Ancient History & Civilisation

NOTES

SEVEN HILLS OF ROME

1. Virgil, Georgics, Book 4. 8ff.

2. Ibid., 73–4.

3. Peter Jones and Keith Sidwell (eds), The World of Rome: An Introduction to Roman Culture (Cambridge, 1997), p. 7.

4. Polybius, Histories, Book 6. 52.

5. Livy, Book 1. 32.

I REVOLUTION

1. Polybius, Histories, Book 6. 54.

2. Ibid., 53.

3. Polybius, Histories, Book 1. 1.

4. Ibid., 20 & 59.

5. Livy, Book 21. 35.

6. Livy, Book 26. 11.

7. Peter Jones and Keith Sidwell (eds), The World of Rome: An Introduction to Roman Culture (Cambridge, 1997), pp. 20–1.

8. Appian, Roman History, Book 8. 116.

9. Polybius, Histories, Book 36. 9.

10. Sallust, Conspiracy of Catiline, 10.

11. Appian, Roman History, Book 8. 69; W.V. Harris, ‘Roman Expansion in the West’ in A.E. Astin, F.W. Walbank, M.W. Frederiksen and R.M. Ogilvie (eds), Cambridge Ancient History (Cambridge, 1989), vol. 8, p. 154.

12. Livy, Periochae, 47; W.V. Harris, ‘Roman Expansion in the West’ in A.E. Astin, F.W. Walbank, M.W. Frederiksen and R.M. Ogilvie (eds), Cambridge Ancient History (Cambridge, 1989), vol. 8, p. 149.

13. Appian, Roman History, Book 8. 81–3.

14. Polybius, Histories, Book 36. 2.

15. Polybius, Histories, Book 31. 23.

16. Plutarch, Life of Tiberius Gracchus, 2.

17. Isidore, Etymologies, 2. 21. 4; Jones and Sidwell, World of Rome, p. 106.

18. Appian, Roman History, Book 8. 128.

19. Ibid., 129–30.

20. Ibid., 130–31.

21. Homer, Iliad, Book 6. 448–9.

22. Appian, Roman History, Book 8. 132.

23. Plutarch, Life of Tiberius Gracchus, 4; Appian, Roman History, Book 8. 133.

24. Appian, Roman History, Book 8. 134.

25. Plutarch, Life of Tiberius Gracchus, 8; Mary Beard and Michael Crawford, Rome in the Late Republic: Problems and Interpretations (London, 1999), p. 55.

26. Beard and Crawford, Rome in the Late Republic, p. 14.

27. Sallust, Conspiracy of Catiline, preface passim.

28. Appian, The Civil Wars, Book 1. 7.

29. Beard and Crawford, Rome in the Late Republic, p. 68.

30. Livy, Periochae, 55.

31. Plutarch, Life of Tiberius Gracchus, 8.

32. Ibid., 5.

33. Ibid.; Appian, Roman History, Book 6. 80.

34. Cassius Dio, Book 24. 83; Cicero, de haruspicum responsis, 43.

35. Plutarch, Life of Tiberius Gracchus, 8.

36. Ibid., 9.

37. Appian, Civil Wars, Book 1. 11.

38. Cicero, pro Sestio, 103; Appian, Civil Wars, Book 1. 10.

39. Plutarch, Life of Tiberius Gracchus, 12.

40. Ibid., 14.

41. Ibid.

42. Ibid., 16.

43. Ibid., 17.

44. Ibid., 18–19.

45. Ibid., 19.

II CAESAR

1. Cassius Dio, Book 43. 44.

2. Mary Beard and Michael Crawford, Rome in the Late Republic: Problems and Interpretations (London, 1999), p. 5.

3. Valerius Maximus, Book 6. 2.

4. Plutarch, Life of Caesar, 4; Suetonius, Life of the Deified Julius Caesar, 45.

5. Plutarch, Caesar, 4.

6. Suetonius, Deified Julius Caesar, 10.

7. Cicero, To Atticus, 2. 1.

8. Plutarch, Caesar, 13.

9. Suetonius, Deified Julius Caesar, 18.

10. Ibid., 22.

11. Cicero, To Atticus, 2. 19.

12. Cicero, On the Consular Provinces, 33.

13. Caesar, Commentaries on the Gallic War, Book 1. 14.

14. Ibid., 1.

15. Caesar, Gallic War, Book 4. 17.

16. Caesar, Gallic War, Book 7. 1; Cassius Dio, Book 39. 53.

17. Suetonius, Deified Julius Caesar, 26.

18. Sallust, War with Jugurtha, 86.

19. Plutarch, Life of Pompey,52.

20. Ibid., 53.

21. Sallust, Histories, Book 4. 69. 18: ‘Only a few prefer liberty, the majority seek nothing more than fair masters.’

22. Plutarch, Pompey, 54.

23. Letter from Caelius to Cicero in Cicero, Letters to Friends, 8. 1.

24. Caesar, Gallic War, Book 7. 1.

25. Ibid., 4.

26. Ibid., 8.

27. Plutarch, Caesar, 25.

28. Caesar, Gallic War, Book 7. 71.

29. Plutarch, Caesar, 15.

30. Caesar, Gallic War, Book 7. 86.

31. Plutarch, Caesar, 27.

32. Caesar, Gallic War, Book 7. 88.

33. Suetonius, Deified Julius Caesar, 25.

34. Plutarch, Caesar, 27.

35. Suetonius, Deified Julius Caesar, 26.

36. Caesar, Gallic War, Book 3. 10.

37. Letter from Caelius to Cicero in Cicero, To Friends, 8. 5.

38. Plutarch, Pompey, 55.

39. Letter from Caelius to Cicero in Cicero, To Friends, 8. 8.

40. Plutarch, Pompey, 57.

41. Ibid.

42. Letter from Caelius to Cicero in Cicero, To Friends, 8. 14.

43. Appian, The Civil Wars, Book 2. 30.

44. Ibid., 31; Cicero, To Atticus, 7. 8.

45. Caesar, The Civil War, Book 1. 1.

46. Appian, Civil Wars, Book 2. 32.

47. Ibid., 33.

48. Plutarch, Caesar, 32.

49. Ibid., 32; Appian, Civil Wars, Book 2. 35.

50. Suetonius, Deified Julius Caesar, 32.

51. Letter from Caesar to Cicero in Cicero, To Atticus, 9. 7.

52. Cicero, To Atticus, 8. 13

53. Cassius Dio, Book 41. 5.

54. Plutarch, Caesar, 33.

55. Lucan, Civil War, Book 2. 22ff.

56. Plutarch, Pompey, 61.

57. Cicero, To Atticus, 8. 2; 9. 18.

58. Plutarch, Caesar, 34; Cicero, To Friends, 14. 8; Cassius Dio, Book 41. 9.

59. Caesar, Civil War, Book 1. 26.

60. Ibid., 26.

61. Ibid., 26–8.

62. Ibid., 29; Plutarch, Caesar, 35.

63. Lucan, Civil War, Book 3. 110ff.

64. Caesar, Civil War, Book 1. 32–3.

65. Plutarch, Caesar, 35.

66. Caesar, Civil War, Book 3. 3.

67. Suetonius, Deified Julius Caesar, 58.

68. Caesar, Civil War, Book 3. 48.

69. Plutarch, Caesar, 41.

70. Ibid., 41.

71. Caesar, Civil War, Book 3. 85; Plutarch, Pompey, 68.

72. Lucan, Civil War, Book 7. 257ff; Plutarch, Caesar, 42.

73. Lucan, Civil War, Book 7. 319ff.

74. Caesar, Civil War, Book 3. 91.

75. Plutarch, Caesar, 45.

76. Plutarch, Pompey, 72.

77. Caesar, Civil War, Book 3. 99; Plutarch, Caesar, 46; Suetonius, Deified Julius Caesar, 75.

78. Plutarch, Pompey, 80; Plutarch, Caesar, 48.

79. Plutarch, Caesar, 67.

AUGUSTUS

1. Suetonius, Life of the Deified Augustus, 79.

2. Suetonius, Life of the Deified Julius Caesar, 88.

3. Suetonius, Deified Augustus, 10.

4. Cassius Dio, Book 47. 3; Appian, The Civil Wars, Book 4. 5. For other acts of savagery by Augustus, see also Suetonius, Deified Augustus, 15.

5. Cassius Dio, Book 51. 1.

6. Suetonius, Deified Augustus, 35; Cassius Dio, Book 54. 18.

7. Suetonius, Deified Augustus, 101.

8. Keith Hopkins, ‘Taxes and Trade in the Roman Empire (200 BC to AD 400)’, Journal of Roman Studies 70 (1980), pp. 101–25.

9. Suetonius, Deified Augustus, 23.

10. Augustus, My Achievements, 26.

11. Suetonius, Deified Augustus, 28.

12. Ibid., 29.

13. Ibid., 30.

14. Suetonius, Life of the Deified Claudius, 21.

15. Suetonius, Deified Augustus, 69.

16. Ibid., 99.

17. Strabo, Geography, Book 5. 3. 9.

III NERO

1. Peter Jones and Keith Sidwell (eds), The World of Rome: An Introduction to Roman Culture (Cambridge, 1997), p. 60.

2. Miriam Griffin, Nero: The End of a Dynasty (London, 1984), pp. 189ff.

3. David Shotter, Nero (London, 2005), p. 5.

4. Seneca, The Pumpkinification of the Divine Claudius, 10.3 – 14.1.

5. Tacitus, The Annals of Imperial Rome, Book 12. 68.

6. Suetonius, Life of Nero, 28.

7. Tacitus, Annals, Book 13. 14.

8. Ibid., 16.

9. Tacitus, Annals, Book 14. 1.

10. Seneca, On Clemency, 1. 1. 2.

11. Griffin, Nero, p. 66.

12. Suetonius, Nero, 26.

13. Ibid., 20; Pliny the Elder, Natural History, Book 19. 108; Book 28. 237.

14. Cornelius Nepos, Lives, preface; Tacitus, Annals, Book 14. 20; Griffin, Nero, p. 41.

15. Cassius Dio, Book 61. 17.

16. Cassius Dio, Book 62. 13.

17. Tacitus, Annals, Book 14. 56.

18. Cassius Dio, Book 62. 28.

19. Tacitus, Annals, Book 14. 60.

20. Cassius Dio, Book 62. 15.

21. Suetonius, Nero, 31; Tacitus, Annals, Book 15. 42.

22. Suetonius, Nero, 31.

23. Martial, Book on the Spectacles, 2. 4; Suetonius, Nero, 39; Suetonius, Life of the Deified Vespasian, 9.

24. Tacitus, Annals, Book 15. 44.

25. Ibid., 45.

26. Suetonius, Nero, 31.

27. Griffin, Nero, pp. 205ff.

28. Tacitus, Annals, Book 15. 58.

29. Ibid., 66.

30. Tacitus, Annals, Book 16. 5.

31. Cassius Dio, Book 62. 28.

32. Cassius Dio, Book 63. 1.

33. Griffin, Nero, p. 205.

34. Cassius Dio, Book 62. 28.

35. Tacitus, Histories, Book 2. 8. This shows how Nero remained popular with ordinary Roman citizens across the empire even after his death; the succession of people who falsely claimed to be the dead emperor were greeted with excitement.

36. Cassius Dio, Book 63. 12.

37. Ibid., 18.

38. Ibid., 13; Suetonius, Nero, 28.

39. Mary Beard, The Parthenon (London, 2002), p. 108.

40. Cassius Dio, Book 63. 21.

41. Suetonius, Nero, 41.

42. Ibid., 44.

43. Pliny the Elder, Natural History, Book 18. 35.

44. Suetonius, Nero, 47.

45. Tacitus, Histories, Book 1. 72.

46. Suetonius, Nero, 48.

47. Ibid., 49.

48. Tacitus, Histories, Book 1. 16.

49. Law on the Power of Vespasian, in Hermann Dessau (ed), Inscriptiones Latinae Selectae (Berlin, 1892-1916.) no. 244, AD 69/70.

50. Griffin, Nero, p. 207.

IV REBELLION

1. E. Mary Smallwood (ed.), The Jewish War (London, 1981), p. 463.

2. Martin Goodman, The Ruling Class of Judaea: The Origins of the Jewish Revolt Against Rome, AD 66–70 (Cambridge, 1987), p. 115.

3. The Acts of the Apostles 25:22ff; G. Woolf (ed.), The Cambridge Illustrated History of the Roman World, (Cambridge, 2003), p. 350.

4. Josephus, The Jewish War, Book 2. 266.

5. Barbara Levick, Vespasian (London, 1999), p. 25; Josephus, Jewish War, Book 2. 197.

6. Cicero, On the Manilian Law, 65.

7. Woolf, Illustrated History of the Roman World, p. 350.

8. Neil Faulkner, Apocalypse: The Great Jewish Revolt Against Rome, AD 66–73 (Stroud, 2002), pp. 47–50. Faulkner estimates that the Jewish peasants paid not less than 15 per cent of their annual income to the Romans (p. 61).

9. Cassius Dio, Book 63. 22; Pliny the Elder, Natural History, Book 18. 35.

10. Josephus, Jewish War, Book 2. 277.

11. Ibid., 326.

12. Ibid., 342ff.

13. Ibid., 546ff; Fergus Millar, The Roman Near East, 31 BC – AD 337 (Cambridge, Mass.; London, 1993), p. 71.

14. Josephus, Jewish War, Book 2. 562.

15. Goodman, Ruling Class of Judaea, p. 177.

16. Suetonius, Life of the Deified Vespasian, 10 & 4.

17. Ibid., 1 & 4; Tacitus, Histories, Book 2. 76.

18. Suetonius, Life of the Deified Titus, 3 & 8.

19. Josephus, Jewish War, Book 2. 585.

20. Ibid., 614.

21. Tacitus, Histories, Book 5. 11.

22. Josephus, Jewish War, Book 3. 62.

23. Ibid., 406 & 135.

24. Ibid., 245.

25. Ibid., 383.

26. Ibid., 403.

27. Ibid., 536.

28. Josephus, Jewish War, Book 4. 121ff.

29. Ibid., 318.

30. Goodman, Ruling Class of Judaea, p. 180.

31. Tacitus, Histories, Book 1. 4.

32. Suetonius, Life of Vitellius, 16–17.

33. Goodman, Ruling Class of Judaea, p. 231ff.

34. Josephus, Jewish War, Books 5–7. These give the full account of the siege of Jerusalem which took place between March and September AD 70.

35. Josephus, Jewish War, Book 5. 451.

36. Ibid., 365.

37. Ibid., 466ff.

38. Ibid., 503.

39. Josephus, Jewish War, Book 6. 110.

40. Ibid., 241.

41. Ibid., 316.

42. Ibid., 333ff.

HADRIAN

1. Pliny the Younger, Panegyric, 4.

2. Cassius Dio, Book 68. 29.

3. Cassius Dio, Book 69. 2.

4. Danny Danziger and Nicholas Purcell, Hadrian’s Empire: When Rome Ruled the World (London, 2005) p. 15. A contemporary description of Hadrian’s character.

5. Imperial History, Life of Hadrian, 11.

6. Danziger and Purcell, Hadrian’s Empire, p. 178.

7. Ibid., p. 177.

8. Pliny the Younger, Letters, 1. 10. 9.

9. Imperial History, Life of Hadrian, 19.

10. Tacitus, Agricola, 21.

11. Cassius Dio, Book 69. 8.

12. Robin Lane Fox, The Classical World: An Epic History from Homer to Hadrian (London, 2005), p. 595.

V CONSTANTINE

1. Pliny the Younger, Letters, 10. 96.

2. Ibid.

3. Peter Brown, The Rise of Western Christendom (Oxford, 2002), pp. 18ff; Keith Hopkins, Journal of Early Christian Studies 6 (1998), pp. 185–226.

4. Mary Beard, John North and Simon Price, Religions of Rome (Cambridge, 1998), vol. 1, p. 365.

5. Averil Cameron, The Later Roman Empire (London, 1993), pp.33–7.

6. Ibid., p. 42.

7. Peter Jones and Keith Sidwell (eds), The World of Rome: An Introduction to Roman Culture (Cambridge, 1997), pp. 172–4.

8. Eusebius, Church History, Book 8. 2; Cameron, Later Roman Empire, p. 44.

9. Cameron, Later Roman Empire, p. 32.

10. Lactantius, On the Deaths of the Persecutors, 24; Zosimus, New History, Book 2. 8. For Constantine’s physical appearance see Eusebius, Life of Constantine, Book 1. 19.

11. Lactantius, Deaths of the Persecutors, 44; Zosimus, New History, Book 2. 14.

12. Eusebius, Church History, Book 8. 16.

13. Inscription from the Arch of Constantine in Rome; Eusebius, Life of Constantine, Book 1. 27.

14. Eusebius, Life of Constantine, Book 1. 34–6.

15. Cameron, Later Roman Empire, p. 7; Beard, North and Price, Religions of Rome, vol. 1, p. 364.

16. Latin Panegyrics, 9 (12). 3. 3 & 5. 1–2. Zosimus (New History, Book 2. 15) gives even more inflated battle figures: 170,000 infantry and 18,000 cavalry for Maxentius versus 90,000 infantry and 8,000 cavalry for Constantine.

17. Lactantius, Divine Institutes, 1.

18. Eusebius, Life of Constantine, Book 1. 37; Lactantius, Deaths of the Persecutors, 44.

19. Zosimus, New History, Book 2. 15; Eusebius, Life of Constantine, Book 1. 38.

20. Eusebius, Life of Constantine, Book 1. 28; Sozomen, Church History, Book 1. 3.

21. For modern interpretations of the sign see Averil Cameron and Stuart G. Hall, Eusebius: Life of Constantine (Oxford, 1999), pp. 207–10.

22. Latin Panegyrics, 7 (6). 21.

23. Eusebius, Life of Constantine, Book 1. 30.

24. Zosimus, New History, Book 2. 16.

25. Eusebius, Life of Constantine, Book 1. 39. The distribution of money by the soldiers to the people of Rome is recorded on reliefs on the Arch of Constantine.

26. Latin Panegyrics, 12 (9). 19; Zosimus, New History, Book 2. 29; Eusebius (Life of Constantine, Book 1. 48) gives 315 (the date of his return to Rome to celebrate his ten-year anniversary of being emperor) and not 312 as the date when Constantine made no pagan sacrifices in Rome.

27. Timothy Barnes, Constantine and Eusebius (Cambridge, Mass.; London, 1981), pp. 44ff.

28. Lactantius, Deaths of the Persecutors, 48.

29. Ibid., 46.

30. Eusebius, Church History, Book 10. 7.

31. Beard, North and Price, Religions of Rome, vol. 1, p. 369.

32. Ibid., pp. 368–9.

33. Corpus Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum Latinorum (CSEL), vol. 26, no. 206.

34. Beard, North and Price, Religions of Rome, vol. 1, p. 370.

35. Cameron, Later Roman Empire, p. 8.

36. Eusebius, Life of Constantine, Book 1. 49–50.

37. Zosimus, New History, Book 2. 18-20.

38. Eusebius, Life of Constantine, Book 4. 29; Cameron, Later Roman Empire, p. 57.

39. Eusebius, Life of Constantine, Book 4. 28.

40. Peter Heather, ‘Senators and Senates’ in Averil Cameron and Peter Garnsey (eds), Cambridge Ancient History (Cambridge, 1997), vol. 13, pp. 184–210.

41. Philostorgius, Ecclesiastical History, Book 5. 2.

42. Eusebius, Life of Constantine, Book 2. 2.

43. Lactantius, Divine Institutes, 1; Eusebius, Life of Constantine, Book 2. 3.

44. Eusebius, Life of Constantine, Book 2. 4.

45. Ibid., 5.

46. Ibid., 4; Zosimus, New History, Book 2. 22.

47. Eusebius, Life of Constantine, Book 2. 12.

48. Ibid., 16.

49. Ibid., 18.

50. Zosimus, New History, Book 2. 28.

51. Ibid.

52. Eusebius, Life of Constantine, Book 2. 24–42.

53. Beard, North and Price, Religions of Rome, vol. 1, pp. 372–5, 382; Naphtali Lewis and Meyer Reinhold (eds), Roman Civilization: Selected Readings (New York, 1990), vol 2, no. 180; Cameron, Later Roman Empire, p. 57.

54. Eusebius, Life of Constantine, Book 3. 10.

55. Beard, North and Price, Religions of Rome, vol. 1, p. 371.

56. Cameron, Later Roman Empire, pp. 63–4.

VI FALL

1. The case for this view has been made most recently and most persuasively by Peter Heather in The Fall of the Roman Empire (London, 2005).

2. The principal account of the Goths seeking refuge in Roman empire in AD 376 is in Ammianus Marcellinus, Book 31 – the most detailed and lively narrative of the period AD 354–376.

3. Ammianus Marcellinus, Book 31. 2.

4. Ibid., 4; Heather, Fall of the Roman Empire, p. 158.

5. Ammianus Marcellinus, Book 31. 4.

6. Ibid., 12.

7. Heather, Fall of the Roman Empire, pp. 72–3.

8. Claudian, Against Rufinus, 2. 4–6; Heather, Fall of the Roman Empire, p. 217.

9. Zosimus, New History, Book 5, 29; Heather, Fall of the Roman Empire, pp. 215–16.

10. Zosimus, New History, Book 5. 29. Zosimus was a sixth-century east Roman historian and Books 5 and 6 in his New History give, relatively speaking, the most comprehensive account of events leading up to the sack of Rome in AD 410; most importantly, he made use of the contemporary histories of Eunapius and Olympiodorus, which today are only fragmentary.

11. Ibid.

12. Ibid., 32.

13. Heather, Fall of the Roman Empire, pp. 67–72.

14. Zosimus, New History, Book 5. 14.

15. Ibid., 33.

16. Ibid., 34.

17. Ibid.

18. Ibid., 35.

19. Ibid., 34 (following Olympiodorus, Histories, fragment 17).

20. Ibid., 39.

21. Ibid., 40.

22. Ibid., 41.

23. Ibid., 45.

24. Ibid., 46.

25. Heather, Fall of the Roman Empire, p. 227.

26. Zosimus, New History, Book 6. 1.

27. Heather, Fall of the Roman Empire, p. 222.

28. Zosimus, New History, Book 5. 48.

29. Ibid., 48–9.

30. Ibid., 50.

31. Ibid., 51.

32. Heather, Fall of the Roman Empire, pp. 228–9.

33. Sozomen, Church History, Book 9. 9; an alternative story is told by Procopius in History of the Wars, Book 3. 2. 7–39.

34. Heather, Fall of the Roman Empire, p. 227.

35. The sources for Alaric’s sack of Rome are collated in Pierre Courcelle, Histoire littéraire des grandes invasions germaniques (Paris, 1964), pp. 45–55.

36. Jerome, Commentary on Ezekiel, Book 1, preface.

37. Augustine, City of God, Book 2. 29; Heather, Fall of the Roman Empire, pp. 229–32.

38. Heather, Fall of the Roman Empire, pp. 246–8.

39. Ibid., pp. 138–40.

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