Ancient History & Civilisation

CHRONOLOGICAL TABLES

I. PREHISTORY


 

PERIOD

MESOPOTAMIA

 

TECHNICAL AND
CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
IN MESOPOTAMIA

DATES
B.C.

 

NORTH

SOUTH

 

c. 70000

MIDDLE
PALEOLITHIC

Barda Balka

 

Neanderthal hunter-gatherers living in caves and rock shelters.

   

Shanidar D
(c. 60–35000)

   
   

Hazar Merd

   

35000

       
 

UPPER
PALEOLITHIC

Shanidar C
(c. 34–25000)

 

Homo sapiens sapiens. Improvement and diversification of stone implements. Wider food spectrum.

25000

       
   

(Hiatus)

   

12000

       
   

Shanidar B2

   
   

Zarzi. Palegawra

   

9000

       
 

MESOLITHIC

Shanidar B1

 

Microlithic tools and weapons. Obsidian imported. Bone work. First clay figurines. First groups of dwellings. Beginnings of animal domestication.

   

Zawi Chemi Shanidar

   

8000

 

Karim Shehir
Mlefaat

   
   

Mureybet

Bus Mordeh

 

7000

       
 

NEOLITHIC

Jarmo

Ali Kosh

Progressive domestication of animals and edible plants. Villages. Invention of pottery. First baked bricks.

6000

       
 

CHALCOLITHIC

Umm Dabaghiuah

 

Use of copper. First mural paintings. Irrigation agriculture. First seals. First temples. Decorated luxury ware. Clay and alabaster figurines. Wide use of brick.

   

HASSUNA
Yarim Tepe 1
Matarrah

   

5500

 

    SAMARRA
    T. Sawwan

   
   

        HALAF
        Yarim Tepe 2
        Arpachiya

OUEILI (Ubaid O)

 

5000

   

ERIDU (Ubaid 1)

 
   

            Choga Mami

   

4500

   

HAJJI MUHAMMAD
(Ubaid 2)

 
   

NORTH UBAID

SOUTH UBAID

 

4000

 

Tepe Gawra

el-‘Ubaid, Ur

Temples and houses of increasing size and complexity.

3750

 

and numerous other sites

and numerous other sites

Terracotta sickles and pestles.

   

URUK PERIOD

 
   

Tepe Gawra

 

Urbanization. Potter's wheel. Swing-plough. Sail. Metal work (bronze, gold, silver). First cylinder-seals. Invention of writing (c. 3300). Development of sculpture. Expanding trade.

   

Qalinj Agha, Grai
Resh, Habuba Kabira
and numerous other sites

Uruk, Tell ‘Uqair
and numerous other sites

 
 

ANCIENT BRONZE

     
   

Tell Brak

---------------------

 

3000

 

NINEVEH V

JEMDAT NASR

 
         
     

Early Dynastic I

SUMERIAN CIVILIZATION

2700

     

City-states. Fortified towns. Development of writing.

     

Early Dynastic II

Administrative archives from Fara and Abu Salabikh.

 

HISTORIC

     

2500

   

Early Dynastic III

 

II. EARLY DYNASTIC PERIOD (c. 2900 – 2384 B.C.)

III. DYNASTIES OF AKKAD, GUTIUM AND UR III (c. 2334–2004 B.C.)


DATES
B.C.

AKKAD/UR

URUK/ISIN

GUTI/LARSA

LAGASH

MARI


 

DYNASTY OF AKKAD

Lugalzagesi

     
 
 

Sharru-kîn (Sargon)
(2334–2279)

     

Sargon takes Mari and Ebla

 

2300

Rimush (2278–2270)
Manishtusu (2269–2255)

       
 

2250

Narâm-Sîn (2254–2218)

   


Lugal-ushumgal (2230–2200)

Narâm-Sîn conquers
Mari and destroys Ebla

 

2200

Shar-kalli-sharri
(2217–2193)

 

DYNASTY OF GUTIUM
21 Guti Kings down to 2120

 

SHAKKANAKKU
Ididish
Shu-Dagan
Isma-Dagan
(2199–2154)

 
 

Anarchy
Shu-Turul (2168–2154)

URUK IV

The Guti invade
Akkad and Sumer

ENSI OF LAGASH
Ur-Baba (2155–2142)

Nur-Mêr
Ishtup-Ilum

2150


Ur-nigina (2153–2147)
Ur-gigira (2146–2141)
+3 kings

 

Gudea (2141–2122)
Ur-Ningirsu (2121–2118)
Pirig-me (2117–2115)
Ur-gar (2114)
Nam-mahazi (2113–2111)

Ishkun-Addu

 

UR III

URUK V
Utu-hegal
(2123–2113)

Tiriqan (x-2120)

 

Apil-Kin
(2126–2091)

 

Ur-Nammu (2112–2095)




 

2100

     

GOVERNORS OF LAGASH VASSALS OF UR

 
 

Shulgi (2094–2047)

   

Ur-Ninsuna
Ur-Ninkimara
Lu-kirilaza

Iddin-Ilum
Ilum-Ishtar
Turam-Dagan
(2071–2051)

 

2050

Amar-Sîn (2046–2038)
Shu-Sîn (2037–2029)
Ibbi-Sîn (2028–2004)

DYNASTY OF ISIN
Ishbi-Erra
(2017–1985)

DYNASTY OF LARSA
Naplânum
(2025–2005)

Ir-Nanna

Puzur-Ishtar
(2050–2025)
Hilal-Erra

 

2000

Fall of Ur (2004)

 

Emisum (2004–1977)

Lagash becomes independent
(2023)

Hanun-Dagan
(2016–2008)


IV. ISIN-LARSA, OLD BABYLONIAN AND OLD ASSYRIAN PERIOD (c. 2000 – 1600 B.C.)

V. KASSITE PERIOD (c. 1600 – 1200 B.C.)

VI. MIDDLE BABYLONIAN AND MIDDLE ASSYRIAN PERIODS (c. 1150 – 750 B.C.)

VII. NEO-ASSYRIAN* AND CEO-BABYLONIAN PERIODS (744–539 B.C.)

VIII. ACHAEMENIAN AND HELLENISTIC PERIODS (539–126 B.C.)


DATES
B.C.

GREECE

IRAN

MESOPOTAMIA


 

Solon, archon (since c. 620)

ACHAEMENIDS (since c. 700)

 

550

   

539: Cyrus conquers Babylon

 

Pisistratus (tyrant) (539–528)

Cambyses II (530–522)
Darius I (522–486)

ACHAEMENIAN PERIOD Revolts of Nebuchadrezzar III and Nebuchadrezzar IV (522–521)

500

Median wars (490–478)

Xerxes I (485–465)

Revolts of Bêl-shimanni and Shamash-erîba (482). Xerxes sacks Babylon

   

Artaxerxes I (464–424)

c. 460: Herodotus in Babylon? The Murashû family, bankers at Nippur (455–403)

450

Pericles (strategus) (443–430)

   
 

Peloponnesian war (431–404)

Darius II (423–405)

Nabû-rimânni and Kidinnu astronomers

400

 

Artaxerxes II (404–359)

401: Xenophon in Babylonia

 

Philip of Macedonia (359–337)

Artaxerxes III (358–338)

 

350

Alexander the Great (336–323)

Darius III (335–331)


Gaugameles (331), Alexander enters Babylon and dies there in 323

 

DIADOCHI
Seleucos I (305–281)
SELEUCIDS

 

HELLENISTIC PERIOD
311: beginning of the era of Seleucos

300

   

c. 300, Seleucia-on-the-Tigris founded

 

Antiochos I (281–260)

 

Last royal inscriptions in Akkadian (Antiochos I)

 

Antiochos II (260–246)

 

Berossus writes the ‘Babyloniaca’.

250

 

ARSACID PARTHIANS
Arsaces (250–248)

 
 

Seleucos II (245–226)

Tiridates I (248–211)

 
 

Antiochos III (222–187)

 

Temples built in Uruk

200

 

Artabanus I (211–191)

 
 

Antiochos IV (175–164)
Demetrios I (162–150)

Mithridates I (171–138)

Greek theatre at Babylon

150

Demetrios II (145–126)

Artabanus II (128–124)

144: Mithridates founds Ctesiphon Demetrios reconquers Babylonia

 

Antiochos VIII (126–96)

Mithridates II (123–88)

126: Artabanus II snatches Babylonia from the Seleucids

100

   

PARTHIAN PERIOD
Major building works

   

Orodes I (80–76)

Assyria repopulated

 

Antiochos XIII (69–65)
64: Pompey conquers Antioch

Phraates III (70–57)
Orodes II (57–37)

Kingdoms of ADIABENE
(Assyria), OSRHOENE
(Edessa = Urfa) and CHARACENE (ancient sea-land).

50

   

Crassus defeated at Carrhae (Harran) (53 B.C.)


IX. PARTHIAN AND SASSANIAN PERIODS (126 B.C.–637 A.D.)


DATES
B.C.

ROME

IRAN

MESOPOTAMIA


50

Caesar and Antony

   
   

Phraates IV (37–2)

38: Labienus' war against the Parthians

 

ROMAN EMPIRE
Octavius Augustus

(–27 to 14)

   

A.D.

     
 

Tiberius (14–37)

Artabanus III
(11–38)

 
 

Caligula (37–41)
Claudius (41–54)

   

50

 

Vologazes I (51–78)

 
 

Nero (54–68)

 

          Foundation of Hatra
          (c. 70?)

 

Vespasian (70–79)
Domitian (81–96)

Pacorus II
(78–115)

74/75: Last known cuneiform text

 

Trajan (98–117)

   

100

 

Osroes (109–128)

Temple of Gareus at Uruk (c. 110)

 

Hadrian (117–138)

 

114–117: Trajan’s campaigns in Mesopotamia takes Ctesiphon and reaches the Arabo-Persian Gulf

 

Antoninus (138–161)

Mithridates IV
(128–147)

 

150

Marcus Aurelius (161–180)

Vologazes III
(148–192)

          Kingdom of HATRA
          (c. 160–240)

 

Commodus (180–192)

 

164: Cassius, legate of Syria, conquers Nisibin and Ctesiphon

 

Septimus Severus
(193–211)

Vologazes IV
(192–207)

197: Septimus Severus conquers Ctesiphon Caracalla murdered at Carrhae (Harran)

200

Caracalla (211–217)

Artabanus V
(208–226)
SASSANIDS

SASSANIAN PERIOD

 

Alexander Severus
(222–235)

Ardeshir I
(224–241)
Shapur I
(241–272)

226: Ardeshir conquers Mesopotamia

232: Unsuccessful campaign of Alexander Severus
.

250

Valerian (253–260)

 

240: Ardeshir destroys Hatra
256: Shapur destroys Assur
260: Valerian prisoner of Shapur I

 

Aurelian (270–275)

Bahram II
(276–293)

262: Odenath (Palmyra), allied to the Romans, marches on Ctesiphon

 

Diocletian (285–305)

   

300

 

Narses (293–302)

296: War against Narses, then peace. Rome gains provinces in Mesopotamia

 

Constantine (312–337)

Shapur II
(309–379)

 
 

Constantius II (337–361)

 

338–350: Wars, then peace between Constantius and Shapur II.

350

   

The Romans invade Mesopotamia, then withdraw because of starvation.

 

Julian the Apostate
(361–363)

   
 

Jovian (363–364)

 

Jovian evacuates Roman strongholds in Northern Mesopotamia.

 

Theodosus (379–395)

Bahram IV
(388–399)

Floruit of Christian literature in Syriac at Edessa, Nisibin and Arbela (Erbil)

400

BYZANTINE EMPIRE
(395–1453)

Yezdegerd I
(399–420)

Intermittent wars between Byzantines and Sassanids. Economic decline of Mesopotamia.

       
   

651

637: Beginning of the conquest of Mesopotamia by Moslem Arabs.

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