NOTES

I. The Murder of Germanicus Caesar

1. Tacitus, Annals, II, 73.

2. Tacitus, Annals, IV, 31.

3. Suetonius, Lives of the Caesars, IV, 4.

4. Josephus, Jewish Antiquities, 18.6.8.

5. Suetonius, Lives, IV, 5.

6. Tacitus, Annals, II, 82.

7. Ibid.

8. Suetonius, Lives, IV, 6.

9. Ibid., 3.

10. Cassius Dio, writing two hundred years later, stated that these were found at Germanicus’s palace. He was almost certainly using Tacitus as his source, as was Robert Graves in the fictional I, Claudius, and both made the same error. Tacitus, at Annals II, 69, does not specify exactly where this material was found. As Piso and Plancina had by this time left Syria, it would have been their palace, the provincial governor’s palace at Antioch, that was searched for evidence, as would be expected, not Germanicus’s palace at Daphne. At Annals III, 13, Tacitus writes of the sorcery and horrible sacrifices made by Piso and Plancina—he is saying they personally made these sacrifices, an impossibility at Germanicus’s palace at Daphne, which was occupied by Germanicus, his family, and, even when they were away, their loyal staff. In contrast, this would have been entirely possible, and logical, at their own Antioch palace.

11. Tacitus, Annals, II, 70.

12. Macinnis, Poisons; Mellan, Dictionary of Poisons; Thompson, Poisons and Poisoners.

13. Tacitus, Annals, II, 71.

14. Ibid.

15. Ibid., I, 33.

16. Ibid., II, 72.

17. See note 12.

18. Tacitus, Annals, II, 72.

19. Ibid.

20. Dio, Roman History, LVII, 18.

II. The Immediate Aftermath

1. Josephus, Antiquities, 18.6.8.

2. Suetonius, Lives, IV, 5.

3. Josephus, Antiquities, 18.6.8.

4. Suetonius, Lives, IV, 5.

5. Ibid., 6.

6. Dio, History, LVII, 18.

7. Tacitus, Annals, II, 73.

8. Suetonius, Lives, IV, 1.

9. Josephus, Antiquities, 18.2.5.

10. See chapter I, note 12.

11. Tacitus, Annals, II, 76.

12. Ibid.

13. Ibid., 79.

14. Ibid.

III. The Return to Rome

1. Tacitus, Annals, II, 81.

2. Ibid., 83.

3. Ibid., III, 1.

4. Suetonius, Lives, IV, 1.

5. Graves, I. Claudius, 20.

6. Tacitus, Annals, III, 1.

7. Ibid., 2.

8. Suetonius, Lives, IV, 4.

9. Dio, History, LVII, 18.

10. Tacitus, Annals, III, 3.

11. Ibid., 5.

12. Ibid., 3.

13. Suetonius, Lives, IV, 6.

14. Tacitus, Annals, III, 4.

15. Ibid.

16. Ibid., 6.

17. Ibid.

18. Ibid., 7.

IV. Piso Returns

1. Tacitus, Annals, III, 8.

2. Ibid.

3. Ibid.

4. Ibid., 9.

5. Ibid., 8.

V. Motives for Murder

1. Suetonius, Lives, IV, 2.

2. Plutarch, Lives, Mark Antony.

3. Suetonius, Lives, IV, 8.

4. Tacitus, Annals, I, 3.

5. Suetonius, Lives, III, 22.

6. Tacitus, Annals, II, 59.

7. Ibid., 59–61.

8. Ibid., 61.

9. Dio, History, LVII, 19.

10. Ibid.

11. Suetonius, Lives, IV, 6.

12. Ibid., 2.

13. Tacitus, Annals, I, 13.

14. Ibid., II, 54.

15. Ibid., 55.

16. Ibid.

17. Suetonius, Lives, IV, 2.

18. Tacitus, Annals, II, 57.

19. Ibid.

20. Ibid.

21. Dio, History, LVII, 18.

22. Tacitus, Annals, I, 33.

23. Graves, I, Claudius, 3.

24. Tacitus, Annals, I, 3.

25. Suetonius, Lives, III, 22.

26. Tacitus, Annals, I, 3.

27. Dio, History, LVII, 19.

28. Graves, I, Claudius, 21.

29. Tacitus, Annals, VI, 7.

VI. The Murder Trial Begins

1. Tacitus, Annals, II, 28, and V, 11.

2. Ibid., III, 10.

3. Ibid.

4. Dio, History, LVII, 18.

5. Tacitus, Annals, III, 11.

6. Ibid.

7. Ibid., II, 21.

8. Carcopino, Daily Life, IX, 1.

9. Tacitus. Annals, I, 13.

10. Ibid., IV, 20.

11. Ibid., III, 15.

12. Ibid., 16.

13. Ibid.

14. Suetonius, Lives, III, 68.

15. Tacitus, Annals, III, 12 (entire speech).

VII. Prosecution and Defense

1. Tacitus, Annals, III, 13.

2. Martial, VI, 35.

3. Tacitus, Annals, III, 13.

4. Ibid.

5. Ibid., 14.

6. Ibid., 15.

7. Ibid.

8. Ibid., 13–14.

9. Ibid., 15.

10. Ibid.

11. Ibid., 17.

12. Pliny the Younger, Epistles, II, 9, 23.

13. Tacitus, Annals, III, 14.

14. Ibid.

15. Ibid., 16.

16. Ibid.

17. Ibid.

18. Ibid.

19. Ibid.

20. Ibid., 17.

21. Ibid.

22. Ibid., 19.

VIII. Destroying the Family of Germanicus

1. Tacitus, Annals, III, 29.

2. Ibid., IV, 7.

3. Ibid., 11.

4. Ibid., 12.

5. Ibid.

6. Ibid.

7. Ibid.

8. Suetonius, Lives, II, 86.

9. Tacitus, Annals, I, 33.

10. Ibid.. IV, 12.

11. Ibid., 15.

12. Ibid., I, 69.

13. Ibid.

14. Ibid., IV, 17.

15. Ibid., 18.

16. Ibid., 19.

17. Ibid., 39.

18. Ibid., 53.

19. Ibid.

20. Ibid. Tacitus said that he found the story of this incident in the memoirs of Agrippina’s daughter, Agrippina the Younger.

21. Ibid.

22. Tacitus, Annals, IV, 70.

23. Dio, History, LVIII, 1.

24. Tacitus, Annals, IV, 70.

25. Ibid., V, 3.

26. Ibid.

27. Ibid., 4.

IX. The Downfall of Sejanus

1. Suetonius, Lives, III, 64.

2. Dio, History, LVIII, 3.

3. Ibid.

4. Ibid.

5. Ibid.

6. Tacitus, Annals, VI, 8.

7. Dio, History, LVIII, 10.

8. Suetonius, Lives, II, 65; Dio, History, VII, LVIII.

9. Josephus, Antiquities, 18.6.6.

10. Ibid.

11. Dio, History. LXV, 14.

12. Josephus, Antiquities, 18.6.6.

13. Suetonius, Lives, II, 65.

14. Ibid.

15. Dio, History, LVIII, 11.

16. Tacitus, Annals, V, 9.

17. Josephus, Antiquities, 18.6.6.

18. Dio, History, LVIII, 11.

19. Tacitus, Annals, VI, 3.

20. Josephus, Antiquities, 18.6.4–6.7.

X. The Germanicus Emperor

1. Tacitus, Annals, VI, 24.

2. Suetonius, Lives, III, 61.

3. Tacitus, Annals, VI, 25.

4. Suetonius, Lives, III, 66.

5. Tacitus, Annals, VI, 31.

6. Suetonius, Lives, IV, 10.

7. Philo, Embassy to Gaius, 40.

8. Suetonius, Lives, IV, 12.

9. Philo, Embassy to Gaius, 38.

10. Tacitus, Annals, VI, 50.

11. Suetonius, Lives, IV, 13.

12. Ibid., 14.

13. Ibid.

14. Ibid., 22.

15. Ibid., 51.

16. Philo, Embassy to Gaius, 61.

17. Suetonius, Lives, IV, 24.

18. Ibid., 53.

XI The Murder of Caligula

1. Tacitus, Annals, I, 32.

2. Josephus, Antiquities, 19.1.13.

3. Ibid.

4. Ibid., 19.1.14.

5. Suetonius, Lives, IV, 58.

6. Josephus, Antiquities, 19.1.14.

7. Suetonius, Lives, IV, 58.

8. Josephus, Antiquities, 19.1.14.

9. Suetonius, Lives, IV, 58.

10. Ibid.

11. Josephus, Antiquities, 19.1.14.

12. Suetonius, Lives, IV, 58.

13. Josephus, Antiquities, 19.1.14.

14. Dio, History, VII, LIX.

15. Josephus, Antiquities, 19.3.1.

16. Suetonius, Lives, V, 10.

17. Josephus, Antiquities, 19.3.1.

XII. The New Germanicus Emperor

1. Josephus, Antiquities, 19.3.1.

2. Ibid., 19.3.2.

3. Suetonius, Lives, V, 10.

4. Josephus, Antiquities, 19.2.4.

5. Josephus, who names Lupus (whose name means “wolf,” incidentally) at Antiquities 19.2.4, says that he was a tribune. The less reliable Suetonius, at Lives IV, 58, says he was a centurion.

6. Josephus, Antiquities, 19.1.20; Dio, History, LIX, 31.

7. Suetonius, Lives, IV, 60.

8. Josephus, Antiquities, 19.2.2.

9. Suetonius, Lives, V, 10.

10. Josephus, Antiquities, 19.4.3. Josephus, in error, refers to him as Marcus Minucianus.

11. Ibid., 19.4.5.

12. Dio, History, LX, 3.

13. Suetonius, Lives, V, 7.

XIII. The Murder of Claudius

1. Dio, History, LX, 3.

2. Tacitus, Annals, XII, 2.

3. Ibid., XI, 12.

4. Ibid., XII, 3.

5. Suetonius, Lives, V, 26.

6. Dio, History, LX, 8; LXI, 30.

7. Suetonius, Lives, VI, 7.

8. Josephus, Antiquities, 20.18.2.

9. Tacitus, Annals, XII, 42.

10. Ibid.

11. Ibid., XIII, 12.

12. Dio, History, LXI, 33.

13. Dio, History, LXI, 10.

14. Tacitus, Annals, XII, 65.

15. Ibid., 67.

16. Dio, History, LXI, 34.

17. Ibid.

18. Tacitus, Annals, XII, 67.

19. Gibbon, Decline and Fall, I, 1.

20. Tacitus, Annals, XII, 69.

XIV. The Murder of Britannicus

1. Tacitus, Annals, XIII, 2.

2. Dio, History, LXII, 11.

3. Tacitus, Annals, XIII, 13.

4. Dio, History, LXI, 34.

5. Tacitus, Annals, XIII, 14.

6. Ibid., 16.

XV. The Claims of Germanicus’s Quaestor

1. Tacitus, Annals XIII, 43.

2. Ibid., 42.

3. Ibid.

4. Dio, History, LXI, 10.

5. Ibid.

6. Tacitus, Annals, XIII, 43.

7. Dio, History, LXI, 10.

8. Tacitus, Annals, XIII, 43.

9. Ibid.

10. Ibid.

XVI. The Murder of Nero’s Mother

1. Plutarch, Lives, Galba.

2. Tacitus, Annals, XIV, 1.

3. Ibid., 2.

4. Ibid.

5. Suetonius, Lives, VI, 34.

6. Dio, History, LXII, 12.

7. Tacitus, Annals, XIV, 3.

8. Dio, History, LXII, 12.

9. Tacitus, Annals, XIV, 3.

10. Ibid., XV, 51.

11. Dio, History, LXII, 13.

12. Tacitus, Annals, XIV, 4.

13. Ibid., 5.

14. Ibid.

15. Ibid., 7.

16. Ibid.

17. Ibid.

18. Ibid.

19. Ibid.

20. Seneca, Agamemnon, 116.

21. Tacitus, Annals, XIV, 8.

22. Ibid.

23. Seneca, Octavia, 957.

24. Tacitus, Annals, XIV, 8.

25. Seneca, Octavia, 956.

26. Tacitus, Annals, XIV, 9.

27. Dio, History, LXII, 14.

28. Suetonius, Lives, VI, 34.

29. Tacitus, Annals, XIV, 9.

30. Ibid., 10.

31. Suetonius, Lives, VI, 34.

32. Tacitus, Annals, XIV, 10.

33. Ibid., 11.

34. Ibid.

XVII. Death for Burrus and Octavia

1. Suetonius, Lives, VI, 34.

2. Dio, History, LXII, 18.

3. Ibid.

4. Tacitus, Annals, XIV, 51.

5. Seneca, Octavia, 853.

6. Dio, Lives, LXII, 13.

7. Seneca, Octavia, 593–594.

8. Ibid.

9. Tacitus, Annals, XIV, 61.

10. Ibid., 62.

11. Seneca, Octavia, 859–860.

12. Ibid., 872–881.

13. Ibid., 918.

14. Tacitus, Annals, XIV, 64.

15. Ibid., 54.

XVIII. The Plot to Murder Nero

1. Tacitus, Annals, XV, 41.

2. Ibid., 53.

3. Ibid., 66.

4. Ibid.

5. Ibid., 60.

6. Ibid., 65.

7. Ibid., 61.

8. Ibid., 62.

9. Ibid.

10. Ibid.

11. Ibid., 63.

12. Ibid.

13. Dio, History, LXII, 25.

14. Suetonius, Lives, III, 73.

15. Dio, History, LXII, 25.

16. Tacitus, Annals, XV, 64.

17. Ibid.

XIX. The End of Nero

1. Suetonius, Lives, VI, 49; Dio, History, LXIII, 29.

2. Suetonius, Lives, VI, 50, 57.

3. Tacitus, Histories, II, 8.

4. Suetonius, Lives, VI, 57.

5. Tacitus, Histories, II, 8.

6. Suetonius, Lives, VI, 57.

XX. Unmasking Germanicus’s Murderers

1. Tacitus, Annals, I, 33.

XXI. How the Murder Was Carried Out

1. Seneca, Letters, LV.

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