SUGGESTED READINGS

These items, all in English, have been selected from the vast and international bibliography on Roman history to suit, it is hoped, the needs and interests of readers new to the subject. The lists include, first, primary sources (“Ancient Texts” and “Collections of Ancient Sources”) and, then, secondary sources (“Modern Studies”). Some of the modern studies assume that readers have substantially more than an introductory knowledge of Roman history, but they are included because their main interpretative conclusions should be accessible to readers willing to persevere.

The ancient texts available in English translation and the modern works cited in parentheses in the text are also included.

ANCIENT TEXTS

Titles of works listed are those of the translations listed here, which often are not word-for-word translations of the original titles. The translations have been selected for readability and, when possible, price.

Acts of Paul and Thecla. In J. K. Elliott, The Apocryphal New Testament: A Collection of Apocryphal Christian Literature in English Translation. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993.

Ammianus Marcellinus. The Later Roman Empire: A.D. 354–378. Trans. Walter Hamilton. New York: Penguin, 1986.

Apicius. Cookery and Dining in Imperial Rome. Trans. Joseph Dommers Vehling. Mineola: Dover, 1977.

Appian. The Civil Wars. Trans. John Carter. New York: Penguin, 1996.

Apuleius. The Golden Ass. Trans. P. G. Walsh. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.

Athanasius. The Life of Antony and the Letter to Marcellinus. Trans. Robert C. Gregg. New York: Paulist Press, 1980.

Athenaeus. The Learned Banqueters. Trans. S. Douglas Olson. 7 vols. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2006–2010.

Augustine. City of God. Trans. Henry Bettenson. New York: Penguin, 2003.

———. Confessions. Trans. Henry Chadwick. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.

———. Letters. The Works of St. Augustine: A Translation for the 21st Century. Vol. 4. Letters 211-270, 1*–29*. Brooklyn: New City Press, 2005.

———. Sermons on Selected Lessons of the New Testament. In A Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church. Vol. 6. New York: The Christian Literature Co., 1888.

Augustus. Res Gestae Divi Augusti: Text, Translation, and Commentary. Trans. Alison E. Cooley. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.

Babcock, Charles L. “An Inscription of Trajan Decius from Cosa.” American Journal of Philology 83 (1962): 147–158.

Caesar, Julius. The Civil War. Trans. J. M. Carter. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.

———. The Gallic War. Trans. Carolyn Hammond. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.

Cassiodorus. Variae. Trans. S. J. B. Barnish. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1992.

Cassius Dio. The Reign of Augustus. Trans. Ian Scott-Kilvert. New York: Penguin, 1987.

———. Roman History. Trans. Earnest Cary. 9 vols. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1914–1927.

Catullus. The Complete Poems. Trans. Guy Lee. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.

Celsus. On the True Doctrine: A Discourse Against the Christians. Trans. R. Joseph Hoffman. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987.

Cicero. Letters to Quintus and Brutus; Letter Fragments; Letter to Octavian; Invectives; Handbook of Electioneering. Trans. D. R. Shackleton Bailey. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2002.

———. The Nature of the Gods. Trans. P. G. Walsh. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.

———. On the Good Life. Trans. Michael Grant. New York: Penguin, 1971.

———. On Government (Against Verres II.5, For Murena, For Balbus, On the State III, On Laws III, Brutus, Philippics IV, V, X). Trans. Michael Grant. New York: Penguin, 1993.

———. On Obligations: De Officiis. Trans. P. G. Walsh. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.

———. Political Speeches. Trans. D. H. Berry. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.

———. The Republic and The Laws. Trans. Niall Rudd. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.

———. Selected Letters. Trans. P. G. Walsh. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.

Cyprian. On the Church: Select Letters. St. Cyprian of Carthage. Trans. Allen Brent. Crest-wood: St. Vladimir’s Seminary Press, 2006.

Dionysius of Halicarnassus. Roman Antiquities. Trans. Earnest Cary. 7 vols. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1937–1950.

Eusebius. The Church History. Trans. Paul L. Maier. Grand Rapids: Kregel, 2007.

———. Life of Constantine. Trans. Averil Cameron and Stuart G. Hall. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Gaius. Institutes. Trans. W. M. Gordon and O. F. Robinson. London: Duckworth, 1997.

Herodian. History of the Roman Empire since Marcus Aurelius. Trans. Edward C. Echols. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1961.

Horace. The Complete Odes and Epodes. Trans. David West. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.

———. The Satires of Horace and Persius. Trans. Niall Rudd. New York: Penguin, 2005.

Ignatius of Antioch. The Epistles of St. Clement of Rome and St. Ignatius of Antioch. Trans. James A. Kleist, S.J. Westminster, MD.: The Newman Bookshop, 1946.

Jerome. Letters and Select Works. A Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church. Second series, vol. 6. New York: The Christian Literature Co., 1893.

John the Lydian. De Magistratibus: On the Magistracies of the Roman Constitution. Trans. T. F. Carney. Lawrence: Coronado, 1971.

John Philoponus. Against Aristotle, on the Eternity of the World. Trans. Christian Wildberg. London: Duckworth, 1987.

Josephus. The Jewish War. Trans. G. A. Williamson. Rev. ed. New York: Penguin, 1981.

Julian. The Works of the Emperor Julian. Trans. Wilmer Cave Wright. 3 vols. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1962–1980.

Justinian. The Digest of Justinian. Ed. Alan Watson. Rev. ed. 4 vols. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2009.

———. Justinian’s Institutes. Trans. Peter Birks and Grant McLeod. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1987.

Juvenal. The Satires. Trans. Niall Rudd. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.

Lactantius. Divine Institutes. Trans. Anthony Bowen and Peter Garnsey. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2003.

Lives of the Later Caesars: The First Part of the Augustan History, with Newly Compiled Lives of Nerva and Trajan. Trans. Anthony Birley. New York: Penguin, 1976.

Livy. The Early History of Rome: Books I–V of From the Foundation of the City. Trans. Aubrey de Sélincourt. New York: Penguin, 2002.

———. Hannibal’s War (Books Twenty-One to Thirty of From the Foundation of the City). Trans. J. C. Yardley. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.

———. Rome and Italy, Books VI–X of From the Foundation of the City. Trans. Betty Radice. New York: Penguin, 1982.

———. Rome and the Mediterranean, Books XXXI–XLV of From the Foundation of the City. Trans. Henry Bettenson. New York: Penguin, 1976.

Lucan. Civil War. Trans. Susan Braund. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.

Macrobius. Saturnalia. Trans. Robert A. Kaster. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2011.

Marcus Aurelius. Meditations. Trans. Martin Hammond. New York: Penguin, 2006.

Origen. Contra Celsum. Trans. Henry Chadwick. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980.

Orosius. Seven Books of History Against the Pagans. Trans. A. T. Fear. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2010.

Ovid. The Erotic Poems. Trans. Peter Green. New York: Penguin, 1982.

———. Metamorphoses. Trans. A. D. Melville. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.

Perpetua. What Would You Die For? Perpetua’s Passion. Ed. Joseph J. Walsh. Baltimore: Apprentice House, 2006.

Petronius. The Satyricon. Trans. P. G. Walsh. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.

Pliny the Younger. Complete Letters. Trans. P. G. Walsh. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.

Plotinus. The Essential Plotinus: Representative Treatises from the Enneads. Trans. Elmer O’Brien. Indianapolis: Hackett, 1964.

Plutarch. The Fall of the Roman Republic. Trans. Rex Warner. New York: Penguin, 2006.

———. The Makers of Rome. Trans. Ian Scott-Kilvert. New York: Penguin, 2004.

———. Roman Lives. Trans. Robin Waterfield. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.

Polybius. The Histories. Trans. Robin Waterfield. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.

Procopius. History of the Wars, Secret History, and Buildings. Trans. H. B. Dewing. 7 vols. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1914–1940.

———. The Secret History. Trans. G. A. Williamson and Peter Sarris. Rev. ed. New York: Penguin, 2007.

Sallust. Catiline’s Conspiracy, The Jugurthine War, Histories. Trans. William W. Batstone. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.

Seneca. Moral and Political Essays. Trans. J. F. Procopé and John M. Cooper. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Sima Qian. Records of the Grand Historian: Han Dynasty II. Trans. Burton Watson. Rev. ed. Hong Kong: Columbia University Press, 1993.

Socrates. Church History. A Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church. Second series, vol. 2. New York: The Christian Literature Co., 1890.

Suetonius. Lives of the Caesars. Trans. Catharine Edwards. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.

Symmachus. Prefect and Emperor: The Relationes of Symmachus, A.D. 384. Trans. R. H. Barrow. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1973.

Tacitus. Agricola and Germany. Trans. Anthony Birley. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.

———. Agricola, Germany, and the Dialogue on Orators. Trans. Herbert W. Benario. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1991.

———. The Annals: The Reigns of Tiberius, Claudius, and Nero. Trans. J. C. Yardley. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.

———. The Histories. Trans. W. H. Fyfe and D. S. Levene. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.

Tertullian. Apology, De spectaculis. Trans. T. R. Glover. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1931.

The Theodosian Code and Novels, and the Sirmondian Constitutions. Trans. Clyde Pharr. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1952.

Valerius Maximus. Memorable Deeds and Sayings: A Thousand Tales from Ancient Rome. Trans. Henry John Walker. Indianapolis: Hackett, 2004.

Vegetius. Epitome of Military Science. Trans. N. P. Milner. 2d. ed. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1996.

Velleius Paterculus. The Roman History: From Romulus and the Foundation of Rome to the Reign of the Emperor Tiberius. Trans. J. C. Yardley and Anthony A. Barrett. Indianapolis: Hackett, 2011.

Vergil. The Aeneid of Vergil. Trans. Sarah Ruden. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009.

Zosimus. New History. Trans. Ronald T. Ridley. Canberra: Australian Association for Byzantine Studies, 1982.

COLLECTIONS OF ANCIENT SOURCES

Beard, Mary, John North, and Simon Price, eds. Religions of Rome. Vol. 2. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Burstein, Stanley M., trans. The Hellenistic Age from the Battle of Ipsos to the Death of Kleopatra VII. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.

Campbell, Brian, ed. The Roman Army 31 BC–AD 337: A Sourcebook. London: Routledge, 1994.

Cherry, David, ed. The Roman World: A Sourcebook. Malden: Blackwell, 2001.

Dillon, Matthew and Lynda Garland, eds. Ancient Rome: From the Early Republic to the Assassination of Julius Caesar. London: Routledge, 2005.

Drew, Katherine Fischer, trans. The Laws of the Salian Franks. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1991.

Frier, Bruce W. and Thomas A. J. McGinn, eds. A Casebook on Roman Family Law. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Grubbs, Judith Evans, ed. Women and the Law in the Roman Empire: A Sourcebook on Marriage, Divorce and Widowhood. London: Routledge, 2002.

Futrell, Alison, ed. The Roman Games: A Sourcebook. Malden: Blackwell, 2006.

Hope, Valerie M., ed. Death in Ancient Rome: A Sourcebook. London: Routledge, 2007.

Hyamson, H. Mosaicarum et romanarum legum collatio. London: Oxford University Press, 1913.

Kraemer, Ross Shepard, ed. Women’s Religions in the Greco-Roman World: A Sourcebook. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Lee, A. D., ed. Pagans and Christians in Late Antiquity: A Sourcebook. London: Routledge, 2000.

Levick, Barbara, ed. The Government of the Roman Empire: A Sourcebook. London: Routledge, 2000.

Lewis, Naphtali and Meyer Reinhold, eds. Roman Civilization: Selected Readings. 3d. ed. Vol. 1: The Republic and The Augustan Age. Vol. 2: The Empire. New York: Columbia University Press, 1990.

Maas, Michael, ed. Readings in Late Antiquity: A Sourcebook. 2d. ed. London: Routledge, 2010.

MacMullen, Ramsay and Eugene N. Lane, eds. Paganism and Christianity, 100–425 C.E.: A Sourcebook. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1992.

Mahoney, Anne, ed. Roman Sports and Spectacles: A Sourcebook. Newburyport: Focus, 2001.

Musurillo, Herbert, trans. The Acts of the Christian Martyrs. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1972.

Pollitt, J. J., ed. The Art of Rome, c. 753 B.C.–A.D. 337. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983.

Ridley, Ronald T. History of Rome: A Documented Analysis. Rome: L’Erma di Bretschneider, 1987.

Roberts, C. H. and E. G. Turner, eds. Catalogue of the Greek and Latin Papyri in the John Ry-lands Library, Manchester. 4 vols. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1911–1952.

Sage, Michael M., ed. The Republican Roman Army: A Sourcebook. London: Routledge, 2008.

Shelton, Jo-Ann, ed. As The Romans Did: A Sourcebook in Roman Social History. 2d. ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Warmington, E. H., trans. Remains of Old Latin. 4 vols. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1956–1961.

MODERN STUDIES

Adkins, Lesley and Roy A. Adkins. Handbook to Life in Ancient Rome. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Ando, Clifford. Imperial Ideology and Provincial Loyalty in the Roman Empire. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000.

———. The Matter of the Gods: Religion and the Roman Empire. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2008.

Badian, Ernst. Foreign Clientelae (264–70 B.C.). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1958; reprint with corrections, 1984.

Barrett, Anthony. Caligula: The Corruption of Power. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1990.

Beard, Mary. The Roman Triumph. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2007.

Bennett, Julian. Trajan: Optimus Princeps. London: Routledge, 2001.

Birley, Anthony R. Marcus Aurelius, A Biography. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1987.

———. Hadrian: The Restless Emperor. London: Routledge, 1997.

———. Septimius Severus: The African Emperor. London: Routledge, 1999.

Bishop, M. C. and J. C. N. Coulson. Roman Military Equipment: From the Punic Wars to the Fall of Rome. Oxford: Oxbow Books, 2006.

Bonfante, Larissa, ed. Etruscan Life and Afterlife: A Handbook of Etruscan Studies. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1986.

Boswell, John. Same-Sex Unions in Premodern Europe. New York: Villard Books, 1994.

Bowersock, G. W., Peter Brown, and Oleg Grabar, eds. Late Antiquity: A Guide to the Postclassical World. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1999.

Bradley, Keith. Slavery and Society at Rome. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

Brown, Peter. The World of Late Antiquity: AD 150–750. New York: W. W. Norton, 1971.

———. The Body and Society: Men, Women, and Sexual Renunciation in Early Christianity. New York: Columbia University Press, 1988.

Browning, Robert. Justinian and Theodora. Rev. ed. London: Thames and Hudson, 1987.

Brunt, P. A. The Fall of the Roman Republic and Related Essays. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988.

Cameron, Alan. The Last Pagans of Rome. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.

Champlin, Edward. Nero. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003.

Clarke, John R. Roman Life 100 B.C. to A.D. 200. New York: Harry H. Abrams, 2007.

Conte, Gian Biagio. Latin Literature: A History. Trans. Joseph B. Solodow, rev. Don Fowler and Glenn W. Most. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994.

Cornell, Tim. The Beginnings of Rome: Italy and Rome from the Bronze Age to the Punic Wars (c. 1000–264 B.C.). London: Routledge, 1995.

Crawford, Michael H. Roman Republican Coinage. 2 vols. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1974; reprint with corrections, 2001.

Crossan, Dominic and Jonathan L. Reed. In Search of Paul: How Jesus’ Apostle Opposed Rome’s Empire with God’s Kingdom. New York: Harper, 2005.

Cruse, Audrey. Roman Medicine. Stroud: Tempus, 2004.

De Jong, Mayke. In Samuel’s Image: Child Oblation in the Early Medieval West. Leiden: Brill, 1996.

Dennison, Matthew. Livia, Empress of Rome: A Biography. New York: St. Martin’s, 2011.

DiMaio, Michael, Jr. and Richard Weigel, eds. De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors:http://www.roman-emperors.org/.

Dodge, Hazel. Spectacle in the Roman World. London: Duckworth, 2011.

Dupont, Florence. Daily Life in Ancient Rome. Trans. Christopher Woodall. Malden: Blackwell, 1989.

Dyson, Stephen L. Rome: A Living Portrait of an Ancient City. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2010.

Earl, Donald C. The Moral and Political Tradition of Rome. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1967.

Eckstein, Arthur M. Rome Enters the Greek East: From Anarchy to Hierarchy in the Hellenistic Mediterranean, 230–170B.C.. Malden: Blackwell, 2008.

Edmondson, Jonathan, ed. Augustus: Edinburgh Readings on the Ancient World. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2009.

Elsner, Jas. Imperial Rome and Christian Triumph: The Art of the Roman Empire, A.D. 100–450. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Erdkamp, Paul, ed. A Companion to the Roman Army. Malden: Blackwell, 2007.

Evans, J. A. S. The Empress Theodora: Partner of Justinian. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2002.

———. The Emperor Justinian and the Byzantine Empire. Westport: Greenwood, 2005.

Fagan, Garrett G. Bathing in Public in the Roman World. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1999.

———. The Lure of the Arena: Social Psychology and the Crowd at the Roman Games. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011.

Flower, Harriet I., ed. The Cambridge Companion to the Roman Republic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

———. Roman Republics. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2010.

Forsythe, Gary. A Critical History of Early Rome: From Prehistory to the First Punic War. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005.

Frank, Tenney, ed. An Economic Survey of Ancient Rome. 6 vols. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1933–1940.

Freisenbruch, Annelise. Caesars’ Wives: Sex, Power, and Politics in the Roman Empire. New York: Free Press, 2010.

Frend, W. H. C. The Rise of Christianity. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1986.

Futrell, Allison. Blood in the Arena: The Spectacle of Roman Power. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1997.

Galinsky, Karl. Augustan Culture. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996.

———, ed. The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Augustus. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

Gardner, Jane. Women in Roman Law and Society. London: Routledge, 1986.

Garland, Robert. Hannibal. London: Duckworth, 2010.

Garnsey, Peter and Richard Saller. The Roman Empire: Economy, Society, and Culture. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987.

Gelzer, Matthias. The Roman Nobility. Trans. Robin Seager. Oxford: Blackwell, 1969.

Goldsworthy, Adrian. The Complete Roman Army. London: Thames and Hudson, 2003.

———. Caesar: The Life of a Colossus. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 2006.

———. How Rome Fell: Death of a Superpower. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009.

Green, Bernard. Christianity in Ancient Rome: The First Three Centuries. London: T. and T. Clark, 2010.

Greene, Kevin. The Archaeology of the Roman Economy. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986.

Grubs, Judith Evans. Law and Family in Late Antiquity: The Emperor Constantine’s Marriage Legislation. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995.

Gruen, Erich S. The Last Generation of the Roman Republic. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1974.

Harl, Kenneth W. Coinage in the Roman Economy, 300 B.C. to A.D. 700. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996.

Harris, William V. War and Imperialism in Republican Rome. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1985.

———. Rome’s Imperial Economy: Twelve Essays. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.

Heather, P. J. The Goths. Oxford: Blackwell, 1996.

———. Empires and Barbarians: The Fall of Rome and the Birth of Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.

Hezser, Catherine. The Oxford Handbook of Jewish Daily Life in Roman Palestine. New York: Oxford University Press, 2010.

Hopkins, Keith and Mary Beard. The Colosseum. London: Profile, 2005.

Isaac, Benjamin H. The Limits of Empire: The Roman Army in the East. Rev. ed. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2000.

Johns, Catherine and Timothy Potter. The Thetford Treasure: Roman Jewellery and Silver. London: Trustees of the British Museum, 1983.

Joshel, Sandra R. Slavery in the Roman World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010.

Kelly, Christopher. The End of Empire: Attila the Hun and the Fall of Rome. New York: W. W. Norton, 2009.

Köhne, Eckart and Ewigleben, Cornelia, eds.; Ralph Jackson, ed. English edition. Gladiators and Caesars: The Power of Spectacle in Ancient Rome. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000.

Kraemer, Ross Shepard. Her Share of the Blessings: Women’s Religions among Pagans, Jews, and Christians in the Greco-Roman World. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Kulikowski, Michael. Rome’s Gothic Wars: From the Third Century to Alaric. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

Laes, Christian. Children in the Roman Empire: Outsiders Within. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011.

Lanciani, R. A. Ancient Rome in the Light of Recent Discoveries. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1888.

Lenski, Noel, ed. The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Constantine. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

Levick, Barbara. Claudius. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1990.

———. Tiberius the Politician. London: Routledge, 1999.

———. Vespasian. London: Routledge, 1999.

———. Augustus: Image and Substance. Harlow: Longman, 2010.

Lintott, A. W. The Constitution of the Roman Republic. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1999.

———. Violence in Republican Rome. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Maas, Michael, ed. The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Justinian. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

MacMullen, Ramsay. Christianizing the Roman Empire (A.D. 100–400). New Haven: Yale University Press, 1984.

———. The Second Church: Popular Christianity A.D. 200–400. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2009.

Marincola, John. Greek and Roman Historiography. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.

Matthews, John. Laying Down the Law: A Study of the Theodosian Code. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000.

———. Roman Perspectives: Studies in the Social, Political and Cultural History of the First to Fifth Centuries. Swansea: Classical Press of Wales, 2010.

Mattingly, David J. Imperialism, Power, and Identity: Experiencing the Roman Empire. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2010.

Matyszak, Philip. Chronicle of the Roman Republic: The Rulers of Ancient Rome from Romulus to Augustus. London: Thames and Hudson, 2003.

Millar, Fergus. The Emperor in the Roman World. 2d ed. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1992.

Mitchell, Stephen. A History of the Later Roman Empire, AD 284–641: The Transformation of the Ancient World. Malden: Blackwell, 2007.

———. One God: Pagan Monotheism in the Roman Empire. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010.

Morgan, Gwyn. 69 A.D.: The Year of Four Emperors. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.

Murphy, Frederick. An Introduction to Jesus and the Gospels. Nashville: Abingdon, 2005.

Nicolet, Claude. The World of the Citizen in Republican Rome. Trans. P. S. Falla. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980.

North, J. A. and S. R. F. Price, eds. The Religious History of the Roman Empire: Pagans, Jews, and Christians. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.

Odahl, Charles M. Constantine and the Christian Empire. 2d ed. London: Routledge, 2010.

O’Donnell, James J. Augustine: A New Biography. New York: Echo, 2005.

Pavkovic, Michael F. The Army of Imperial Rome. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2008.

———. The Army of the Roman Republic. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2011.

Peachin, Michael, ed. The Oxford Handbook of Social Relations in the Roman World. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.

Potter, David. S. The Roman Empire at Bay. London: Routledge, 2004.

———, ed. A Companion to the Roman Empire. Malden: Blackwell, 2006.

Potter, David S. and David J. Mattingly, eds. Life, Death, and Entertainment in the Roman Empire. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2010.

Pulleyblank, E. G. “The Roman Empire as Known to Han China.” Journal of the American Oriental Society 119 (1999): 71–79.

Rawson, Elizabeth. Cicero: A Portrait. Rev. ed. Bristol: Bristol Classical, 1983.

Roller, Duane W. Cleopatra: A Biography. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.

Rosen, William. Justinian’s Flea: Plague, Empire, and the Birth of Europe. New York: Viking, 2007.

Rosenstein, Nathan. Rome at War: Farms, Families, and Death in the Middle Republic. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004.

Rosenstein, Nathan and Robert Morstein-Marx, eds. A Companion to the Roman Republic. Malden: Blackwell, 2006.

Roth, Jonathan P. Roman Warfare. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.

Rousseau, Philip. Ascetics, Authority, and the Church in the Age of Jerome and Cassian. 2d ed. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 2010.

Saller, Richard P. Patriarchy, Property, and Death in the Roman Family. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

Scarre, Christopher. Chronicle of the Roman Emperors: The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial Rome. London: Thames and Hudson, 1995.

Scheid, John. An Introduction to Roman Religion. Trans. Janet Lloyd. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2003.

Schoff, Wilfred H. The Periplus of Hanno: A Voyage of Discovery Down the West African Coast, by a Carthaginian Admiral of the Fifth Century B.C. Philadelphia: Commercial Museum, 1912.

Seager, Robin. Pompey the Great: A Political Biography. Oxford: Blackwell, 2002.

Shahîd, Irfan. Byzantium and the Arabs in the Sixth Century. 4 vols. Washington: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 1995–2009.

Smith, Christopher John. Early Rome and Latium: Economy and Society c. 1000 to 500 BC. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.

Sorek, Susan. The Jews Against Rome. London: Continuum, 2008.

Southern, Pat. Domitian: Tragic Tyrant. London: Routledge, 1997.

———. Empress Zenobia: Palmyra’s Rebel Queen. London: Hambledon Continuum, 2008.

Southern, Pat and Karen R. Dixon. The Late Roman Army. London: B. T. Batsford, 1996.

Stark, Rodney. The Rise of Christianity: A Sociologist Reconsiders History. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996.

Stephenson, Paul. Constantine: Unconquered Emperor, Christian Victor. London: Quercus, 2009.

Stewart, Peter. The Social History of Roman Art. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

Stewart, Roberta. Public Office in Early Rome: Ritual Procedure and Political Practice. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1998.

Stockton, D. L. The Gracchi. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1979.

Strauss, Barry S. The Spartacus War. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2009.

Strong, Donald. Roman Art. 2nd ed. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995.

Syme, Ronald. The Roman Revolution. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1939; reprint with corrections, 1952 and later.

Toner, Jerry. Popular Culture in Ancient Rome. Cambridge: Polity, 2009.

Tougher, Shaun. Julian the Apostate. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2007.

Treggiari, Susan. Roman Marriage: Iusti Coniuges from the Time of Cicero to the Time of Ulpian. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991.

Tsafir, Yoran. “Nessana.” In Bowersock et al., Late Antiquity, pp. 601–602.

Wallace-Hadrill, Andrew. Herculaneum: Past and Future. London: Frances Lincoln, 2011.

Wells, Peter. The Battle That Stopped Rome: Emperor Augustus, Arminius, and the Slaughter of the Legions in the Teutoburg Forest. New York: W. W. Norton, 2004.

Wickham, Chris. Framing the Early Middle Ages: Europe and the Mediterranean, 400–800. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.

Williams, Stephen. Diocletian and the Roman Recovery. New York: Routledge, 1997.

Williamson, Callie. The Laws of the Roman People: Public Law in the Expansion and Decline of the Roman Republic. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2005.

Wiseman, T. P. The Myths of Rome. Exeter: University of Exeter Press, 2004.

Woolf, Greg. Tales of the Barbarians: Ethnography and Empire in the Roman West. Malden: Wiley-Blackwell, 2011.

Zanker, Paul. The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus. Trans. by Alan Shapiro. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1988.

———. Pompeii: Public and Private Life. Trans. Deborah Lucas Schneider. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1998.

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