Ancient History & Civilisation

Caesar and Christ (The Story of Civilization #3) - by Will Durant

Caesar and Christ (The Story of Civilization #3)

This is the classic reference on world history, recognized as the most comprehensive general history ever written, the result of four decades of work by Will and Ariel Durant -- a set that The New York Times called "a splendid, broad panorama of hereditary culture in words and images that the layman can fully understand." This series began as an effort to write a history on the nineteenth century, an undertaking that Will Durant realized could only be understood in terms of what had come before. So the Durants embarked on an encyclopedic survey of all civilization, ancient and modern, Occidental and Oriental.

The books:

Our Oriental Heritage (Volume 1): Will Durant opens his massive survey of civilized history with a sweeping look at the Orient: the Egyptians, who perfected monumental architecture, medicine and mummification; the Babylonians, who developed astronomy and physics; the Judeans, who preserved their culture in the immortal books of the Old Testament; and the Persians, who ruled the largest empire in recorded history before Rome.


The Life of Greece (Volume 2): Will Durant's survey of ancient Greece shows us the origins of democracy and the political legacy to the Western world; the golden age of Athens, its architecture, poetry, drama, sculpture and Olympic contests; the blossoming of philosophical thought amid a society still rooted in slavery and barbarism; and the mysterious lost island of Crete, land of the Minotaur and the Labyrinth.

Caesar and Christ (Volume 3): Spanning a millenium in Roman history, the third volume in the Durants' series shows us a world-conquering Roman army, undefeated, unafraid and...vegeterian; Hannibal, who transported an army of elephants over the Alps to invade Rome; Julius Caesar, who brought Western Europe under Roman rule; the life and Passion of Christ; and the struggle of the rising church.

The Age of Faith (Volume 4): Over 1,000 years, we meet the Christian ascetics and martyrs, including Simeon Stylites, who sat atop a pillar for 30 years, exposed to rain, sun, and snow, and rejoiced as worms ate his rotting flesh; the saints, including Augustine, the most influential philosopher of his age; Mohammed, the desert merchant who founded a religion that conquered one-third of the known world in two centuries; and the Italian poet Dante, whose sensibility marks the transition to the Renaissance.

The Renaissance (Volume 5): In this volume, Will Durant examines the economic seeds -- the growth of industry, the rise of banking families, the conflicts of labor and capital -- for Italy's emergence as the first nation to feel the awakening of the modern mind. He follows the cultural flowering from Florence to Milan to Verona and eventually to Rome, allowing us to witness a colorful pageant of princes, queens, poets, painters, sculptors and architects. We see humanity moved boldly from a finite world to an infinite one.

The Reformation (Volume 6): In Europe's tumultuous emergence from the Middle Ages, we encounter two rival popes fighting for control of a corrupt, cynical church; the Hundred Years' War and 13-year-old warrior Joan of Arc; Christopher Columbus' accidental discovery of the New World; and Martin Luther, who defied the pope and ultimately led Northern Europe into the age of individualism.

The Age of Reason Begins (Volume 7): In one of Europe's most turbulent centuries, Philip II of Spain sees his "invincible" armada suffer defeat at the hands of England; Elizabeth I of England receives assistance from explorer Walter Raleigh and pirate Francis Drake; and new appeals for reason and science are exemplified in the ideas of Copernicus, Galileo and Descartes.

The Age of Louis XIV (Volume 8): This installment is the biography of a period some consider the apex of modern European civilization. "Some centuries hence," Frederick the Great predicted to Voltaire, "they will translate the good authors of the time of Louis XIV as we translate those of the age of Pericles or Augustus." Those authors are lovingly treated here: Pascal and Fenelon, Racine and Boileau, Mme. de Sevigne and Mme. de La Fayette, and, above all, the philosopher-dramatist Moliere, exposing the vices and hypocrisies of the age.

The Age of Voltaire (Volume 9): A biography of a great man and the period he embodied. We witness Voltaire's satiric work in the salons and the theater as well as his banishment to England. With him we view the complex relationships between nobility, clergy, bourgeoisie and peasantry in the France of Louis XV. We explore the music of Bach and the struggle between Frederick the Great and Maria Theresa of Austria. And finally we hear an imaginary discussion between Voltaire and Pope Benedict XIV on the significance and value of religion.

Rousseau and Revolution (Volume 10): This volume ranges over a Europe in ferment, but centers on the passionate rebel-philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who contended with Voltaire for the mind of Europe. Rousseau condemned civilization as a disease, glorified the noble savage, proclaimed to the world with equal intensity his own love affairs and the natural rights of man, and became the patron saint of the French Revolution and social upheavals across the globe for two centuries.

The Age of Napoleon (Volume 11): The final volume. Napoleon is the archetypical hero, whose restless, ambitious, and intelligent mind dominated his age and has never ceased to fascinate the world he helped fashion. Yet even Bonaparte is dwarfed by the age that took his name. For, the Durants have re-created the life, the history, the arts, the science, the politics, the philosophy, the manners and the morality, the very spirit of the turbulent epoch that began with the French Revolution, ended with the fall of the emperor and ushered in the modern world.

Preface

INTRODUCTION: ORIGINS

Chapter I. Etruscan Prelude 800-508 B.C.

  I. Italy

  II. Etruscan Life

  III. Etruscan Art

  IV. Rome Under the Kings

  V. The Etruscan Domination

  VI. The Birth of the Republic

BOOK I: THE REPUBLIC: 508-30 B.C..

Chronological Table

Chapter II. The Struggle for Democracy 508-264 B.C.

  I. Patricians and Plebs

  II. The Constitution of the Republic

      1. The Lawmakers

      2. The Magistrates

      3. The Beginnings of Roman Law

      4. The Army of the Republic

  III. The Conquest of Italy

Chapter III. Hannibal Against Rome 264-202 B.C.

  I. Carthage

  II. Regulus

  III. Hamilcar

  IV. Hannibal

  V. Scipio

Chapter IV. Stoic Rome 508-202 B.C.

  I. The Family

  II. The Religion of Rome

      1. The Gods

      2. The Priests

      3. Festivals

      4. Religion and Character

  III. Morals

  IV. Letters

  V. The Growth of the Soil

  VI. Industry

  VII. The City

  VIII. Post Mortem

Chapter V. ATHENS

  I. THE CONQUEST OF GREECE

  II. THE TRANSFORMATION OF ROME

  III. THE NEW GODS

  IV. THE COMING OF PHILOSOPHY

  V. THE AWAKENING OF LITERATURE

  VI. CATO AND THE CONSERVATIVE OPPOSITION

  VII. CARTHAGO DELETA

BOOK II: THE REVOLUTION: 145-30 B.C.

Chronological Table

Chapter VI. The Agrarian Revolt 145-78 B.C.

  I. THE BACKGROUND OF REVOLUTION

  II. TIBERIUS GRACCHUS

  III. CAIUS GRACCHUS

  IV. MARIUS

  V. THE REVOLT OF ITALY

  VI. SULLA THE HAPPY

Chapter VII. The Oligarchic Reaction 77-60 B.C.

  I. THE GOVERNMENT

  II. THE MILLIONAIRES

  III. THE NEW WOMAN

  IV. ANOTHER CATO

  V. SPARTACUS

  VI. POMPEY

  VII. CICERO AND CATILINE

Chapter VIII. Literature Under the Revolution 145-30 B.C.

  I. LUCRETIUS

  II. DE RERUM NATURA

  III. LESBIA’S LOVER

  IV. THE SCHOLARS

  V. CICERO’S PEN

Chapter IX. Caesar 100-44 B.C.

  I. THE RAKE

  II. THE CONSUL

  III. MORALS AND POLITICS

  IV. THE CONQUEST OF GAUL

  V. THE DEGRADATION OF DEMOCRACY

  VI. CIVIL WAR

  VII. CAESAR AND CLEOPATRA

  VIII. THE STATESMAN

  IX. BRUTUS

Chapter X. Antony 44-30 B.C.

  I. ANTONY AND BRUTUS

  II. ANTONY AND CLEOPATRA

  III. ANTONY AND OCTAVIAN

BOOK III: THE PRINCIPATE: 30 B.C..-A.D. 192

Chronological Table

Chapter XI. Augustan Statesmanship 30 B.C..-A.D. 14

  I. THE ROAD TO MONARCHY

  II. THE NEW ORDER

  III. SATURNIA REGNA

  IV. THE AUGUSTAN REFORMATION

  V. AUGUSTUS HIMSELF

  VI. THE LAST DAYS OF A GOD

Chapter XII. The Golden Age 30 B.C.-A.D. 18

  I. THE AUGUSTAN STIMULUS

  II. VIRGIL

  III. THE AENEID

  IV. HORACE

  V. LIVY

  VI. THE AMOROUS REVOLT

Chapter XIII. The Other Side of Monarchy A.D. 14-96

  I. TIBERIUS

  II. GAIUS

  III. CLAUDIUS

  IV. NERO

  V. THE THREE EMPERORS

  VI. VESPASIAN

  VII. TITUS

  VIII. DOMITIAN

Chapter XIV. The Silver Age A.D. 14-96

  I. THE DILETTANTES

  II. PETRONIUS

  III. THE PHILOSOPHERS

  IV. SENECA

  V. ROMAN SCIENCE

  VI. ROMAN MEDICINE

  VII. QUINTILIAN

  VIII. STATIUS AND MARTIAL

Chapter XV. Rome at Work A.D. 14-96

  I. THE SOWERS

  II. THE ARTISANS

  III. THE CARRIERS

  IV. THE ENGINEERS

  V. THE TRADERS

  VI. THE BANKERS

  VII. THE CLASSES

  VIII. THE ECONOMY AND THE STATE

Chapter XVI. Rome and Its Art 30 B.C.-A.D.96

  I. THE DEBT TO GREECE

  II. THE TOILERS’ ROME

  III. THE HOMES OF THE GREAT

  IV. THE ARTS OF DECORATION

  V. SCULPTURE

  VI. PAINTING

  VII. ARCHITECTURE

      1. Principles, Materials, and Forms

      2. The Temples of Rome

      3. The Arcuate Revolution

Chapter XVII. Epicurean Rome 30 B.C.-A.D. 96

  I. THE PEOPLE

  II. EDUCATION

  III. THE SEXES

  IV. DRESS

  V. A ROMAN DAY

  VI. A ROMAN HOLIDAY

      1. The Stage

      2. Roman Music

      3. The Games

  VII. THE NEW FAITHS

Chapter XVIII. Roman Law 146 B.C..-A.D. 192

  I. THE GREAT JURISTS

  II. THE SOURCES OF THE LAW

  III. THE LAW OF PERSONS

  IV. THE LAW OF PROPERTY

  V. THE LAW OF PROCEDURE

  VI. THE LAW OF THE NATIONS

Chapter XIX. The Philosopher Kings A.D. 96-180

  I. NERVA

  II. TRAJAN

  III. HADRIAN

      1. The Ruler

      2. The Wanderer

      3. The Builder

  IV. ANTONINUS PIUS

  V. THE PHILOSOPHER AS EMPEROR

Chapter XX. Life and Thought in the Second Century A.D. 96-192

  I. TACITUS

  II. JUVENAL

  III. A ROMAN GENTLEMAN

  IV. THE CULTURAL DECLINE

  V. THE EMPEROR AS PHILOSOPHER

  VI. COMMODUS

BOOK IV: THE EMPIRE: 146 B.C.-A.D. 192

Chronological Table

Chapter XXI. Italy

  I. A ROSTER OF CITIES

  II. POMPEII

  III. MUNICIPAL LIFE

Chapter XXII. Civilizing the West

  I. ROME AND THE PROVINCES

  II. AFRICA

  III. SPAIN

  IV. GAUL

  V. BRITAIN

  VI. THE BARBARIANS

Chapter XXIII. Roman Greece

  I. PLUTARCH

  II. INDIAN SUMMER

  III. EPICTETUS

  IV. LUCIAN AND THE SKEPTICS

Chapter XXIV. The Hellenistic Revival

  I. ROMAN EGYPT

  II. PHILO

  III. THE PROGRESS OF SCIENCE

  IV. POETS IN THE DESERT

  V. THE SYRIANS

  VI. ASIA MINOR

  VII. THE GREAT MITHRIDATES

  VIII. PROSE

  IX. THE ORIENTAL TIDE

Chapter XXV. Rome and Judea 132 B.C.-A.D. 135

  I. PARTHIA

  II. THE HASMONEANS

  III. HEROD THE GREAT

  IV. THE LAW AND ITS PROPHETS

  V. THE GREAT EXPECTATION

  VI. THE REBELLION

  VII. THE DISPERSION

BOOK V: THE YOUTH OF CHRISTIANITY 4 B.C..-A.D. 325

Chronological Table

Chapter XXVI. Jesus 4 B.C.-A.D. 30

  I. THE SOURCES

  II. THE GROWTH OF JESUS

  III. THE MISSION

  IV. THE GOSPEL

  V. DEATH AND TRANSFIGURATION

Chapter XXVII. The Apostles A.D. 30-95

  I. PETER

  II. PAUL

      1. The Persecutor

      2. The Missionary

      3. The Theologian

      4. The Martyr

  III. JOHN

Chapter XXVIII. The Growth of the Church A.D. 96-305

  I. THE CHRISTIANS

  II. THE CONFLICT OF CREEDS

  III. PLOTINUS

  IV. THE DEFENDERS OF THE FAITH

  V. THE ORGANIZATION OF AUTHORITY

Chapter XXIX. The Collapse of the Empire A.D. 193-305

  I. A SEMITIC DYNASTY

  II. ANARCHY

  III. THE ECONOMIC DECLINE

  IV. THE TWILIGHT OF PAGANISM

  V. THE ORIENTAL MONARCHY

  VI. THE SOCIALISM OF DIOCLETIAN

Chapter XXX. The Triumph of Christianity A.D. 306-325

  I. THE WAR OF CHURCH AND STATE A.D. 64-311

  II. THE RISE OF CONSTANTINE

  III. CONSTANTINE AND CHRISTIANITY

  IV. CONSTANTINE AND CIVILIZATION

Epilogue

  I. WHY ROME FELL

  II. THE ROMAN ACHIEVEMENT + Illustrations

  Notes

  Bibliographical Guide