Ancient History & Civilisation

NOTES

Introduction

1 Onasander, The General 33. 6 (Loeb translation, slightly modified).

2 On Roman military theory see J. Campbell, ‘Teach yourself how to be a general’, Journal of Roman Studies 77 (1987), pp. 13–29 and K. Gilliver, The Roman Art of War (2000); for the factors determining the appointment of commanders contrast E. Birley, The Roman Army, Papers 1929–1986 (1988), pp. 75–114 and J. Campbell, ‘Who were theviri militares?’, Journal of Roman Studies 65 (1975), pp. 11–31.

3 For the generally low opinion of Roman commanders see Maj. Gen. J. Fuller, Julius Caesar: Man, Soldier and Tyrant (1965), pp. 74–75; W. Messer, ‘Mutiny in the Roman Army of the Republic’, Classical Philology 15 (1920), pp. 158–175, esp. p. 158; F. Adcock, The Roman Art of War under the Republic (1940), p. 101. The elder Moltke’s comment that ‘In war with its enormous friction even the mediocre is quite an achievement’ quoted in M. Van Creveld, Command in War (1985), p. 13.

4 For a recent survey of Rome’s early history see T. Cornell, The Beginnings of Rome (1995).

5 Iliad 12. 318–321 (translation R. Lattimore, University of Chicago Press, 1951).

6 The Horiatii and Curiatii, Livy 1. 23–27, Horatius Cocles, 2. 10–11.

7 On Rome’s early military organization see Cornell (1995), pp. 173–197; B. D’Agustino, ‘Military Organization and Social Structure in Archaic Etruria’, in O. Murray and S. Price (eds.), The Greek City (Oxford, 1990), pp. 59–82; E. McCarteney, ‘The Military Indebtedness of Early Rome to Etruria’, Memoirs of the American Academy at Rome 1 (1917), pp. 122–167; M.P. Nilsson, ‘The introduction of Hoplite Tactics at Rome’, Journal of Roman Studies 19 (1929), pp. 1–11; E. Rawson, ‘The Literary Sources for the Pre-Marian Roman Army’, Papers of the British School at Rome 39 (1971), pp. 13–31; L. Rawlings, ‘Condottieri and Clansmen: Early Italian Warfare and the State’, in K. Hopwood, Organized Crime in the Ancient World (Swansea, 2001); and A.M. Snodgrass, ‘The Hoplite Reform and History’, Journal of Hellenic Studies 85 (1965), pp. 110–122.

8 For the role of the commander in Greek armies see E. Wheeler, ‘The General as Hoplite’, in V. Hanson (ed.), Hoplites: the Classical Greek Battle Experience (1991), pp. 121–170.

9 Plutarch Pyrrhus 16 (Penguin translation).

10 Livy 10. 26–30, esp. 28; for a discussion of single combat see S. Oakley, ‘Single Combat and the Roman Army’, Classical Quarterly 35 (1985), pp. 392–410.

11 For a discussion of the nature of aristocratic virtus see N. Rosenstein, Imperatores Victi (1990), esp. pp. 114–151.

12 For the development of the Republican army see L. Keppie, The Making of the Roman Army (1984), and E. Gabba, The Roman Republic, the Army and the Allies (Oxford, 1976), trans. P.J. Cuff.

13 On the context of command see Van Creveld (1985), pp. 17–57. On the availability of maps and other geographical information in the Roman world see A. Betrand, ‘Stumbling through Gaul: Maps, Intelligence, and Caesar’s Bellum Gallicum’, The Ancient History Bulletin 11. 4 (1997), 107–122, C. Nicolet, Space, geography and politics in the early Roman empire (1991), and B. Isaac, ‘Eusebius and the geography of Roman provinces’, in D. Kennedy (ed.), The Roman army in the east. Journal of Roman Archaeology Supplementary Series 18 (1996), pp. 153–167.

CHAPTER 1 Fabius and Marcellus

1 Frontinus, Strategems 1. 3. 3.

2 For accounts of the opening stages of the Second Punic War see J. Lazenby, Hannibal’s War (1978), pp. 1–66, A. Goldsworthy, The Punic Wars (2000), pp. 143–190.

3 On Punic armies see Goldsworthy (2000), pp. 30–36.

4 Livy 22. 7. 6–14, 8. 2–7, Polybius 3. 87.

5 Plutarch, Fabius Maximus 1–5; on his first consulship see S. Dyson, The Creation of the Roman Frontier (1985), pp. 95–96.

6 Plutarch, Fabius Maximus 5, Livy 22. 9. 7–10. 10.

7 Plutarch, Fabius Maximus 4.

8 Polybius 3. 89. 1–90. 6, Livy 22. 12. 1–12, Plutarch, Fabius Maximus 5.

9 Plutarch, Fabius Maximus 5.

10 Livy 22. 15. 4–10.

11 Livy 22. 13. 1–18. 10, Polybius 3. 90. 7–94. 6, Frontinus, Strategems 1. 5. 28.

12 Polybius 3. 100. 1–105. 11, Livy 22. 18. 5–10, 23. 1–30. 10.

13 For a detailed discussion of Cannae see A. Goldsworthy, Cannae (2001).

14 Plutarch, Marcellus 12 and discussion in Lazenby (1978), pp. 94–95.

15 Plutarch, Marcellus 1–3.

16 Plutarch, Marcellus 4–7; generals preventing bad omens from discouraging their men, Frontinus, Strategems 1. 12. 1–12.

17 Plutarch, Marcellus 8.

18 Livy 23. 15. 7–17. 1

19 For an overview of the campaigns in Italy during these years see Goldsworthy (2000), pp. 222–229; Livy 23. 15. 7–16. 1, Plutarch, Marcellus 10, Fabius Maximus 20; sword and shield of Rome, Plutarch, Fabius Maximus 19, Marcellus 9.

20 Syracuse: see Goldsworthy (2000), pp. 260–268, Tarentum: see ibid. pp. 229–233, 235–236; Marcellus’ death, Livy 27. 26. 7–27. 14, Plutarch, Marcellus 29–30, Polybius 10. 32.

CHAPTER 2 Scipio Africanus

1 Imperator me mater, non bellatorem peperit – Frontinus, Stratagems 4. 7. 4.

2 Livy 26. 19. 3–9, Gellius, Attic Nights 6 (7). 1. 6.

3 Polybius 10. 2. 1–5. 10; F. Walbank, A Historical Commentary on Polybius 2 (Oxford, 1967), pp. 198–201, who notes that Polybius’ story of Scipio being elected to the aedileship in the same year as his brother is incorrect.

4 Polybius 10. 3. 3–6; Pliny Natural History 16. 14; Livy 21. 46. 10.

5 Livy 22. 53. 1–13; Frontinus, Strat. 4. 7. 39.

6 Livy 222. 61. 14–15; cf. N. Rosenstein, Imperatores Victi (1993), pp. 139–140.

7 Livy 26. 18. 1–19. 9; cf. H. Scullard, Scipio Africanus: Soldier and Politician (London, 1970), p. 31, J. Lazenby, Hannibal’s War (Warminster, 1978), and B. Caven, The Punic Wars (London, 1980).

8 For earlier campaigns in Spain see Goldsworthy (2000), pp. 246–253.

9 Polybius 10. 6. 1–9. 7; Walbank 2 (1967), pp. 201–2.

10 Polybius 10. 7. 3–5; Walbank 2 (1967), p. 202, cf. Lazenby (1978), p. 134.

11 Polybius 10. 9. 4–7, Livy 26. 42. 1.

12 Polybius 10. 9. 7, Livy 26. 42. 6; Walbank 2 (1967), pp. 204–205.

13 Accounts of the assault, Polybius 10. 9. 8–17. 5, Livy 26. 42. 6–46. 10, Appian Spanish Wars 20–22; Walbank 2 (1967), pp. 192–196, 203–217.

14 Polybius 10. 13. 1–4.

15 Sallust, Bellum Catilinae 7. 6.

16 Plutarch, Marcellus 18, Polybius 8. 37. 1.

17 Polybius 10. 15. 4–5. See also A. Ribera I Lacomba con M. Calvo Galvez, ‘La primera evidencia arqueológica de la destrucción de Valentia por Pompeyo’, Journal of Roman Archaeology 8 (1995), pp. 19–40 for evidence of Roman atrocities, although in this case committed during a civil war. For discussion of Roman plundering see A. Ziolkowski ‘Urbs direpta, or how the Romans sacked cities’, in J. Rich and M. Shipley, War and Society in the Roman World (London, 1993), pp. 69–91, although not all his conclusions have been generally accepted.

18 Livy 26. 48. 5–14.

19 Polybius 10. 18. 1–19. 7, Livy 26. 49. 11–50. 14, cf. Plutarch, Alexander 21.

20 Polybius 10. 39. 1–40. 12; Livy 27. 17. 1–20. 8, 28. 1. 1–2. 12, 1. 13–4.4.

21 Polybius 11. 20. 1–9, Livy 28. 12. 10–13. 5.

22 Polybius 11. 21. 1–6, Livy 28. 13. 6–10.

23 On the battle in general see Polybius 11. 21. 7–24. 9, Livy 28. 14. 1–15. 11. For discussion of the location of the battle and Scipio’s manoeuvre see Lazenby (1978), pp. 147–149, Walbank 2 (1970), pp. 296–304, and Scullard (1970), pp. 88–92.

24 For a more detailed account of the African campaign see Goldsworthy (2000), pp. 286–309.

25 For this period see Scullard (1970), pp. 210–44.

26 Livy 35. 14.

CHAPTER 3 Aemilius Paullus

1 Livy 44. 34.

2 For brief accounts of the First Macedonian War see J. Lazenby, Hannibal’s War (1978), pp. 157–169, and Goldsworthy (2000), pp. 253– 260. For a critical view of Rome’s motives in the war, see W.V. Harris, War and Imperialism in Republican Rome 327–70 BC (1979), pp. 205–208.

3 Livy 31. 6. 1; for the description of the declaration of war see Livy 31. 5. 1–8. 4; and comments in Harris (1979), pp. 212–218, F. Walbank, ‘Polybius and Rome’s eastern policy’, Journal of Roman Studies 53 (1963), pp. 1–13, P. Derow, ‘Polybius, Rome and the east’, Journal of Roman Studies 69 (1979), pp. 1–15, and in general J. Rich,Declaring War in the Roman Republic in the period of Transmarine Expansion. Collection Latomus 149 (1976).

4 The negotiations between Flamininus and Philip V, Polybius 18. 1. 1–12. 5, Livy 32. 32. 1–37. 6; Cynoscephalae, Polybius 18. 18. 1–27. 6, Livy 33. 1. 1–11. 3.

5 The Magnesia campaign, Livy 38. 37–44, Appian, Syrian Wars 30–36.

6 On the Galatian campaign, Livy 38. 12–27, 37–41; on the debate over Vulso’s actions, Livy 38. 44–50; the Lucius Flamininus scandal, Livy 39. 42–43.

7 For the causes of the war see Livy 42. 5–6, 11–18, 25–26, 29–30, and comments in Harris (1979), pp. 227–233.

8 Size of army, Livy 42. 31; Spurius Ligustinus, Livy 42. 32–35.

9 Perseus’ army at start of war, Livy 42. 51. One of the best studies of any Hellenistic army is B. Bar Kochva, The Seleucid Army (1976); for equipment see P. Connolly, Greece and Rome at War (1981), pp. 64–83.

10 Livy 42. 49. 53, 43. 17–23, 44. 1–16; Cassius Longinus, Livy 43. 1. 4–12.

11 Livy 44. 4. 10 – ‘cum Romanus imperator, maior sexaginta annis et praegravis corpore’.

12 Paullus in Spain, Livy 37. 2. 11, 37. 46. 7–8, 57. 5–6; in Liguria, Livy 40. 18, 25, 28. 7–8, Plutarch Aemilius Paullus 6; Paullus’ sons, Plutarch, Aemilius Paullus 5.

13 Size of army, Livy 44. 21. 5–11.

14 Livy 44. 34. 3.

15 Livy 44. 32. 5–34. 10; see also F. Walbank, A Historical Commentary on Polybius 3 (1979), pp. 378–391.

16 Plutarch, Aemilius Paullus 15–16, Livy 44. 35; for a detailed discussion of the campaign see N. Hammond, ‘The Battle of Pydna’, Journal of Hellenic Studies 104 (1984), pp. 31–47.

17 Livy 44. 36. 12–14.

18 Hammond (1984), pp. 38–39.

19 Livy 44. 36. 1–4.

20 Livy 44. 37. 5–9, Plutarch, Aemilius Paullus 17.

21 Plutarch, Aemilius Paullus 17–18, Livy 44. 37. 10–40. 10, Frontinus, Stratagems. 2. 3. 20, and Hammond (1984), pp. 44–45.

22 Plutarch, Aemilius Paullus 18, and Hammond pp. 45–46.

23 Plutarch, Aemilius Paullus 19.

24 Plutarch, Aemilius Paullus 20.

25 Plutarch, Aemilius Paullus 19.

26 Plutarch, Aemilius Paullus 19–22, Livy 44. 41. 1–42. 9.

27 Polybius discussed the relative strengths and weaknesses of the legion and the phalanx, 18. 28. 1–32. 13.

28 Plutarch, Aemilius Paullus 21, Livy 44. 44. 1–3

29 Plutarch, Aemilius Paullus 30–32, Livy 45. 35. 5–39. 19.

30 Plutarch, Aemilius Paullus 32 (translation by R. Waterfield, Plutarch: Roman Lives (Oxford 1999)).

31 Plutarch, Aemilius Paullus 34 (Oxford translation, 1999).

32 Livy 45. 32. 11.

CHAPTER 4 Scipio Aemilianus

1 Appian, Spanish Wars 87.

2 For an account of the Telamon campaign see Polybius 2. 23–31.

3 Livy 34. 9. 1–13, 11. 1–15. 9, Appian, Spanish Wars 40.

4 For an analysis of these operations see S. Dyson, The Creation of the Roman Frontier (1985), pp. 174–198.

5 Polybius 32. 9. 1–2.

6 On Scipio’s character see Polybius 31. 23. 1–30. 4. For Scipio’s life and career in general see A. Astin, Scipio Aemilianus (1967).

7 Appian, Spanish Wars 44–50.

8 Polybius 35. 1. 1–4. 14, with Walbank 3 (1979), pp. 640–648; Appian Spanish Wars 49.

9 Lucullus’ campaign, see Appian, Spanish Wars 50–55, and comments in Dyson (1985), pp. 202–203; on Galba see Appian, Spanish Wars 58–60.

10 Polybius 35. 5. 1–2.

11 Tribune in Legio IV, Cicero De Re Publica 6. 9; for an account of Scipio’s role in the Third Punic War see Goldsworthy (2000), pp. 342–356.

12 Appian, Spanish Wars 61–75, with Dyson (1985), pp. 206–213.

13 Appian, Spanish Wars 76–83, Plutarch, Tiberius Gracchus 5–6, with Dyson (1985), pp. 214–217.

14 Appian, Spanish Wars 84.

15 Appian, Spanish Wars 85.

16 Frontinus, Strat. 4. 1. 1, 1. 9.

17 Frontinus, Strat. 4. 3. 9.

18 Appian, Spanish Wars 86–89.

19 For the siege in general see Appian, Spanish Wars 90–98.

20 Frontinus, Strat. 4. 7. 27.

21 Appian, Civil Wars 19–20.

CHAPTER 5 Marius

1 Plutarch, Marius 7 (translation by R. Waterfield, Plutarch: Roman Lives (Oxford 1999)).

2 Plutarch, Marius 3.

3 Plutarch, Marius 2.

4 Plutarch, Marius 3 and 13.

5 Plutarch, Marius 4–6, Sallust, Bellum Jugurthinum 68. 1–7 and G.M. Paul, A Historical Commentary on Sallust’s Bellum Jugurthinum (1984), pp. 166–171, and R.J. Evans, Gaius Marius (1994), pp. 19–60.

6 Sallust, Bellum Jugurthinum 27. 1–.36. 4.

7 Sallust, Bellum Jugurthinum 44. 1–45. 3.

8 Sallust, Bellum Jugurthinum 85. 13–17.

9 Sallust, Bellum Jugurthinum 103–114, Frontinus, Stratagems 3. 9. 3.

10 For a discussion see L. Keppie, The Making of the Roman Army (1984), pp. 57–79, E. Gabba, Republican Rome: the Army and Allies (1976), and F. Smith, Service in the Post-Marian Roman Army (Manchester, 1958).

11 Sallust, Bellum Jugurthinum 87–88, 100, ‘more by their sense of shame than punishment’, 100. 5.

12 Valerius Maximus 2. 3. 2, Frontinus, Strat. 4. 2. 2; on training methods see Vegetius, Epitoma Rei Militaris 1. 11–19.

13 Plutarch, Marius 13–14, Polybius 6. 37.

14 Plutarch, Marius 11, S. Dyson, The Creation of the Roman Frontier (1985), pp. 161–164.

15 Appian, Celtica 13.

16 Velleius Paterculus 2. 12. 2, Orosius 5. 16. 1–7, Plutarch, Sertorius 3.

17 Plutarch, Marius 12, Strabo Geography 4. 1. 13.

18 Plutarch, Marius 14–15, Sulla 4, Sertorius 3.

19 Plutarch, Marius 15 (Oxford translation by R. Waterfield, 1999).

20 Plutarch, Marius 25 (Oxford translation by R. Waterfield, 1999).

21 For a more detailed discussion of combat in this period see A. Goldsworthy, The Roman Army at War 100 BC–AD 200 (1996), pp. 171–247.

22 Plutarch, Marius 15–18, Frontinus Strat. 4. 7. 5.

23 Plutarch, Marius 17.

24 Plutarch, Marius 19; for a discussion of the army’s servants see J. Roth, The Logistics of the Roman Army at War, 264 BC–AD 235 (1999), pp. 91–116.

25 Plutarch, Marius 20, Frontinus, Strat. 2. 9. 1.

26 Plutarch, Marius 21–22.

27 Plutarch, Marius 23–27.

28 Appian, Civil Wars 1. 28–33, Plutarch Marius 28–30.

29 Plutarch, Marius 33–35, Sulla 8–9, Appian Civil Wars 1. 55–63.

30 Plutarch, Marius 45.

31 Plutarch, Marius 33 (Oxford translation by R. Waterfield, 1999).

CHAPTER 6 Sertorius

1 Plutarch, Sertorius 10 (Penguin translation).

2 Plutarch, Sertorius 3–4, cf. Livy 27. 28. 1–13.

3 Plutarch, Sertorius 4–6, Appian Civil Wars 1. 71–75.

4 Plutarch, Sertorius 7–12, Appian Civil Wars 1. 108; cf. S. Dyson, The Creation of the Roman Frontier (1985), pp. 227–234. For a useful survey of Sertorius’ campaigns see P. Greenhalgh, Pompey: The Roman Alexander (1980), pp. 40–57.

5 Plutarch, Sertorius 14, Appian, Civil Wars 1. 108.

6 Plutarch, Sertorius 14; Caesar, Bellum Civile 1. 41.

7 Plutarch, Sertorius 16, Frontinus, Stratagems 1. 10. 1; 4. 7. 6, cf. 1. 10. 2.

8 Frontinus, Strat. 1. 11. 13.

9 Plutarch, Sertorius 18.

10 cf. G. Castellvi, J. M. Nolla and I. Rodà, ‘La identificación de los trofeos de Pompeyo en el Pirineo’, Journal of Roman Archaeology 8 (1995), pp. 5–18.

11 For the Lauron campaign, see Plutarch, Sertorius 18, Frontinus, Strat. 2. 5. 31, and Greenhalgh (1980), pp. 46–48.

12 Plutarch, Sertorius 18–19 and Pompey 19.

13 Plutarch, Sertorius 20–22, Appian, Civil Wars 110, Sallust, Histories 2. 98.

14 Treaty with Mithridates, Plutarch, Sertorius 23–24, Appian, Mithridates 68.

15 Plutarch, Sertorius 22.

16 The final campaigns, Plutarch, Sertorius 25–27, Appian, Civil Wars 111–115, Greenhalgh (1980), pp. 54–57.

CHAPTER 7 Pompey

1 Pliny, Natural History 7. 95 – translation taken from Greenhalgh, Pompey: the Roman Alexander (1980), p. 122.

2 For Pompey’s life in general see P. Greenhalgh, Pompey: the Roman Alexander (1980) and Pompey: the Republican Prince (1981).

3 Appian, Civil Wars 1. 40, 47, 63–64, 68, Plutarch, Pompey 3, Greenhalgh (1980), pp. 1–11.

4 Plutarch, Pompey 4.

5 Plutarch, Pompey 5–8, Appian, Civil Wars 1. 80–81.

6 Plutarch, Sulla 29.

7 Appian, Civil Wars 1. 95–103, Plutarch, Pompey 10–11 and Sulla 30–35.

8 Plutarch, Pompey 11–12.

9 Plutarch, Pompey 14; for Pompey’s early commands up to this point see Greenhalgh (1980), pp. 12–29.

10 For the Lepidus affair see Plutarch, Pompey 15–16, Appian, Civil Wars 1. 105–106, and Greenhalgh (1980), pp. 30–39.

11 A. Ribera i Lacomba con M. Calvo Galvez, ‘La primera evidencia arqueológica de la destrucción de Valentia por Pompeyo’, Journal of Roman Archaeology 8 (1995), pp. 19–40.

12 For the Slave Rebellion see Plutarch, Crassus 8–11, Appian, Civil Wars 1. 116–121.

13 Greenhalgh (1980), pp. 64–71.

14 Plutarch, Pompey 22.

15 The pirate problem and Pompey’s appointment, see Appian, Mithridates 91–93, Plutarch, Pompey 24–25.

16 For a detailed review of the sources for the debate surrounding the Lex Gabinia see Greenhalgh (1980), pp. 72–90.

17 The campaign against the pirates, see Appian, Mith. 94–96, Plutarch, Pompey 26–28.

18 The Metellus affair, Plutarch, Pompey 29.

19 Cicero, de imperio Cnaeo Pompeio 28, Plutarch, Pompey 30–31.

20 For Lucullus’ campaigns see Appian, Mith. 72–90, Plutarch, Lucullus 7–36; Tigranes’ comment, Appian, Mith. 85.

21 Plutarch, Pompey 32; Appian, Mith. 97

22 Frontinus, Sratagems 2. 5. 33.

23 Appian, Mith. 98–101, Dio 36. 45–54, Plutarch, Pompey 32, Frontinus, Strat. 2. 1. 12; for a discussion of the sources and detailed narrative of the campaign see Greenhalgh (1980), pp.105–114.

24 Plutarch, Pompey 33, Appian, Mith. 104.

25 Plutarch, Pompey 34.

26 Strabo, Geography 11. 3. 499–504, Plutarch, Pompey 35, Frontinus, Strat. 2. 3. 14, Appian, Mith. 103.

27 Plutarch, Pompey 41–42, Appian, Mith. 107–112.

28 For a discussion of Pompey’s other operations in the east and his Settlement see Greenhalgh (1980), pp. 120–167.

CHAPTER 8 Caesar

1 Suetonius, Julius Caesar 60.

2 If only through their contribution to the first page of Asterix comic books.

3 For an introduction to the literature on Caesar’s Commentaries see the collection of papers in K. Welch and A. Powell (eds), Julius Caesar as Artful Reporter: The War Commentaries as Political Instruments (1998).

4 For Caesar’s life see C. Meier (trans. D. McLintock), Caesar (1995), and M. Gelzer (trans. P. Needham), Caesar: Politician and Statesman (1985). The incident with the pirates, Suetonius, Julius Caesar 4.

5 For this period see Meier (1995), pp. 133–189; the incident during the Catilinarian debate is in Plutarch, Brutus 5.

6 Meier (1995), pp. 204–223.

7 Caesar, Bellum Gallicum 1. 2–5.

8 Numbers, BG 1. 29; crossing the Arar 1. 13; Tigurini 1. 7, 12.

9 BG 1. 7–8; his army in Gaul see H. Parker, The Roman Legions (1928), pp. 48–71.

10 BG 1. 8–10.

11 BG 1. 11–20.

12 BG 1. 21–22.

13 BG 1. 52.

14 BG 1. 23–26.

15 BG 1. 27–29.

16 Size of army, BG 1. 31, the total probably including the 24,000 recently arrived Harudes; King and Friend of the Roman People, BG 1. 35.

17 The campaign against Ariovistus, BG 1. 30–54.

18 BG 2. 20.

19 BG 2. 25.

20 BG 1. 52; the Belgian campaign see BG 2. 1–35.

21 Meier (1995), pp. 265–301.

22 Plutarch, Cato 51.

23 Suetonius, Julius Caesar 47.

24 BG 5. 24–58, 6. 1–10, 29–44, Suetonius, Julius Caesar 57.

25 BG 7. 1–2.

26 BG 7. 3–10.

27 On rebellions see A. Goldsworthy, The Roman Army at War, 100 BC – AD 200 (1996), pp. 79–95.

28 BG 7. 11–15.

29 BG 7. 16–31.

30 BG 7. 47.

31 Operations around Gergovia and involving Labienus, BG 7. 32–62.

32 BG 7. 66–68.

33 BG 7. 69–74.

34 BG 7. 75–78.

35 BG 7. 79–80.

36 BG 7. 88.

37 BG 7. 81–89, Plutarch, Caesar 27.

CHAPTER 9 Caesar and Pompey

1 Cicero, Letters to Atticus 7. 3 (Loeb translation).

2 On the build-up to the Civil War see C. Meier, Caesar (1995), pp. 330–363; the desire to be first, Plutarch, Caesar 12.

3 Appian, Civil Wars 2. 34–35, Plutarch, Caesar 32.

4 On the early stages of the war see Meier (1995), pp. 364–387; ‘stamping his foot’, Plutarch, Pompey 57, 60.

5 Caesar, Bellum Civile 3. 3–5, Plutarch, Pompey 63–64, Appian, Civil Wars 2. 40, 49–52.

6 Mutiny of Legio IX, Appian, Civil Wars 2. 47.

7 Caesar, Bellum Civile 3. 6–10.

8 Caesar, BC 3. 11–30, Appian, Civil Wars 2. 50–59, Plutarch, Caesar 65.

9 Caesar, BC 3. 34, 39–44, Appian, Civil Wars 2. 60–61.

10 Caesar, BC 3. 45–53, Suetonius, Julius Caesar 68. 3–4.

11 Caesar, BC 3. 54–56, 58–72, Appian, Civil Wars 2. 61–63, Plutarch, Caesar 65.

12 Caesar, BC 3. 73–76.

13 Caesar, BC 3. 77–81, Plutarch, Caesar 41.

14 Sources for Pharsalus see Caesar BC 3. 82–99, Appian, Civil Wars 2. 68–82, Plutarch, Caesar 42–47 and Pompey 68–72.

15 Plutarch, Pompey 73–79, 80 and Caesar 48, Appian, Civil Wars 2. 83–86, 89–90.

16 For a description of the later campaigns in the Civil War see Meier (1995), pp. 402–413; Caesar and Cleopatra, see Plutarch, Caesar 48–49 and Suetonius, Julius Caesar 58; Zela, see Plutarch, Caesar 50.

17 Caesar, African War 82–83.

18 Plutarch, Caesar 53.

19 Meier (1995), pp. 414–486.

20 On the army in this period see L. Keppie, The Making of the Roman Army (1984), pp. 80–131.

21 Suetonius, Julius Caesar 68, cf. Caesar BC 1. 39 where he uses a loan from the centurions and tribunes to pay the troops.

22 Suetonius, Julius Caesar 67.

23 Suetonius, Julius Caesar 65.

24 Suetonius, Julius Caesar 57, cf. Plutarch, Caesar 17; encouraged men to have decorated equipment, Suetonius, Julius Caesar 57.

25 Caesar, Bellum Gallicum 1. 42.

26 Scaeva, BC 3. 53, ala Scaevae, Corpus Inscriptiones Latinarum 10. 6011; Crastinus, Appian, Civil Wars 82.

27 Appian, Civil Wars 2. 47, 92–94, Suetonius, Julius Caesar 69–70.

CHAPTER 10 Germanicus

1 Velleius Paterculus, Roman History 2. 129. 2.

2 For the rise of Augustus and creation of the Principate see R. Syme, The Roman Revolution (1939).

3 Augustus and the soldiers, Suetonius, Augustus 25; for the army in this period in general see L. Keppie, The Making of the Roman Army (1984), pp. 132–171.

4 For Crassus and the spolia opima see Dio 51. 24.

5 Suetonius, Claudius 1.

6 Suetonius, Tiberius 18–19, Velleius Paterculus, Roman History 2. 113. 1–115. 5.

7 Velleius Paterculus, Roman History 2. 104. 4.

8 Suetonius, Caius 23.

9 See M. Todd, The Early Germans (1992); for the strategic position on the Rhine frontier in this period see C. Wells, The German Policy of Augustus (1972).

10 On Caesar’s presentation of the Gauls see K. Welch and A. Powell (eds), Julius Caesar as Artful Reporter: The War Commentaries as Political Instruments (1998), and especially the papers by Barlow, ‘Noble Gauls and their other in Caesar’s propaganda’, pp. 139–170, and L. Rawlings, ‘Caesar’s portrayal of the Gauls as warriors’, pp. 171–192.

11 Defeat of V Alaudae see Dio 54. 20, Velleius Paterculus Roman History 2. 106. 1; for the campaigns in general see Wells (1972); Tiberius’ decision to divide his army in Pannonia, Velleius Paterculus, Roman History 2. 113. 1–2.

12 Velleius Paterculus, Roman History 2. 117. 1–119. 5, Dio 56. 18–22.

13 Dio 56. 23–24, Suetonius, Augustus 23.

14 Celebration of Germanicus’ birthday by a third-century army unit see R. Fink, Roman Military Records on Papyrus (1971) No. 117; Suetonius, Caius 5, 9.

15 Suetonius, Augustus 24–25.

16 Tacitus, Annals 1. 16–45, 48–49; ‘not a cure, but a disaster’, 1. 49.

17 Caesar, Bellum Gallicum 8. 3.

18 Tacitus, Annals 1. 50–51.

19 For a discussion of Germanic warfare see A. Goldsworthy, The Roman Army at War 100 BC–AD 200 (1996), pp. 42–53; for the aims and methods of Roman punitive expeditions see ibid. pp. 95–105.

20 Tacitus, Annals 1. 55–58.

21 Tactitus, Annals 1. 61–2.

22 Tacitus, Annals 1. 59–63.

23 Tacitus, Annals 1. 63–69.

24 Tacitus, Annals 1. 70–71.

25 Tacitus, Annals 2. 5–8.

26 Tacitus, Annals 2. 9–11.

27 Tacitus, Annals 2. 12–13.

28 Tacitus, Annals 2. 14.

29 Tacitus, Annals 2. 14–18.

30 Tacitus, Annals 2. 19–22.

31 Tacitus, Annals 2. 23–26.

32 Suetonius, Caius 2, 4–6.

33 Tacitus, Annals 2. 88.

CHAPTER 11 Corbulo

1 Frontinus, Stratagems 4. 7. 2.

2 On the relationship between the princeps and the army see B. Campbell, The Emperor and the Roman Army, 31 BC–AD 235 (1984).

3 Suetonius, Augustus 25. 4. The second tag was actually a quote from Euripides, Phoenisae 599 where it is used ironically. Much the same idea is expressed in Appian, Iberica 87.

4 For a discussion see D. Potter, ‘Emperors, their borders and their neighbours: the scope of imperial mandata’, in D. Kennedy, The Roman Army in the Near East. Journal of Roman Archaeology Supplementary Series 18 (1996), pp. 49–66.

5 Inscriptiones Latinae Selectae 986 (translation from Campbell (1984), pp. 359–361).

6 Tacitus, Annals 11. 18.

7 Tacitus, Annals 11. 19–20.

8 On Parthian armies see A. Goldsworthy, The Roman Army at War 100 BC–AD 200 (1996), pp. 60–68; on the Parthian state see N. Debevoise, The Political History of Parthia (1938), M. Colledge, The Parthians (1967); on relations between Rome and Parthia see B. Isaac, The Limits of Empire (1992), pp. 19–53, B. Campbell, ‘War and Diplomacy: Rome and Parthia, 31 BC–AD 235’ in J. Rich and G. Shipley, War and Society in the Roman World (1993), pp. 213–240, and D. Kennedy, ‘Parthia and Rome: eastern perspectives’ in Kennedy (1996), pp. 67–90.

9 Crassus and Carrhae, Plutarch, Crassus 17–33.

10 Plutarch, Antony 37–51.

11 Tacitus, Annals 13. 6–8.

12 Tacitus, Annals 13. 9. On recruitment see J. Mann, Legionary Recruitment and veteran settlement during the Principate (1983) and P. Brunt, ‘Conscription and volunteering in the Roman Imperial Army’, Scripta Classica Israelica 1 (1974), pp. 90–115.

13 See B. Isaac, The Limits of Empire (1992), pp. 24–25 and E. Wheeler, ‘The laxity of the Syrian legions’, in Kennedy (1996), pp. 229–276.

14 Tacitus, Annals 13. 35.

15 Tacitus, Annals 13. 3; on the identity of the legions under Corbulo see H. Parker, The Roman Legions (1957), p. 133–135.

16 Tacitus, Annals 13. 36 and Frontinus, Strat. 4. 1. 21 and 28.

17 Tacitus, Annals 13. 37–39.

18 Tacitus, Annals 13. 39.

19 Tacitus, Annals 13. 40–41.

20 Frontinus, Strat. 2. 9. 5.

21 Tacitus, Annals 14. 23–26.

22 Tacitus, Annals 15. 1–3.

23 Tacitus, Annals 15. 4–6.

24 Tacitus, Annals 15. 7.

25 Tacitus, Annals 15. 8–17.

26 Tacitus, Annals 15. 18. 24–31.

27 Paulinus, Tacitus, Annals 14. 29–39; Agricola, Tacitus, Agricola passim; Lucullus, Suetonius, Domitian 10.

28 Tacitus, Annals 15. 28 on Annius’ role in eastern campaign; for the politics behind this alleged plot see M. Griffin, Nero: the End of a Dynasty (1984).

CHAPTER 12 Titus

1 Josephus, Bellum Judaicum 5. 59–61 (Loeb translation).

2 A good narrative of the Year of Four Emperors is provided in K. Wellesley, The Long Year: AD 69 (1989).

3 For Vespasian see B. Levick, Vespasian (1999).

4 Josephus, BJ 5. 97 (Loeb translation).

5 On Josephus see T. Rajak, Josephus: The Historian and his Society (1983), and S. Cohen, Josephus in Galilee and Rome (1979). On Judaea in this period see E. Schurer, The History of the Jewish People in the Age of Jesus Christ, rev. ed. G. Vermes, F. Millar, M. Black, M. Goodman (Edinburgh, 1973–87), A. Smallwood, The Jews under Roman Rule (1976), and M. Avi-Yonah, The Jews of Palestine (1976). There is also a good deal of relevance in B. Isaac, The Limits of Empire (1992).

6 A good indication of the general ignorance about the nature of Judaism can be gained by reading Tacitus’ brief summary of Jewish history which preceded his account of the fall of Jerusalem, Hisories 5. 2–13. See also M. Whittaker, Jews and Christians: Greco-Roman Views (1984) for a collection of sources describing pagan attitudes.

7 For the Jewish aristocracy in this period see M. Goodman, The Ruling Class of Judaea: Origins of the Jewish Revolt against Rome, AD 66–70 (1987).

8 For the Cestius Gallus campaign see Josephus, BJ 2. 499–555, and also S. Brandon, ‘The Defeat of Cestius Gallus in AD 66’, History Today 20 (1970), pp. 38–46.

9 Tacitus, Histories 2. 5.

10 Josephus’ surrender, Bell, J., 3. 340–408.

11 Tribunate, Suetonius, Titus 4; legatus of XV Apollinaris Josephus, BJ 3. 64–69; Japha, BJ 3. 289–305; Tarichaeae, BJ 3. 462–502; Gamala, BJ 4. 70–83.

12 BJ 5. 44.

13 Titus’ forces, BJ 5. 40–46, Tacitus, Histories 5. 1. On the army in the Jerusalem campaign see A. Goldsworthy, ‘Community under Pressure: the army at the Roman siege of Jerusalem’, in A. Goldsworthy and I. Haynes, The Roman Army as a Community in Peace and War, Journal of Roman Archaeology Supplementary Series 34 (1999), pp. 197–210. The centurion, see E. Dabrowa, Legio X Fretensis: A Prosopographical Study of its Officers I–III AD. Historia Einzelschriften 66 (Stuttgart, 1993), No. 19, p. 89, with the review by B. Isaac in Scripta Classica Israelica 14 (1995), pp. 169–171. The inscriptions are Corpus Inscriptiones Latinarum III. 30, Inscriptiones Latinae Selectae8759a andL’Aunée Epigraphique 1923. 83 respectively.

14 Josephus’ description of Jerusalem’s monuments, BJ 5. 136–247.

15 Number of defenders, BJ 5. 248–250, and overall population, 6. 420–434, Tacitus, Histories 5. 13.

16 BJ 5. 47–51.

17 BJ 5. 52–66.

18 BJ 5. 86–7 (Loeb translation).

19 BJ 5. 67–97.

20 BJ 5. 98–135.

21 BJ 5. 258–274; impact of artillery stones, 3. 245–7; number with each legion Vegetius, Epitoma Rei Militaris 2. 25.

22 BJ 5. 275–283; incident at Jotapata, 3. 229–232.

23 BJ 5. 284–303.

24 BJ 5. 310–311 (Loeb translation).

25 BJ 5. 304–341, Suetonius, Titus 5.

26 BJ 5. 346–355, and discussion in Goldsworthy (1999), p. 203.

27 See P. Connolly, The Jews in the Time of Jesus (1994), pp. 77, 86.

28 BJ 5. 356–360, 460–490.

29 BJ 5. 491–511, Dio 65. 5. 4.

30 BJ 5. 548–561.

31 BJ 5. 522–526, 6. 1–32.

32 BJ 6. 33–92, cf. Josephus, Vita 361–363.

33 BJ 6. 93–5, 118–163.

34 BJ 6. 164–192, 220–235.

35 BJ 6. 236–266.

36 BJ 6. 316–413.

37 BJ 7. 5–16 (Loeb translation).

38 Fears over renewal of civil war, Suetonius, Titus 5; the triumph, BJ 7. 123–157, and Vespasian’s comments, Suetonius, Vespasian 12; on Vespasian’s reign and Titus role see Levick (1999), pp. 79–106, 184–195.

39 Last words, see Suetonius, Vespasian 23; funeral, Suetonius, Vespasian 19; Titus’ unpopularity before his accession and affair with Berenice, Suetonius, Titus 6–7.

CHAPTER 13 Trajan

1 Cassius Dio, 68. 18. 2–3 (Loeb translation).

2 On the relationship between the princeps and the army see B. Campbell, The Emperor and the Roman Army 31 BC–AD 235 (1984); for Claudius in Britain see Dio 60. 19. 1–22. 2 and Suetonius, Claudius 17.

3 Dio 67. 6. 16, 7. 2–4.

4 For Trajan’s background and career in general see J. Bennett, Trajan: Optimus Princeps (2nd edn. 2001).

5 Bennett (2001), pp. 11–19.

6 Pliny, Panegyricus 15. 1–3.

7 Bennett (2001), pp. 19–26, 42–62.

8 Dio 67. 6. 1 (Loeb translation).

9 For surveys of the meagre sources for the Dacian wars see Bennett (2001), pp. 85–103, S. S. Frere and F. Lepper, Trajan’s Column (1988), L. Rossi, Trajan’s Column and the Dacian Wars (1971), I. Richmond, Trajan’s Army on Trajan’s Column (1982).

10 Head taking on the Column, scenes 57–58, 140, 183–184, 302–303; for a discussion of this phenomenon in the Roman army see A. Goldsworthy, The Roman Army at War 100 BC–AD 200 (1996), pp. 271–276; writing names on shields, Dio 67. 10. 1; on decorations see V. Maxfield, The Military Decorations of the Roman Army (1981).

11 The battle of Tapae and the story of the bandages, Dio 68. 8. 1–2.

12 Finding captured equipment in a fort, Dio 68. 9. 3.

13 Dio 68. 9. 1–2, 4–7.

14 Dio 68. 10. 3–12. 5.

15 Dio 68. 13. 1–6.

16 The Tiberius Claudius Maximus inscription, L’ Année Epigraphique 1969/70, p. 583 and the comments in M. Speidel, ‘The Captor of Decebalus’, Roman Army Studies 1 (1984), pp. 173–187.

17 Trajan’s character, see Dio 68. 6. 1–7. 5; on the Parthian war see Dio 68. 17. 1–31. 4, and in general F. Lepper, Trajan’s Parthian War (1948), and Bennett (2001), pp. 183–204.

18 Hatra, Dio 68. 31. 1–4.

19 Dio 69. 5. 2 (Loeb translation).

20 Dio 69. 9. 2–4 (Loeb translation).

21 Inscriptiones Latinae Selectae 2558, cf. Dio 69. 9. 6.

22 Inscriptiones Latinae Selectae 2487, 9133–5; for a discussion of these Lambaesis speeches see Campbell (1984), pp. 77–80.

CHAPTER 14 Julian

1 Ammianus Marcellinus 15. 8. 13.

2 Dio 56. 15. 2.

3 Herodian 4. 7. 4–7, 12. 2.

4 The satirist Lucian lampooned the many exaggerated accounts of Verus’ behaviour in his Quomodo Historiae.

5 The best study of Roman warfare in this period is H. Elton, Warfare in Roman Europe, AD 350–425 (1996). There are a number of biographies of Julian, notably R. Browning, The Emperor Julian (1976), and G. Bowersock, Julian the Apostate (1978). For a survey of our principal source and his times see J. Matthews, The Roman Empire of Ammianus (1989).

6 Ammianus Marcellinus 15. 8. 1–17.

7 Loss of Colonia Agrippinensis, Ammianus Marcellinus 15. 8. 19. On the Late Roman army see Elton (1996), K. Dixon and P. Southern, The Late Roman Army (1996), and A. Ferrill, The Fall of the Roman Empire (1986). On the meagre evidence for unit sizes in this period see T. Coello, Unit Sizes in the Late Roman Army. British Archaeological Review Series 645 (1996) and W. Treadgold, Byzantium and its Army, 281–1081 (1995).

8 For the initial operations see Ammianus Marcellinus 16. 2. 1–13; ‘prudent and cautious’ 16. 2. 11.

9 Ammianus Marcellinus 16. 3. 1–4. 5; on fortifications and the poor preparedness of tribal armies for siege warfare see Elton (1996), pp. 82–86, 155–174.

10 Ammianus Marcellinus 27. 1–2.

11 The early phases of the 357 campaign, see Ammianus Marcellinus 16. 11. 1–15.

12 Army sizes, Ammianus Marcellinus 16. 12. 1–2, 12. 24–26, 12. 60.

13 Ammianus Marcellinus 16. 12. 1–18.

14 On the cuneus and its nickname see Ammianus Marcellinus 17. 13. 9, Tacitus, Germania 6, and Vegetius, Epitoma Rei Militaris 3. 17.

15 Ammianus Marcellinus 16. 12. 19–26.

16 Ammianus Marcellinus 16. 12. 27–35.

17 Ammianus Marcellinus 16. 12. 36–41; note also the comments in H. Delbrück (trans. W.J. Renfroe), The Barbarian Invasions. History of the Art of War, Volume 2 (1980), pp. 261–268, esp. 263–264 on the practicalities of a commander rallying troops in this way. Delbrück’s comments on this battle are, as always, highly interesting, but his belief – almost to the point of obsession – that barbarian warriors were so ferocious that they could only be defeated by greatly superior numbers of soldiers from civilized states does not rest on any evidence and makes many of his conclusions questionable.

18 Ammianus Marcellinus 16. 12. 42–66.

19 The losses, Ammianus Marcellinus 16. 12. 63; Constantius’ reaction 16. 12. 67–70.

20 Ammianus Marcellinus 17. 1. 1–14.

21 Ammianus Marcellinus 17. 2. 1–4. In Libanius’ account, which is also highly favourable to Julian it is said that the Franks numbered 1,000, Libanius, Opera 18. 70.

22 Ammianus Marcellinus 17. 8. 1–2.

23 Ammianus Marcellinus 17. 8. 3–9.

24 Ammianus Marcellinus 17. 10. 1–10.

25 Ammianus Marcellinus 18. 2. 1–16, 20. 20. 1. 13.

26 Ammianus Marcellinus 20. 4. 1–5. 10.

27 For Pirisabora see Ammianus Marcellinus 24. 2. 15–17; Maozamalcha see 24. 4. 1–5.

28 Ammianus Marcellinus 24. 7. 1–25. 3. 23.

CHAPTER 15 Belisarius

1 Procopius, Wars 2. 18. 5–6 (Loeb translation).

2 On the Late Roman army in the east see W. Treadgold, Byzantium and its Army, 281–1081 (1995). For a broad survey of Byzantine warfare see J. Haldon, The Byzantine Wars (2001). For the conflict with Persia see G. Greatrex, Rome and Persia at War, 502–532 (1998).

3 See Greatrex (1998), esp. pp. 120–165; on Belisarius’ origins see Procopius, Wars 3. 9. 21; the raid in c. 526 Wars 1. 12. 20–3.

4 Minduos, Procopius, Wars 1. 13. 2–5; appointment to command 1. 12. 24; the forces at Dara see 1. 13. 23 and Greatrex (1998), pp. 169, 173, and for a general discussion of the army in this period pp. 31–40.

5 Procopius, Wars 1. 13. 23, 1. 14. 1 and discussion in Greatrex (1998), pp. 175–176.

6 Procopius, Wars 1. 13. 19–23; for the use of field fortifications by Sulla see Frontinus, Strategems 2. 3. 17 and by Caesar see Bellum Gallicum 2. 8.

7 Procopius, Wars 1. 13. 24–39.

8 Procopius, Wars 1. 14. 33 (Loeb translation).

9 For the battle see Procopius, Wars 1. 14. 1–55 and the discussions in Greatrex (1998), pp. 171–185 and Haldon (2001), pp. 28–35; for the punishment of Peroz see Wars 1. 17. 26–8.

10 Procopius, Wars 1. 18. 1–50 with Greatrex (1998), pp. 195–207.

11 Belisarius’ recall and appointment to the new command, Procopius, Wars 1. 21. 2, 3. 9. 25, 3. 10. 21, 3. 11. 18; size of army 3. 11. 2; the incident with the biscuits, 3. 13. 12–20; fraud during the Second Punic War, Livy 25. 3. 8–4. 11.

12 Procopius, Wars 3. 12. 8–22; Belisarius orders flogging of soldiers, 3. 16. 1–8.

13 Caesar, Bellum Civile 1. 21, 2. 12.

14 Procopius, Wars 4. 4. 3–7 (Loeb translation).

15 Procopius, Wars 4. 3. 23–4. 25; the later mutiny and campaign against the Moors, 4. 14. 7–15. 49.

16 Procopius, Wars 5. 5. 1–7; siege of Naples 5. 8. 5–10. 48; size of force at Rome, 5. 22. 17.

17 Procopius, Wars 5. 18. 9–15 (Loeb translation); for the full account of the action 5. 18. 1–29.

18 Procopius, Wars 5. 22. 1–10.

19 Procopius, Wars 5. 28. 1–29. 50.

20 See C. Fauber, Narses: the Hammer of the Goths (1990), Haldon (2001), pp. 35–44, and H. Delbrück (trans. W.J. Renfroe), The Barbarian Invasions. History of the Art of War, Volume 2 (1980), pp. 339–383.

21 On discipline under the Republic see W. Messer, ‘Mutiny in the Roman Army in the Republic’, Classical Philology 15 (1920), pp. 19–29.

CHAPTER 16 Later Years

1 For a discussion of Napoleon’s style of command see M. Van Creveld, Command in War (1985), pp. 58–102.

2 For Sir Roger Williams see G. Parker, The Military Revolution (1988), p. 6.

3 On Wellington in battle see J. Keegan, The Mask of Command (1987), pp. 145–154.

4 For a discussion of this period see Creveld (1985), pp. 103–147.

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