Ancient History & Civilisation

CHRONOLOGY

(All dates are B.C.)

480–479

The Persian Empire invades Greece, led by King Xerxes, and is defeated.

356

Birth of Alexander

338

Macedon defeats Greeks at Battle of Chaeronea; Alexander commands cavalry

336

Philip of Macedon is assassinated; Alexander becomes king.

May–June 334

Alexander invades Persian Empire; Battle of the Granicus River

Autumn 334

Siege of Halicarnassus

June 333

Death of Memnon of Rhodes

November 333

Battle of Issus

January–August 332

Siege of Tyre

331

Greek revolt against Macedon

October 1, 331

Battle of Gaugamela

330

Alexander burns Persepolis; death of Darius; execution of Parmenio and Philotas

330–327

Campaigns in Bactria and Sogdiana

May 326

Battle of the Hydaspes

July 326

Mutiny in India

325

Alexander returns to Iran

324–323

Alexander prepares invasion of Arabia

Summer 324

Banquet at Opis

Autumn 324

Death of Hephaestion

June 10, 323

Death of Alexander

280–275

Pyrrhus’s invasion of Italy and Sicily

264–241

First Punic War

247

Birth of Hannibal

237

Hamilcar Barca goes to Spain, taking Hannibal with him

228

Death of Hamilcar; Hasdrubal the Handsome, Hamilcar’s son-in-law, now in command in Spain

226

Ebro treaty

221

Death of Hasdrubal the Handsome; Hannibal now in command in Spain

219

Hannibal captures Saguntum after eight-month siege; Rome issues ultimatum

218–201

Second Punic War

Autumn 218

Hannibal crosses the Alps; leaves his brother, Hasdrubal, in charge of Spain

November 218

Battle of the Ticinus River

December 218

Battle of the Trebia River

Spring 217

Romans defeat Carthaginian fleet off the Ebro River in Spain

June 21, 217*

Battle of Lake Trasimene

Summer–Fall 217

Fabius is appointed dictator and begins delaying strategy

August 2, 216

Battle of Cannae

Late 216

Capua joins Hannibal

215

Alliance between Hannibal and Macedonian king Philip V; Syracuse joins Hannibal

212

Hannibal takes Tarentum but Romans hold the citadel; Rome retakes Syracuse

211

Hannibal marches on Rome; Rome retakes Capua

210

Scipio takes New Carthage

209

Battle of Baecula; Rome retakes Tarentum

207

Battle of the Metaurus River; death of Hasdrubal, Hannibal’s brother

206

Battle of Ilipa

205

Mago invades Italy; Hannibal places inscription in temple of Hera Lacinia

203

Hannibal returns to Africa; death of Mago

Autumn 202

Battle of Zama

201

Carthage agrees to treaty with Rome ending Second Punic War

196

Hannibal serves as chief magistrate of Carthage

195–183

Hannibal in the East

183

Death of Hannibal

149–146

Third Punic War

146

Carthage is destroyed

100

Birth of Caesar

82–81

Sulla is dictator

66–62

Pompey conquers the East

61–60

Caesar campaigns in western Spain

58–50

Caesar conquers Gaul

January 12, 49

Caesar crosses the Rubicon

February 49

Siege of Corfinium

March 17, 49

Pompey evacuates Brundisium

Spring–Autumn 49

Siege of Massilia

June–August 49

Battle of Ilerda

January 4, 48

Caesar crosses the Adriatic Sea

April–July 48

Dyrrachium campaign

August 9, 48

Battle of Pharsalus

September 28, 48

Death of Pompey

Autumn 48

Caesar meets Cleopatra

Winter 48–Spring 47

Caesar’s war in Egypt

August 2, 47

Battle of Zela

December 25, 47

Caesar leaves Rome for Africa

46

Carthage refounded as a Roman colony

April 6, 46

Battle of Thapsus

Summer 46

Caesar celebrates four triumphs

March 17, 45

Battle of Munda

October 45

Caesar celebrates fifth triumph

February 44

Caesar named dictator for life

March 15, 44

Caesar assassinated


* All specific months and days in this list, from this point on, follow the Roman calendar in use at the time.

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