Ancient History & Civilisation

Photographs

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Found in Pergamum, Turkey, this bust of Alexander is a reproduction from the third century B.C. of an original from Alexander’s lifetime. (Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY)

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This section of a large mosaic from Pompeii shows Alexander the Great, armed and on horseback, about to confront Darius in battle, probably at Issus in 333 B.C. (Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY)

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The same mosaic shows King Darius III of Persia in his chariot, with a look of terror in his eyes, about to face Alexander. (Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY)

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This silver tetradrachm coin from the era of Alexander the Great shows the king in profile, wearing the lion skin of Heracles (Hercules). (Berlin/Art Resource, NY)

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A carved relief in the royal palace of Persia’s capital city, Persepolis, depicts soldiers of the Persian king. Alexander burned the palace in 330 B.C. (Serhan Güngör)

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A Carthaginian silver double shekel issued by the Barcas in Spain, probably around 230 B.C. It advertises their power by showing the Punic god Melqart as Heracles, with a club over his shoulder, on the front and a war elephant on the rear. (British Museum)

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This marble bust from Capua may possibly represent Hannibal, the great Carthaginian commander. (Alinari/Art Resource, NY)

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A bronze bust from Herculaneum said to represent Scipio Africanus, the man who defeated Hannibal. (Scala/Art Resource, NY)

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Foundations of Punic houses line the slope of Byrsa Hill, the acropolis of ancient Carthage. In the distance lies the great city’s harbor. (Barry Strauss)

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This marble bust shows Julius Caesar with a strong, weather-beaten face and a receding hairline. (Vanni/Art Resource, NY)

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A silver denarius coin, struck in 44 B.C., depicting Caesar wearing a victory wreath. He bears the title of DICT PERPETUO, that is, dictator for life. (Yale University Art Gallery/Art Resource, NY)

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A marble bust of Caesar’s great opponent Pompey, who was defeated at the Battle of Pharsalus. (Bildarchiv Preussischer Kulturbesitz/Art Resource, NY)

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The ruined columned bases of the Basilica Julia march across the center of this photo of the Roman Forum. The basilica was a large public building originally dedicated by Caesar in 46 B.C. and funded by spoils from Gaul. (Barry Strauss)

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