Ancient History & Civilisation


Ancient Greek and Latin Sources

Unless otherwise noted, the Greek and Latin texts are available in translation in the Loeb Classical Library, published by Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass. (Ancient Chinese, Indian, and Islamic works are listed in Other Sources.)

Aelian, On Animals

[Aeneas] Aineias the Tactician, How to Survive under Siege. Trans. and comm. David Whitehead. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990.

Aeschines, Against Ctesiphon; On the Embassy

Ammianus Marcellinus, Roman History

Apollodorus, Library; Epitome

Appian, Roman History

Arrian, History of Alexander

Aulus Gellius, Attic Nights

Cicero, On Duties

Cornelius Nepos

Dio Cassius, Roman History

Diodorus of Sicily, Library of History

Diogenes Laertius, Lives of the Philosophers

Euripides, Medea


Frontinus, Stratagems


Herodotus, Histories

Historia Augusta: Lives of the Later Caesars. 1976. Trans. Anthony Birley. Harmondsworth: Penguin.

Homer, Iliad; Odyssey

Isocrates, Plataicus

Josephus, Jewish Antiquities


Livy, Roman History

Lucan, Civil War

Lucretius, On the Nature of the Universe

Martial, Epigrams

Ovid, Metamorphoses; Tristia; Letters from Pontus

Pausanias, Description of Greece. 2 vols. Trans. Peter Levi. Harmondsworth: Penguin.

Philostratus, Apollonius of Tyana

Pliny the Elder, Natural History

Plutarch, Moralia; Lives of Alexander; Artaxerxes; Lucullus; Marcellus; Nicias; Sertorius; Solon

Polyaenus, Stratagems of War. 2 vols. Ed. and trans. Peter Krentz and Everett Wheeler. Chicago: Ares, 1994.

Polybius, Histories

Procopius, History of the Wars of Justinian

Pseudo-Aristotle, On Marvelous Things Heard

Quintus Curtius Rufus, History of Alexander

Quintus of Smyrna, Fall of Troy

Sallust, Jugurthine War

Seneca, On Anger; Epistles; Medea

Silius Italicus, Punica

Sophocles, Philoctetes; Trachinian Women

Strabo, Geography

Suetonius, The Twelve Caesars. Trans. Robert Graves. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1979.

Tacitus, Annals; Germania; Histories

Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War

Varro, De Re Rustica

Vegetius, On Military Matters

Virgil, Aeneid

Vitruvius, On Architecture

Xenophon, Anabasis; Cyropaedia

Other Sources

Aftergood, Steven. 2001. “Djinn Energy.” Federation of American Scientists Secrecy News,, October 30.

Aldinger, Charles. 2002. “Bioweapons Tested in U.S., Records Say.” Reuters news story, Washington, DC, October.

Ambrose, John. 1974. “Insects in Warfare.” Army (December): 33-38.

Angier, Natalie. 2002. “Venomous and Sublime: The Viper Tells Its Tale.” Science Times, New York Times, December 10.

Bailey, K. C. 1929-32. The Elder Pliny’s Chapters on Chemical Subjects. London: Edward Arnold.

Bercé, Yves-Marie. 1993. “Les semeurs de peste.” In La vie, la mort, le temps: Mélanges offerts à Pierre Chaunu, ed. J. P. Bardet and R. M. Foisil. Paris: P.U.F, pp. 85-94.

Bilkadi, Zayn. 1995. “The Oil Weapons—Ancient Oil Industries.” Aramco World (January-February): 22-27.

Bonner, Campbell. 1956. “The Sibyl and Bottle Imps.” In Quantulacumque: Studies Presented to Kirsopp Lake, ed. R. P. Casey et al. London: n.p., pp. 1-8.

Bradford, Alfred. 2001. With Arrow, Sword, and Spear: A History of Warfare in the Ancient World. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Broad, William J. 2002. “Oh, What a Lovely War. If No One Dies.” New York Times, November 3.

Buhler, Georg, trans. 1886. Laws of Manu. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Campbell, Duncan B. 1986. “What Happened at Hatra?” In Defence of the Roman and Byzantine East, ed. P. W. M. Freeman and D. L. Kennedy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 51-58.

Chong, Denise. 2000. The Girl in the Picture: The Story of Kim Phuc, the Photograph, and the Vietnam War. New York: Viking Press.

Christopher, George; Theodore Cieslak; Julie Pavlin; and Edward Eitzen. 1997. “Biological Warfare: A Historical Perspective.” JAMA 278: 412-17.

Cole, Leonard. 1996. “The Specter of Biological Weapons.” Scientific American 275, no. 6 (December): 60-65.

Coleman, Kathleen. 1990. “Fatal Charades: Roman Executions Staged as Mythological Enactments.” Journal of Roman Studies 80: 44-73.

Conybeare, F. C. 1898. “The Testament of Solomon.” Jewish Quarterly Review 11 (October): 1-45.

Cowley, Robert, and Geoffrey Parker, eds. 1996. The Reader’s Companion to Military History. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Creveld, Martin van. 1991. “The Gulf Crisis and the Rules of War.” MHQ: Quarterly Journal of Military History 3, no. 4 (summer): 23-27.

Croddy, Eric. 2002. Chemical and Biological Warfare. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Crosby, Alfred W. 2002. Throwing Fire: Projectile Technology Through History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Derbes, V. J. 1966. “De Mussis and the Great Plague of 1348: A Forgotten Episode of Bacteriological War.” JAMA 196: 59-62.

Dirlmeier, Franz. 1966. Die Giftpfeile des Odysseus (zu Odyssee 1, 252-266). Heidelberg: Carl Winter.

Drummond, Andrew J. 1989. “Ammianus Marcellinus and the Roman Rules of War of the Fourth Century AD” MA Thesis, University of Kansas.

Eitzen, E. M., Jr., and E. T. Takafuji. 1997. “Historical Overview of Biological Warfare.” Chapter 18 in Textbook of Military Medicine: Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of the Army.

Faraone, Christopher. 1992. Talismans and Trojan Horses. New York: Oxford University Press.

Fenn, Elizabeth. 2000. “Biological Warfare in Eighteenth-Century North America: Beyond Jeffery Amherst.” Journal of American History 86 (March): 1552-80.

Finnegan, William. 2001. “The Poison Keeper.” New Yorker, January 15: 58-64.

Forbes, R. J. 1964. Bitumen and Petroleum in Antiquity. 2nd ed. Leiden: Brill.

Forest, David. 2002. “Burial Ground: Fear and Loathing at Yucca Mountain.” On Earth (summer): 20-21.

Frank, J. H., and K. Kanamitsu. 1987. “Paederus, Sensu Lato (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae): Natural History and Medical Importance.” Journal of Medical Entomology 24, no. 2 (March): 155-91.

Frontline Report. 1997. PBS television transcript of “A Whale of a Business: The Story of Navy Dolphins.” November 11.

Gantz, Timothy. 1993. Early Greek Myth: A Guide to Literary and Artistic Sources. 2 vols. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Goldstein, Laurie. 2001. “Islamic Scholars Call September 11 Attacks a Distortion of Islam.” New York Times, September 30.

Grafton, Anthony. 1992. New Worlds, Ancient Texts. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Grmek, Mirko. 1979. “Les Ruses de Guerre Biologiques dans L’Antiquité.” Revue des Études Grecques 92: 139-63.

Hanson, Victor. 1989. The Western Way of War: Infantry Battle in Classical Greece. New York: Knopf.

Harris, Diane. 1995. The Treasures of the Parthenon and Erechtheion. Oxford: Clarendon.

Harris, Robert, and Jeremy Paxman. 1982. A Higher Form of Killing: The Secret Story of Chemical and Biological Warfare. New York: Hill and Wang.

Harrison, S. J. 1994. “Yew and Bow: Vergil Georgics 2.448.” Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 96: 201-202.

Hashmi, Sohail. Forthcoming. “Islamic Ethics and Weapons of Mass Destruction: An Argument for Nonproliferation.” In Ethics and Weapons of Mass Destruction: Religious and Secular Perspectives, ed. Sohail H. Hashmi and Steven P. Lee. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Healy, John. 1999. Pliny the Elder on Science and Technology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Howard, M., G. J. Andreopoulos, and M. R. Shulman, eds. 1994. The Laws of War: Constraints on Warfare in the Western World. New Haven: Yale University Press

Hutchinson, Paul. 2002. “Warnings for the Year 11,997.”

Jennison, George. 1971. Noah’s Cargo: Some Curious Chapters of Natural History. New York: Blom.

Johnston, Sarah Iles. 2002. “The Testament of Solomon from Late Antiquity to the Renaissance.” In The Metamorphosis of Magic, ed. J. Bremmer and J. Veenstra. Leuven: Peeters, pp. 35-49.

Kahn, Joseph. 2002. “Shouting the Pain from Japan’s Germ Attacks.” New York Times, November 23.

Kautilya. 1951. Arthashastra. 4th ed. Trans. R. Shamasastry. Mysore: Sri Raghuveer Press.

Kautilya. 1992. Arthashastra. Trans. L. N. Rangarajan. Delhi: Penguin Classics.

Kelley, Matt. 2002. “Records Show U.S. Sent Germs to Iraq.” Newsday (October 1), Associated Press.

Kokatnur, Vaman R. 1948. “Chemical Warfare in Ancient India.” Journal of Chemical Education 25: 268-72.

Krentz, Peter. 2002. “Fighting by the Rules: The Invention of the Hoplite Agon.” Hesperia 71: 23-39.

Leary, Warren. 2002. “Scientific Panel Urges Incinerating Obsolete Chemical Arms.” New York Times, December 4.

Lesho, Emil; David Dorsey; and David Bunner. 1998. “Feces, Dead Horses, and Fleas: Evolution of the Hostile Use of Biological Agents.” Western Journal of Medicine 168: 512-16.

Lockwood, Jeffrey A. 1987. “Entomological Warfare: The History of the Use of Insects as Weapons of War.” Bulletin of the Entomological Society of America (summer): 76-82.

McNeill, William H. 1976. Plagues and Peoples. New York: Doubleday.

Majno, Guido. 1991 [1975]. The Healing Hand: Man and Wound in the Ancient World. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Martin, Emmanuel. 2001. “Hadzabe: The Last Archers of Africa.” Primitive Archer 10, no. 1: 1-8

Maskiell, Michelle, and Adrienne Mayor. 2001. “Killer Khilats: Poisoned Robes of Honor in India., Parts 1 and 2.” Folklore [London] 112: 23-45, 163-82.

Mayor, Adrienne. 1997a. “Dirty Tricks in Ancient Warfare.” MHQ: Quarterly Journal of Military History 10 (Autumn): 32-37.

———. 1997b. “Fiery Finery.” Archaeology (March-April): 54-58.

———. 1995a. “Mad Honey.” Archaeology (November-December): 32-40.

———. 1995b. “The Nessus Shirt in the New World: Smallpox Blankets in History and Legend.” Journal of American Folklore 108: 54-77.

Meckler, Laura. 2002. “Mental Impact of Bioterror Studied.” Associated Press report on the Biosecurity Conference, Las Vegas, NV, November 20.

Meek, James. 2002. “Live Rats Driven by Remote Control.” The Guardian, May 2.

Miller, Greg, and Warren Vieth. 2003. “Showdown with Iraq: U.S. Would Move to Safeguard Oil.” Los Angeles Times, January 25, A9.

Miller, Judith; Stephen Engelberg; and William Broad. 2001. Germs: Biological Weapons and America’s Secret War. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Miller, Judith. 2002a. “Iraq Said to Try to Buy Antidote Against Nerve Gas.” New York Times, November 12.

———. 2002b. “CIA Hunts Iraq Tie to Soviet Smallpox.” New York Times, December 3.

———. 1998. “Biological Weapons, Literally Older than Methuselah.” New York Times, September 20.

Moon, Tom. 2000. This Grim and Savage Game: OSS and the Beginning of U.S. Covert Operations in World War II. New York: Da Capo Press.

Morgan, David. 1990. The Mongols. Oxford: Blackwell.

Nardin, Terry, ed. 1996. The Ethics of War and Peace: Religious and Secular Perspectives. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

“Nerve Gas Discovered at Old Arsenal Near Denver.” 2000. Associated Press story, Chronicle (Bozeman, MT), November 18.

Neufeld, Edward. 1980. “Insects as Warfare Agents in the Ancient Near East.” Orientalia 49: 30-57.

New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocrypha. 1973. Ed. H. G. May and B. M. Metzger. New York: Oxford University Press.

Ober, Josiah. 1994. “The Rules of War in Classical Greece.” In The Laws of War: Constraints on Warfare in the Western World, ed. M. Howard, G. J. Andreopoulos, and M. R. Shulman. New Haven: Yale University Press, pp. 12-26, 227-30.

Onion, Amanda. 2002. “The No-Doze Soldier: Military Seeking Radical Ways of Stumping Need for Sleep.” December 18,

Oxford Classical Dictionary. 1996. 3rd ed., ed. Simon Hornblower and Antony Spawforth. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Pala, Christopher. 2003. “Anthrax Island.” New York Times Magazine, January 12, 36-39.

Partington, J.R. 1999 [1960]. A History of Greek Fire and Gunpowder. Introduction by Bert S. Hall. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Paxman, J., and R. Harris. 1982. A Higher Form of Killing: The Secret Story of Chemical and Biological Warfare. New York: Hill and Wang.

Penzer, Norman. 1952. Poison-Damsels and Other Essays in Folklore and Anthropology. London: Sawyer.

Perry, Tony. 2001. “Relegating Napalm to Its Place in History.” Los Angeles Times, April 1.

Pethokoukis, James M. 2002. “A Curse to Last 10,000 Years.” Posted on, July 27.

Phelps, Tony. 1981. Poisonous Snakes. Dorset: Blandford.

Piller, Charles. 2003. “Biodefense Lab on the Defensive.” New York Times, February 12.

“Poisoned Island.” 1999. The Economist, July 10, p. 38.

Pollon, Christopher. 2002. “Danger! Do NOT Dig Here.” Archaeology (May-June): 8.

Poupard, James, and Miller, Linda. 1992. “History of Biological Warfare: Catapults to Capsomeres.” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 666: 9-20.

Rahman, Shaikh Azizur. 2002. “India Defence Looks to Ancient Text.” BBC News, May 14.

Reinach, A. J. 1909. “La flêche en Gaule, ses poisons et ses contrepoisons.” Anthropologie 20: 51-80, 189-206.

Revkin, Andrew C. 2002. “Bees Learning Smell of Bombs with Backing from Pentagon.” New York Times, May 13.

Robertson, Andres, and Laura Robertson. 1995. “From Asps to Allegations: Biological Warfare in History.” Military Medicine 160: 369-73.

Robertson, Hamish. 2002. “How San Hunters Use Beetles to Poison Their Arrows.” Iziko Museums, Biodiversity Explorer Web site, Cape Town, South Africa,

Robinson, Julian Perry. 2002. Paper presented at the Biotechnology, Weapons and Humanity Conference, sponsored by the International Committee of the Red Cross, Montreux, Switzerland, September 23-24.

Roland, Alex. 1990. “Greek Fire.” MHQ: The Quarterly Journal of Military History 2 (spring): 16-19

Rolle, Renate. 1989. The World of the Scythians. Trans. F. G. Walls. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Rose, H. J. 1959. A Handbook of Greek Mythology. New York: E. P. Dutton.

Rudenko, Sergei. 1970. The Frozen Tombs of Siberia. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.

“Sailors Sprayed with Nerve Gas in Test, Pentagon Says.” 2002. New York Times, May 24.

Salazar, Christine F. 2000. The Treatment of War Wounds in Graeco-Roman Antiquity. Leiden: Brill.

Sansone, David. 1980. “Plutarch, Alexander, and the Discovery of Naphtha.” Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies 21: 63-74.

Sasson, Jack M., ed. 2000. Civilizations of the Ancient Near East. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson.

Scarborough, John. 1979. Nicander’s Toxicology: Spiders, Scorpions, Insects, and Myriapods, Parts I and II.” Pharmacy in History 21, nos. 1 and 2: 3-35, 73-92.

———. 1977. “Nicander’s Toxicology. Snakes.” Pharmacy in History 19, no. 1: 3-23.

Schultz, Harald. 1962. “Brazil’s Big-Lipped Indians.” National Geographic 1, no 121 (January): 130-32.

“The Science of Apartheid.” 1998. Harper’s (September): 19-25.

Scullard, H. H. 1974. The Elephant in the Greek and Roman World. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Shenon, Philip. 2003. “Iraq Links Germs for Weapons to U.S. and France.” New York Times, March 16.

Simons, Geoff. 1994. Iraq: From Sumer to Saddam. London: St. Martins Press.

Stockholm International Peace Research Institute [SIPRI]. 1975. Incendiary Weapons. Cambridge: MIT Press.

———. 1971. The Rise of CB Weapons: The Problem of Chemical and Biological Warfare. New York: Humanities Press.

Stoneman, Richard, trans. 1994. Legends of Alexander the Great. London: J. M. Dent.

———. 1991. Greek Alexander Romance. Harmondsworth: Penguin.

Taylor, Michael. 2001. “Napalm No More: Pentagon Recycles Remaining Stock of Notorious Weapon.” San Francisco Chronicle, April 4.

Temple, Robert, 1991. The Genius of China: 3,000 Years of Science, Discovery, and Invention. London: Prion.

Trauth, Kathleen; Stephen Hora; and Robert Guzowski. 1993. “Expert Judgment on Markers to Deter Human Intrusion into the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant.” Sandia National Laboratories report SAND92- 1382/UC-721, November.

Tucker, Jonathan. 2001. “Chemical Weapons: Buried in the Back Yard.” Bulletin of Atomic Scientists 57 (September-October): 51-56.

“Vile Finds.” 2003. Archaeology (January-February).

Wald, Matthew. 2002. “Nevada States Case Against Waste Dump in Mountain.” New York Times, December 3.

Wheelis, Mark. 2002. “Biological Warfare at the 1346 Siege of Caffa.” Emerging Infectious Diseases 8, no. 9 (September): 971-75.

———. 1999. “Biological Warfare before 1914.” In Biological and Toxin Weapons: Research, Development, and Use from the Middle Ages to 1945, ed. Erhard Geissler and John van Courtland Moon. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 8-34.

“When Killing Just Won’t Do.” 2003. Harper’s (February): 17-19.

Wick, Charles Z. 1988. “Soviet Active Measures in the Era of Glasnost.” Prepared by Todd Leventhal, for the U.S. House of Representatives, by the U.S. Information Agency, July, Washington, DC.

Williams, Carol. 2003. “Navy Adds Some Bark to Its Bite: San Diego-Trained Sea Lions Help Guard Against Attacks.” Los Angeles Times, February 12, 2003, A13.

Williams, Peter, and David Wallace. 1989. Unit 731: Japan’s Secret Biological Warfare in World War II. New York: Free Press.

Zinsser, Hans. 1963 [1934]. Rats, Lice, and History. Boston: Little, Brown.

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