Appendix 1: Emperors, 800–1806

Reigns dated from imperial coronation.

800–814   

      Charlemagne  

814–40   

      Louis I ‘the Pious’ (co-emperor from 813)  

840–55   

      Lothar I (co-emperor from 817)  

855–75   

      Louis II (co-emperor from 850)  

875–7   

      Charles II ‘the Bald’ (king of West Francia 843–77)  

[878–80]   

 

881–8   

      Charles III ‘the Fat’  

[889–90]   

 

891–4   

      Guido, duke of Spoleto  

894–8   

      Lambert II, duke of Spoleto (co-emperor from 892)  

896–9   

      Arnulf of Carinthia  

[900]   

 

901–5/34   

      Louis III (king of Lower Burgundy 887–905/28; blinded 905, died 934)  

916–24   

      Berengar I, margrave of Friaul  

[925–61]   

 

962–73   

      Otto I ‘the Great’  

973–83   

      Otto II (co-emperor 967)  

[984–95]   

 

996–1002   

      Otto III  

[1003–13]   

 

1014–24   

      Henry II  

[1025–6]   

 

1027–39   

      Conrad II  

[1040–45]   

 

1046–56   

      Henry III  

[1057–83]   

 

1084–1106   

      Henry IV  

[1107–10]   

 

   1111–25

      Henry V  

[1126–32]   

 

1133–7   

      Lothar III of Supplinburg, duke of Saxony  

[1138–54]   

 

1155–90   

      Frederick I ‘Barbarossa’  

1191–7   

      Henry VI  

[1198–1208]   

 

1209–18   

      Otto IV  

[1219]   

 

1220–50   

      Frederick II  

[1251–1311]   

 

1312–13   

      Henry VII  

[1314–27]   

 

1328–47   

      Louis IV ‘the Bavarian’  

[1348–54]   

 

1355–78   

      Charles IV  

[1379–1432]   

 

1433–7   

      Sigismund  

[1438–51]   

 

1452–93   

      Frederick III  

[1494–1507]   

 

1508–19   

      Maximilian I (king of the Romans from 1486)  

1519–56   

      Charles V (crowned by Pope Clement VII in 1530)  

1558–64   

      Ferdinand I  

1564–76   

      Maximilian II  

1576–1612   

      Rudolf II  

1612–19   

      Matthias  

1619–37   

      Ferdinand II  

1637–57   

      Ferdinand III  

[1657–8]   

      interregnum  

1658–1705   

      Leopold I  

1705–11   

      Joseph I  

1711–40   

      Charles VI  

[1740–42]   

      interregnum  

1742–5   

      Charles VII (the Wittelsbach Carl Albrecht of Bavaria)  

1745–65   

      Francis I  

1765–90   

      Joseph II  

1790–92   

      Leopold II  

1792–1806   

      Francis II (assumed a distinct Austrian imperial title in 1804 and ruled till 1835)  

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