Ancient History & Civilisation

Appendix A

Chronology of Development in the Campus Martius to the Early Fourth Century C.E.

B.C.E.

753 – Traditional date for founding of Rome

435 – Villa Publica in use

431 – Temple of Apollo Medicus dedicated

390 – Rome sacked by the Gauls

298–290 – Third Samnite War

296 – Temple of Bellona vowed

290/225 – Alternative dates for vowing of Temple of Feronia

264 – Commencement of First Punic War

260 – Temple of Janus vowed

258–249 – Temple of Spes vowed

242 – Temple of Juturna vowed

241 – End of First Punic War

241 – Temple of Juno Curitis constructed after this date

221 – Circus Flaminius constructed

220 – Via Flaminia constructed

218 – Temple of Hercules Magnus Custos constructed before this date

218 – Commencement of Second Punic War

214 – Temple of Vulcan constructed before this date

206 – Temple of Neptune known in the Circus Flaminius

201 – End of Second Punic War

200 – 196 Second Macedonian War

194 – Temple of Juno Sospita dedicated; before this date structures in Villa Publica in use

193 – Construction of Porticus Aemilia from the Porta Fontinalis to the Ara Martis

181 – Temple of Pietas dedicated

179 – Temples of Lares Permarini, Diana, and Juno Regina (Juno the Queen) dedicated; Temple to Hercules Musarum (Hercules of the Muses) underway or completed

173 – Temple of Fortuna Equestris dedicated

172–168 – Third Macedonian War

168 – Construction of Porticus Octavia (Portico of Octavius)

149–148 – Fourth Macedonian War

149–146 – Third Punic War

146 – Porticus Metelli constructed after this date by the temples of Jupiter Stator and Juno Regina

133 – Approximate construction date for Temple of Mars in Circus Flaminius

110 – Approximate construction date of the Porticus Minucia Vetus

101 – Temple of Fortuna Huiusce Diei vowed

100/70 – Alternative dates for construction of Temple of Castor and Pollux

90 – Temple of Juno Sospita restored

90–88 – Social Wars

60 – Beginning of First Triumvirate of J. Caesar, M. Crassus, and Gn. Pompey

58 – Temporary Theater of Scaurus constructed

55 – Theater of Pompey dedicated

53 – End of First Triumvirate

53 – Temporary Theatra Curionis constructed

46 – Naumachia Caesaris constructed

44 – Death of Julius Caesar

43 – Naumachia Caesaris filled in

43 – Second Triumvirate of Octavian, M. Lepidus, and M. Antony

42 – Temple of Neptune possibly rebuilt after this date

33 – End of Second Triumvirate

33 – Porticus Octavia rebuilt

32 – Octavian restores Theater of Pompey; Temple of Apollo Sosianus rebuilt after this date

31 – Defeat of Antony and Cleopatra at Battle of Actium

31 – Temple of Spes burned and restored

29 – Temple of Hercules Musarum restored and surrounded by Porticus Philippi; Amphitheater of Statilius Taurus dedicated

28 – Mausoleum of Augustus under construction

27 – Octavian given title of Augustus and Princeps

27/25 – Agrippa's Pantheon constructed

26 – Saepta Julia dedicated

25 – Baths of Agrippa begun; Stoa of Poseidon/Basilica of Neptune built

23 – Dedication of Porticus Octaviae and refurbishment of temples of Juno Regina and Jupiter Stator

19 – Aqua Virgo completed; Baths of Agrippa, Stagnum Agrippae, Euripus Virginis, and Euripus Thermarum Agrippae receive Virgo waters

13 – Theater of Balbus and Crypta Balbi dedicated

13/11 – Theater of Marcellus dedicated

10/9 – Horologium Augusti gnomon erected

9 – Ara Pacis dedicated

7 – Diribitorium completed

C.E.

14 – Death of Augustus

14–37 – Reign of Tiberius

19 – Approximate date of construction of commemorative arch to Germanicus in Circus Flaminius

21 – Theater of Pompey burned and repaired

37–41 – Reign of Caligula

37 – Temples to Isis and Serapis known to exist after this date

41–54 – Reign of Claudius

51–52 – Arch of Claudius across Via Flaminia constructed

54–68 – Reign of Nero

57 – Temporary Theater of Nero built

60 – Baths of Nero dedicated

64 – Burning of Amphitheater of Statilius Taurus

69–79 – Reign of Vespasian

79–81 – Reign of Titus

80 – Pantheon, Porticus Octaviae, Theater of Pompey scaenae frons, Baths of Agrippa, Basilica of Neptune, Saepta Julia, Diribitorium, Temple of Isis, Crypta Balbi, temples in Largo Argentina, and other Campus Martius structures burned

81–96 – Reign of Domitian

81 – After this date Divorum built, Porticus Octaviae and temples of Jupiter Stator and Juno Regina restored, Temple of Isis restored, Temple of Minerva Chalcidica built, Horologium Augusti rebuilt, Odeum constructed, Porticus Minucia Vetus restored, Stadium of Domitian built, Theater of Balbus and Crypta Balbi restored, Theater of Pompey restored, and Baths of Agrippa restored

96–98 – Reign of Nerva

98–117 – Reign of Trajan

117–38 – Reign of Hadrian

117 – After this date, Temple of Divine Matidia built, Basilica of Neptune restored, Pantheon rebuilt, Saepta Julia restored, Baths of Agrippa restored

138–61 – Reign of Antoninus Pius

145 – Temple to Divine Hadrian dedicated

161–80 – Reign of Marcus Aurelius

161 – After this date Column of Antoninus Pius erected

175 – After this date Column of Marcus Aurelius erected

180–93 – Reign of Commodus

193–211 – Reign of Septimius Severus

202 – Pantheon restored

203 – Porticus Octaviae and temples of Jupiter Stator and Juno Regina restored

209–11 – Restoration work on the Theater of Pompey

211–17 – Reign of Caracalla

218–22 – Reign of Elagabalus

222–35 – Reign of Alexander Severus

222 – After this date Aqua Alexandrina constructed; Stadium of Domitian restored

227 – Baths of Nero enlarged and renamed Baths of Alexander

238 – Reign of Gordian I and II

238–44 – Reign of Gordian III

244–249 – Reign of Philip the Arab

247 – Theater of Pompey and Hecatostylon burned

249–51 – Reign of Decius

251–53 – Reign of Gallus

253–60 – Reign of Valerian

253–68 – Reign of Gallienus

268–70 – Reign of Claudius Gothicus

270–75 – Reign of Aurelian

272 – Aurelian Wall begun before this date

276–82 – Reign of Probus

276 – After this date Aurelian Wall completed

283 – Fire destroys Theater of Pompey and Porticus of Pompey

284–305 – Reign of Diocletian

284 – After this date Theater of Pompey and Porticus of Pompey restored

306–12 – Reign of Maxentius

312–37 – Reign of Constantine

312 – After this date Aqua Virgo repaired

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