Appendix

EMPERORS OF CONSTANTINOPLE

CONSTANTINIAN DYNASTY (324-363)

324—353......Constantine the Great

353—361......Constantius..........Son of Constantine the Great

361—363......Julian the Apostate..........Cousin of Constantius

NON-DYNASTIC

363—364......Jovian..........Soldier, chosen on the battlefield

364—378......Valens..........Brother of Western Emperor Valentinian

THEODOSIAN DYNASTY (379-457)

379—395......Theodosius I the Great..........Soldier, chosen by Western Emperor Gratian

395—408......Arcadius..........Son of Theodosius

408—450......Theodosius II..........Son of Arcadius

450—457......Marcian..........Married Theodosius II’s sister

LEONID DYNASTY (457-518)

457—474......Leo I the Thracian..........Soldier, chosen by Eastern general Aspar

474......Leo II..........Grandson of Leo I

474—475......Zeno..........Son-in-law of Leo I

475—476......Basiliscus..........Usurper, brother-in-law of Leo I

476—491......Zeno (again)

491—518......Anastasius I..........Son-in-law of Leo I

JUSTINIAN DYNASTY (527-602)

518—527......Justin I..........Commander of the Palace Guard

527—565......Justinian I the Great..........Nephew of Justin I

565—578......Justin II..........Nephew of Justinian

578—582......Tiberius II ....Adopted by Justin II

582—602......Maurice..........Son-in-law of Tiberius II

NON-DYNASTIC

602—610......Phocas..........Usurper, soldier of Maurice

HERACLIUS DYNASTY (610-711)

610—641......Heraclius..........Usurper, general from Carthage

641......Constantine III..........Son of Heraclius Son of Heraclius Son of Constantine III

641......Heraclonas..........

641—668......Constans II the Bearded..........

668—685......Constantine IV..........Son of Constans II

685—695......Justinian II the Slit-Nosed...Son of Constantine IV

695—698......Leontius..........Usurper, soldier of Justinian II

698—705....Tiberius III ....Usurper, Germanic naval officer of Leontius

705—711......Justinian 11 (again)

NON-DYNASTIC

711—713......Philippicus..........Usurper, Armenian soldier of Justinian II

713—715......Anastasius II..........Usurper, imperial secretary of Philippicus

715—717......Theodosius III..........Usurper, tax collector and son (?) of Tiberius III

ISAURIAN DYNASTY (717-802)

717—741......Leo III the Isaurian..........Usurper, Syrian diplomat of Justinian II

741—775......Constantine V the Dung-Named..........Son of Leo III

775—780......Leo IV the Khazar..........Son-in-law of Leo III

780—797......Constantine VI the Blinded..........Son of Leo IV

797—802......Irene the Athenian..........Wife of Leo IV, mother of Constantine VI

NICEPHORUS DYNASTY (802-813)

802—811......Nicephorus I..........Usurper, finance minister of Irene

811......Stauracius..........Son of Nicephorus I

811—813 ....Michael I Rangabe..........Son-in-law of Nicephorus I

NON-DYNASTIC

813—820......Leo V the Armenian..........Patrician and general of Michael I

AMORIAN DYNASTY (820-867)

820—829......Michael II the Stammerer............Son-in-law of Constantine VI

829—842......Theophilus..........Son of Michael II

842—855......Theodora..........Wife of Theophilus

842—867......Michael III the Drunkard ...Son of Theophilus

MACEDONIAN DYNASTY (867-1056)

867—886......Basil I the Macedonian..........Armenian peasant, married Michael III’s widow

886—912......Leo VI the Wise..........Son of Basil I or Michael III

912—913......Alexander..........Son of Basil I

913—959......Constantine VII the Purple-Born..........Son of Leo VI

920—944.....Romanus I Lecapenus..........General, father-in-law of Constantine VII

959—963......Romanus II the Purple-Born..........Son of Constantine VII

963—969......Nicephorus II Phocas..........General, married Romanus II’s widow

969—976......John I Tzimisces..........Usurper, nephew of Nicephorus II

976—1025......Basil II the Bulgar-Slayer..........Son of Romanus II

1025—1028......Constantine VIII..........Son of Romanus II

1028—1050......Zoë....Daughter of Constantine VIII

1028—1034......Romanus III Argyrus..........Zoë’s first husband

1034—1041......Michael IV the Paphlagonian..........Zoë’s second husband

1041—1042......Michael V the Caulker..........Zoë’s adopted son

1042......Zoë and Theodora..........Daughters of Constantine VIII

1042—1055.......Constantine IX Monomachus..........Zoë’s third husband

1055—1056........Theodora (again)

NON-DYNASTIC

1056—1057.......Michael VI the Old..........Chosen by Theodora

1057—1059......Isaac I Comnenus..........Usurper, general of Michael VI

DUCAS DYNASTY (1059-1081)

1059—1067......Constantine X..........Chosen by Isaac

1068—1071......Romanus IV Diogenes..........Married Constantine X’s widow

1071—1078......Michael VII the Quarter-Short..........Son of Constantine X

1078—1081......Nicephorus III Botaneiates............Usurper, general of Michael VII

COMNENIAN DYNASTY (1081-1185)

1081—1118......Alexius I..........Usurper, nephew of Isaac I

1118—1143......John II the Beautiful..........Son of Alexius I

1141—1180......Manuel I the Great..........Son of John II

1080—1183.......Alexius II..........Son of Manuel I

1183—1185......Andronicus the Terrible..........Usurper, cousin of Manuel I

ANGELUS DYNASTY (1185-1204)

1185 1195......Isaac II Ángelus..........Great-grandson of Alexius I

1195—1203.......Alexius III Ángelus..........Brother of Isaac II

1203—1204......Isaac II (again) and son Alexius IV

NON-DYNASTIC

1204......Alexius V the Bushy-Eyebrowed..........Usurper, son-in-law of Alexius III

PALAEOLOGIAN DYNASTY (1259-1453)

1259—1282.......Michael VIII..........Great-grandson of Alexius III

1282—1328......Andronicus II..........Son of Michael VIII

1328—1341.......Andronicus III..........Grandson of Andronicus II

1341—1391....John V..........Son of Andronicus III

1347—1354.......John VI..........Father-in-law of John V

1376—1379......Andronicus IV..........Son of John V

1390......John VII..........Son of Andronicus IV

1391—1425......Manuel II..........Son of John V

1425—1448......John VIII..........Son of Manuel II

1448—1453......Constantine XI Dragases............Son of Manuel II

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