Ancient History & Civilisation

Crisis of Rome: The Jugurthine and Northern Wars and the Rise of Marius

Crisis of Rome: The Jugurthine and Northern Wars and the Rise of Marius

In the later 2nd century BC, after a period of rapid expansion and conquest, the Roman Republic found itself in crisis. In North Africa her armies were already bogged down in a long difficult guerrilla war in a harsh environment when invasion by a coalition of Germanic tribes, the Cimbri, Teutones and Ambrones, threatened Italy and Rome itself, inflicting painful defeats on Roman forces in pitched battle Gaius Marius was the man of the hour. The first war he brought to an end through tactical brilliance, bringing the Numidian King Jugurtha back in chains. Before his ship even returned to Italy, the senate elected Marius to lead the war against the northern invaders. Reorganizing and reinvigorating the demoralized Roman legions, he led them to two remarkable victories in the space of months, crushing the Teutones and Ambrones at Aquiae Sextae and the Cimbri at Vercellae. The Roman army emerged from this period of crisis a much leaner and more professional force and the author examines the extent to which the 'Marian Reforms' were responsible for this and the extent to which they can be attributed to Marius himself.



Timeline (148–100 BC)

Part I - Rome in Crisis?

Chapter 1. Rome in Crisis? (146–120BC)

Chapter 2. The Rise of Numidia (206–112BC)

Chapter 3. The Northern Wars: The Threat from the North (120–111BC)

Part II - War on Two Fronts (111&105 BC)

Chapter 4. The Jugurthine War: The Early Campaigns (111–110 BC)

Chapter 5. The Jugurthine War: The Metellan Campaigns (109–107 BC)

Chapter 6. The Northern Wars: Victory in Thrace, Defeat in Gaul (111–107 BC)

Chapter 7. The Jugurthine War: The Marian Campaigns (107–105 BC)

Chapter 8. The Northern Wars: Disaster at Arausio (106–105 BC)

Part III - The Age of Marius (104&100 BC)

Chapter 9. The Northern Wars: The War in Spain and the Battle of Aquae Sextiae (105–102 BC)

Chapter 10. The Northern Wars: The Battle of Raudian Plain (Vercellae) (101 BC)

Chapter 11. New Roman Army? – Marius and Military Reform

Appendix I: A Bloody Roman Peace: Marius and Rome in 100 BC

Appendix II: The Other Wars of the Period 104–100 BC

Appendix III: The Roman Manpower Question

Appendix IV: The Dominance of the Metelli (123–98 BC)

Appendix V: Sources for the Period

Appendix VI: African King Lists