ca. 2000-ca. 1400 B.C. Minoan civilization flourishes in Crete

ca. 1400-ca. 1200 B.C. Mycenaean civilization flourishes on mainland Greece

ca. 1200 B.C. Dorians migrate to southern Greece; Greek Dark Age begins (to ca. 750 B.C.)

1183 B.C. Fall of Troy

776 B.C. First Olympic Games

753 B.C. Legendary founding of Rome by Romulus and Remus; monarchy begins in Rome (to 510 B.C.)

ca. 750 B.C. Archaic period begins in Greece (to 500 B.C.);

Greeks found colonies in other regions of the Mediterranean region

736 B.C. Messenian revolt against Sparta (to 716 B.C.)

ca. 620 B.C. Draco formulates his law code in Athens

ca. 592 B.C. Solon alters Athenian law code and reforms political system

ca. 560 B.C. Pisistratid dynasty of tyrants begins in Athens (to 510 B.C.)

550 B.C. Persian Empire is founded

510 B.C. Tarquin the Proud, the last king of Rome, is exiled

509 B.C. Roman Republic is founded (to 31 B.C.)

508/507 B.C. Cleisthenes reforms government of Athens

ca. 500 B.C. Classical period in Greece begins (to 323 B.C.)

499 B.C. Ionian Revolt by Greek cities in Asia Minor against the Persian Empire (to 493 B.C.);

Persian Wars begin (to 479 B.C.)

Homer (700s B.C.)

Hesiod (ca. 700 B.C.)

Solon (ca. 630-ca. 560 B.C.)

Thales of Miletus (ca. 625-547B.C.)

Sappho (bom ca. 612 B.C.)

Pythagoras (born ca. 580 B.C.)

Croesus (reigned ca. 560-546 B.C.)

Aeschylus (525-456 B.C.)

Themistocles (ca. 524-459 B.C.)

Pindar (ca. 518-ca. 438 B.C.)

Heraclitus (ca. 500s B.C.)

Sophocles (ca. 496-406 B.C.)

Pericles (ca. 495-429 B.C.)

490 B.C. Battle of Marathon

480 B.C. Battle of Thermopylae and Battle of Salamis; Persian king Xerxes withdraws from Greece

479 B.C. Greeks defeat Persians at Battle of Plataea

Phidias (ca. 490-ca. 430 B.C.)

Xerxes (reigned 486-465 B.C.)

Herodotus (ca. 484-ca. 420 B.C.)

Leonidas (died 480 B.C.)

Euripides (ca. 480-406 B.C.)

478 B.C. Delian League, alliance of Greek cities led by Athens, is founded

Pausanias (died 470 B.C.)

Socrates (469-399 B.C.)

460 B.C. Pericles dominates Athenian politics (to 429 B.C.)

450 B.C. The Twelve Tables, first written Roman law code, is established

Democritus (460-370 B.C.)

Hippocrates (ca. 460-ca. 380 B.C.)

Thucydides (ca. 459-399 B.C.)

Alcibiades (ca. 450-404 B.C.)

449 B.C. Peace is established between Persian Empire and Delian League

447 B.C. Construction of Parthenon begins on Athenian Acropolis (finished 438 B.C.)

431 B.C. Peloponnesian War begins (to 404 B.C.)

421 B.C. Peace of Nicias temporarily halts Peloponnesian War

Aristophanes (ca. 445-385 B.C.)

Isocrates (ca. 435-338 B.C.)

Xenophon (ca. 428-ca. 355 B.C.)

Plato (428-348 B.C.)

415 B.C. Athens sends expedition against Sicily (to 413 B.C.)

405 B.C. Sparta defeats Athens at Aegospotami in last sea battle of the Peloponnesian War

404 B.C. The “Thirty Tyrants” rule Athens (to 403 B.C.)

399 B.C. Socrates is sentenced to death for “corrupting the young”

387 B.C. Gauls invade Rome

358 B.C. Philip II becomes king of Macedonia

338 B.C. Philip defeats Athenians and Thebans at Battle of Chaeronea

Aristotle (384-322 B.C.)

Demosthenes (ca. 384-322 B.C.)

Philip II (382-336 B.C.)

Praxiteles (300s B.C.)

Theophrastus (ca. 371-287 B.C.)

Alexander the Great (356-323 B.C.)

Menander (ca. 342-ca. 291 B.C.)

Epicurus (341-270 B.C.)

336 B.C. Philip is assassinated; Alexander the Great becomes king of Macedonia

334 B.C. Alexander invades Asia

331 B.C. Alexander founds the city of Alexandria in Egypt and defeats King Darius of Persia at Battle of Gaugamela

330 B.C. Darius assassinated; Alexander expands Macedonian empire

323 B.C. Alexander dies; Hellenistic period begins (to 31 B.C.)

312 B.C. Construction of Appian Way begins finishes 244 B.C.)

305 B.C. Ptolemaic dynasty of rulers of Egypt begins (to 30 B.C.)

ca. 295 B.C. Library of Alexandria is founded

280 B.C. Pyrrhic War between Rome and Pyrrhus, king of Epirus, begins (to 275 B.C.)

264 B.C. First Punic War between Rome and Carthage begins (to 241 B.C.)

227 B.C. Sicily becomes the first Roman province

218 B.C. Hannibal marches the Carthaginian army across the Alps to Italy; Second Punic War begins (to 201 B.C.)

149 B.C. Third Punic War begins (to 146 B.C.)

146 B.C. Rome destroys Carthage and Corinth

133 B.C. Last king of Pergamum wills his kingdom to Rome; Tiberius Gracchus attempts reform of Roman government and is assassinated

123 B.C. Gaius Gracchus extends the reforms of his brother

121 B.C. Gaius Gracchus is assassinated 82 B.C. Sulla is named dictator (to 79 B.C.)

Callimachus (ca. 305-ca. 240 B.C.)

Euclid (active ca. 300 B.C.)

Theocritus (ca. 300-ca. 260 B.C.)

Archimedes (ca. 287-212 B.C.)

Eratosthenes (ca. 285-ca. 195 B.C.)

Plautus (254-184 B.C.)

Hannibal (ca. 246-182 B.C.)

Scipio Africanus (236-183 B.C.)

Cato the Elder (234-149 B.C.)

Polybius (ca. 205-125 B.C.)

Terence (ca. 185-159 B.C.)

Tiberius Gracchus (163-133 B.C.)

Marius (ca. 157-86 B.C.)

Gaius Gracchus (154-121 B.C.)

Sulla (ca. 138-78 B.C.)

Crassus (112-53 B.C.)

Pompey (106-48 B.C.)

Cicero (106-43 B.C.)

Julius Caesar (100-44 B.C.)

Cato the Younger (95-46 B.C.)

Lucretius (ca. 94-ca. 50 B.C.)

Sallust (86-35 B.C.)

Brutus (85-42 B.C.)

Catullus (84-54 B.C.)

Mark Antony (ca. 82-30 B.C.)

73 B.C. Spartacus leads slave revolt (to 71 B.C.)

63 B.C. Catiline leads conspiracy against Rome, is exposed by Cicero

60 B.C. First Triumvirate is formed by Pompey, Julius Caesar, and Crassus

58 B.C. Caesar’s conquests of Gauls (to 50 B.C.)

53 B.C. Crassus is defeated and killed by Parthians

49 B.C. Caesar enters Italy with his army, beginning a civil war with Pompey and his followers (to 45 B.C.)

44 B.C. Caesar becomes dictator for life; senators led by Brutus and Cassius assassinate Caesar

43 B.C. Second Triumvirate is formed by Mark Antony, Octavian (later Augustus), and Marcus Lepidus

42 B.C. Antony and Octavian defeat Brutus and Cassius

31 B.C. Octavian defeats Antony and Cleopatra; Roman Republic ends and Roman Empire begins

27 B.C. Octavian receives title of Augustus; Augustus becomes first Roman emperor (to A.D. 14)

A.D. 6 Judaea becomes Roman province

A.D. 14 Tiberius becomes emperor (to A.D. 37)

A.D. 37 Caligula becomes emperor (to A.D. 41)

A.D. 41 Caligula is assassinated; Claudius becomes emperor (to A.D. 54)

A.D. 43 Claudius invades Britain and makes it a Roman province (to A.D. 47)

A.D. 54 Nero becomes emperor (to A.D. 68)

Vitruvius Pollio (first century B.C.)

Herod the Great (ca. 73-4 B.C.)

Vergil (70-19 B.C.)

Cleopatra (69-30 B.C.)

Horace (65-8 B.C.)

Strabo (ca. 64 B.C.-after A.D. 21)

Augustus, Caesar Octavianus

(63 B.C.—A.D. 14)

Livy (ca. 59 B.C.-ca. A.D. 17)

Tibullus (ca. 54B.C.-A.D. 18)

Propertius (ca. 50 B.C.-ca. A.D. 16)

Ovid (43 B.C.-A.D. 18)

Tiberius (42 B.C.-A.D. 37)

Claudius (10 B.C.-A.D. 54)

Seneca the Younger (ca. 4 B.C.-A.D. 65)

Vespasian (A.D. 9-79)

Caligula (A.D. 12-41)

Pliny the Elder (ca. A.D. 23-79)

Persius (A.D. 34-62)

Nero (A.D. 37-68)

Josephus (ca. A.D. 37-100)

Lucan (A.D. 39-65)

Titus (A.D. 39-81)

Quintilian (ca. A.D. 40-ca. 96)

Martial (ca. A.D. 40-ca. 104)

Plutarch (ca. A.D. 40-ca. 120)

Statius (ca. A.D. 45-ca. 96)

Epictetus (ca. A.D. 50-ca. 120)

Domitian (A.D. 51-96)

Tacitus (ca. A.D. 55-ca. 120)

Trajan (A.D. 57-117)

Juvenal (ca. A.D. 60-130)

Pliny the Younger (ca. A.D. 61-ca. 112)

A.D. 66 Jewish Revolt begins (to A.D. 70)

A.D. 68 Nero commits suicide

A.D. 69 Vespasian becomes emperor (to A.D. 79)

A.D. 79 Titus becomes emperor (to A.D. 81)

A.D. 79 Mt. Vesuvius erupts and destroys the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum

A.D. 80 Colosseum opens for public entertainments

A.D. 81 Domitian becomes emperor (to A.D. 96)

A.D. 98 Trajan becomes emperor (to A.D. 117)

A.D. 101 Trajan wages war against Dacia (to A.D. 106)

A.D. 117 Hadrian becomes emperor following the death of Trajan (to A.D. 138)

A.D. 122 Construction of Hadrian’s Wall begins

A.D. 161 Marcus Aurelius becomes emperor (to A.D. 180)

A.D. 193 Septimius Severus becomes emperor (to A.D. 211)

A.D. 200s Germans raid Roman Empire

A.D. 212 Emperor Caracalla grants citizenship to all free persons of the Roman Empire

A.D. 284 Diocletian becomes emperor (to A.D. 305)

A.D. 303 Persecution of Christians begins (to A.D. 311)

A.D. 312 Constantine I becomes emperor (to A.D. 337)

A.D. 313 Constantine issues edict granting tolerance to Christianity

A.D. 330 Constantinople is founded

Petronius Arbiter (dies A.D. 66)

Suetonius (ca. A.D. 69-after 122)

Longinus first century A.D.) Hadrian (A.D. 76-138)

Ptolemy (ca. A.D. 100-ca. 170)

Lucian (bom ca. A.D. 120)

Apuleius (bom ca. A.D. 120)

Marcus Aurelius (A.D. 121-180)

Galen (A.D. 129-ca. 200)

Septimius Severus (ca. A.D. 145-211)

Tertullian (ca. A.D. 160-ca. 240)

Plotinus (A.D. 205-269/270)

Diocletian (ca. A.D. 240-313)

Constantine I (A.D. 272-337)

Ammianus Marcellinus (ca. A.D. 330-ca. 395)

A.D. 361 Julian the Apostate becomes emperor (to A.D. 363) and attempts to reinstate pagan religion

A.D. 376 Visigoths settle within Roman Empire

A.D. 379 Theodosius becomes emperor (to A.D. 395)

A.D. 410 Visigoths sack Rome

ca. A.D. 450 Huns reach the height of their power in Europe

A.D. 476 Romulus Augustulus, last emperor of Western Roman Empire, is overthrown

A.D. 493 Theodoric forms kingdom of Ostrogoths in Italy

A.D. 527 Justinian becomes Eastern Roman emperor (to A.D. 565)

A.D. 529 Justinian closes pagan philosophical schools

Julian the Apostate (ca. A.D. 331-363)

Theodosius (ca. A.D. 346-395)

St. Augustine (A.D. 354-430)

Boethius (ca. A.D. 480-524) Justinian I (ca. A.D. 482-565)

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