Bibliography

Three volumes of the Cambridge Ancient History are frequently cited in the Notes, abbreviated as CAHZ. These are:

Bowman, A., Garnsey, P. & Cameron, A. (eds.), The Cambridge Ancient History Vol. XI I: The Crisis of Empire, A.D. 1,03-337 (2nd edn, 2005).

Cameron, A. & Garnsey, P. (eds.), The Cambridge Ancient History Vol. XIII: The Late Empire, A.D. 337-425 (1998).

Cameron, A., Ward-Perkins, B. & Whitby, M. (eds.), The Cambridge Ancient History Vol. XI V: Late Antiquity: Empire and Successors, A. D. 425-6oo (2000).

Adams, J., `The Poets of Bu Njem: Language, Culture and the Cen- turionate', Journal of Roman Studies, 89 (1999), pp. 109-134.

Alfody, G., Noricum (trans. Birley, A.) (1974).

`The Crisis of the Third Century As Seen By Contemporaries', in Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies, iS (1974), pp. 89-111.

Alston, R., Soldier and Society in Roman Egypt (1995).

Amory, P., People and Identity in Ostrogothic Italy, 48,9-554 (1997).

Austin, N., Ammianus on Warfare: An Investigation into Ammianus'Military Knowledge (Collection Latomus 165) (1979).

Austin, N., & Rankov, B., Exploratio: Military and Political Intelligence in the Roman World from the Second Punic War to the Battle of Adrianople (1995).

Baatz, D., `Cuiculus - Zur Technik der Unterminierung antiker Wehrbauten', in Schallmayer, E., Niederbieder, Postumus and der Limesfall (1996), pp. 84-89.

Bagnall, R., & Frier, B., The Demography of Roman Egypt (1994)

Balty, J., & Van Rengen, W., Apamea in Syria: The Winter Quarters of Legio II Parthica (1993).

Banaji, J., Agrarian Change in Late Antiquity: Gold, Labour, and Aristocratic Dominance (2001).

Bar, D., `Was there a 3rd-C. economic crisis in Palestine?', in Humphrey, J. (ed.), The Roman and Byzantine Near East, Vol. 3, journal of Roman Archaeology Supplementary Series, 49 (2002), pp. 43-54.

Barbero, A., The Day of the Barbarians: The First Battle in the Fall of the Roman Empire (trans. Cullen, J.) (2007).

Barnes, T., `Legislation against the Early Christians', Journal of Roman Studies, 58 (1968), pp. 32-50.

Constantine and Eusebius (i98i).

The New Empire of Diocletian (1982).

Constantine and the Christians of Persia,' journal ofRoman Studies, 75 (1985), pp. 126-136.

At' hanasius and Constantius: Theology and Politics in the Constantinian Empire (1993).

-Ammianus and the Representation of Historical Reality (1998).

Barnwell, P., Emperors, Prefects and Kings: The Roman West, 3P5-565 (1992).

Bell, H., Martin, V., Turner, E. & van Berchem, D. (eds.), TheAbinnaeus Archive: Papers ofa Roman Officer in the Reign of Constantius 11(1964).

Bellinger, A., Brown, F., Perkins, A., & Wells, C. (eds.), The Excavations at Dura-Europos: Final Report, VIII, Part 1, The Synagogue (1956).

Beloch, K., Die Bevo'lkerung de Griechisch-romischen Welt (1886).

Berchman, R., Porphyry Against the Christians (2,00 5).

Birley, A., `The Economic Effects of Roman Frontier Policy', in King, A. & Henig, M. (eds.), The Roman West in the Third Century, BAR International Series, io9 (1981), p. 40.

Marcus Aurelius (rev. edn 1987)

Septimius Severus: The African Emperor (1988).

The Roman Government of Britain (2005).

Birley, E., The Roman Army (1988).

Bishop, M. & Coulston, J., Roman Military Equipment from the Punic Wars to the Fall of Rome (2nd edn, 2006).

Blockley, R., East Roman Foreign Policy: Formation and Conduct from Diocletian to Anastasius (1992).

Boak, A., Manpower Shortage and the Fall of the Roman Empire in the West (1955).

Bowersock, G., Julian the Apostate (1978).

Bowman, A. & Thomas, J. (eds.), The Vindolanda Writing Tablets (Tabulae Vindolandenses II) (1994), 250.

Bradford Welles, C., The Excavations at Dura-Europos: Final Report, VIII, Part 2, The Christian Building (1967).

Brandon, P., The Decline and Fall of the British Empire (2007).

Breeze, D. & Dobson, B., Roman Officers and Frontiers (1993).

Bremmer, J., `The Vision of Constantine' in Lardinois, A. et al. (eds.), Land of Dreams: Greek & Latin Studies in Honour of A.I.M. Kessels (zoo6), Pp. 57-79.

Brown, P., The World ofLateAntiquity: From Marcus Aurelius to Muhammad (1971).

The Rise and Function of the Holy Man in Late Antiquity', Journal of Roman Studies, 61 (1971), pp. 801-101.

Bruun, C., `The Antonine Plague and the Third Century Crisis', in Hekster, 0., Kleijn, G., & Slootjes, D. (eds.) Crises and the Roman Empire (2007), pp. 201-217.

Burgess, R., `The Dark Ages Return to Fifth Century Britain: The Restored Gallic Chronicle Exploded', Britannia, zs (1990), pp. 185195.

-'The Summer of Blood: The "Great Massacre" of 337 and the Promotion of the Sons of Constantine', Dumbarton Oaks Papers, 62, (forthcoming, 2oo8).

Burns, T., `The Battle of Adrianople: A Reconsideration', Historia, 22 (1973), PP. 336-345.

-Barbarians Within the Gates of Rome: A Study of Roman Military Policy and the Barbarians, ca. 375-425 A. D. (1994).

-Rome and the Barbarians, 100 B. C.-A.D. 400 (2003).

Bury, J., History of the Later Roman Empire from the death of Theodosius I to the death ofjustinian, 2 Vols. (1958).

Campbell, D., `What happened at Hatra? The Problems of the Severan Siege Operations', in Freeman, P. & Kennedy, D. (eds.), The Defence ofthe Roman and Byzantine East, BAR International Series, 297 (1986), PP. 51-58.

Campbell, J., `The Marriage of Soldiers Under the Empire', Journal of Roman Studies, 68 (1978), pp. 153-166.

The Emperor and the Roman Army (1984).

Casey, P., Carausius andAllectus: The British Usurpers (1994).

Casey, P., `The Legions in the Later Roman Empire', in Brewer, R. (ed.), The Second Augustan Legion and the Roman Military Machine (2002), pp. 165-176.

Chadwick, H., The Church in Ancient Society: From Galilee to Gregory the Great (2oos).

Chambers, M. (ed.), The Fall of Rome: Can it be Explained? (1963).

Chrishman, R., Arts of Mankind: Iran: Parthians and Sassanians (trans. Gilbert, S. & Lemmons, J.) (1962).

Claridge, A., Rome: Oxford Archaeological Guides (1998).

Coello, T., Unit Sizes in the Late Roman Army, BAR International Series, 645 (1996).

Corcoran, S., The Empire of the Tetrarchs: Imperial Pronouncements and Government, AD 2S4-324 (1996).

`Before Constantine', in Lenski, N. (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Constantine (20o6), pp. 35-58.

Coterill, J., `Saxon Raiding and the Role of the Late Roman Coastal Forts of Britain', Britannia, 24 (1993), pp. 227-239.

Coulston, J., `Roman Archery Equipment', in Bishop, M. (ed.), The Production and Distribution ofRoman Military Equipment: Proceedings ofthe Second Roman Military Equipment Research Seminar, BAR International Series, 275 (1985), pp. 230-348•

Cunliffe, B., Greeks, RomansandBarbarians: Spheres oflnter-action (1988).

Danzinger, D. & Purcell, N., Hadrian's Empire (2005).

Dark, K., `A Sub-Roman Re-Defence of Hadrian's Wall?', Britannia, 23 (1992), pp. 111-120.

Britain and the End of the Roman Empire (2000).

Davies, R., Service in the Roman Army (1989).

de Blois, L., The Policy of the Emperor Gallienus (1976).

The Crisis of the Third Century A.D. in the Roman Empire: A Modern Myth?', in de Blois, L. & Rich, J. (eds.), The Transformation ofEconomic Life under the Roman Empire (2002), pp. 204-217.

Monetary Politics, the Soldiers' Pay, and the Onset of Crisis in the First Half of the Third Century AD', in Erdkamp, P. (ed.), The Roman Army and the Economy (2002), pp. 90-107.

Delbruck, H., The Barbarian Invasions (trans. Renfroe, J.) (i98o).

Dermandt, A., Der Falls Roms: Die Auflb'sung der Romischen Reiches im Urteil der Nachwelt (1984).

Devijver, H., The Equestrian Officers of the Roman Army, 2 Vols. (1989 & 1992).

Diaconescu, A., `The towns of Roman Dacia: An Overview of Recent Archaeological Research', in Hanson, W. & Haynes, I., Roman Dacia: The Making of A Provincial Society, Journal of Roman Archaeology Supplementary Series, 56 (2004), pp. 87-142.

Dignas, B. & Winter, E., Rome and Persia in Late Antiquity: Neighbours and Rivals (2007).

Dixon, K. & Southern, P., The Late Roman Army (1996).

Dodds, E., Pagan and Christian in an Age ofAnxiety (1965).

Dodgeon, M. & Lieu, S., The Roman Eastern Frontier and the Persian Wars, AD 226--363 (1991).

Drake, H., `The Impact of Constantine on Christianity', in Lenski, N. (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Constantine (20o6), pp. 111-136.

Drijvers, J., Helena Augusta: The Mother of Constantine the Great and the Legend of the Finding of the True Cross (1992).

Drijvers, J. & Hunt, D. (eds.), The Late Roman World and its Historian (1999).

Drinkwater, J., The Gallic Empire: Separation and Continuity in the North-Western Provinces of the Roman Empire AD 260-274, Historia Einzelschriften, 52 (1987), pp. 1-270.

The Bacaudae of Fifth Century Gaul', in Drinkwater, J. & Elton, H. (eds.), Fifth Century Gaul (1992), pp. 208-217.

-'The Germanic Threat on the Rhine Frontier: A Romano-Gallic Artefact', in Mathisen, R. & Sivan, H. (eds.), Shifting Frontiers in Late Antiquity (1996), pp. 20-30.

The Alamanni and Rome 213-496.• Caracalla to Clovis (2007).

Duncan-Jones, R., `Pay and Numbers in Diocletian's Army', Chiron, 8 (1978), pp. 541-56o.

Money and Government in the Roman Empire (1994).

The Impact of the Antonine Plague', journal ofRoman Archaeology, 9 (1996), pp. zo8-136.

Dyson, S., `Native Revolt Patterns in the Roman Empire', Aufstieg and Niedergang der rdmischen Welt, II. 3 (1975), pp. 38-175.

-The Creation of the Roman Frontier (1985)

Edwards, C. & Woolf, G. (eds.), Rome the Cosmopolis (2003).

Edwards, M., `The Beginnings of Christianization', in Lenski, N. (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Constantine (zoo6), pp. 137158.

Elton, H., Warfare in Roman Europe: AD 350-425 (1996).

Military Forces', in Sabin, P., Van Wees, H. & Whitby, M. (eds.), The Cambridge History of Greek and Roman Warfare, Volume 11: Rome from the Late Republic to the Late Empire (2007), pp. 270-309.

Errington, R., Roman Imperial Policy from Julian to Theodosius (2006).

Esmonde Cleary, A., The Ending of Roman Britain (1989).

Evans, J., The Age of Justinian: The Circumstances of Imperial Power (1996).

The Empress Theodora: Partner ofJustinian (2002).

Fabech, C., `Booty Sacrifices in Southern Scandinavia - A History of Warfare and Ideology', in Bjorklund, E., Roman Reflections in Scandinavia (1996), pp. 135-138.

Faulkner, N., The Decline and Fall of Roman Britain (2nd edn, 2004).

Ferguson, J., `China and Rome', Aufstieg and Niedergang der Romischen Welt, 11. 9. 2, pp. 581-603.

Fields, N., The Hun: Scourge of God AD 375-565 (Osprey Warrior Series III, 2006).

Fink, R., Roman Military Records on Papyrus (1971).

Foss, C., `Syria in Transition, AD 550-750: An Archaeological Approach, Dumbarton Oaks Papers, 51 (1997), pp. 189-269.

Frakes, R., `The Dynasty of Constantine Down to 363', in Lenski, N. (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Constantine (zoo6), pp. 91-107.

Freeman, C., The Closing of the Western Mind: The Rise of Faith and the Fall of Reason (2002).

Frend, W., Martyrdom and Persecution in the Early Church (1965).

Frere, S., Britannia (3rd edn, 1987).

Frier, B., `Roman Demography', in Potter, D. & Mattingly, D. (eds.), Life, Death and Entertainment in the Roman Empire (1999), pp. 95109.

Garnsey, P., Social Status and Legal Privilege in the Roman Empire (1970)

Garnsey, P. & Humfress, C., The Evolution of the Late Antique World (2001).

Gibbon, E., The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, 3 vols. (1776-1781).

Gilliam, J., `The Plague under Marcus Aurelius', American Journal of Philology, 82 (1961), pp. 225-251.

Goffart, W, Barbarians and Romans: The Techniques of Accommodation Revisited (1980).

-Barbarian Tides: The Migration Age and the Later Roman Empire (zoo6).

Goldsworthy, A., The Roman Army at War, 100 BC-AD 200 (1996).

The Complete Roman Army (zoo3).

-In the Name of Rome (2003).

Caesar: The Life of a Colossus (2006).

War: The late Republic and Principate', in Sabin, P., Van Wees, H. & Whitby, M. (eds.) The Cambridge History of Greek and Roman Warfare, Vol. 2 (2007), pp. 76-121.

Goodburn, R. & Bartholomew, P. (eds.), Aspects of the Notitia Dignitatum, BAR Supplementary Series, 15 (1976).

Goodman, M. (with the assistance of Sherwood, J.), The Roman World 44 BC-AD z8o (1997)•

Grainge, G., The Roman Invasions ofBritain (2005).

Grant, C., The Emperor Constantine (1993).

Gray, R, `The Legacy of Chalcedon: Christological Problems and Their Significance', in Maas, M. (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to the Age ofjustinian (2005), pp. 215-238.

Greatrex, G., `The Nika Riot: A Reappraisal', Journal of Hellenic Studies, 117 (1997), pp. 6o-86.

Rome and Persia at War, 502-532 (1998).

`The Gothic Arians after Theodosius (to Justinian)', Studia Patri- stica, 34 (2001), pp. 73-81.

`Byzantium and the East in the Sixth Century', in Maas, M. (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to the Age ofjustinian (2005), pp. 477509.

`The Early Years of Justin in the Sources', Electrum, 12 (2007), pp. 99-115.

Greatrex, G. & Lieu, N. (eds.), The Roman Eastern Frontier and the Persian Wars: Part II AD 363-630 (2002).

Greene, K., The Archaeology of the Roman Economy (1986).

Greene, K., `Technology and Innovation in Context: The Roman Background to Medieval and Later Developments', Journal of Roman Archaeology, 7 (1994), pp. 22-33.

Grigg, R., `Inconsistency and Lassitude: The Shield Emblems of the Notitia Dignitatum', journal ofRoman Studies, 73 (1983), pp. 132-142.

Gutman, J. (ed.), The Dura Europos Synagogue: A Re-evaluation (19321972) (1973)

Haarer, E, Anastasius I.• Politics and Empire in the Late Roman World (2006).

Haldon, J., The Byzantine Wars (2001).

Halsall, G., Warfare and Society in the Barbarian West, 450-,900 (2003).

Barbarian Migrations and the Roman West, 376-568 (2007).

Harries, J., SidoniusApollinaris and the Fall ofRome, AD 407-485 (1994).

Haywood, J., Dark Age Naval Power: A Re-assessment of Frankish and Anglo-Saxon Seafaring Activity (1991).

Heather, P., Goths and Romans, 332-489 (1991).

The Goths (1996).

The Fall of the Roman Empire: A New History (2005).

`The Fall of the Roman Empire' in Oxford Historian, 4 (May 2006), P. 17-20.

Hedeager, L., `The Evolution of German Society 1-400 AD', in Jones, R., Bloemers, J., Dyson, S. & Biddle, M. (eds.), First Millennium Papers: Western Europe in the istMillennium, BAR International Series, 401 (1988), pp. 129-401.

Hekster, 0., Commodus: An Emperor at the Crossroads (2002).

Herzteld, E., Archaeological History ofIran (1934).

Hodgson, N. & Bidwell, P., `Auxiliary Barracks in a New Light: Recent Discoveries on Hadrian's Wall', Britannia, 35 (2004), pp. 121-157.

Holden, P. & Purcell, N., The Corrupting Sea: A Study of Mediterranean History (2000).

Holden, P., `Mediterranean Plague in the Age of Justinian', in Maas, M. (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to the Age ofJustinian (2005), pp. 134-160.

Holum, K., `The Classical City in the Sixth Century: Survival and Transformation', in Maas, M. (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to the Age ofJustinian (2005), pp. 87-112.

Hopkins, C., The Discovery ofDura Europos (1979).

Hopkins, K., `Taxes and Trade in the Roman Empire (zoo BC-AD 400)', Journal of Roman Studies, 70 (1980), pp. ioi-iz5.

Early Christian Number and its Implications', Journal of Early Christian Studies, 6 (1998), pp. 184-226.

Howard-Johnston, J., `The Two Great Powers in Late Antiquity: A Comparison', in Cameron, A. (ed.), The Byzantine and Early Islamic Near East III: States Resources and Armies (1995), pp. 157-226, (reprinted in Howard-Johnston, A., Early Rome, Sassanian Persia and the End ofAntiquity (zoo6)).

Howe, L., The Praetorian Prefect from Commodus to Diocletian, AD ISO- 305(1942).

Howgego, C., `Coin Circulation and the Integration of the Roman Economy', Journal of Roman Archaeology, 7 (1994), pp. 5-21.

Humfress, C., `Law and Legal Practice in the Age of Justinian', in Maas, M. (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to the Age ofjustinian (2oo5), pp. 161-184.

Hunt, D., `The Outsider Inside: Ammianus on the Rebellion of Silvanus', in Drijvers, J. & Hunt, D. (eds.), The Late Roman World and its Historian (1999), pp. 51-63.

Ilkjarm, J. `The Weapons' Sacrifice at Illerup Adal, Denmark', in Randsbourg, K., The Birth of Europe (1989), pp. 54-61.

Isaac, B., `The Meaning of the Terms Limes and Limitanei', Journal of Roman Studies, 78 (1988), pp. 125-147.

The Limits ofEmpire (znd edn, 1992).

James, S., `Britain and the Late Roman Army', in Blagg, T. & King, A., Military and Civilian in Roman Britain: Cultural Relationships in a frontier province, BAR International Series, 136 (1984), pp. 161-186.

Excavations at Dura-Europos 1928 193T Final Report, VII : The Arms and Armour and Other Military Equipment (2004).

`The Deposition of Military Equipment During the Final Siege at Dura-Europos, with Particular Regard to the Tower i9 Countermine', Carnuntum jahrbuch 2005, Archaologie der Schlachtfelder-Militaria aus Zersto'rungshorizonten: Akten der 14. Internationalen Roman Military Equipment Conference (ROMEO), Wien, 27-31 August 2003 (2005), pp. 189-206.

Jeffreys, E., Jeffreys, M., Scott, R. et al., The Chronicle of john Malalas: A Translation (1986)

Johnson, M., Architecture of Empire', in Lenski, N. (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Constantine (2006), pp. 278-297.

Johnson, S., The Roman Forts of the Saxon Shore (1976).

Later Roman Britain (1980).

Late Roman Fortifications (1983).

Jones, A., The Later Roman Empire, 284-602, 2 Vols. (1964).

Jones, M. & Casey, J. `The Gallic Chronicle Exploded?', Britannia, 22 (1991), pp. 212-215.

Jones, T. & Ereira, A., Terry Jones' Barbarians (2006).

Jongman, W, `Gibbon Was Right: The Decline and Fall of the Roman Economy', in Hekster, 0., Kleijn, G. & Slootjes, D. (eds.) Crises in the Roman Empire (2007), pp. 183-199.

Kassai, L., Horseback Archery (2002).

Kelly, C., Ruling the Later Roman Empire (2004).

`Bureaucracy and Government', in Lenski, N. (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Constantine (2006), pp. 183-204.

Kennedy, D., `European soldiers and the Severan Siege of Hatra', in Freeman, P. & Kennedy, D. (eds.), The Defence of the Roman and Byzantine East, BAR International Series, 297 (1986), pp. 397-409.

Kulikowski, M., `Barbarians in Gaul, Usurpers in Britain', Britannia, 31 (2000), pp. 325-345.

`The Notitia Dignitatum as a Historical Source', Historia, 99 (2002), PP. 358-377.

Later Roman Spain and its Cities (2004).

Rome's Gothic Wars (2007).

Lander, J., Roman Stone Fortifications: Variation and Change from the First Century to the Fourth Century AD, BAR International Series, 206 (1984).

Lane Fox, R., Pagans and Christians (1986).

Lang, J., `Two Sides of a Coin: Aurelian, Vaballathus, and Eastern Frontiers in the Early 270s', in Mathisen, R. & Sivan, H. (eds.), Shifting Frontiers in Late Antiquity (1996), pp. 59-71.

Le Bohec, Y., The Imperial Roman Army (1994).

L'Armee Romaine Sous le Bas-Empire (20o6).

Leadbetter, B., `The Illegitimacy of Constantine and the Birth of the Tetrarchy', in Lieu, S. & Montserrat, D. (eds.), Constantine: History, Historiography and Legend (1998), pp. 74-85.

Lee, A., `Traditional Religions' in Lenski, N. (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Constantine (zoo6), pp. 159-179.

War in Late Antiquity: A Social History (2007).

Lendon, J., Soldiers and Ghosts: A History of Battle in Classical Antiquity (2005).

Lenski, N., `Initium mali Romano imperio: Contemporary reactions to the battle of Adrianople', Transactions of the American Philological Association, 127 (1997), pp. 129-168.

The Failure of Empire: Valens and the Roman State in the Fourth Century AD (2002).

The Reign of Constantine', in Lenski, N. (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Constantine (2006), pp. 59-90.

Leveau, P., `The Barbegal Water Mill and its Environment: Archaeology and the Economic and Social History of Antiquity, Journal of Roman Archaeology, 9 (1996), pp. 137-153.

Levick, B., Julia Domna: Syrian Empress (2oo7).

Lewit, T., Agricultural Production in the Roman Economy, BAR International Series, 568 (1991)

Liebeschuetz, W., Barbarians and Bishops: Army, Church, and State in the Age ofArcadius and Chrysostom (199o).

The Decline and Fall of the Classical City (2001).

Cities, Taxes, and the Accommodation of the Barbarians: The Theories of Durliat and Goffart', in Noble, T. (ed.), From Roman Provinces to Medieval Kingdoms (2006), pp. 309-323.

Was there a Crisis of the Third Century?', in Hekster, 0., Kleijn, G. & Slootjes, D. (eds.), Crises and the Roman Empire (2,007), pp. ii20.

Lieu, S., `Captives, Refugees and Exiles: A Study of Cross-Frontier Civilian Movements and Contacts between Rome and Persia from Valerian to Jovian', in Freeman, P. & Kennedy, D. (eds.), The Defence ofthe Roman andByzantine East, BAR International Series, 297 (1986), PP• 475-505-

Lillington-Martin, C., `Archaeological and Ancient Literary Evidence for a Battle Near Dara Gap, Turkey, AD 530: Topography, Texts, Trenches', in Lewin, A. & Pellegrini, P. (eds.), The Late Roman Army in the Near East from Diocletian to the Arab Conquest (Oxford, 2007), pp. 299311.

Lindner, R., `Nomadism, Huns and Horses', Past and Present, 92 (1981), pp. 1-i9.

Liverani, M., `The Garamantes: A Fresh Approach', Libyan Studies, 31 (2000), pp. 17+.

Luttwak, E., The Grand Strategy of the Roman Empire from the First Century AD to the Third (1976).

Maas, M., `Roman Questions, Byzantine Answers: Contours of the Age of Justinian', in Maas, M. (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to the Age ofjustinian (2005), pp. 3-27.

Mackensen, M., `Late Roman Fortifications and Building Programmes in the Province of Raetia: The Evidence of Recent Excavations and Some New Reflections', in Creighton, J. & Wilson, R. (eds.), Roman Germany: Studies in Cultural Interaction, Journal of Roman Archaeology Supplementary Series, 32 (1999), pp. 199-244•

MacMullen, R., Soldier and Civilian in the Later Roman Empire (1963).

Enemies of the Roman Order (1967).

Roman Social Relations (1974)

Roman Government's Response to Crisis, AD 235-337 (1976).

`How Big was the Roman Imperial Army?', Klio, 62 (1980), pp. 451460.

`The Epigraphic Habit in the Roman Empire', American Journal of Philology, 103 (1982), pp. 233-246.

Christianizing the Roman Empire, A.D. 100 -400 (1984).

`The Legion as Society', Historia, 33 (1984), pp. 440-456.

Corruption and the Decline of Rome (1988).

Maenchen-Helfen, 0., The World of the Huns: Studies in Their History and Culture (1973).

Man, J., Attila: The Barbarian King who Challenged Rome (2005).

Mango, C., Byzantium: The Empire of the New Rome (1980).

Manley, J., AD 43: The Roman Invasion of Britain: A Reassessment (2002).

Mann, J., `What was the Notitia Dignitatum for?' in Goodburn, R. & Bartholomew, P. (eds.), Aspects of the Notitia Dignitatum, BAR Supplementary Series, 15 (1976), pp. 1-9.

Matthews, J., Western Aristocracies and Imperial Court: AD 364-425 (1975).

`Mauretania in Ammianus and the Notitia', in Goodburn, R. & Bartholomew, P. (eds.), Aspects of the Notitia Dignitatum, BAR Supplementary Series, 15 (1976), pp. 157-186.

The Roman Empire ofAmmianus (1989).

Mattingly, D. `Impact Beyond Empire: Rome and the Garamantes of the Sahara', in de Blois, L. & Rich, J. (eds.), The Transformation of Economic Life Under the Roman Empire: Proceedings of the Second Workshop of the International Network Impact of Empire (Roman Empire, C.200 BC-AD 476) (2002), pp. 184-203.

An Imperial Possession: Britain in the Roman Empire, 54 B C-AD 409 (2006).

McGeorge, P., Late Roman Warlords (2003).

McLeod, `W, The Range of the Ancient Bow', Phoenix, 19 (1965), pp. 1-i4.

McLynn, N., Ambrose ofMilan: Church and Court in a Christian Capital (1994)

Meeks, W., The First Urban Christians (1983).

Millar, F., `P. Herennius Dexippus: The Greek World and the ThirdCentury Invasions, Journal of Roman Studies, 59 (1969), pp. 12-29.

`Paul of Samosata, Zenobia and Aurelian: The Church, Local Culture and Political Allegiance in Third-Century Syria', Journal of Roman Studies, 61 (1971), pp. 1-17.

The Emperor in the Roman World, 31 B C-AD 337 (1977)

The Roman Empire and its Neighbours (1981).

`Emperors, Frontiers and Foreign Relations', Britannia, 8 (1982), pp. 1-23.

The Roman Near East, 31 BC-AD 337 (1993)

Millett, M., Roman Britain (1995).

Mitchell, S., `Maximinus and the Christians in AD 312: A New Inscription', Journal of Roman Studies, 78 (1988), pp. 105-124.

Cremna in Pisidia: An Ancient City in Peace and War (1995).

The Cities of Asia Minor in Constantine's Time', in Lieu, S. & Montserrat, D. (eds.), Constantine: History, Historiography and Legend (1998), pp. 52-73.

A History of the Later Roman Empire AD 284-641(2007).

Moorhead, J., Theodoric in Italy (1992).

Justinian (1994).

The Roman Empire Divided 400-700 (2001).

Morgan, M. & Lieu, S. (eds.). The Emperor Julian: Panegyric and Polemic (2nd edn, 1989).

Morris, J., The Age ofArthur: A History of the British Isles from 350 to 65o ('973)

Murdoch, A., The Last Pagan: Julian the Apostate and the Death of the Ancient World (2003).

Murphy, C., Are We Rome? The Fall of an Empire and the Fate ofAmerica (2007).

Murray, J. (ed.), The Autobiographies of Edward Gibbon (1896).

Musurillo, H., Acts of the Christian Martyrs (1972).

Nicasie, M., Twilight of Empire: The Roman Army from the Reign of Diocletian until the Battle ofAdrianople (1998).

Noble, T. (ed.), From Roman Provinces to Medieval Kingdoms (2006).

Nylam, E., `Early Gladius Swords in Scandinavia', Acta Archaeologia, 34 (1963), p. 185.

O'Flynn, J., Generalissimos of the Western Roman Empire (1983).

Odahl, C., Constantine and the Christian Empire (2004).

Okamura, L., `Roman Withdrawals from Three Transfluvial Frontiers', in Mathisen, R. & Sivan, H. (eds.), Shifting Frontiers in Late Antiquity (1996), pp. 11-30.

Oost, S., Galla Placidia Augusta: A Biographical Essay (1968).

Parker, A., Ancient shipwrecks of the Mediterranean and the Roman Provinces, BAR International Series, 580 (1992).

Parker, H., The Roman Legions (1928).

Parkin, T., Demography and Roman Society (1992)

Pearson, A., The Roman Shore Forts (2002).

Piracy in Late Roman Britain: A Perspective from the Viking Age', Britannia, 37 (2006), pp. 337-353.

Perkins, A. (ed.), The Excavations at Dura-Europos: Final Report, V, Part 1, Papyri (1959).

The Art of Dura Europos (1971).

Piganiol, A., L'Empire Chretien (325-3,95) (1947),

Pohl, W., `Justinian and the Barbarian Kingdoms', in Maas, M. (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to the Age ofJustinian (2005), pp. 448476.

Pomeroy, S., `Coprynyms and the Exposure of Infants in Egypt', in Cameron, A. & Kuhrt, A. (eds.), Images of Women in Antiquity (1983), pp. 207-222

Porter, R., Gibbon (1988).

Potter, D., Prophecy and History in the Crisis of the Roman Empire: A Historical Commentary on the Thirteenth Sibylline Oracle (1990).

The Roman Empire at Bay, AD 180-395 (2004)

Rathbone, D., `Villages, Land and Population in Graeco-Roman Egypt', Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society, 36 (1990), pp. 103142.

Ratjar, J., `Die Legionen Mark Aurels im Vormarsch', in Oexle, J. (ed.) Aus der Luft - Bilder unserer Geschichte (1997), pp. 59-68.

Reece, R., The Third Century: Crisis or Change?', in King, A. & Henig, M. (eds.), The Roman West in the Third Century: Contributions from Archaeology and History, BAR International Series, io9(i) (1981), pp. 27-38.

Rees, R., Diocletian and the Tetrarchy (2004).

Richardson, J., The Romans in Spain (1996).

Rives, J., `The Decree of Decius and the Religion of Empire', Journal of Roman Studies, 89 (1999), pp. 135-154.

Rodwell, T. & Rowley, T. (eds.), Small Towns of Roman Britain, BAR, 15 (1975)

Rostovtzeff, M. (ed.), The Excavation atDura-Europos: Preliminary Report of the Fifth Season of Work, October 1931-March 1932 (1934)

Rostovtzeff, M., Bellinger, A., Hopkins, C. & Wells, C. (eds.), The Excavations at Dura-Europos: Preliminary Report of the Sixth Season of Work, October 193a March 1933 (1936).

Sailer, R., `Promotion and Patronage in Equestrian Careers', Journal of Roman Studies, 70 (1980), pp. 44-63.

Personal Patronage under the Early Empire (1982).

Salway, P., Roman Britain (1998).

Scheidel, W, Measuring Sex, Age andDeath in the Roman Empire: Explorations in Ancient Demography Journal of Roman Archaeology Supplementary Series, 21 (1996).

Schonberger, H., `The Roman Frontier in Germany: An Archaeological Survey', Journal of Roman Studies, 59 (1969), pp. 144-197.

Seeck, O. (ed.), Notitia Dignitatum (1876).

Sherwin-White, A., The Letters of Pliny: A Historical and Social Commentary (1966).

The Roman Citizenship (1973).

Snyder, C., An Age of Tyrants: Britain and the Britons AD 400-600 (1998).

Sotinel, C., `Emperors and Popes in the Sixth Century: The Western View', in Maas, M. (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Justinian (2005), pp. 267-290.

Speidel, M., Riding for Caesar: The Roman Emperors'Horse Guard (1994).

Stephenson, I., Romano-Byzantine Infantry Equipment (2006).

Stephenson, I. & Dixon, K., Roman Cavalry Equipment (2003).

Stoneman, R., Palmyra and its Empire: Zenobia's Revolt Against Rome (1992).

Stuart Hay, J., The Amazing Emperor Heliogabalus (1911).

Swift, E., The End of the Western Roman Empire: An Archaeological Investigation (2000).

Syme, R., The Roman Revolution (1939).

Emperors and Biography: Studies in the Historia Augusta (1971).

Tchalenko, G., Villages Antiques de la Syrie du Nord (1953-1958).

Termin, R, `A Market Economy in the Early Roman Empire', Journal of Roman Studies, 91 (2001), pp. 169-181.

Thomas, C., `Saint Patrick and Fifth-Century Britain: An Historical Model Explored', in Casey, P. (ed.), The End ofRoman Britain: Papers from a Conference, Durham 1978, BAR British Series, 71 (1979), pp. 81-101.

Thompson, E. (revised & ed. Heather, P.), The Huns (1996).

Todd, M., Roman Britain (3rd edn, 1999).

The Early Germans (2nd edn, 2004).

Tomlin, R., `Notitia Dignitatum omnium, tam civilium quam militarium', in Goodburn, R. & Bartholomew, P. (eds.), Aspects of the Notitia Dignitatum, BAR Supplementary Series, 15 (1976), pp. 189-209.

`Christianity and the Roman Army', in Lieu, S. & Montserrat, D. (eds.), Constantine: History, Historiography and Legend (1998).

Tougher, S., Julian the Apostate (2007).

Treadgold, W., Byzantium and its Army, 284-1081(1995).

Turton, G., The Syrian Princesses: The Women Who Ruled the Roman World (1974).

Vervaet, F., `The Reappearance of the Supra-Provincial Commands in the Late Second and Early Third Centuries cE: Constitutional and Historical Considerations', in Hekster, 0., Kleijn, G., & Slootjes, D. (eds.), Crises and the Roman Empire (2007).

Veyne, P., Bread and Circuses (1990).

von Petrikovits, H., `Fortifications in the North-western Roman Empire from the Third to Fifth Centuries AD', Journal of Roman Studies, 61 (1971), pp. 178-218.

Wacher, J., The Towns ofRoman Britain (2nd edn, 1995).

Walker, S. & Bierbrier, M., Ancient Faces: Mummy Portraits from Roman Egypt (1997)

Ward-Perkins, B., The Fall ofRome and the End of Civilization (2005).

Watson, A., Aurelian and the Third Century (1999).

Watson, G., The Roman Soldier (1969).

Webster, G., The Roman Imperial Army (1985: reprint with updated bibliography, 1998).

Weiss, P., `The Vision of Constantine', Journal of Roman Archaeology, 16 (2003), PP. 237-259.

Wells, C., The German Policy ofAugustus (1972).

Wells, P., The Barbarians Speak: How the Conquered Peoples Shaped Roman Europe (1999).

Wheeler, E., `The Laxity of the Syrian Legions', in Kennedy, D. (ed.), The Roman Army in the East, Journal of Roman Archaeology Supplementary Series, 18 (1996), pp. 229-276.

Whittaker, C., Frontiers of the Roman Empire: A Social and Economic Study (1994).

Whittaker, M., Jews and Christians, Greco-Roman Views (1984).

Wiesehofer, J., Ancient Persia: From 550 BC to 650 AD (1996).

Wightman, E., Gallia Belgica (1985).

Wildberg, C., `Philosophy on the Age of Justinian', in Maas, M. (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to theAge ofjustinian (2005), pp. 316-340.

Wilken, R., The Christians as the Romans Saw Them (1984).

Willems, W, Romans and Barbarians: A Regional Study in the Dutch Eastern River Area (1986).

Williams, S., Diocletian and the Roman Recovery (1985).

Williams, S. & Friell, G., Theodosius: The Empire at Bay (1994).

Williams, W., `Caracalla and Rhetoricians: A Note of the Cognitio de Gohairienis', Latomus, 33 (1974), pp. 663-667.

Wilson, A., `Machines, Power and the Ancient Economy', Journal of Roman Studies, 92 (2002), pp. 1-32.

Wilson, R., Roman Forts: An Illustrated Introduction to the Garrison Posts of Roman Britain (1980).

Witschel, C., `Re-evaluating the Roman West in the 3rd c. A.D.', journal of Roman Archaeology, 17 (2004), pp. 251-281.

Wolfram, H. , The Roman Empire and its Germanic Peoples (trans. Dunlap, T.) (1997).

Wood, I., `The End of Roman Britain: Continental Evidence and Parallels', in Lapidge, M. & Dumville, D. (eds.), Gildas: New Approaches (1984), pp. 1-25.

The Fall of the Western Empire and the End of Roman Britain', Britannia, i8 (1987), pp. 251-262.

Woolf, G., `Roman peace', in Rich, J. & Shipley, G., War and Society in the Roman World (1993), pp. 171-194-

Yarshater, E. (ed.), The Cambridge History oflran, Vol. 3 (1): The Seleucid, Parthian, and Sassanian Periods (1983).

Young, G., Rome's Eastern Trade: International Commerce and Imperial Policy, 31 BC-AD 305 (2001).

Zahran, Y., Philip the Arab: A Study in Prejudice (zoos).

If you find an error please notify us in the comments. Thank you!