Ancient History & Civilisation

Ancient Egyptian Chronology

You will sometimes encounter the terms C.E. (Common Era) and B.C.E. (Before the Common Era) instead of B.C. (Before Christ) and A.D. (Anno Domini). There is a reason for this, but I have been using the old terms too long to change.


Dynasty O: Scorpion, Aha, Narmer

Dynasty I: Unification; Menes, Djer, Djet, Den, Queen Merneith

Dynasty II: Peribsen, Khasekhemui

THE OLD KINGDOM: 2686–2181

Dynasty III: Step Pyramid; Djoser, Khaba, Huni

Dynasty IV: Pyramids of Dahshur, Medum, Giza; Snefru, Khufu, Khafre, Menkaure

Dynasty V: Userkaf, Sahure, Unis

Dynasty VI: Teti, Pepi I, Pepi II

FIRST INTERMEDIATE PERIOD: 2181–2040—Breakdown of central government.

Dynasties VII–X. Some partially overlapping.

MIDDLE KINGDOM: 2040–1782—Reunification.

Dynasty XI: Intefs and Mentuhoteps

Dynasty XII: Amenemhats and Senuserts, Queen Sobekneferu

SECOND INTERMEDIATE PERIOD: 1782–1570—Breakdown of central government.

Dynasties XIII–XVI: Some overlapping. Hyksos

Dynasty XVII: Sekenenre Tao II, Kamose 1663–l570

NEW KINGDOM: 1570–1070—Reunification.

Dynasty XVIII: Ahmose, Amenhoteps and Thutmoses, Queen Hatshepsut, Akhenaton, Tutankhamon, Ay, Horemhab

Dynasty XIX: Seti I, Ramses I and II, Merneptah, Queen Tausert

Dynasty XX: Ramses III–XI, Herihor


Dynasty XXI: Smendes, Psusennes, Pinudjem

Dynasty XXII: Libyan Sheshonks, Osorkons, Takelot

Dynasties XXIII–XXIV: Libyan

Dynasty XXV: Cushite; Piankhi, Shabaka, Taharka

Dynasty XXVI: Psamtiks (3), Necho, Apries

LATE PERIOD: 525–332

Dynasty XXVII: First Persian

Dynasties XXVIII–XXIX: Egyptian dynasts

Dynasty XXX: Nectanabo I and II

Dynasty XXXI: Second Persian

PTOLEMAIC: Conquest by Alexander the Great, 332 B.C. Succeeded by Ptolemies and Cleopatras.

ROMAN: Conquest by Julius Caesar, 30 B.C. Egypt a Roman province.

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