at the Field Museum of Natural History Organized by Jonathon Haas. Fayetteville, Arkansas, 1994, 37.

12 Buikstra and Ubelaker, 1994, op. cit., 9; Lazer, 1995, op. cit., 172–73. 13 White, 1991, op. cit., 309.

14 Lazer, 1995, op. cit., 173–74.

15 W.M. Bass, Human Osteology: A Laboratory and Field Manual of the Human Skeleton. 2nd edn. Columbia: Missouri Archaeological Society, 1984, 149–50; Brothwell, 1981, op. cit., 66; Krogman and Iscan, 1986, op. cit., 64, 67, 75, 79–80, 92–97; L. Scheuer, and S. Black, The Juvenile Skeleton. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2004, 324–28; Shipman et al., 1985, op. cit., 141; Ubelaker, 1989, op. cit., 75; White, 1991, op. cit., 314.

16 Ubelaker, 1989, op. cit., 69, 71, Table 14.

17 Scheuer and Black, 2004, op. cit., 330–31.

18 Chamberlain, 2006, op. cit., 106; D.G. Steele and C.A. Bramblett, The Anatomy and Biology of the Human Skeleton. College Station: Texas A & M University Press, 1988, 205– 7; Mays, 1998, op. cit., 52–55; White, 1991, op. cit., 349–54. For a more detailed account of the techniques used in this study, see Lazer, 1995, op. cit., 175–77. 19 Iscan and Loth, 1989, op. cit., 30–31; B.M. Gilbert and T.W. McKern. ‘A method for aging the female os pubis’, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 38, 1973, 31–38; T.W. McKern, and T.D. Stewart, ‘Skeletal age changes in young American males analyzed from the standpoint of age identification: Technical report EP–45’. Natick, Massachusetts: Headquarter Quarter Master Research and Development Command, 1957, R.S. Meindl,et al., ‘A revised method of age determination using the os pubis, with a review and tests of accuracy of other current methods of pubic symphyseal aging’, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 68, No. 1, 1985, 29–45; J.M. Sucheyet al., ‘Analysis of dorsal pitting in the os pubis in an extensive sample of modern American females’, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 51 1979, 517–39; J.M. Suchey et al., ‘Evaluation of the Todd and McKern–Stewart methods for aging the male os pubis’,in Forensic Osteology: Advances in the Identification of Human Remains, ed. K.J. Reichs. Springfield, Illinois: Charles. C. Thomas, 1986, 33–36.

20 Brothwell, 1981, op. cit., 43, 45; J. Comas, Manual of Physical Anthropology. Springfield, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas, 1960, 368–72; Krogman and Iscan, 1986, op. cit., 110–17; El-Najjar and McWilliams, 1978, op. cit., 60.

21 Meindl and Lovejoy, 1985, op. cit., 65; for details of the techniques used in this study, see Lazer, 1995, op. cit., 178–79.

22 121 skulls could be scored for Ectsut B, as compared to 111 for Ectsut A. 23 Brothwell, 1981, op. cit., 65; Krogman and Iscan, 1986, op. cit., 466–67; Scheuer and Black, 2004, op. cit., 111. For scoring techniques used in this study, see Lazer, 1995, op. cit., 180 24 Scheuer and Black, 2004, op. cit., 7, 77. For the scoring scheme used in this study, see Lazer, 1995, op. cit., 180.

25 Krogman and Iscan, 1986, op. cit., 124. For the scoring scheme used in this study, see Lazer, 1995, op. cit., 180.

26 Three principal components were identified, the first being dominated by the two ectocranial suture scores, the second by the frontal sinuses and basilar fusion and the third by Pacchionian depressions. It should be noted that the first component only accounted for 59 per cent of the variance, the second about 18 per cent and the third about 9 per cent. Removal of the frontal sinuses from the analysis doubled the size of the sample. Three principal components were still generated, the first now dominated by the endocranial and ectocranial suture closure scores, the second by basilar fusion and the third by the Pacchionian depressions. Outliers could be identified when the first two factors were plotted against each other. It is notable that they were all identified as juveniles by their lack of basilar fusion. Also, notable from inspection of the scattergram is the degree of correlation between the first two factors. No clear correlation can be observed from inspection of the scattergram generated by plotting factors one and three. This is because Pacchionian depressions appear to be distributed throughout the sample and do not appear to be specifically age related. When basilar fusion was removed as well, the number of cases increased to 113 and only two principal components were generated. The majority of the variance of the first principal component was explained by endocranial and ectocranial suture closure. Pacchionian depressions accounted for most of the variance of the second principal component. 27 For the scoring scheme used in this study, see Lazer, 1995, op. cit., 181. 28 Mays, 1998, op. cit., 57; D.R. Williams, and C.M. Woodhead, ‘Attrition: A contemporary dental viewpoint’,in Teeth and Anthropology, ed. E. Cruwys and R.A. Foley, 291. Oxford: British Anthropological Reports International, 1986, 109. For the scoring scheme used in this study, see Lazer, 1995, op. cit., 182, 184.

29 T. Anderson, ‘An Anglo-Saxon case of hyperostosis frontalis interna’, Archaeologia Cantiana, Vol. 112, 1993, 254; G.J. Armelagos and O.D. Chrisman, ‘Hyperostosis frontalis interna: A Nubian case’, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 76, 1988, 27. 30 S.L. Dyson, Community and Society in Roman Italy. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992, 216; T.I. Molleson, ‘The archaeology and anthropology of death: What the bones tell us’,in Mortality and Immortality: The Anthropology and Archaeology of Death, ed. S. C. Humphreys and H. King. London: Academic Press, 1981, 20, 22.

31 B.T. Arriaza et al., ‘Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis in Meroitic Nubians from Semna South, Sudan’, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 92, 1993, 246. 32 Molleson, 1981, op. cit., 21.

33 Molleson, 1981, op. cit., 21; A. Scobie, ‘Slums, sanitation, and mortality in the Roman world’, Klio, Vol. 68, No. 2, 1986, 433.

34 Anderson, 1993, op. cit., 254.

35 Chamberlain, 2006, op. cit., 10–11; M.K. Jackes, ‘Paleodemography: Problems and techniques’,in Skeletal Biology of Past Peoples: Research Methods, ed. S.R. Saunders and M.A. Katzenberg. New York: Wiley-Liss, 1992, 218.

36 T.G. Parkin, Old Age in the Roman World: A Cultural and Social History. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003, 15–26, 279.

37 Parkin notes that Hippocrates gave an age of 42 years, Cicero (de Sen 17.60), 46, Galen (in Hipp. Aph. 3.29) (17B.643K), 49, Isidorus (Orig. 11.2), 70 and Staseus and the Etruscan libri fatales (Censorinus de Die Nat. 14.5–6, 10) stated 77. Parkin notes that these ages often related to astrology and the concept of different age, which at least partially explains the variation between ancient authors about the point where one could be said to be old. Parkin, 2003, op. cit., 15–26, 279.

38 Suetonius, The Twelve Caesars. Translated by R. Graves. Middlesex: Penguin, 1957, Augustus, 100.

39 Suetonius, op. cit., Claudius, 45.

40 Suetonius, op. cit., Vespasian, 25.

41 Suetonius, op. cit., Tiberius, 73.

42 Suetonius, op. cit., Galba, 20, 22.

43 Dyson, 1992, op. cit., 181–82; T.G. Parkin, Demography and Roman Society. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992, 7–19; Parkin, 2003, op. cit., 36–37. 44 Parkin, 2003, op. cit., 38, 185–88, 279; Pliny the Elder, op. cit., 7.49.162–64. 45 Dyson, 1992, op. cit., 182.

46 Pliny the Elder, op. cit., 153–64; Pliny the Younger, op. cit., Epistles 5.6.4–7. 47 Dyson, 1992, op. cit., 182, 293 n. 4; Parkin, 1992, op. cit., 7, 11–12, 18; Parkin, 2003, op. cit., 37–38.

48 Parkin, 1992, op. cit., 14; Parkin, 2003, op. cit., 31–35.

49 Parkin notes that illiteracy and age rounding appear to have been linked. Apparently, age rounding was more prevalent outside the cities, among women and those of lower economic or social status and lower levels of education. Parkin, 2003, op. cit., 32–35. 50 Parkin, 2003, op. cit., 94, 189.

51 Dyson, 1992, op. cit., 15, 17, 19; Parkin, 1992, op. cit., 134; Parkin, 2003, op. cit., 36. 52 L. Capasso and L. Capasso. ‘Mortality in Herculaneum before volcanic eruption in 79 AD’, The Lancet, Vol. 354, No. 9192, 1999, 1826; 277–88; L. Capasso, I Fuggiaschi di Ercolano: Paleobiologia delle Vittime dellEruzione Vesuviana del 79 d.C. Roma: ‘L’Erma’ di Bretschneider, 2001, 947–72; M. Henneberg, and R.J. Henneberg, ‘Reconstructing medical knowledge in ancient Pompeii from the hard evidence of bones and teeth. Presented at a conference at Deutsches Museum, Munich 21–22 March 2000’,in Homo Faber: Studies in Nature, Technology and Science at the Time of Pompeii, ed. J. Renn and G. Castagnetti. Roma: L’Erma di Bretschneider, 2002, 169–87.

53 S.C. Bisel, ‘Human bones at Herculaneum’, Rivista di Studi Pompeiani, Vol. 1, 1987, 123; S.C. Bisel, ‘Nutrition in first century Herculaneum’, Anthropologie, Vol. 26, 1988a, 61; S. C. Bisel, ‘The skeletons of Herculaneum, Italy’,in Wet Site Archaeology: Proceedings of the International Conference on Wet Site Archaeology, Gainesville, Florida, December 1214, 1986; sponsored by the National Endowment for the Humanities and University of Florida, ed. B.A. Purdy. Caldwell, New Jersey: Telford Press, 1988b, 209.

54 See for example, J.-P. Bocquet-Appel, and C. Masset. ‘Farewell to paleodemography’, Journal of Human Evolution, Vol. 11, 1982, 321–33, J.P. Bocquet-Appel and C. Masset. ‘Paleodemography: Resurrection or Ghost?’, Journal of Human Evolution, Vol. 14, No. 2, 1985, 107–11; Chamberlain, 2006, op. cit., 84–87.

55 Chamberlain, 2006, op. cit., 87–132.

56 Chamberlain, 2006, op. cit., 26–32, 88–89.

57 I.B. Cohen, The Triumph of Numbers: How Counting Shaped Modern Life. New York: WW Norton & Company, 2005, 47–48; Chamberlain, 2006, op. cit., 27–32. 58 Bisel, 1987, op. cit., 123; Bisel, 1988a, op. cit., 61; Bisel, 1988b, op. cit., 209. 59 W.F. Jashemski, The Gardens of Pompeii, Herculaneum and the Villas Destroyed by Vesuvius. New York: Caratzas Brothers, 1979a, 243.

60 G. Nicolucci,‘Crania Pompeiana: Descrizione de’ crani umani rinvenuti fra le ruine dell’ antica Pompei’, Atti della R. Accademia delle Scienze Fisiche e Matematiche, Vol. 9, No. 10, 1882, 10. 61 C. D’Amore et al., ‘Antropologia pompeiana del 79 d.C.: Sesso ed età di morte’, Archivio per lAntropologia e la Etnologia, Vol. 109, 1979, 305; H.V. Vallois, ‘Vital statistics in prehistoric population as determined from archaeological data’,in The Application of Quantitative Methods in Archaeology, ed. R.F. Heizer and S.F. Cook. Chicago: Quadrangle, 1960, 194. 62 D’Amore et al., 1979, op. cit., 305–6.

63 D’Amore et al., 1979, op. cit., 304.

64 Vallois, 1960, op. cit., 187–93.

65 Vallois, 1960, op. cit., 194.

66 Ibid.

67 Krogman, 1962, op. cit., 76–89. Also, see the discussion that followed Vallois’ paper. Vallois, 1960, op. cit., 205–22, especially 212–13.

68 D’Amore et al., 1979, op. cit., 305.

69 Henneberg and Henneberg, 2002, op. cit., 172.

70 Also E. Lazer, ‘Pompeii AD 79: A population in flux?’,in Sequence and Space in Pompeii, ed. S.E. Bon and R. Jones. Oxford: Oxbow Monograph 77, 1997a, 102–20. 71 Henneberg and Henneberg, 2002, op. cit., 171–74.

72 Ibid., 185.

73 Bisel, 1988a, op. cit., 61; S.C. Bisel, ‘The human skeletons of Herculaneum’, International Journal of Anthropology, Vol. 6, No. 1, 1991, 2; S.C. Bisel and J.F. Bisel, ‘Health and nutrition at Herculaneum: An examination of human skeletal remains’,in The Natural History of Pompeii, ed. W.F. Jashemski and F.G. Meyer. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002, 453–54.

74 Bisel, 1991, op. cit., 2–3; Bisel and Bisel, 2002, op. cit.

75 Bisel and Bisel, 2002, op. cit., 474.

76 Capasso, 2001, op. cit., 73–75; Chamberlain, 2006, op. cit., 110–11; Kerley, 1965, op. cit., 149–64.

77 Capasso, 2001, op. cit., 947; Capasso and Capasso, 1999, op. cit., 1826. 78 Capasso, 2001, op. cit., 956.

79 Capasso and Capasso, 1999, op. cit., 1826; Capasso, 2001, op. cit., 967–69. 80 P.P. Petrone et al., ‘La popolazione di Ercolano’,in Vesuvio 79 AD: Vita e Morte ad Ercolano, ed. P.P. Petrone and F. Fedele. Naples: Fredericiana Editrice Universitaria, 2002a, 69. 81 Petrone et al., 2002, op. cit., 71; Seneca. Naturales Quaestiones. Translated by T.H. Corcoran, Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1972, VI, 1, 26, 27, 31.

82 Chamberlain, 2006, op. cit., 82; Jackes, 1992, op. cit., 189–224; J.M. Suchey, and D. Katz, ‘Skeletal age standards derived from an extensive multiracial sample of modern Americans (unpublished paper)’,in The Fifty-Fifth Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists. Albuquerque, New Mexico: 1986, J.M. Suchey, D.V. Wiseley and D. Katz, ‘Evaluation of the Todd and McKern–Stewart methods for aging the male os pubis’,in Forensic Osteology: Advances in the Identification of Human Remains, ed. K.J. Reichs. Springfield, Illinois: Charles. C Thomas, 1986, 33–67; J.M. Suchey, S.T. Brooks and D. Katz, Instructions for the Use of the SucheyBrooks System for Age Determination of the Female Os Pubis, Instructional materials accompanying female pubic symphyseal models of the Suchey–Brooks System, 1988, 5.

83 Chamberlain, 2006, op. cit., 110–12; B. Grosskopf, ‘Individualaltersbestimmung mit hilfe von zuwachsringen im zement bodengelagerter menschlicher zähne’, Zeitschrift für Rechtsmedizin, Vol. 103, No. 5, 1990, 351–59; Jackes, 1992, op. cit., 199, 210, 218; V.K. Kayshap, and N.R. Koteswara Rao, ‘Amodified Gustafson method of age estimation from teeth’, Forensic Science International, Vol. 47, No. 3, 1990, 237–47;M.Lorentsen, andT.Solheim. ‘Age assessment based on translucent dentine’, Journal of Forensic Odontostomatology,Vol. 7, No. 2, 1989, 3–9; A.E.W. Miles, ‘Teeth as an indicator of age in man’,in Development, Function and Evolution of Teeth, ed. P.M. Butler and K.A. Joysey. New York: Academic Press, 1978, 460–61.

8 General health and lifestyle indicators

1 T.D. White, Human Osteology. 2nd edn. San Diego, California: Academic Press, 2000, 383; T.D. White and P.A. Folkens, The Human Bone Manual. Boston: Academic Press, 2005, 309–11.

2 C.H. Cabell et al., ‘Bacterial endocarditis: The disease, treatment, and prevention’,in Circulation (American Heart Association, 2003); R. Gendron et al., ‘The oral cavity as a reservoir of bacterial pathogens for focal infections’, Microbes and Infection, Vol. 2, No. 8, 2000, 897–906; Meyer, D.H. and P.M. Fives-Taylor, ‘Oral pathogens: from dental plaque to cardiac disease’, Current Opinion in Microbiology, Vol. 1, No. 1, 1998, 88–95; J. Molloy et al., ‘The association of periodontal disease parameters with systemic medical conditions and tobacco use’, Journal of Clinical Periodontology, Vol. 31, No. 8, 2004, 625–26, 631; P.G. O’Reilly and N.M. Claffey, ‘A history of oral sepsis as a cause of disease’, Periodontology 2000, Vol. 23, No. 1, 2000: 13, 16–18.

3 E. Lazer, ‘Human Skeletal Remains in Pompeii: Vols. I and II’, unpublished PhD thesis, Department of Anatomy and Histology. Sydney: University of Sydney, 1995, 210–13.

4 Odin Langsjoen in A.C. Aufderheide and C. Rodriguez-Martin, The Cambridge Encyclopaedia of Human Palaeopathology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998, 397; K. Manchester, The Archaeology of Disease. Bradford: University of Bradford, 1983, 51.

5S.C.Bisel, ‘The human skeletons of Herculaneum’, International Journal of Anthropology, Vol. 6, No. 1, 1991, 8; L.D. Martin et al., Black Mesa Anasazi Health: Reconstructing Life from Patterns of Death and Disease. Vol. 14, Occasional Paper Carbonale, Illinois: Center for Archaeological Investigations: Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, 1991, 183–84; Lazer, 1995, op. cit., Appendix 3, 401–3.

6 S.C. Bisel and J.F. Bisel, ‘Health and nutrition at Herculaneum: An examination of human skeletal remains’,in The Natural History of Pompeii, ed. W.F. Jashemski and F.G. Meyer. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002, 451–75; M. Torino and G. Fornaciari, ‘Gli Scheletri di Ercolani: Richerche paleopatologiche’,in Gli Antichi Ercolanesi: Antropologia, Società, Economia, ed. M. Pagano. Napoli: Electa, 2000, 60–63; L. Capasso, IFuggiaschidiErcolano: Paleobiologia delle Vittime dellEruzione Vesuviana del 79 d.C.Roma: ‘L’Erma’ di Bretschneider, 2001. P.P. Petrone et al., ‘Alimentazione e malattie ad Ercolano’,in Vesuvio79 AD: Vita e Morte ad Ercolano, ed. P.P. Petrone and F. Fedele. Naples: Fredericiana Editrice Universitaria, 2002b, 75–83.

7 Capasso, 2001, op. cit., 1047.

8 D.R. Williams and C.M. Woodhead, ‘Attrition: A contemporary dental viewpoint’,in Teeth and Anthropology, ed. E. Cruwys and R.A. Foley, 291. Oxford: British Anthropological Reports International, 1986, 109.

9 B. Bonfiglioli et al., ‘Dento-alveolar lesions and nutritional habits of a Roman Imperial age population (1st–4th C. AD): Quadrella. Molise, Italy’, Homo: Journal of Comparative Human Biology, Vol. 54, No. 1, 2003, 40.

10 Such as that observed on TF NS 86: 1 (Figures 7.4 and 7.5).

11 Martin et al., 1991, op. cit., 190.

12 S.C. Bisel, ‘Human bones at Herculaneum’, Rivista di Studi Pompeiani, Vol. 1 1987, 128. 13 Capasso, 2001, op. cit., 1040–42.

14 Bonfiglioli et al., 2003, op. cit., 49; Martin et al., 1991, op. cit., 174; White and Folkens, 2005, op. cit., 328–29.

15 S. Hillson, Teeth, Cambridge Manuals in Archaeology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986, 287–95; S. Hillson, Dental Anthropology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996, 269; Martin et al., 1991, op. cit., 166–67; S. Mays, The Archaeology of Human Bones. London: Routledge, 1998, 148–52; D.J. Ortner, Identification of Pathological Conditions in Human Skeletal Remains. 2nd edn. San Diego: Academic Press, 2003, 590; C.G. Turner, II, et al., ‘Scoring procedures for key morphological traits of the permanent dentition: The Arizona State University Dental System’,in Advances in Dental Anthropology, eds. M.A. Kelley and C.S. Larsen. New York: Wiley-Liss, 1991, 27; White and Folkens, 2005, op. cit., 329.

16 This approach is recommended for archaeological samples by scholars like Hillson, 1996, op. cit., 279.

17 For example TF 99, TF NS 86: 3, TF NS m 86: 3, TF 105, TF 17, TdS NS 84: 1. 18 Bisel, 1991, op. cit., 8.

19 S.C. Bisel, ‘Nutrition in first century Herculaneum’, Anthropologie, Vol. 26, 1988a, 63; Bisel, 1991, op. cit., 4; Hillson, 1986, op. cit., 299.

20 Torino and Fornaciari, 2000, op. cit., 60–62.

21 Capasso, 2001, op. cit., 1044–47; Petrone et al., 2002b, op. cit., 75.

22 D.R. Brothwell, Digging up Bones: The Excavation, Treatment and Study of Human Skeletal Remains. 3rd edn. London: British Museum (Natural History) & Oxford University Press, 1981/1965, 154–55; Hillson, 1986, op. cit., 309–12; Hillson, 1996, op. cit., 260–63; Martin et al., 1991, op. cit., 167–68; White and Folkens, 2005, op. cit, 330.

23 Bisel, 1991, op. cit., 4, 8; S.C. Bisel and J.F. Bisel, ‘Health and nutrition at Herculaneum: An examination of human skeletal remains’,in The Natural History of Pompeii, ed. W.F. Jashemski and F.G. Meyer. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002, 455. 24 Brothwell, 1981, op. cit., 156–57; Manchester, 1983, op. cit., 51; Martin et al., 1991, op. cit., 168; Turner, et al., op. cit., 27; White and Folkens, 2005, op. cit, 330. 25 Martin et al., 1991, op. cit., 180, 182,190.

26 For example, TF 105, TF 11, TdS m 39, TF NS 86:1. For the last case, see Plate 8.3. 27 Bisel, 1991, op. cit., 8; Capasso, 2001, op. cit., 1042–44.

28 Hillson, 1996, op. cit., 255–56; White and Folkens, 2005, op. cit, 330–31. 29 Capasso, 2001, op. cit., 1042.

30 Hillson, 1986, op. cit., 129–36; Martin et al., 1991, op. cit., 99–100; Mays, 1998, op. cit., 156; Dr Alain Middleton pers. comm.; White and Folkens, 2005, op. cit, 329. 31 A.H. Goodman and G.J. Armelagos, ‘Factors affecting the distribution of enamel hypoplasias within the human permanent dentition’, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 68, 1985, 479; Martin et al., 1991, op. cit., 101, 103; E.J. Neidburger, ‘Enamel hypoplasias: Poor indicators of dietary stress’, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 82, 1990: 231–32.

32 Bisel 1988a, op. cit., 62–63; Bisel, 1991, op. cit., 4; Bisel and Bisel, 2002, op. cit., 455; Capasso, 2001, op. cit., 1035–38; Petrone et al., 2002b, op. cit., 75–78. 33 TF 6.

34 G. Majno, The Healing Hand: Man and Wound in the Ancient World. 1991 edn. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1975. 73.

35 L.J. Bliquez, Roman Surgical Instruments and Other Minor Objects in the National Museum of Naples. Mainz, Germany: Philipp von Zabern, 1994, 78.

36 Celsus, ‘De Medicina’,in Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1938, Book 6, Ch 9–13, Book 7, Ch 12, Book 8, 12. B. Ginge et al., ‘Of Roman extraction’, Archaeology, Vol. 42, No. 4, 1989, 34–37; B.W. Weinberger, An Introduction to the History of Dentistry, Vols I and II, St Louis, Missouri: Mosby, 1948, 133–35. 37 A. Hoffman, A History of Dentistry. Translated by H.M. Koehler. Chicago, Illinois: Quintessence Publishing Co, 1981, 68; Martial, ‘Epigrammata: English and Latin Selections’, London: Hart-Davis, MacGibbon, 1973, Epigrams V.43, XII.23 and XIV.56; Weinberger, 1948, op. cit., 123–26; 130–31.

38 Weinberger, 1948, op. cit., 139–44.

39 W.M. Bass, Human Osteology: A Laboratory and Field Manual of the Human Skeleton. 2nd edn. Columbia: Missouri Archaeological Society, 1984, 175; Brothwell, 1981, op. cit., 100–102; Higgins, V., ‘Rural Agricultural Communities of the Late Roman and Early Medieval Periods Including a Study of Two Skeletal Groups from San Vincenzo al Volturno’, unpublished PhD thesis. Sheffield: University of Sheffield, 1990, 355–56; V. Higgins, ‘A model for assessing health patterns from skeletal remains’,in Burial Archaeology: Current Research, Methods and Developments, ed. C.A. Roberts, F. Lee and J. Bintliff, 211. Oxford: BAR, 1989, 182, 191; W.M. Krogman and M.Y. Iscan, The Human Skeleton in Forensic Medicine. 2nd edn. Springfield, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas, 1986, 302–12; M. Trotter and G.C. Gleser. ‘A re-evaluation of estimation of stature based on measurements of stature taken during life and of long bones after death’, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 16, 1958, 79–123; D.H. Ubelaker, Human Skeletal Remains: Excavation, Analysis, Interpretation. 2nd edn. Vol. 2, Manuals on Archaeology. Washington: Taraxacum, 1989, 60–63; White, 2000, op. cit., 369–72; White and Folkens, 2005, op. cit, 398–400.

40 Bisel, 1991, op. cit., 4; Brothwell, 1981, op. cit., 100–102; Molleson pers. comm.; Mays, 1998, op. cit., 70; Trotter and Gleser, 1958, op. cit., 79–123; M. Trotter, ‘Estimation of stature from intact long bones’,in Personal Identification in Mass Disasters, ed. T.D. Stewart. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1970, 71–83.

41 Brothwell, 1981, op. cit., 101; Krogman and Iscan, 1986, op. cit., 304–9; Trotter and Gleser, 1958, op. cit., 79–123. The Terry skeletal collection is housed in the Department of Anthropology of the National Museum of Natural History of the Smithsonian Institution. It comprises 1,728 extensively documented human skeletons, which makes it a particularly valuable scientific resource.

42 Krogman and Iscan, 1986, op. cit., 305; S. Pheasant, Bodyspace: Anthropology, Ergonomics and Design. London: Taylor & Francis, 1986, 50; Trotter and Gleser, 1958, op. cit., 121. 43 Trotter, 1970, op. cit., 71–83; White, 2000, op. cit., 372; White and Folkens, 2005, op. cit., 398.

44 W. Jongman, ‘Gibbon was right: The decline and fall of the Roman economy’,in Crises and the Roman Empire. Proceedings of the Seventh Workshop of the International Network Impact of Empire (Nijmegen, June 2024, 2006), ed. O. Hekster, G. de Kleijn and D. Slootjes. Leiden: Brill, 2007, 194, Graph 7.

45 M.J. Becker, ‘Calculating stature from in situ measurements of skeletons and from long bone lengths: An historical perspective leading to a test of Formicola’s hypothesis at 5th century BCE Satricum, Lazio, Italy’, Rivista di Antrolopologia Vol. 77 1999, 225–47; V. Formicola, ‘Stature reconstruction from long bones in ancient population samples: An approach to the problem of its reliability’,American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 90, No. 3, 1993, 351–58; M. Giannecchini and J. Moggi-Cecchi. ‘Stature in archeological samples from Central Italy: Methodological issues and diachronic changes’, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 135, No. 3, 2008, 284–92; M. Trotter and G.C. Gleser. ‘Estimation of stature from long bones of American Whites and Negroes’,American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 10 1952, 463–514; M. Trotter, and G.C. Gleser. ‘Corrigenda to “estimation of stature from long limb bones of American Whites and Negroes,” American Journal of Physical Anthropology(1952), American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 47, No. 2, 1977, 355–56.

46 See, for example, Krogman and Iscan, 1986, op. cit., 310.

47 Giannecchini and Moggi-Cecchi, 2008, op. cit., 290; Krogman and Iscan, 1986, op. cit., 310–11.

48 Pheasant, 1986, op. cit., 43, Fig. 3.1.

49 Pheasant, 1986, op. cit., 42–43.

50 Henneberg and Henneberg used Pearson’s regressions from 1899, Hrdlicka’s 1939 proportions, Trotter and Gleser’s 1952 and regression formulae, Dupertius and Hadden’s 1951 proportions and Telka’s 1950 regressions. M. Henneberg and R.J. Henneberg, ‘Reconstructing medical knowledge in ancient Pompeii from the hard evidence of bones and teeth. Presented at a conference at Deutsches Museum, Munich 21–22 March 2000’,in Homo Faber: Studies in Nature, Technology and Science at the Time of Pompeii, ed. J. Renn and G. Castagnetti. Roma: L’Erma di Bretschneider, 2002, 183. The height estimates that they obtained ranged from 163.1 to 169.4 cm for males and 151.6 to 155.8 cm for females. They estimated that the mean male height was about 166 cm and mean female height was around 154 cm. 51 Pheasant, 1986, op. cit., 45.

52 Higgins, 1989, op. cit., 193–94; Higgins, 1990, op. cit., 357.

53 Bisel, 1987, op. cit., 123–24; Bisel 1988a, op. cit., 64; Bisel, 1991, op. cit., 4; Bisel and Bisel, 2002, op. cit., 455; Capasso, 2001, op. cit., 925, 927.

54 Capasso stated that he employed Trotter and Gleser (1958). M.J. Becker, ‘Review [untitled]’, Rev. of I Fuggiaschi di Ercolano: Paleobiologia delle vittime dell’eruzione Vesuviana del 79 D.C. by L. Capasso. Rome: L’Erma di Bretschneider, 2001, Journal of Roman Studies, Vol. 93, 2003, 405; Capasso, 2001, op. cit., 927

55 C. D’Amore et al., ‘Definizione antropologica della popolazione adulta di un commune della provincia di Napoli’,in Rendiconto dellAccademia delle Scienze, Fisiche e Matematiche della Societa Nazionale di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti in Napoli, Serie IV, XXXI. Napoli: 1964. 56 D’Amore et al., 1964, op. cit., 409.

57 See, for example, Becker, 1999, op. cit., 226–27 for an overview of such studies. 58 Brothwell, 1981, op. cit., 88; L. Capasso et al., Atlas of Occupational Markers on Human Remains, Journal of Paleontology: Monographic Publication 3. Teramo: Journal of Paleontology & Edigrafital, 1999, 101.

59 Bisel 1988a, op. cit., 64; Bisel, 1991, op. cit., 6; Bisel and Bisel, 2002, op. cit., 455; Brothwell, 1981, op. cit., 89; Capasso, et al., 1999, op. cit., 101; Capasso, 2001, op. cit., 936–37. 60 Bass, 1984, op. cit., 187; Bisel and Bisel, 2002, op. cit., 455; Capasso, 2001, op. cit., 937–38.

61 Brothwell, 1981, op. cit., 89; K.A.R. Kennedy, ‘Skeletal markers of occupational stress’, in Reconstruction of Life from the Skeleton, ed. M.Y. Iscan and K.A.R. Kennedy. New York: Alan R. Liss, 1989, 136–37.

62 S.C. Bisel, ‘The Herculaneum Project: Preliminary Report’, Palaeopathology Newsletter, Vol. 41, 1983, 6; Bisel, 1987, op. cit., 124; Bisel 1988a, op. cit., 62, 64; S.C. Bisel, ‘The skeletons of Herculaneum, Italy’,in Wet Site Archaeology: Proceedings of the International Conference on Wet Site Archaeology, Gainesville, Florida, December 1214, 1986; sponsored by the National Endowment for the Humanities and University of Florida, ed. B.A. Purdy. Caldwell, New Jersey: Telford Press, 1988b, 210; Bisel, 1991, op. cit., 4, 8; Bisel and Bisel, 2002, op. cit., 455–56.

63 Brothwell, 1981, op. cit., 119–20; D.J. Ortner and W.G.J. Putschar, Identification of Pathological Conditions in Human Skeletal Remains. Vol. 28, Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1981, 55; R.T. Steinbock, Paleopathological Diagnosis and Interpretation: Bone Diseases in Ancient Human Populations. Springfield, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas, 1976, 17; White, 2000, op. cit., 383–84; White and Folkens, 2005, op. cit, 312.

64 Fractures were described in accordance with Merbs 1989: 161–66 and Roberts 1991: 232–35. Healed nasal fractures were noted but not included in this study as it is unlikely that they would have had any impact on survival prospects from the eruption. 65 Skull TF 111.

66 Aufderheide and Rodriguez–Martin, 1998, op. cit., 20–21; C. Roberts and K. Manchester, The Archaeology of Disease. 2nd edn. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1995, 67–72; White and Folkens, 2005, op. cit, 48, 312–14.

67 Respectively TdS R 15, TdS L 21 and TdS R 42.

68 Respectively TdS R 11 and TdS # 28:1.

69 Aufderheide and Rodríguez-Martin, 1998, op. cit., 172; Roberts and Manchester, 1995, op. cit., 126–27; White and Folkens, 2005, op. cit, 318.

70 Associated with TdS # 28:1.

71 Lazer, 1995, op. cit., 233.

72 TdS 199.

73 TF 103.

74 Henneberg and Henneberg, 2002, op. cit., 177.

75 TF L 25, TF L 87.

76 TF L 25.

77 Compare with Ortner and Putschar, 1981, op. cit., 57–59, Fig. 50.

78 TF L 140.

79 Aufderheide and Rodríguez-Martin, 1998, op. cit., 84; Ortner and Putschar, 1981, op. cit., 239–42, Figs. 375–81; R.A. Tyson and E.S.D. Alcauskas (eds), Catalogue of the Hrdlicka Paleopathology Collection. San Diego, California: San Diego Museum of Man, 1980, 216–19; White and Folkens, 2005, op. cit, 314.

80 Associated with TF 111.

81 Associated with TdS R 15, TdS L 21 and TdS R 42.

82 TdS R 11 and the bones of TdS # 28:1.

83 Arguably estimated by Sigurdsson and Carey at about eighteen hours. H. Sigurdsson and S.N. Carey, ‘The eruption of Vesuvius in AD 79’,in The Natural History of Pompeii, ed. W. F. Jashemski and F.G. Meyer. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002, 59. 84 Associated with TdS 199.

85 A.R. Damasio and H. Damasio, ‘Brain and language’, Scientific American, Vol. 267, No. 3, 1992, 62–63; H. Gray, Anatomy, Descriptive and Surgical. Revised American from the 15th English edn. New York: Bounty Books, 1977, 649.

86 TF 74.

87 Aufderheide and Rodríguez-Martin, 1998, op. cit., 31; F.P. Lisowski, ‘Prehistoric and early trepanation’,in Diseases in Antiquity: A Survey of the Diseases, Injuries and Surgery of Early Populations, ed. D.R. Brothwell and A.T. Sandison. Springfield, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas, 1967, 651–70; E.L. Margetts, ‘Trepanation of the skull by the medicine men of primitive cultures, with particular reference to present-day native East African practice’,in Diseases in Antiquity: A Survey of the Diseases, Injuries and Surgery of Early Populations, ed. D. R. Brothwell and A.T. Sandison. Springfield, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas, 1967, 673–94; Ortner and Putschar, 1981, op. cit., 95–98; Figs. 112–14; Ortner, 2003, op. cit., 169– 74; Roberts and Manchester, 1995, op. cit., 91–94; Steinbock, 1976, op. cit.; Tyson and Alcauskas (eds), 1980, op. cit., 74–89.

88 Bliquez, 1994, op. cit., 93–94; Celsus, op. cit.; J.J. Deiss, Herculaneum: Italys Buried Treasure. 2nd edn. New York: Harper & Row, 1985, 192; P. Gusman, Pompei: The City, its Life and Art. Translated by F. Simmonds and M. Jourdain. London: Heinemann, 1900, 238; R. Jackson, ‘Roman doctors and their instruments: Recent research into ancient practice’, Journal of Roman Archaeology, Vol. 3, 1990, 6; Majno, 1991, op. cit., 353–68. 89 Bliquez, 1994, op. cit., 43, 77; R. Caton, ‘Notes on a group of medical and surgical instruments found near Kolophon’, Journal of Hellenic Studies, Vol. 34, 1914, 114–18. 90 Celsus, op. cit.; vii, 3.

91 Celsus, op. cit.; 10, 7.

92 Bliquez, 1994, op. cit., 44; Jackson and La Niece 1986: 143–45.

93 Bliquez, 1994, op. cit., 72.

94 Bliquez, 1994, op. cit., 78.

95 TF 74.

96 viii, 3, 8–9.

97 Caton, 1914, op. cit., 114–15; R. Jackson and S. La Niece, ‘A set of Roman medical instruments from Italy’, Britannia, Vol. 17 1986, 143–44; Jackson, 1990, op. cit., 18, Fig. 5; J. Kirkup, The Evolution of Surgical Instruments: An Illustrated History from Ancient Times to the Twentieth Century. Novato, California: Norman Publishing, 2006, 71. 98 TdS R 11 and TdS # 28:1 respectively.

99 Bisel, 1987, op. cit., 124–25.

100 Capasso, 2001, op. cit., 998–1002.

101 Majno, 1991, op. cit., 84; Roberts and Manchester, 1995, op. cit., 74–75. 102 P. Ciprotti, ‘Der letzte tag von Pompeji’, Altertum, Vol. 10, 1964, 40–54. 103 TdS # 28:1.

104 Though compare with Henneberg and Henneberg, 2002, op. cit., 174–76. 105 L. Capasso and G. Di Tota, ‘Lice buried under the ashes of Herculaneum’, The Lancet, Vol. 351, No. 9107, 1998, 992; L. Capasso, ‘Indoor pollution and respiratory diseases in ancient Rome’, The Lancet, Vol. 356, No. 9243, 2000b, 1774; Capasso, 2001, op. cit., 1000–1002; L. Capasso, ‘Infectious diseases and eating habits at Herculaneum (1st century AD, Southern Italy)’, International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, Vol. 17, No. 4, 2007, 353–54.

106 L. Capasso, and G. Di Tota, ‘Tuberculosis in Herculaneum (79 AD)’,in Tuberculosis Past and Present, ed. G. Pálfi, O. Dutour, J. Deák and I. Hutás. Budapest: Golden Books & Tuberculosis Foundation, 1999, 463–67; Capasso, 2007, op. cit., 354; T. Molleson et al., The Spitalfields Project. Vol. 2: The Anthropology: The Middling Sort, Council for British Archaeology Research Report 86. York: Council for British Archaeology, 1993, 83. 107 Aufderheide and Rodríguez–Martin, 1998, op. cit., 192–93; L. Capasso, ‘Bacteria in twomillennia-old cheese, and related epizoonoses in Roman populations’, Journal of Infection, Vol. 45, No. 2, 2002, 122–27; Capasso et al., 1999, op. cit., Capasso 2002; op. cit., 122–26; Capasso, 2007, op. cit., 351; Ortner, 2003, op. cit., 215–21. 108 Capasso, 2007, op. cit., 350–57.

109 Brothwell, 1981, op. cit., 165; Martin et al., 1991, op. cit., 149; D.M. Mittler and D.P. van Gerven, ‘Developmental, diachronic, and demographic analysis of cribra orbitalia in the medieval Christian populations of Kulubnarti’, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 93, 1994, 287–88; T.I. Molleson, ‘Urban bones: The skeletal evidence for environmental change’,in Actes des Troisièmes Journées Anthropologiques de Valbonne, Notes et Monographies Techniques. Paris: Editions du CNRS, 1987, 145; Ortner and Putschar, 1981, op. cit., 258–63; Rothschild, B. ‘Porotic hyperostosis as a marker of health and nutritional conditions’, American Journal of Human Biology, Vol. 14, No. 4, 2002, 417; P. Shipman et al., The Human Skeleton. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1985, 299; Steinbock, 1976, op. cit., 239; P. Stuart-Macadam, ‘Porotic hyperostosis: Changing interpretations’,in Human Palaeopathology: Current Syntheses and Future Options, ed. D.J. Ortner and A.C. Aufderheide. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1991, 36–39; White, 2000, op. cit., 394–95; White and Folkens, 2005, op. cit, 320–22. 110 J.E. Buikstra, D.H. Ubelaker and D. Aftandilian (eds), Standards for Data Collection from Human Skeletal Remains: Proceedings of a Seminar at the Field Museum of Natural History Organized by Jonathon Haas. Fayetteville, Arkansas, 1994, 120–21; Mittler and Van Gerven, 1994, op. cit., 289; White and Folkens, 2005, op. cit, 320.

111 The scoring system that was used was based on the standards for data collection from human skeletal remains. J.E. Buikstra and D.H. Ubelaker (eds), 1994, op. cit., 121, 151–53; and P. Stuart-Macadam, ‘Porotic hyperostosis: Representative of a childhood condition’, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 66 1985, 391–98. 112 Mittler and Van Gerven, 1994, op. cit., 289.

113 Stuart-Macadam, 1991, op. cit., 36–38; White and Folkens, 2005, op. cit, 322. 114 B.M. Rothschild et al., Relationship between porotic hyperostosis and cribra orbitalia? (2004); from PaleoBios, http://anthropologie-et-paleopathologie.univ-lyon1.fr/ (accessed 4 April 2005); U. Wapler, ‘Is cribra orbitalia synonymous with anemia? Analysis and interpretation of cranial pathology in Sudan’,American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 123, No. 4, 2004, 333–39.

115 For example, see A. Cucina et al., ‘The Necropolis of Vallerano (Rome, 2nd–3rd Century AD): An anthropological perspective on the Ancient Romans in the Suburbium’, International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, Vol. 16, No. 2, 2006, 113–14.

116 J.L. Angel, ‘Porotic hyperostosis, anemias, malarias and marshes in the prehistoric Eastern Mediterranean’, Science, Vol. 153, 1966, 760–63; J.L. Angel, ‘The bases of palaeodemography’, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 30, 1969a, 427–37; A. Ascenzi, ‘Physiological relationship and pathological interferences between bone tissue and marrow’,in The Biochemistry and Physiology of Bone, ed. G.H. Bourne. New York: Academic Press, 1976, 429; A. Ascenzi, ‘A problem in palaeopathology: The origin of thalassemia in Italy’, Virchows Archiv A: Pathological Anatomy and Histopathology, Vol. 384, 1979, 128; Bisel, 1987, op. cit., 125; Bisel 1988a, op. cit., 64; Bisel 1988a, op. cit., 62; Bisel, 1988b, op. cit., 213; Bisel, 1991, op. cit., 14; Bisel and Bisel, 2002, op. cit., 458; D.C. Cook and M.L. Powell, ‘The evolution of American paleopathology’,in Bioarchaeology: The Contextual Analysis of Human Remains, ed. J.E. Buikstra and L.A. Beck. Amsterdam: Academic Press, 2006, 300; Martin et al., 1991, op. cit., 147–52; Stuart-Macadam, 1991, op. cit., 36–39.

117 E28 Capasso, 2001, op. cit., 1012–15, 1055.

118 Brothwell, 1981, op. cit., 146; Manchester, 1983, op. cit., 65–70; Rogers and Manchester 1995; 105–6; J. Rogers, et al., ‘Arthropathies in palaeopathology: The basis of classification according to most probable cause’, Journal of Archaeological Science, Vol. 14 1987, 179–93; Manchester, 1983, op. cit., 65, 68. White and Folkens, 2005, op. cit, 325, 424; 119 Rogers et al., 1987, op. cit., 179.

120 Devised by Ubelaker, 1989, op. cit., 87.

121 Ubelaker’s Type d osteophytic change was observed on TF L 46, 77, 78, 146, 147; TF R 15, 24, 32, 58, 92, 116. Ubelaker, 1989, op. cit., 87.

122 For example, TF L 147.

123 TF L 140.

124 Ubelaker’s Type d was recorded for the following humeri TF L, 5, 10, 64, 86, 98, 46 and 59. Ubelaker, 1989, op. cit., 87.

125 TF L 27.

126 B.T. Arriaza, et al., ‘Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis in Meroitic Nubians from Semna South, Sudan’, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 92, 1993, 243–48; Aufderheide and Rodríguez–Martin, 1998, op. cit., 97–98; M. Cammisa et al., ‘Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis’, European Journal of Radiology, Vol. 27, No. Supplement 1, 1998, 7; C. Kiss et al., ‘The prevalence of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis in a population-based study in Hungary’, Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology, Vol. 31, No. 4, 2002a, 226–29; C. Kiss et al., ‘Risk factors for diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis: A case-control study’, Rheumatology, Vol. 41, No. 1, 2002b, 27–30; Ortner, 2003, op. cit., 558–59; Roberts and Manchester, 1995, op. cit., 120–21; J. Rogers et al., ‘Arthropathies in palaeopathology: The basis of classification according to most probable cause’, Journal of Archaeological Science, Vol. 14, 1987, 186–88; R.M. Weinfeld et al., ‘The prevalence of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) in two large American Midwest metropolitan hospital populations’, Skeletal Radiology, Vol. 26, No. 4, 1997, 222–25. 127 TdS 1.

128 TF NS 86:1.

129 Aufderheide and Rodríguez-Martin, 1998, op. cit., 98; Roberts and Manchester, 1995, op. cit., 119, 121; Lazer, 1995, op. cit., Appendix 3.

130 Ubelaker Types b and c. Ubelaker, 1989, op. cit., 87.

131 Molleson, 1987, op. cit., 149; Rogers et al., 1987, op. cit., 185.

132 Type d osteophytic change. Ubelaker, 1989, op. cit., 87.

133 Aufderheide and Rodríguez-Martin, 1998, op. cit., 98; Arriaza et al., 1993, op. cit., 243– 44; Ortner, 2003, op. cit., 558–59; Rogers et al., 1987, op. cit., 187. 134 The case of DISH was observed in ERC 27, a male, rather specifically aged at 46 years, Bisel 1988a, op. cit., 63–64; Bisel 1988b, op. cit., 212; Bisel, 1991, op. cit., 14; Bisel and Bisel, 2002, op. cit., 468–69.

135 Capasso, 2001, op. cit., 1018–31; the cases of DISH were in E27, E61, E86, E117, E141A; Becker, 2003, op. cit., 405.

136 For the methods used in this study, see Lazer, 1995, op. cit., 244–49; E. Lazer, ‘Revealing secrets of a lost city’, The Medical Journal of Australia, Vol. 165, No. 11/12, 1996, 620–23.

137 Henschen and to a lesser extent on that of Moore, the latter proving less useful for this sample as it was based purely on x-rays rather than direct observation of gross appearance. F. Henschen, Morgagnis Syndrome: Hyperostosis Frontalis Interna, Virilismus, Obesitas. Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd, 1949, 5; Moore, S. Hyperostosis Cranii (StewartMorel Syndrome, Metabolic Craniopathy, Morgagnis Syndrome, StewartMorelMoore Syndrome (Ritvo), le Syndrome de MorgagniMorel). Springfield, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas, 1955, 18. 138 I. Hershkovitz et al., ‘Hyperostosis frontalis interna: An anthropological perspective’, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 109, 1999, 306. I developed a six-point scoring system (see Lazer, 1995, op. cit., 249) based on the studies that were available when I did my fieldwork. I have since reassessed them using the system suggested by Hershkovitz et al., as this makes my work more easily comparable with more recently published work – see next endnote.

139 Hershkovitz et al., 1999, op. cit., 303–10; Ortner and Putschar, 1981, op. cit., 294; Ortner, 2003, op. cit., 416; J.J. Cocheton et al., ‘Le syndrome de Morgagni–Stewart– Morel: Mythe ou réalité?’, Semaine des Hôpitaux, Vol. 50, 1974, 2946; A. Salmi et al., ‘Hyperostosis cranii in a normal population’, American Journal of Roentgenology,Radium Therapy & Nuclear Medicine, Vol. 87, 1962, 1032; R.M. Stewart, ‘Localized cranial hyperostosis in the insane’, The Journal of Neurology and Psychopathology, Vol. 8, 1928, 321. 140 Translated into the Hershkovitz et al., 1999, op. cit., 303–25; system (306), there were 26 cases or 67.4 per cent presented as the equivalent of Type A, 27.9 per cent as Type B, 2.3 per cent as Type C and 2.3 per cent as Type D. Lazer, 1995, op. cit., 392 contains a record of the range and frequency of pathology in this series of skulls. 141 Hershkovitz et al., 1999, op. cit., 306.

142 Aufderheide and Rodríguez-Martin, 1998, op. cit., 419; F.J. Fernandez-Nogueras and V. J. Fernandez-Nogueras. ‘The Stewart–Morel Syndrome in the differential diagnosis of patients with frontal headache’, Anales Ortorrinolaringologicos Ibero-Americanos, Vol. 20, No. 4, 1993, 383–91; Henschen, 1949, op. cit.; Hershkovitz et al., 1999, op. cit., 323; E. Kollin and T. Fehér, ‘Androgens, bone mineral content and hyperostosis frontalis interna in pre-menopausal women’, Experimental Clinical Endocrinology, Vol. 87, 1986, 211–14; Moore, 1955, op. cit., 180–81; Ortner, 2003, op. cit., 416; M. Pawlikowski and J. Komorowski, ‘Hyperostosis frontalis interna and the Morgagni–Stewart–Morel Syndrome’, Lancet, Vol. 1, No. 8322, 1983, 474; E.F. Talarico Jr et al., ‘A case of extensive hyperostosis frontalis interna in an 87-year-old female human cadaver’, Clinical Anatomy, Vol. 21, No. 3, 2008, 259–60, 266–67; J.M. Taveras and M.D. Wood. Diagnostic Neuroradiology. 2nd edn. Vol. Section 1, Golden’s Diagnostic Radiology. Baltimore: The Williams & Wilkins Company, 1976, 175.

143 G.J. Armelagos and O.D. Chrisman, ‘Hyperostosis frontalis interna: A Nubian case’, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 76, 1988, 27; Moore, 1955, op. cit.; Salmi et al., 1962, op. cit., 1039; Talarico Jr et al., 2008, op. cit., 266; Taveras and Wood, 1976, op. cit., 175–78.

144 Henschen, 1949, op. cit., 85; Hershkovitz et al., 1999, op. cit., 318; D.M. Mulhern et al., ‘Brief communication: Unusual finding at Pueblo Bonito: Multiple cases of hyperostosis frontalis interna’, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 130, No. 4, 2006, 480, 483; Ortner and Putschar, 1981, op. cit., 294; Salmi et al., 1962, op. cit., 1032. Compare with A. Hrycek et al., ‘Morgagni–Stewart–Morel Syndrome in a young man’, Wiadomosci Lekarskie, Vol. 42, Nos 19–21, 1989, 1060–63.

145 Ortner and Putschar, 1981, op. cit., 294.

146 T. Anderson, ‘An Anglo-Saxon case of hyperostosis frontalis interna’, Archaeologia Cantiana, Vol. 112 1993, 256; J. Gershon-Cohen et al., ‘Hyperostosis frontalis interna among the aged’, American Journal of Roentgenology, Radium Therapy & Nuclear Medicine, Vol. 73 1955, 396–97; Henschen, 1949, op. cit.; Hershkovitz et al., 1999, op. cit., 303, 318–19; H.L. Jaffe, Metabolic, Degenerative and Inflammatory Diseases of Bones and Joints. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1972, 272; Moore, 1955, op. cit., 180–81; Mulhern et al., 2006, op. cit., 480; Ortner, 2003, op. cit., 416; Salmi, et al., 1962, op. cit., 1033; Talarico Jr et al., 2008, op. cit., 266; M. Verdy et al., ‘Prevalence of hyperostosis frontalis interna in relation to body weight’, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 31, No. 11, 1978, 2002–4. 147 Rosatti 1972 in Armelagos and Chrisman, 1988, op. cit., 27; H. Glab et al., ‘Hyperostosis frontalis interna, a genetic disease?: Two medieval cases from Southern Poland’, Homo: Journal of Comparative Human Biology, Vol. 57, No. 1, 2006, 19–27; M.F. Koller, A. Papassotiropoulos, K. Henke, B. Behrends, S. Noda, A. Kratzer, C. Hock and M. Hofmann, ‘Evidence of a genetic basis of Morgagni–Stewart–Morel Syndrome: A case report of identical twins’, Neurodegenerative Diseases, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2005, 56–60; Mulhern et al., 2006, op. cit., 483; A. Sperduti and G. Manzi, ‘Hyperostosis frontalis interna in a cranial sample from the Roman population of Portus (Isola Sacra necropolis 1–111 Century AD)’, Rivista di Antropologia, Vol. 68, 1990, 279.

148 35 or 83.3 per cent.

149 Lazer, 1995, op. cit., 251–54.

150 Henschen, 1949, op. cit., 3; Jaffe, 1972, op. cit., 272.

151 95.3 per cent.

152 Lazer, 1995, op. cit., 254.

153 Ortner, 2003, op. cit., 416.

154 Anderson, 1993, op. cit., 254–55; Armelagos and Chrisman, 1988, op. cit., 27; Henschen, 1949, op. cit., 62–64; Hershkovitz et al., 1999, op. cit., 314; Manchester, 1983, op. cit., 71–75; Mulhern et al., 2006, op. cit., 482; Ortner and Putschar, 1981, op. cit., 294–95, 298–300, 309, 315–17, 365–98; Ortner, 2003, op. cit., 415–16; Talarico Jr, et al., 2008, op. cit., 263–65.

155 M.Y. El-Najjar and K.R. McWilliams, Forensic Anthropology: The Structure, Morphology and Variation of Human Bone and Dentition. Springfield, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas, 1978, 70. 156 Manchester, 1983, op. cit., 72; Ortner, 2003, op. cit., 506.

157 Brothwell, 1981, op. cit., 121; Lisowski, 1967, op. cit., 657; Ortner, 2003, op. cit., 171; White and Folkens, 2005, op. cit, 315.

158 This image was discovered on 22 August 1836 in oecus 11 (H. 1369). G.P. Carattelli (ed.), Pompei: Pitture e Mosaici (Rome: Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana, 1993, 414, 417, Vol IV: VI7, 18). Colour picture published in reverse of the painting in oecus 11. This is an aquarelle by A. Abbate (ADS 202 Fot. Pedicini), 416 drawing of the painting ADS 203, B/W photo of the image is on page 417 (50 AFS A947(già A8096)); 286: tempera and ink colour image of the wall with the panel included (reproduced the right way round) Soprintendenza Archeologica di Napoli ADS 202 image by Abbate p. 290: full page image of squared drawing just of the toilet of Hermaphrodite, also by Abbate, pencil drawing is described on p. 291: Soprintendenza Archeologica di Napoli ADS 204 – this is probably the study for the painted image described above (painting h, 1369); P 833: drawing by Mastracchio, s. Soprintendenza Archeologica di Napoli ADS 20; M. Raoul-Rochette and M. Roux, Choix de Peintures de Pompéi: Lithographiées en Couleur par M. Roux et Publiées avec lExplication Archéologique de Chaque Peinture. Paris: Adolphe Labitte, 1867, 136–37, Plate 10. 159 Raoul-Rochette, 1867, op. cit., 136–37, Plate 10.

160 H.J. Rose, A Handbook of Greek Mythology. New York: Dutton, 1959/1928, 148. Over one hundred years later, a completely different interpretation was offered for this figure when it was described as an example of incomplete testicular feminization. J. Kunze and I. Nippert, Genetics and Malformations in Art. Berlin: Grosse, 1986, 53, Fig. 61. 161 Examples of hermaphrodites in Pompeian wall paintings include Pan and Hermaphroditus from the atrium of the House of the Dioscuri (ref. no.), RP. Inv. No. 27700 Hermaphroditus struggling with a faun from Pompeii, RP. Inv. No. 110878, Faun and Hermaphroditus from Herculaneum, RP. Inv. No. 27701, illustrated in M. Grant, and A. Mulas. Eros in Pompeii: The Erotic Art Collections of the Museum of Naples. New edn. New York: Stewart, Tabori Chang, 1997, 147, 159 and 163 respectively.

162 As can be seen, for example, in the mosaic in oecus 11 in the Casa del Menandro (house reference), illustrated in Ling 2003: 28 and the paintings in the bath in the frigidarium in the Terme del Sarno (VII, ii, 17).

163 W.W. Eldridge and G. Holm, ‘Incidence of hyperostosis frontalis interna in female patients admitted to a mental hospital’, American Journal of Roentgenology, Radium Therapy & Nuclear Medicine, Vol. 43 1940, 356; Stewart, 1928, op. cit. 321–31; Salmi, et al., 1962, op. cit., 1032; Talarico Jr, et al., 2008, op. cit., 267.

164 Epistles 4.16 and 20.

165 16.19.

166 20.12.

167 Lazer, 1995, op. cit., 264–65.

168 Anderson, 1993, op. cit., 253–59; Armelagos and Chrisman, 1988, op. cit., 25–28; A.T. Chamberlain, Demography in Archaeology, Cambridge Manuals in Archaeology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006, 55. J. Gladykowska-Rzecyscka, ‘Is this a case of the Morgagni syndrome?’, Journal of Palaeopathology, Vol. 1, 1988, 109–12. 169 For a summary of the cases that have been reported in the literature to date, see S.C. Antón, ‘Endocranial Hyperostosis in Sangiran 2, Gibraltar 1, and Shanidar 5’, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 102, No. 1, 1997, 115; Hershkovitz et al., 1999, op. cit., 321; Mulhern et al., 2006, op. cit., 483; Talarico Jr, et al., 2008, op. cit., 266. Also, see W. Devriendt et al., ‘Two Neolithic cases of hyperostosis frontalis interna’,International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, Vol. 14, 2004: 414–18; Glab et al., 2006, op. cit., 19–27. 170 Hershkovitz et al., 1999, op. cit., 321.

171 Mulhern et al., 2006, op. cit., 483.

172 F.J. Rühli et al., ‘Hyperostosis frontalis interna: Archaeological evidence of possible microevolution of human sex steroids?’, Homo: Journal of Comparative Human Biology, Vol. 55, Nos 1–2, 2004, 91–99.

173 Belcastro et al., ‘Hyperostosis Frontalis Interna and Sex Identification of Two Skeletons’, International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, Vol. 16, No. 6, 2006, 506–16; Sperduti and Manzi, 1990, op. cit., 279–86.

174 Capasso, 2001, op. cit., 170, 685.

175 Hershkovitz et al., 1999, op. cit., 320–21.

176 Bisel 1988a, op. cit., 62, 65; Bisel 1988b, op. cit., 213–15; Bisel, 1991, op. cit., 11; Bisel and Bisel, 2002, op. cit., 457–58; Capasso, 2001, op. cit., 1065–67; M. Torino and G. Fornaciari, ‘Paleopatologia degli individui nella Casa di Giulio Polibio’,in La Casa di Giulio Polibio: Studi Interdisciplinari, ed. A. Ciarallo and E. De Carolas. Pompei: Centro Studi arti Figurative, Università di Tokio, 2001, 95–98; Petrone et al., 2002b, op. cit., 78–80. 177 L.Z. Gannes et al.,‘Stable isotopes in animal ecology: Assumptions, caveats, and a call for more laboratory experiments’, Ecology, Vol. 78, No. 4, 1997, 1271–76; P. Garnsey (Emeritus Professor of the History of Classical Antiquity, Faculty of Classics, Cambridge University) to E. Lazer, 2008, personal communication; F.M. Guarino et al.,‘Bone preservation in human remains from the Terme del Sarno at Pompeii using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy’, Journal of Archaeological Science, Vol. 33, 2006, 513–20; T.L. Prowse et al., ‘Isotopic paleodiet studies of skeletons from the Imperial Roman-age cemetery of Isola Sacra, Rome, Italy’, Journal of Archaeological Science, Vol. 31, No. 3, 2004: 259–72; T.L. Prowse et al., ‘Isotopic evidence for age-related variation in diet from Isola Sacra, Italy’, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 128, 2005, 2–13; I. Reiche et al., ‘Trace element composition of archaeological bones and post–mortem alteration in the burial environment’, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, Vol. 150, 1999, 656–62; M.P. Richards et al., ‘Stable isotope analysis reveals variations in human diet at the Poundbury Camp Cemetery Site’, Journal of Archaeological Science, Vol. 25, No. 12, 1998: 1247–52; H.P. Schwarcz and M.J. Schoeninger, ‘Stable isotope analyses in human nutritional ecology’, Yearbook of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 34, No. S13, 1991, 283–321; A. Sillen et al., ‘Chemistry and paleodietary research: No more easy answers’,American Antiquity, Vol. 54, No. 3, 1989, 504–12. 178 See, for example, Robinson 2005, pp, 109–19.

179 For example, S.C. Gilfillan, ‘Lead poisoning and the fall of Rome’, Journal of Occupational Medicine, Vol. 7, 1965, 53–60.

180 For example, Bisel, 1983, op. cit., 7; Bisel and Bisel, 2002, op. cit., 459–60. 181 A.C. Aufderheide, ‘Chemical analysis of skeletal remains’,in Reconstruction of Life from the Skeleton, ed. M.Y. Iscan and K.A.R. Kennedy. New York: Alan R. Liss, 1989, 248, 251; Aufderheide and Rodríguez-Martin, 1998, op. cit., 318; Bisel and Bisel, 2002, op. cit., 459; Gilfillan, 1965, op. cit., 53–54; T.H.G. Oettlé (former Director of the New South Wales Forensic Institute, Sydney) to E. Lazer, 1983, personal communication. 182 Gilfillan, 1965, op. cit., 53–54.

183 Aufderheide, 1989, op. cit., 251–52.

184 The Herculanean mean lead level for males (93.8 ppm; S.D. = 52.2; n = 49) was higher than that obtained for females (70.1 ppm; S.D. = 55.8; n = 43); Bisel, 1987, op. cit., 126; Bisel, 1988b, op. cit., 215; Bisel, 1991, op. cit., 12; Bisel and Bisel, 2002, op. cit., 459–60. 185 Bisel, 1991, op. cit., 13; Bisel and Bisel, 2002, op. cit., 460.

186 Bisel, 1991, op. cit., 13; Bisel and Bisel, 2002, op. cit., 460; Deiss, 1985, op. cit., 191; Vitruvius, ‘De Architectura’,in Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1934’, VIII; CVI: 10.

187 For example, see Angel, 1969a, op. cit., 432; J.L. Angel, ‘Palaeodemography and evolution’, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 31 1969b, 344; J.L. Angel, ‘Ecology and population in the Eastern Mediterranean’, World Archaeology, Vol. 4, 1972, 88–105; Bisel, 1991, op. cit., 2; Bisel and Bisel, 2002, op. cit., 453; Cook and Powell, 2006, op. cit., 300. Also, see Chapters 1 and 6.

188 Bisel and Bisel, 2002, op. cit., 453–54.

189 Capasso, 2001, op. cit., 973–78.

190 M. Henneberg et al., ‘Skeletal material from the house of C. Iulius Polybius in Pompeii, 79 AD’, Human Evolution, Vol. 11, No. 3, 1996, 255; Henneberg and Henneberg, 2002, op. cit., 174. 191 For further consideration on the difficulties associated with studies to determine lifestyle and status, see T. Waldron, Counting the Dead: The Epidemiology of Skeletal Populations. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 1994, 98; and White and Folkens, 2005, op. cit, 331–32. 192 Bisel and Bisel, 2002, op. cit., 460–73; Capasso 2001 reconstructions of occupation and lifestyle indicators are in section that deals with individual skeletons, which occupies the major part of the book. Capasso, 2001, op. cit.

193 Erc 13 and Erc 98. Bisel and Bisel, 2002, op. cit., 466–67.

194 Erc 28 Bisel and Bisel, 2002, op. cit., 467.

195 Capasso, 2001, op. cit., 1042.

196 See, for example, Capasso et al., 1999, op. cit., 132–42.

197 Capasso, 2001, op. cit., 172–83; Ercolano 14.

198 Capasso, 2001, op. cit., 181, Figs. 237 and 238.

9 The population

1 Strabo, The Geography. Translated by H.R. Jones. Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1988, V, IV, 8; Pliny the Elder, ‘Natural Histories’, in Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1938/ 1962, 3.60–62.

2 A.E. Cooley and M.G.L. Cooley, Pompeii: A Sourcebook. London: Routledge, 2004, 17.

3 M. Cipollaro et al., ‘Ancient DNA in human bone remains from Pompeii archaeological site’, Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol. 247, No. 3, 1998, 901–4; M. Cipollaro et al., ‘Histological analysis and ancient DNA amplification of human bone remains found in Caius Iulius Polybius House in Pompeii’, Croatian Medical Journal, Vol. 40, No. 3, 1999, 392–97; R.M. Costantini and L. Capasso, ‘Sulla Presenza di DNA endogeno nei resti scheletri dei fuggiaschi di Ercolano’,in I Fuggiaschi di Ercolano: Paleobiologia delle Vittime dellEruzione Vesuviana del 79 d.C., Appendix 3, ed. L. Capasso. Rome: ‘L’Erma’ di Bretschneider, 2001, 1069–74; G. Geraciet al., ‘Le analisi paleogenetiche’,in Vesuvio 79 AD: Vita e Morte ad Ercolano, eds P.P. Petrone and F. Fedele. Naples: Fredericiana Editrice Universitaria, 2002, 85–88; G. Di Bernardo et al., ‘Analisi dei reperti ossei della casa grado di conservazione ed amplificazione del DNA antico’,in La Casa di Giulio Polibio: Studi Interdisciplinari, ed. A. Ciarallo and E. De Carolis. Pompei: Centro Studi arti Figurative, Università di Tokio, 2001, 111–18. Note that there has been some success with DNA analysis of other mammalian species at Pompeii; see, for example, J.F. Bailey et al., ‘Monkey business in Pompeii: Unique find of a juvenile Barbary Macaque skeleton in Pompeii identified using osteology and ancient DNA techniques’, Molecular Biology and Evolution, Vol. 16 1999, 1410–14; M. Sica et al., ‘Analysis of five ancient equine skeletons by mitochondrial DNA sequencing’, Ancient Biomolecules, Vol. 4, No. 4, 2002, 179–84.

4 S.C. Bisel and J.F. Bisel, ‘Health and nutrition at Herculaneum: An examination of human skeletal remains’,in The Natural History of Pompeii, ed. W.F. Jashemski and F.G. Meyer. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002, 451–75; L. Capasso, I Fuggiaschi di Ercolano: Paleobiologia delle Vittime dellEruzione Vesuviana del 79 d.C. Roma: ‘L’Erma’ di Bretschneider, 2001, 927–33; C. D’Amore, ‘Primi risultati degli studi sull’antropologia Pompeiana del 79 d.C.’,in La Regione Sotterrata dal Vesuvio: Studi e Prospettive, Atti del Convegno Internazionale 1115 Novembre 1979. Napoli: Università degli Studi, 1982, 927– 43; G. Nicolucci, ‘Crania Pompeiana: Descrizione de’ crani umani rinvenuti fra le ruine dell’ antica Pompei’, Atti della R. Accademia delle Scienze Fisiche e Matematiche, Vol. 9, No. 10, 1882, 1–26.

5 See Chapter 3 for a discussion of why female skulls were traditionally excluded from population studies based on cranial measurements.

6 S.C. Bisel, ‘The human skeletons of Herculaneum’, International Journal of Anthropology, Vol. 6, No. 1, 1991, 4; Bisel and Bisel, 2002, op. cit., 454 –55; W.W. Howells, ‘The early Christian Irish: The skeletons at Gallen Priory’, Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, Vol. 46 (Section C) 1941, 103–219; W.W. Howells, Skull Shapes and the Map: Craniometric Analyses in the Dispersion of Modern Homo. Vol. 79, Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University, 1989, 91.

7 Bisel, 1991, op. cit., 1–20; W.W. Howells, ‘Cranial Variation in Man: A Study by Multivariate Analysis of Patterns of Difference among Recent Populations’. Vol. 67, Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University, 1973; Bisel and Bisel, 2002, op. cit., 454 –55; Howells, 1989, op. cit.; E. Lazer, ‘Human Skeletal Remains in Pompeii: Vols. I and II.’ Unpublished PhD thesis, Department of Anatomy and Histology. Sydney: University of Sydney, 1995, 269–77; Nicolucci, 1882, op. cit. Note that because the Pompeian data set was not complete and the data sets of Nicolucci and Bisel did not contain all the measurements used by Howells, 1973, op. cit., Howells, 1989, op. cit., it was decided that the use of unpaired t–tests of the means for comparable measurements would be more appropriate than principal components analysis.

8 A.C. Berry and R.J. Berry, ‘Epigenetic variation in the human cranium’, Journal of Anatomy, Vol. 101 1967, 362–63; D.R. Brothwell (Institute of Archaeology, University College, London) to E. Lazer 1988, personal communication; T. Hanihara et al., ‘Characterization of biological diversity through analysis of discrete cranial traits’,American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 121, No. 3, 2003, 247, 249; N.S. Ossenberg, ‘The influence of artificial cranial deformation on discontinuous morphological traits’, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 33, 1970, 357; C. Pardoe, ‘Prehistoric Human Morphological Variation in Australia’, unpublished PhD thesis. Canberra: Australian National University, 1984, 14–20; S.R. Saunders, ‘Nonmetric skeletal variation’,inReconstruction of Life from the Skeleton, eds. M.Y. Iscan and K.A.R. Kennedy. New York: Alan R. Liss, 1989, 103–6.

9 These included metopic suture, metopic fissure, supranasal suture, frontal grooves, trochlear spine, infraorbital suture, condylar facet, coronal ossicle, ossicle at bregma, sagittal ossicle, ossicle at lambda, lambdoid ossicles, ossicle at asterion, occipito-mastoid ossicles, inca bone, sutura mendosam pars incoidea, anterior ethmoid foramen, posterior ethmoid foramen, parietal foramina, occipital foramen, condylar canal, hypoglossal canal, infraorbital foramen, highest nuchal line, precondylar tubercle, palatine torus and auditory torus Lazer, 1995, op. cit., 227–313.

10 G. Hauser and G.F. de Stefano, Epigenetic Variants of the Human Skull. Stuttgart: Schweizerbart, 1989.

11 G.F. De Stefano et al., ‘Reflections on interobserver differences in scoring non–metric cranial traits (with practical examples)’, Journal of Human Evolution, Vol. 13, 1984, 349– 55; E. Gualdi-Russo et al., ‘Scoring of nonmetric cranial traits: A methodological approach’, Journal of Anatomy, Vol. 195, No. 4, 1999, 543–50; F.W. Rösing, ‘Discreta of the human skeleton: A critical review’,Journal of Human Evolution, Vol. 13, 1984, 319– 23; Saunders, 1989, op. cit., 102.

12 Capasso, 2001, op. cit., 981–97; Nicolucci, 1882, op. cit., 10.

13 See for example, Capasso, 2001, op. cit., 983–84.

14 Capasso, 2001, op. cit., 76, 981; Hauser and De Stefano, 1989, op. cit. 15 V. Higgins, ‘A model for assessing health patterns from skeletal remains’,in Burial Archaeology: Current Research, Methods and Developments, ed. C.A. Roberts, F. Lee and J. Bintliff, 211. Oxford: BAR, 1989, 175–76; V. Higgins, ‘Rural Agricultural Communities of the Late Roman and Early Medieval Periods Including a Study of Two Skeletal Groups from San Vincenzo al Volturno’, unpublished PhD thesis (Sheffield: University of Sheffield 1990); Higgins, 1989–90, op. cit.

16 M. Rubini et al., ‘Original research article biological divergence and equality during the first millennium BC in human populations of Central Italy’, American Journal of Human Biology, Vol. 19, No. 1, 2007, 120.

17 L. Bondioli et al., ‘Familial segregation in the Iron-Age community of Alfedena, Abruzzo, Italy, based on osteo-dental trait analysis’, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 71, No. 4, 1986, 393–400; E. Bruner et al., ‘Endocranial traits. Prevalence and distribution in a recent human population’, European Journal of Anatomy, Vol. 7, No. 1, 2003, 23– 33; A. Coppa et al., ‘Dental anthropology of Central-Southern, Iron Age Italy: The evidence of metric versus nonmetric traits’, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 107, No. 4, 1998, 371–86; Gualdi-Russo et al., 1999, op. cit., M. Rubini, ‘Biological homogeneity and familial segregation in the Iron Age population of Alfedena (Abruzzo, Italy), based on cranial discrete traits analysis’, International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, Vol. 6, No. 5, 1996: 454–62; M. Rubini et al., ‘Etruscan Biology: The Tarquinian population seventh to second century BC (Southern Etruria, Italy)’, International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, Vol. 7, No. 3, 1997, 202–11; M. Rubini et al., ‘The population of East Sicily during the second and first millennium BC: The problem of the Greek colonies’, International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, Vol. 9, No. 1, 1999, 8–17.

18 Brothwell, 1981, op. cit., 92; S. Eggen et al., ‘Variation in torus palatinus prevalence in Norway’, European Journal of Oral Sciences, Vol. 102, No. 1, 1994, 54–59; Hauser and De Stefano, 1989, op. cit.; C.M. Halffman et al., ‘Palatine torus in the Greenlandic Norse’, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 88, No. 2, 1992, 145–61; C.M. Halffman and J.D. Irish. ‘Palatine torus in the pre-conquest inhabitants of the Canary Islands’, Homo: Journal of Comparative Human Biology, Vol. 55, No. 1–2, 2004, 101–11; T. Hanihara and H. Ishida. ‘Os incae: Variation in frequency in major human population groups’, Journal of Anatomy, Vol. 198, No. 2, 2001a, 137–52; T. Hanihara and H. Ishida. ‘Frequency variations of discrete cranial traits in major human populations. I. Supernumerary ossicle variations’, Journal of Anatomy,Vol.198,No.6,2001b,689–706; Hanihara et al., 2003, op. cit., 241–51; J. Skrzat et al., ‘The morphological appearance of the palatine torus in the Cracovian skulls (XV–XVIII century)’, Folia Morphol, Vol. 62, No. 3, 2003, 183–86.

19 Hauser and De Stefano, 1989, op. cit., 17.

20 Parametric tests, which assume normally distributed samples, were not used because these non-metric data do not tend to follow such distributions. Instead, non-parametric tests were applied. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients were calculated to identify side or intertrait association. The Mann–Whitney U test was used to discern relationships between sex and specific traits. Spearman’s rank correlation is based on ranks rather than raw scores and can be used to detect non-linear correlations, Stevens 1987: p. 100. The Mann–Whitney U test was designed to test for difference between the means of two independent samples. This test can be used to compare samples of unequal sizes (G. Stevens, Statistics Course Notes. Australia: Faculty of Architecture, University of Sydney, 1987, 127). As discussed in Chapter 6, sex determination was based on the sex index generated from the observations of features considered diagnostic on the skull.

21 Ossenberg, 1970, op. cit., 362–63.

22 Brothwell, 1981, op. cit., 95; L. Capasso et al., Atlas of Occupational Markers on Human Remains, Journal of Paleontology: Monographic Publication 3. Teramo: Journal of Paleontology & Edigrafital, 1999, 16; Capasso et al., 1999, 16; M.Y. El-Najjar and K.R. McWilliams. Forensic Anthropology: The Structure, Morphology and Variation of Human Bone and Dentition. Springfield, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas, 1978, 143–44; Hauser and De Stefano, 1989, op. cit., 17, 176–77; Halffman et al., 1992, op. cit., 145–61; C.M. Halffman and J.D. Irish, ‘Palatine torus in the pre-conquest inhabitants of the Canary Islands’, Homo: Journal of Comparative Human Biology, Vol. 55, No. 1–2, 2004, 101–11; D. Kerdpon and S. Sirirungrojying. ‘A clinical study of oral tori in southern Thailand, prevalence and the relation to parafunctional activity’, European Journal of Oral Sciences, Vol. 107, No. 1, 1999, 9, 12–13.

23 Hauser and De Stefano, 1989, op. cit., 174, 176; Eggen et al., 1994, op. cit.; 54; El-Najjar and McWilliams, 1978, op. cit., 143–44; Halffman et al., 1992, op. cit., 154; Kerdpon and Sirirungrojying, 1999, op. cit., 9, 12. There are various views on the relationship between age and the expression of palatine torus but most scholars report a higher incidence in females than males, with the exception of J. Skrzat et al. who found equal incidence of this trait in males and females. J. Skrzat et al., ‘The morphological appearance of the palatine torus in the Cracovian skulls (XV–XVIII century)’, Folia Morphol, Vol. 62, No. 3, 2003, 185. 24 Capasso, 2001, op. cit., 982.

25 Pardoe, 1984, op. cit., 115–17, Fig. 33.

26 Berry and Berry, 1967, op. cit., 376.

27 As in the case of Halffman and Irish, 2004, op. cit., 105.

28 J.B. Woelfel, Dental Anatomy: Its Relevance to Dentistry. 4th edn. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1990; 78.

29 C.G. Turner, II (Department of Anthropology, Arizona State University, USA) to E. Lazer, 1993, personal communication; G.R. Scott and C.G. Turner, The Anthropology of Modern Human Teeth: Dental Morphology and Its Variation in Recent Human Populations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997, 322.

30 Berry and Berry, 1967, op. cit., 367; El-Najjar and McWilliams, 1978, op. cit., 122–23; Hauser and De Stefano, 1989, op. cit., 46–48; Ossenberg, 1970, op. cit., 361–62; Saunders, 1989, op. cit., 96.

31 Berry and Berry, 1967, op. cit., 367; Capasso, 2001, op. cit., 982, 984; Hauser and De Stefano, 1989, op. cit., 42–43; Nicolucci, 1882, op. cit., 10–11.

32 Hauser and De Stefano, 1989, op. cit., 99, 102; Hanihara and Ishida, 2001a, op. cit., 139–40. For scoring of inca bones in the Pompeian sample, see Lazer, 1995, op. cit., 460–62.

33 For a clear de finition of how to distinguish inca bone variants from sutural bones, see Hanihara and Ishida, 2001a, op. cit., 140.

34 Nicolucci, 1882, op. cit., 11.

35 Hauser and De Stefano, 1989, op. cit., 103

36 Capasso, 2001, op. cit., 982; Rubini et al., 1999, op. cit., 12; Rubini et al., 2007, op. cit., 122–23.

37 Rubini et al., 1999, op. cit., 12; Rubini et al., 2007, op. cit., 122–23.

38 Berry and Berry, 1967, op. cit., 365; Hanihara and Ishida, 2001a, op. cit., 143–44; Hauser and De Stefano, 1989, op. cit., 102–3.

39 El-Najjar and McWilliams, 1978, op. cit., 123, 126, 129–30; Hanihara and Ishida, 2001b, op. cit., 690; Hauser and De Stefano, 1989, op. cit., 85–92; L.W. Konigsberg et al., ‘Cranial variation and nonmetric trait variation’, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 90, 1993, 35–48; Ossenberg, 1970, op. cit., 360; Pardoe, 1984, op. cit., 62.

40 M.Y. El-Najjar and G.L. Dawson, ‘The effect of artificial cranial deformation on the incidence of wormian bones in the lambdoidal suture’, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 46, 1977, 155–60; El-Najjar and McWilliams, 1978, op. cit., 129–30; B. Cremin et al., ‘Wormian bones in osteogenesis imperfecta and other disorders’,Skeletal Radiology, Vol. 8, 1982, 35–38; Konigsberg et al., 1993, op. cit., 35–48.

41 Cremin et al., 1982, op. cit., 35–48; El-Najjar and McWilliams, 1978, op. cit., 129–31; K. Kozlowski and P. Beighton, Gamut Index of Skeletal Dysplasias: An Aid to Radiodiagnosis. Berlin: Springer, 1984, 35–36; J. Musgrave (Department of Anatomy, University of Bristol) to E. Lazer, 1988/1989, personal communication.

42 Cremin et al., 1982, op. cit., 37–38; El-Najjar and McWilliams, 1978, op. cit., 130; Hanihara and Ishida, 2001n, op. cit., 690; Ossenberg, 1970, op. cit., 360; Pardoe, 1984, op. cit., 62.

43 Hauser and De Stefano, 1989, op. cit., 85.

44 Hauser and De Stefano, 1989, op. cit., 86; Ossenberg, 1970, op. cit., 361; Pardoe, 1984, op. cit., 63.

45 Berry and Berry, 1967, op. cit., 374; Hauser and De Stefano, 1989, op. cit., 93; W.L. Kellock and P.A. Parsons, ‘Variation of minor non–metrical cranial variants in Australian Aborigines’, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 32, 1970, 409–21; Pardoe, 1984, op. cit., 70–72.

46 See Lazer, 1995, op. cit., 284–86, 448–59 for the scoring system that was employed.

47 Capasso, 2001, op. cit., 982–83.

48 The majority of cases for each side, namely, 28.6 per cent for the left and 35.7 per cent for the right, involved at least one medium-sized ossicle. One or more large ossicles were observed on 8 per cent of cases for the left and 12.5 per cent for the right side.

49 Capasso, 2001, op. cit., 982– 83; Nicolucci, 1882, op. cit., 11.

50 For example, Rubini et al., 2007, op. cit., 122.

51 Capasso, 2001, op. cit., 982; Nicolucci, 1882, op. cit., 11.

52 Capasso, 2001, op. cit., 982; Nicolucci, 1882, op. cit., 11.

53 Capasso, 2001, op. cit., 982.

54 These were Allen’s fossa, Poirier’s facet, plaque, hypertrochanteric fossa, exostosis in the trochanteric fossa and third trochanter on the femur, medial and lateral squatting facets on the distal end of the tibia, and septal aperture and supracondyloid process in the humerus. Lazer, 1995, op. cit., 316–26.

55 Capasso, 2001, op. cit., 984–89.

56 Comparisons can also be made for some of the other non-metric traits. Septal aperture of the humerus was observed in the Pompeian sample with a frequency of 18.4 per cent in the left sample of 98 bones and 13.2 per cent of the right sample, which comprised 96 humeri. Capasso recorded 26 cases, 16 of which displayed bilateral expression in the sample of 160 individuals he examined for post-cranial non-metric traits. He calculated the frequency for this trait as 16 per cent. Two cases of supracondyloid process were observed in the Pompeian sample and one in that from Herculaneum. Six femoral non– metric traits were scored for 165 left femora from the Pompeian sample. Allen’s fossa was observed with some degree of expression in 49.6 per cent of the Pompeian sample. There was an incidence of 12.8 per cent for Poirier’s facet. Plaque was observed in 35.4 per cent of cases, hypertrochanteric fossa in 30.3 per cent, exostosis in trochanteric fossa in 64.19 per cent and third trochanter in 28.9 per cent of the Pompeian femoral sample. There were only three femoral traits in common for the Pompeian and Herculaneum studies. Capasso observed 15 cases of Poirier’s facet in the Herculaneum left and right femora, which represented 16.per cent of the Herculaneum sample. Third trochanter was recorded for three individuals or 1.9 per cent of the sample, and hypertrochanteric fossa was observed in five infants, which reflects a frequency of 3.1 per cent in the Herculaneum sample. While the humerus data is comparable for septal aperture, there seems to be a slightly higher incidence of supracondyloid process in the Pompeian sample. The observed frequency of Poirier’s facet and third trochanter is considerably higher in the Pompeian sample, as is the incidence of hypertrochanteric fossa. Capasso, 2001, op. cit., 992–95; Lazer, 1995, op. cit., 316–26.

57 E.-L. Boulle, ‘Evolution of two human skeletal markers of the squatting position: A diachronic study from antiquity to the modern age’, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 115, No. 1, 2001, 53–54; Capasso et al., 1999, op. cit., 112; K.A.R. Kennedy, ‘Skeletal markers of occupational stress’,in Reconstruction of Life from the Skeleton, ed. M.Y. Iscan and K.A.R. Kennedy. New York: Alan R. Liss, 1989, 149–50.

58 Capasso, 2001, op. cit., 996; D. Donlon, ‘The value of postcranial nonmetric variation in studies of global populations in modern homo sapiens’, unpublished PhD thesis. Armidale: University of New England, 1990, 90.

10 The casts

1 The number of skeletons has been variously reported between eleven and twenty two – see, for example E.M. Moorman, ‘Literary evocations of ancient Pompeii’,in Tales from an Eruption: Pompeii, Herculaneum, Oplontis: Guide to the Exhibition, ed. P.G. Guzzo. Milan: Electa, 2003, 25, though the reported number is about 20 for thecryptoporticus corridor and two in the portico surrounding the garden. L. García y García, Danni di Guerra a Pompei: Una Dolorosa Vicenda quasi Dimenticata. Vol. 15, Studi della Soprintendenza Archeologica di Pompei. Roma: ‘L’Erma’ di Bretschneider, 2006, 188; T. Rocco, ‘The Villa of Diomedes’,in Tales from an Eruption: Pompeii, Herculaneum, Oplontis: Guide to the Exhibition, ed. P.G. Guzzo. Milan: Electa, 2003a, 92.

2 E.C.C. Corti, The Destruction and Resurrection of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Translated by K. Smith and R.G. Smith. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1951, 191; W. Leppmann, Pompeii in Fact and Fiction. London: Elek, 1968, 169–70; H. Sigurdsson, S.N. Carey, W. Cornell and T. Pescatore, ‘The eruption of Vesuvius in AD 79’, National Geographic Research, Vol. 1, No. 3, 1985, 365–66.

3 E. De Carolis, G. Patricelli and A. Ciarallo, ‘Rinvenimenti di corpi umani nell’area urbana di Pompei’, Rivista di Studi Pompeiani, Vol. 9, 1998, 75; García y García, 2006, op. cit., 188; T. Rocco, ‘La Villa di Diomede’ in Storie da unEruzione: Pompei, Ercolano, Oplontis: Guida alla Mostra, ed. A. d’Ambrosio, P.G. Guzzo and M. Mastroroberto. Milano: Electa, 2003c, 229; T. Rocco, 2003a, op. cit., 92–93.

4 Rocco, 2003c, op. cit., 229.

5 García y García, 2006, op. cit., 182; M. Pagano, ‘I calchi in archeologia: Ercolano e Pompei’,in Storie da unEruzione: Pompei, Ercolano, Oplontis: Guida alla Mostra, ed. A. d’Ambrosio, P.G. Guzzo and M. Mastroroberto. Milano: Electa, 2003, 122.

6 De Carolis et al., 1998, op. cit., 75–77; E. De Carolis, and G. Patricelli. Vesuvius, AD 79: The Destruction of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Translated by The J. Paul Getty Trust. Rome: ‘L’Erma’ di Bretschneider, 2003b, 111–12.

7 Austen Henry Layard, London Quarterly Review (American Edition) 115, January–April 1864, 160–80, in E. Dwyer, From fragments to icons: Stages in the making and exhibiting of the casts of Pompeian victims, 18631888 (2005); from Interpreting Ceramics: Conference papers and presentations from the Fragmented Figure conference (Cardiff School of Art and Design on the 29th and 30th June 2005), 2005, http://www.uwic.ac.uk/ICRC/issue008/articles/06.htm (accessed 8 March 2007), endnote 2.

8 H. Sigurdsson and S.N. Carey, ‘The eruption of Vesuvius in AD 79’,in The Natural History of Pompeii, ed. W.F. Jashemski and F.G. Meyer. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002, 49, 57–58.

9 M. Monnier, The Wonders of Pompeii by Marc Monnier (Project Gutenberg, 2005/12/12 Release date), http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/17290 (accessed 4 July 2006), 240. 10 Anonymous, Quarterly Review, No. 230, p. 382 in T.H. Dyer, Pompeii: Its History, Buildings and Antiquities. 2nd edn. London: George Bell & Sons, 1883, 477.

11 De Carolis and Patricelli, 2003b, op. cit., 111.

12 M. Monnier, ‘Tout du Monde’, 1864, pp 415–16, in Adams, 1868, op. cit., 264–68; Monnier, 1871, op. cit., 239–43.

13 Anonymous, Quarterly Review, No. 230, p. 382 in Dyer, 1883, op. cit., 477–79. 14 P. Gusman, Pompei: The City, its Life and Art. Translated by F. Simmonds and M. Jourdain. London: Heinemann, 1900, 16–17.

15 Anonymous, Quarterly Review, No. 230, p. 382 in Dyer, 1883, op. cit., 477. 16 D.M. Brown (ed.), Pompeii: The Vanished City. Alexandria, Virginia: Time–Life Books, 1992, 40; A.T. Chamberlain and M.P. Pearson. Earthly Remains: The History and Science of Preserved Bodies. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001, 151; M. Grant, Cities of Vesuvius: Pompeii and Herculaneum. Middlesex: Penguin, 1976, 30.

17 For example, in S. Giuntoli, Art and History of Pompeii. Translated by E. Pauli, edited by M. Martinelli, Bonechi Art & History Collection. Florence: Casa Editrice Bonechi, 1995, 37; Grant, 1971, op. cit., 30.

18 For example, Brown, 1992, op. cit., 11; Moorman, 2003, op. cit., 15–16. 19 R. Etienne, Pompeii: The Day a City Died. Translated by C. Palmer. London: Thames & Hudson, 1992, 135.

20 A. Maiuri, Pompeii: The New Excavations, the Villa dei Misteri, the Antiquarium. Translated by V. Priestley, 7th edn. Roma: Istituto Poligrafico dello Stato, 1962, 69–70. 21 As can be seen in works like C. Amery and B. Curran. The Lost World of Pompeii. London: Frances Lincoln, 2002, 45; P. Wilkinson, Pompeii: The Last Day. London: BBC Books, 2003, 71. 22 Such as A.C. Aufderheide,The Scientific Study of Mummies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003, 203; B. Brier, The Encyclopedia of Mummies. New York: Checkmark, 1998, 146–47; Chamberlain and Pearson, 2001, op. cit., 151–52.

23 B. Knight, Forensic Pathology. 2nd edn. London: Arnold, 1996, 309.

24 For example B. Conticello (Superintendent, Pompeii) to E. Lazer, 1994, personal communication; S. Pain, ‘Pompeii’s electronic guide’, New Scientist, Vol. 1815, 1992, 22. 25 Conticello, 1994, op. cit.; Pain, 1992, op. cit., 22.

26 A. D’Ambrosio (Archaeological Superintendency of Pompeii) to E. Lazer, 2006, personal communication.

27 García y García, 2006, op. cit., 191.

28 Ibid., 192.

29 De Carolis et al., 1998, op. cit., 100, 105.

30 García y García, 2006, op. cit., 191.

31 Ibid.

32 Gusman, 1900, op. cit., 17.

33 Dwyer, 2005, op. cit.

34 Ibid. and García y García, 2006, op. cit., 173.

35 For example Chamberlain and Pearson, 2001, op. cit., 151; De Carolis and Patricelli, 2003b, op. cit., 115; A. De Vos and M. De Vos. Pompei, Ercolano, Stabia. Rome: Laterza, 1982, 209; Giuntoli, 1995, op. cit., 37; Grant, 1976, op. cit., 37; A. King, ‘Mammals: Evidence from wall paintings, sculpture, mosaics, faunal remains and ancient literary sources’,in The Natural History of Pompeii, ed. W.F. Jashemski and F.G. Meyer. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002, 411; W.M.C. MacKenzie, Pompeii: Painted by Alberto Pisa. London: A. & C. Black, 1910, 172; Maiuri, 1962, op. cit., 103; J.B. WardPerkins and A. Claridge. Pompeii AD 79: Treasures from the National Archaeological Museum, Naples and the Pompeii Antiquarium, Italy. 2nd edn. Sydney: Australian Gallery Directors’ Council, 1980, 95.

36 S. De Caro and A. Casale, Boscoreale e le Sue Testimonianze Archeologiche: Villa Rustica in Località Villa Regina. Napoli: Commune di Boscoreale, Assessorato ai Beni Culturali e Ambientali, 1988, 11; King, 2002, op. cit., 411, 444.

37 W.F. Jashemski, The Gardens of Pompeii, Herculaneum and the Villas Destroyed by Vesuvius. New York: Caratzas Brothers, 1979a, 23–24; W.F. Jashemski, ‘The Vesuvian sites before AD 79: The archaeological, literary and epigraphical evidence’,in The Natural History of Pompeii, ed. W.F. Jashemski and F.G. Meyer. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002, 16.

38 Monnier, 1864, pp 415–16 in Adams, 1868, op. cit., 264–66.

39 P.J. Baxter, ‘Medical effects of volcanic eruptions’, Bulletin of Volcanology, Vol. 52, 1990,

532 –44.

40 For example, C. D’Amore et al., ‘Antropologia pompeiana del 79 d.C.: Sesso ed età di

morte’, Archivio per lAntropologia e la Etnologia, Vol. 109, 1979, 300.

41 Brier, 1998, op. cit., 147; Chamberlain and Pearson, 2001, op. cit., 150; Grant, 1976, op.

cit., 34.

42 Dr Mario Benanzio, orthopaedic surgeon, Dr Michael Houang, radiologist, Dr Chris

Griffiths, of the then NSW Forensic Institute, Ian White, from the then NSW Forensic

Institute, Dr Greg Doran, then from Anatomy and Histology, University of Sydney and a

team of radiographers. E. Lazer, ‘Human Skeletal Remains in Pompeii: Vols. I and II’,

unpublished PhD thesis, Department of Anatomy and Histology. Sydney: The University

of Sydney, 1995, 376–79.

43 A. D’Ambrosio, ‘The lady from Oplontis’,in Rediscovering Pompeii: IBM Gallery of Science

and Art, ed. B. Conticello. Rome: ‘L’Erma’ di Bretschneider, 1990, 133; De Carolis and

Patricelli, 2003b, op. cit., 63, 91.

44 D’Ambrosio, 1990, op. cit., 133; A. Civale, ‘Oplontis: The villa of Lucius Crassius Tertius’,in Tales from an Eruption: Pompeii, Herculaneum, Oplontis: Guide to the Exhibition, ed. P.

G. Guzzo. Milan: Electa, 2003b, 78.

45 B. Conticello (Superintendent, Pompeii) to E. Lazer, 1994, personal communication; C.

Griffiths (New South Wales Institute of Forensic Science, Sydney) to E. Lazer, 1994,

personal communication.

46 D’Ambrosio, 1990, op. cit., 133.

47 D.R. Brothwell, Digging up Bones: The Excavation, Treatment and Study of Human Skeletal

Remains. 3rd edn. London: British Museum (Natural History) & Oxford University Press,

1981/1965, 155.

48 G. Doran (Department of Anatomy & Histology, The University of Sydney, Australia) to

E. Lazer, 1994, personal communication; Griffiths, 1994, op. cit.

49 Caries cavities could be observed on the upper right second premolar, first and second

molars and upper left first molar. Griffiths, 1994, op. cit.

50 Carious lesions that involved the entire crown were observed on the upper right second

premolar and the upper left first molar. Griffiths, 1994, op. cit.

51 M. Houang (Radiologist, St Luke’s Hospital, Sydney) to E. Lazer, 1994, personal communication; C. Roberts, ‘Trauma and treatment in the British Isles in the historic period:

A design for multidisciplinary research’,in Human Palaeopathology: Current Syntheses and

Future Options, ed. D.J. Ortner and A.C. Aufderheide. Washington, DC: Smithsonian

Institution Press, 1991, 232.

52 These include the 17 humans that were cast from 1963, the nine individuals that were

cast in the garden of the House of the Cryptoporticus in 1914, plus the 13 that were

produced in the Garden of the Fugitives in 1961. A further 10 victims were cast between

1958 and the mid-1970s in the Casa del Bracciale dOro, Casa di Ma. Castricius and the

Villa of M. Fabius Rufus. A number of casts were made of the 21 bodies that were found

outside the Porta Nola between 1908 and 1911 and ten bodies were cast from the ten

bodies found in August 1989 in Insula 22 of Region 1. De Carolis et al, 1998, op. cit.,

77; García y García, 2006, op. cit., 188–95.

11 Making sense

1 Such as Public Law 101 –601, the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act, approved by President Bush in 1990. T.D. White and P.A. Folkens. The Human Bone Manual. Boston: Academic Press, 2005, 28.

2 See, for example, S. Colley, Uncovering Australia: Archaeology, Indigenous People and the Public. Sydney: Allen & Unwin, 2002, 56–58.

3 For example, A. Bickford et al., ‘Skeletal Remains: Guidelines for the Management of Human Skeletal Remains under the Heritage Act 1999’. Sydney: New South Wales Heritage Office, 1998; S. Mays, The Archaeology of Human Bones. London: Routledge, 1998.

4 J.B.d.C.M. Saunders and C.D. O’Malley, The Anatomical Drawings of Andreas Vesalius. New York: Bonanza Books, 1982; A.T. Chamberlain, and M.P. Pearson. Earthly Remains: The History and Science of Preserved Bodies. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001, 8, Fig. 1.

5 A.C. Aufderheide, The Scientific Study of Mummies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003, 192–203.

6 R. Cordovani, La Cripta dei Cappuccini. Chiesa dellImmacolata Conzezione Via Vittorio VenetoRoma. Rome: Provincia Romana dei Frati Minori Cappuccini, 2005.

7 S. Court (Herculaneum Conservation Project Research and Outreach Coordinator) to E. Lazer, 2006, personal communication; J. Thompson (Project Manager Herculaneum Conservation Project) to E. Lazer, 15 October 2007, personal communication.

Glossary

1 W.M. Bass, Human Osteology: A Laboratory and Field Manual of the Human Skeleton, 2nd edn. Columbia: Missouri Archaeological Society, 1984, 291–93; J.G. Clement and D.L. Ranson (eds), Craniofacial Identification in Forensic Medicine. London: Arnold, 1998, 297– 98; E. De Carolis and G. Patricelli, Vesuvius, AD 79: The Destruction of Pompeii and Herculaneum, translated by The J. Paul Getty Trust, Rome: ‘L’Erma’ di Bretschneider, 2003b, 127–28; Freeman, ‘Glossary of Histological and Microanatomical Terms Including Historical Origins and Eponyms’. Sydney: School of Anatomy, University of New South Wales, 2000; S. Hilson, Dental Anthropology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996; L. Scheuer, and S. Black, The Juvenile Skeleton. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2004, 2–3; H. Sigurdsson, Melting the Earth: The History of Ideas on Volcanic Eruptions, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999: T.D. White, Human Osteology, 1st edn. San Diego, California: Academic Press, 2000.

2 A.C. Aufderheide and C. Rodriguez-Martin, The Cambridge Encyclopaedia of Human Palaeopathology, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998, 84.

3 A.T. Chamberlain, Demography in Archaeology, Cambridge Manuals in Archaeology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006, 26–27.

4 Ibid.

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