Family Trees

1. Carolingians

2. Ottonians

3. Salians

4. Staufers and Welfs

5. Luxembourgs

6. Habsburgs (Part 1)

7. Habsburgs (Part 2)

TREE 1: CAROLINGIANS

TREE 2: OTTONIANS

TREE 3: SALIANS

TREE 4: STAUFERS AND WELFS

TREE 5: LUXEMBOURGS

TREE 6: HABSBURGS (Part 1)

TREE 7: HABSBURGS (Part 2)

Note on Form

Place names and those of emperors, kings and other well-known historical figures are given in the form most commonly used in English-language writing. For east central European locations, this tends to be the German version. Lesser-known individuals are generally identified using the modern version of their names. This at least helps distinguish royalty (e.g. Henry) from aristocracy (e.g. Heinrich) for periods where only a few names predominated amongst the elite. The term ‘Empire’ is used throughout for the Holy Roman Empire, distinguishing this from references to other empires, such as those of the Byzantines and Ottomans. Likewise, ‘Estates’ refers to corporate social groups, like the nobility and clergy, and to the assemblies of such groups, whereas ‘estates’ identifies land and property. The Empire endured throughout the periods when it was ruled by a king who had not been crowned emperor. Use of the terms ‘king’ and ‘emperor’ reflects the status of the Empire’s monarch at any given period. Foreign terms are italicized and explained at first mention, generally with additional information provided in the glossary. Terms and their definitions can also be accessed using the index.

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