Ancient History & Civilisation

Carthage Must Be Destroyed: The Rise and Fall of an Ancient Civilization

Carthage Must Be Destroyed: The Rise and Fall of an Ancient Civilization

An epic history of a doomed civilization and a lost empire.

The devastating struggle to the death between the Carthaginians and the Romans was one of the defining dramas of the ancient world. In an epic series of land and sea battles, both sides came close to victory before the Carthaginians finally succumbed and their capital city, history, and culture were almost utterly erased.

Drawing on a wealth of new archaeological research, Richard Miles vividly brings to life this lost empire-from its origins among the Phoenician settlements of Lebanon to its apotheosis as the greatest seapower in the Mediterranean. And at the heart of the history of Carthage lies the extraordinary figure of Hannibal-the scourge of Rome and one of the greatest military leaders, but a man who also unwittingly led his people to catastrophe.

The first full-scale history of Carthage in decades, Carthage Must Be Destroyed reintroduces modern readers to the larger-than-life historical players and the ancient glory of this almost forgotten civilization.

Acknowledgements - Chronology

Prologue: The Last Days of Carthage

Introduction: Recovering Carthage

HANNIBAL’S SHIELD

THE LONG SHADOW OF ROME

WRITING A HISTORY OF CARTHAGE

LOCATING CARTHAGE

Chapter 1 - Feeding the Beast: The Phoenicians and the Discovery of the West

THE LAND OF THE COLOUR PURPLE

THE RISE OF THE CITY OF MELQART

FEEDING THE ASSYRIAN BEAST

THE ‘DISCOVERY’ OF THE WEST

THE PHOENICIANS AND THE RECOVERY OF GREECE

THE SPANISH SILVER MOUNTAIN

A CRUEL LESSON IN SUPPLY AND DEMAND

Chapter 2 - New City: The Rise of Carthage

ELISSA’S REFUGE

THE EARLY CITY

CHILD SACRIFICE AND THE TOPHET

THE RISE OF A MERCANTILE SUPEROWER

EXPANSION INTO AFRICA

ATLANTIC ADVENTURES

THE EMERGENCE OF A PUNIC MEDITERRANEAN

NEW FRIENDS AND OLD ENEMIES

Chapter 3 - The Realm of Heracles–Melqart: Greeks and Carthaginians in the Central Mediterranean

HEROIC WANDERERS: THE LEGACY OF HERACLES

MELQART AND HERACLES IN SICILY

HERACLES AND EARLY ROME

Chapter 4 - The Economy of War: Carthage and Syracuse

CARTHAGE THE COLONIAL POWER

HIMERA AND THE CREATION OF THE ‘CARTHAGINIAN MENACE’

THE REVENGE OF THE MAGONIDS

DIONYSIUS AND THE END OF SINGLE-FAMILY DOMINATION

CARTHAGINIAN SICILY

THE CORINTHIAN THREAT

THE ECONOMY OF THE SICILIAN WARS

Chapter 5 - In the Shadow of Alexander the Great: Carthage and Agathocles

ALEXANDER, TIMAEUS AND CARTHAGE

CARTHAGE: A CENTRAL-MEDITERRANEAN MELTING POT

AGATHOCLES: THE ALEXANDER OF SICILY

THE INVASION OF AFRICA

A DUBIOUS ‘FINAL’ VICTORY

Chapter 6 - Carthage and Rome

THE RELENTLESS MARCH OF ROME

CARTHAGE IN ROME

PYRRHUS

AN INEVITABLE WAR?

THE RISE OF HERCULES, THE INVINCIBLE

THE COUNTDOWN TO CONFLICT

Chapter 7 - The First Punic War

CARTHAGE RULES THE WAVES

THE WAR ON SICILY

ROME BUILDS A FLEET

CARTHAGINIAN ‘HIT-AND-RUN’ IN SICILY

REGULUS AND THE ASSAULT ON AFRICA

DÉJÀ-VU DEADLOCK

HAMILCAR BARCA AND THE END OF CARTHAGINIAN SICILY

PLUS ÇA CHANGE, PLUS C’EST LA MÊME CHOSE

Chapter 8 - The Camp Comes to Carthage: The Mercenaries’ Revolt

THE HEAVY PRICE OF PEACE

UPRISING

A WAR WITHOUT PITY

THE RECKONING

THE INCREASINGLY UNACCEPTABLE PRICE OF PEACE

THE RISE OF HAMILCAR BARCA

Chapter 9 - Barcid Spain

GLORY IN SOUTHERN SPAIN

A NEW KINGDOM OF HERACLES–MELQART

THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE BARCID PROCTECTORATE

HANNIBAL

SAGUNTUM

THE ROAD TO WAR

Chapter 10 - Don’t Look Back

THE CARTHAGINIAN ARMY UNDER HANNIBAL

THE PROPAGANDA MACHINE

A NEW HERACLES FOR AN OLD WORLD

Chapter 11 - In the Footsteps of Heracles

A HERACLEAN LABOUR

THE DIE IS CAST

THE RETREAT OF THE ROMAN GODS?

THE BATTLE OF CANNAE

Chapter 12 - The Road to Nowhere

THE CARTHAGINIANS ON THREE FRONTS

AT THE GATES OF ROME

A NEW SCIPIO IN SPAIN

ITALY AND THE BATTLE FOR THE GODS

Chapter 13 - The Last Age of Heroes

THE TABLES TURN

THE AFTERMATH OF WAR

THE LAST AGE OF HEROES

Chapter 14 - The Desolation of Carthage

THE REVENGE OF THE LOSERS

THE CARTHAGINIAN QUESTION

THE DESOLATION OF CARTHAGE

THE POWER OVER THE PAST

Chapter 15 - Punic Faith

THE GHOST OF CARTHAGE

ROMAN VIRTUE, CARTHAGINIAN VICE

A NEW HERACLES AND A NEW CARTHAGE

DIDO AND AENEAS

THE TRIUMPH OF NORTH AFRICA

Notes

Bibliography