Ancient History & Civilisation



Amit, M. Athens and the Sea: A Study in Athenian Sea-Power. Brussels, 1965.

Cargill, Jack. The Second Athenian League: Empire or Free Alliance? Berkeley, Calif., 1981.

Gabrielsen, Vincent. Financing the Athenian Fleet. Baltimore, 1994.

Jordan, Borimir. The Athenian Navy in the Classical Period. Berkeley, Calif., 1975.

Morrison, John, John Coates, and Boris Rankov. The Athenian Trireme. New York, 2000.

Welsh, Frank. Building the Trireme. London, 1988.


Casson, Lionel. Ships and Seamanship in the Ancient World. Princeton, 1971.

Davies, M. I. “Sailing, Rowing, and Sporting in One’s Cups on the Wine-Dark Sea.” In Athens Comes of Age: From Solon to Salamis, edited by William Childs. Princeton, 1978.

Hale, John R. “The Value of Sea Trials in Experimental Archaeology.” In Naval History: The Seventh Symposium of the U.S. Naval Academy, edited by William B. Cogar. Wilmington, Del., 1988.

———. “The Lost Technology of Ancient Greek Rowing.” Scientific American 274, no. 5 (1996).

Lehmann, L. T. The Polyeric Quest: Renaissance and Baroque Theories About Ancient Men-of-War. Amsterdam, 1995.

Morrison, John S., and R. T. Williams. Greek Oared Ships, 900-322 B.C. Cambridge, U.K., 1968.

Morrison, John, ed. The Age of the Galley: Mediterranean Oared Vessels Since Pre-Classical Times. London, 1995.

Morrison, John, and John Coates. Greek and Roman Oared Warships, 399-30 B.C. Oxford, U.K., 1996.

Oron, Asaf. “The Athlit Ram Bronze Casting Reconsidered.” Journal of Archaeological Science 33, no. 1 (2006).

Panvini, Rosalba. The Archaic Greek Ship at Gela. Regione Siciliana, Italy, 2001.

Polzer, M. E. “An Archaic Laced Hull in the Aegean: The 2003 Excavation and Study of the Pabuç Burnu Ship Remains.” Institute of Nautical Archaeology Quarterly 31, no. 3 (2004).

Rodgers, William Ledyard. Greek and Roman Naval Warfare. Annapolis, Md., 1937.

Snodgrass, Mary Ellen. Voyages in Classical Mythology. Santa Barbara, Calif., 1994.

Spathari, Elsi. Sailing Through Time: The Ship in Greek Art. Athens, 1995.

Wachsmann, Shelley. Seagoing Ships and Seamanship in the Bronze Age Levant. College Station, Tex., 1998.


Adcock, F. E. The Greek and Macedonian Art of War. Berkeley, Calif., 1957.

Allen, Lindsay. The Persian Empire. Chicago, 2005.

Blamire, A. Plutarch: Life of Kimon with Translation and Commentary. London, 1989.

Bosworth, A. B. Conquest and Empire: The Reign of Alexander the Great. Cambridge, U.K., 1988.

Burn, Andrew Robert. The Persian Wars: The Greeks and the Defence of the West, c. 546-478 B.C. London, 2002.

Develin, Robert. Athenian Officials, 684-381 B.C. Cambridge, U.K., 1989.

Ducrey, Pierre. Warfare in Ancient Greece. New York, 1986.

Frost, Frank J. Plutarch’s Themistocles: A Historical Commentary. Chicago, 1998.

Green, Peter. Armada from Athens. New York, 1970.

Hale, John R. “Phormio Crosses the T.” Military History Quarterly 8, no. 4 (1996).

———. “General Phormio’s Art of War.” In Polis and Polemos, edited by Charles D. Hamilton and Peter Krentz. Claremont, Calif., 1997.

Hamel, Debra. Athenian Generals: Military Authority in the Classical Period. Leiden, 1998.

Hanson, Victor Davis. The Wars of the Ancient Greeks. London, 1999.

———. Carnage and Culture: Landmark Battles in the Rise of Western Power. New York, 2001.

Hignett, C. Xerxes’ Invasion of Greece. Oxford, U.K., 1963.

Hunt, Peter. Slaves, Warfare, and Ideology in the Greek Historians. Cambridge, U.K., 1998.

Kagan, Donald. The Outbreak of the Peloponnesian War. Ithaca, N.Y., 1969.

———. The Archidamian War. Ithaca, N.Y., 1974.

———. The Peace of Nicias and the Sicilian Expedition. Ithaca, N.Y., 1981.

———. The Fall of the Athenian Empire. Ithaca, N.Y., 1987.

———. Pericles of Athens and the Birth of Democracy. New York, 1991.

———. The Peloponnesian War. New York, 2003.

Kallet-Marx, Lisa. Money, Expense, and Naval Power in Thucydides’ History. Berkeley, Calif., 1993.

Lenardon, Robert J. The Saga of Themistocles. London, 1978.

Littman, Robert. “Dor and the Athenian Empire.” American Journal of Ancient History 15, no. 2 (1990).

Pritchett, W. Kendrick. Ancient Greek Battle Speeches. Amsterdam, 2002.

Quinn, T. J. Athens and Samos, Lesbos and Chios, 478-404. Manchester, U.K., 1981.

Schreiner, Johan. Hellanikos, Thukydides and the Era of Kimon. Aarhus, Denmark, 1997.

Sheppard, Ruth, ed. Alexander the Great at War. Oxford, U.K., 2008.

Stadter, Philip A. A Commentary on Plutarch’s Pericles. Chapel Hill, N.C., 1989.

Strauss, Barry. The Battle of Salamis. New York, 2004.

Tritle, Lawrence. Phocion the Good. New York, 1988.

Wallinga, H. T. Xerxes’ Great Adventure: The Naval Perspective. Leiden, 2005.

Ward, Anne, et al. The Quest for Theseus. New York, 1970.

Wilson, John B. Pylos 425 B.C.: A Historical and Topographic Study of Thucydides’ Account of the Campaign. Warminster, U.K., 1979.


Cohen, Edward. Ancient Athenian Maritime Courts. Princeton, 1973.

Conwell, David H. Connecting a City to the Sea. Leiden, 2008.

Garland, Robert. The Piraeus from the Fifth to the First Centuries B.C. London, 2001.

Lorenzen, Elvind. The Arsenal at Piraeus. Copenhagen, 1964.

Lovén, Bjørn, et al. “The Zea Harbour Project.” In Proceedings of the Danish Institute at Athens. Athens, 2007.

Nielsen, Mads M. “Three Pieces of the Piraean Puzzle.” In Proceedings of the Danish Institute at Athens. Athens, 2007.

Schaldemose, Mette K. “The Zea Shipsheds.” In Proceedings of the Danish Institute at Athens. Athens, 2007.

Steinhauer, George A. “Ancient Piraeus: The City of Themistocles and Hippodamus.” In Steinhauer et al., Piraeus: Centre of Shipping and Culture. Athens, 2000.


Barnes, J., ed. The Complete Works of Aristotle: The Revised Oxford Translation. Princeton, 1984.

Boedecker, Deborah, and Kurt Raaflaub, eds. Democracy, Empire and the Arts in Fifth Century Athens. Cambridge, Mass., 1998.

Camp, John M. The Athenian Agora: Excavations in the Heart of Classical Athens. London, 1986.

———. The Archaeology of Athens. New Haven, Conn., 2001.

Davies, John K. Athenian Propertied Families, 600-300 B.C. Oxford, U.K., 1971.

Flacelière, Robert. Daily Life in Greece at the Time of Pericles. New York, 1965.

Forsén, Björn, and Greg Stanton, eds. The Pnyx in the History of Athens. Helsinki, 1996.

Fredal, James. Rhetorical Action in Ancient Athens: Persuasive Artistry from Solon to Demosthenes. Carbondale, Ill., 2006.

Goette, Hans. Athens, Attica and the Megarid: An Archaeological Guide. London, 1993.

Gomme, A. W. The Population of Athens in the Fifth and Fourth Centuries B.C. Oxford, U.K., 1933.

Harding, Phillip. Androtion and the Atthis. Oxford, U.K., 1994.

Henderson, Jeffrey. The Maculate Muse: Obscene Language in Attic Comedy. New York, 1991.

Hignett, C. A History of the Athenian Constitution to the End of the Fifth Century B.C. Oxford, U.K., 1952.

Hurwit, Jeffrey M. The Acropolis in the Age of Pericles. Cambridge, U.K., 2004.

Krentz, Peter. The Thirty at Athens. Ithaca, N.Y., 1982.

Loomis, William T. Wages, Welfare Costs and Inflation in Classical Athens. Ann Arbor, Mich., 1998.

McLeish, Kenneth. The Theatre of Aristophanes. London, 1980.

Meiggs, Russell. The Athenian Empire. Oxford, U.K., 1972.

Neils, Jenifer, et al. Goddess and Polis: The Panathenaic Festival in Ancient Athens. Princeton, 1992.

Papadopoulous, John K., and Deborah Ruscillo. “A Ketos in Early Athens: An Archaeology of Whales and Sea Monsters in the Greek World.” American Journal of Archaeology 106, no. 2 (2002).

Parke, H. W. Festivals of the Athenians. London, 1977.

Roberts, Jennifer Tolbert. Accountability in Athenian Government. Madison, Wis., 1982.

Samons, Loren J., ed. The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Pericles. New York, 2007.

Seltman, C. Athens, Its History and Coinage Before the Persian Invasion. Cambridge, U.K., 1924.

Stockton, David. The Classical Athenian Democracy. Oxford, U.K., 1990.

Storey, Ian. Eupolis: Poet of Old Comedy. Oxford, U.K., 2003.

Tyrrell, William Blake, and Frieda S. Brown. Athenian Myths and Institutions. Oxford, U.K., 1991.

Vidal-Naquet, Pierre. The Atlantis Story: A Short History of Plato’s Myth. Exeter, U.K., 2007.


Badian, Ernst. From Plataea to Potidaea: Studies in the History and Historiography of the Pentecontaetia. Baltimore, 1993.

Broad, William J. The Oracle: Ancient Delphi and the Science Behind Its Lost Secrets. New York, 2006.

Camp, John M., and Elizabeth Fisher. The World of the Ancient Greeks. London, 2002.

Carpenter, Thomas H. Art and Myth in Ancient Greece. London, 1991.

Cartledge, Paul, ed. The Cambridge Illustrated History of Ancient Greece. Cambridge, U.K., 1998.

Detienne, Marcel, and Jean-Pierre Vernant. Cunning Intelligence in Greek Culture and Society. Chicago, 1991.

Gorman, Vanessa B. Miletos: The Ornament of Ionia. Ann Arbor, Mich., 2001.

Kagan, Donald. Problems in Ancient History: The Ancient Near East and Greece. London, 1966.

Koromila, Marianna. The Greeks and the Black Sea. Athens, 2002.

Lewis, D. M., ed. The Cambridge Ancient History Volume VI: The Fourth Century B.C. Cambridge, U.K., 1994.

Meiggs, Russell. Trees and Timber in the Ancient Mediterranean World. Oxford, U.K., 1982.

Rhodes, P. J., and Robin Osborne. Greek Historical Inscriptions 404-323 B.C. Oxford, U.K., 2003.

Roberts, John. The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World. Oxford, U.K., 2005.

Varoufakis, George. Ancient Greek Standards. Athens, 1999.

Vidal-Naquet, Pierre. The Black Hunter. Baltimore, 1986.

If you find an error please notify us in the comments. Thank you!