Ancient History & Civilisation

Ancient Greece and Rome: An Encyclopedia for Students (4 Volume Set)

Ancient Greece and Rome: An Encyclopedia for Students (4 Volume Set)

Presents a history of ancient Greece and Rome as well as information about the literature and daily life of these early civilizations.

Preface

A TIME LINE OF ANCIENT GREECE AND ROME

A

ACHAEA

ACHILLES

ACROPOLIS

ADONIS

AEDILE

AEGEAN SEA

AENEID

AESCHYLUS 525-456 B.C. - Greek tragic dramatist

AETOLIA

AFRICA

AFTERLIFE

AGAMEMNON

AGORA

AGRICULTURE, ROMAN

ALCIBIADES ca. 450-404 B.C. - Athenian politician and Military Leader

ALEXANDER THE GREAT 356-323 B.C. - King of Macedonia and World Conqueror

ALEXANDRIA

ALPHABETS AND WRITING

ALPS

AMAZONS

AMMIANUS MARCELLINUS ca. A.D. 330-ca. 395 - Roman historian

ANIMALS

ANTIGONE - Mythical Greek princess

ANTIOCH

ANTONIUS, MARCUS ca. 82-30 B.C. - Roman military officer and Politician

APHRODITE

APOLLO

APPIAN WAY

APULEIUS Born ca. A.D. 120 - Roman writer

AQUEDUCTS

ARABIA

ARCHAEOLOGY OF ANCIENT SITES

ARCHES

ARCHIMEDES ca. 287-212 B.C. - Greek mathematician

ARCHITECTURE, GREEK

ARCHITECTURE, ROMAN

ARISTOPHANES ca. 445-385 B.C. - Greek comic dramatist

ARISTOTLE 384-322 B.C. - Greek philosopher and scientist

ARMIES, GREEK

ARMIES, ROMAN

ART, GREEK

ART, ROMAN

ARTEMIS

ASCLEPIUS

ASIA MINOR

ASSYRIA

ASTRONOMY AND ASTROLOGY

ATHENA

ATHENS

ATTICA

AUGUR

AUGUSTINE, ST. A.D. 354-430 - Early Christian bishop

AUGUSTUS, CAESAR OCTAVIANUS 63 B.C.-A.D. 14 - First Roman emperor

AURELIUS, MARCUS A.D. 121-180 - Roman emperor

B

BANKING

BANQUETS

BARBARIANS

BATHS, ROMAN

BOETHIUS ca. A.D. 480-524 - Roman philosopher and statesman

BOOKS AND MANUSCRIPTS

BREAD

BRIDGES

BRITAIN

BRONZE AGE, GREEK

BRUTUS, MARCUS 85-42 B.C. - Roman political leader and assasin

BYZANTIUM

C

CAESAR, CAIUS JULIUS 100-44 B.C. - Roman general, statesman, and dictator

CALENDARS

CALIGULA A.D. 12-41 - Roman emperor

CALLIMACHUS ca. 305-240 B.C. - Greek poet and scholar

CARTHAGE

CATACOMBS

CATO THE ELDER 234-149 B.C. - Roman historian and orator

CATO THE YOUNGER 95-46 B.C. - Roman political leader

CATULLUS, GAIUS VALERIUS 84-54 B.C. - Roman poet

CELTS

CENSOR AND CENSORSHIP, ROMAN

CENSUS, ROMAN

CENTAURS

CHARIOTS

CHRISTIANITY

CHURCHES AND BASILICAS

CICERO, MARCUS TULLIUS 106-43 B.C. - Roman orator and politician

CIRCUS MAXIMUS

CITIES, GREEK

CITIES, ROMAN

CITIZENSHIP

CIVIL WARS, ROMAN

CLASS STRUCTURE, CREEK

CLASS STRUCTURE, ROMAN

CLASSICAL STUDIES

CLAUDIUS 10 B.C.-A.D. 54 - Emperor of Rome

CLEISTHENES Died ca. 500s B.C. - Athenian statesman

CLEOPATRA 69-30 B.C. - Queen of Egypt

CLIMATE, MEDITERRANEAN

CLOCKS AND TIMETELLING

CLOTHING

CLYTEMNESTRA

COINAGE

COLONIES, GREEK

COLONIES, ROMAN

COLOSSEUM

COLUMNS

CONSTANTINE A.D. 272-337 - First Christian Roman emperor

CONSTANTINOPLE

CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES

CONSULS

CORINTH

CRAFTS AND CRAFTSMANSHIP

CRASSUS, MARCUS LICINIUS 112-53 B.C. - Roman soldier and administrator

CRETE

CROESUS Reigned ca. 560-546 B.C. - Last king of Lydia

CULTS

CUPID AND PSYCHE

CYBELE - Mother-goddess

CYCLADES

CYCLOPS

CYNICS

CYPRUS

D

DACIA

DAEDALUS

DANCE

DAPHNE AND APOLLO

DEATH AND BURIAL

DELOS

DELPHI

Plates - Daily Life

DEMETER

DEMOCRACY, GREEK

DEMOCRITUS 460-370 B.C. - Greek philosopher

DEMOSTHENES ca. 384-322 B.C. - Greek public speaker and statesman

DICTATORSHIP, ROMAN

DIOCLETIAN ca. A.D. 240-313 - Roman emperor

DIONYSUS

DIPLOMACY

DIVINITIES

DOMITIAN A.D. 51-96 - Roman emperor

DORIANS

DRACO ca. 600s B.C. - Athenian lawgiver

DRAMA, GREEK

DRAMA, ROMAN

DREAMS

DYES AND DYEING

E

ECONOMY, GREEK

ECONOMY, ROMAN

EDUCATION AND RHETORIC, GREEK

EDUCATION AND RHETORIC, ROMAN

EGYPT

ELECTRA

ELEUSINIAN MYSTERIES

ENVIRONMENT

ENVOYS

EPHESUS

EPIC, GREEK

EPIC, ROMAN

EPICTETUS ca. A.D. 50-120 - Stoic philosopher

EPICURUS 341-270 B.C. - Greek philosopher

EPIDAURUS

EPIGRAMS

ERATOSTHENES ca. 285-ca. 195 B.C. - Greek scholar

ERECHTHEUM

ETHNIC GROUPS

ETRUSCANS

EUCLID ca. 300 B.C. - Greek mathematician

EURIPIDES ca. 480-406 B.C. - Greek playwright

F

FABLES

FAMILY, GREEK

FAMILY, ROMAN

FAMINE

FATES

FEDERALISM

FESTIVALS AND FEASTS, GREEK

FESTIVALS AND FEASTS, ROMAN

FISH AND SHELLFISH

FOOD AND DRINK

FORESTRY

FORUM

FURIES

G

GALEN ca. A.D. 129-200 - Greek physician and philosopher

GALLIC WARS

GAMES, GREEK

GAMES, ROMAN

GARDENS

GAUL

GEMS AND JEWELRY

GEOGRAPHY AND GEOLOGY, MEDITERRANEAN

GERMANS

GNOSTICISM

GOLD

GOLDEN AGE OF GREECE

GOLDEN FLEECE

GOVERNMENT, GREEK

GOVERNMENT, ROMAN

GRACCHUS, TIBERIUS AND GAIUS

GRACES

GREECE

GREECE, HISTORY OF

H

HADES

HADRIAN A.D. 76-138 - Roman emperor

HADRIAN'S WALL

HAIRSTYLES

HANNIBAL 247-182 B.C. - Carthaginian general

HARBORS

HELEN OF TROY

HELOTS

HEPHAESTUS

HERA

HERACLES

HERACLITUS ca. 500 B.C. - Greek philosopher

HERMES

HEROD THE GREAT ca. 73-4 B.C. - King of Judaea

HERODOTUS ca. 484-ca. 420 B.C. - Greek historian

HEROES, GREEK

HESIOD ca. 700 B.C. - Greek epic poet

HIPPOCRATES ca. 460-ca. 380 B.C. - Greek physician

HOMER ca. 700s B.C. - Greek epic poet

HOMOSEXUALITY

HORACE 65-8 B.C. - Roman poet

HOUSEHOLD FURNISHING

HOUSES

HUNS

HUNTING

I

IBERIANS

ILIAD

IMPERIUM

INDIA

INSCRIPTIONS

INSURANCE

IONIANS

IPHIGENIA

ISIS

ISOCRATES ca. 436-338 B.C. - Athenian orator and educator

ITALY

J

JERUSALEM

JEWS

JOSEPHUS ca. A.D. 37-100 - Historian

JUDAEA

JUDAISM

JULIAN THE APOSTATE A.D. 331-363 - Roman emperor

JUPITER - Roman god

JUSTINIAN ca. A.D. 482-565 - Eastern Roman emperor

JUVENAL ca. A.D. 60-130 - Roman poet

L

LABOR

LAND: OWNERSHIP, REORGANIZATION, AND USE

LANGUAGES AND DIALECTS

LARES AND PENATES

LATIUM

LAW, GREEK

LAW, ROMAN

Plates - Art and Architecture

LEONIDAS Died 480 B.C. - King of Sparta

LETTER WRITING

LIBRARIES

LIBYA

LITERACY

LITERATURE, GREEK

LITERATURE, ROMAN

LIVY ca. 59 B.C.-ca. A.D. 17 - Roman historian

LONGINUS First century A.D. - Literary critic

LOVE, THE IDEA OF

LUCAN A.D. 39-65 - Roman poet

LUCIAN Born ca. A.D. 120 - Greek writer and lecturer

LUCRETIUS ca. 94-ca. 50 B.C. - Roman philosopher and poet

M

MACEDONIA

MAGIC

MAGISTRATES

MAPS, ANCIENT

MARATHON

MARBLE

MARIUS, GAIUS ca. 157-86 B.C. - Roman general and politician

MARKETS

MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE

MARS

MARTIAL ca. A.D. 40 -ca. 104 - Roman poet

MATHEMATICS, GREEK

MEDEA

MEDICINE, GREEK

MEDICINE, ROMAN

MEDITERRANEAN

MEDUSA

MENANDER ca. 342-ca. 291 B.C. - Greek playwright

MIDAS - Legendary king

MIGRATIONS, EARLY GREEK

MIGRATIONS, LATE ROMAN

MILETUS

MILITARY ENGINEERING

MINING

MINOS - Legendary king

MITHRAS - Legendary king

MONARCHS, CREEK

MONEY AND MONEYLENDING

MOSAICS

MUSES

MUSIC AND INSTRUMENTS

MYCENAE

MYTHS, GREEK

MYTHS, ROMAN

N

NAMES, ROMAN

NARCISSUS

NAVAL POWER, GREEK

NAVAL POWER, ROMAN

NERO A.D. 37-68 - Roman emperor

NOVEL, GREEK AND ROMAN

O

ODYSSEUS

ODYSSEY

OEDIPUS

OLIGARCHY

OLIVES

OLYMPIA

OLYMPIC GAMES

OLYMPUS, MT.

OMENS

ORACLES

ORATORY

ORESTES

ORPHEUS AND EURYDICE

OSTIA

OSTRACISM

OSTROGOTHS

OVID 43 B.C.-A.D. 18 - Roman poet

P

PAESTUM

PALACES, IMPREIAL ROMAN

PAN

PANDORA

PANTHEON

PARALLEL LIVES

PARTHENON

PATRICIANS

PATRONAGE

PAUSANIAS Born ca. A.D. 100 - Greek writer and traveler

PAX ROMANA

PEGASUS

PELOPONNESIAN WAR

PEOPLES OF ANCIENT GREECE AND ROME

PERGAMUM

PERICLES ca. 495-429 B.C. - Athenian general and politician

PERSEPHONE

PERSEUS AND ANDROMEDA

PERSIAN EMPIRE

PERSIAN WARS

PERSIUS A.D. 34-62 - Roman satirist

PETRONIUS Died A.D. 66 - Roman novelist

PHAETHQN

PHIDIAS ca. 490-ca. 430 B.C. - Greek sculptor

PHILIP II 382-336 B.C. - King of Macedonia

PHILOSOPHY, GREEK AND HELLENISTIC

PHILOSOPHY, ROMAN

PHOENICIANS

PINDAR 518-438 B.C. - Greek poet

PIRACY

PLATO 428-348 B.C. - Greek philosopher

PLAUTUS 254-184 B.C. - Roman playwright

PLEBEIANS, ROMAN

PLINY THE ELDER ca. A.D. 23-79 - Roman administrator and writer

PLINY THE YOUNGER ca. A.D. 61-ca. 112 - Roman senator and writer

PLOTINUS A.D. 205-269/70 - Greek philosopher

PLUTARCH ca. A.D. 40 -ca. 120 - Greek writer and philosopher

POETRY, GREEK AND HELLENISTIC

POETRY, ROMAN

POLIS

POLYBIUS ca. 205-ca. 125 B.C. - Greek historian

POMPEII

POMPEY 106-48 B.C. - Roman general

POPULATION

POSEIDON

POSTAL SERVICE

POTTERY, GREEK

POTTERY, ROMAN

PRAETOR

PRAXITELES Flourished 375-330 B.C. - Greek sculptor

PRIESTHOOD, GREEK

PRIESTHOOD, ROMAN

PROMETHEUS

PROPERTIUS ca. 50-ca. 16 B.C. - Roman poet

PROSTITUTION

PROVINCES, ROMAN

PTOLEMAIC

PTOLEMY ca. A.D. 100-ca. 170 - Astronomer, mathematician, and geographer

PUNIC WARS

PYRRHIC WAR

PYTHAGORAS Born ca. 580 - Greek philosopher and mathematician

Q

QUAESTOR

QUARRIES

QUINTILIAN ca. A.D. 40-ca. 96 - Roman educator and writer

R

RELIGION, GREEK

RELIGION, ROMAN

RHODES

RITUAL AND SACRIFICE

ROADS, ROMAN

ROMAN NUMERALS

Plates - People

ROME, CITY OF

ROME, HISTORY OF

ROMULUS AND REMUS

RULERS, WORSHIP OF

S

SALLUST 86-35 B.C. - Roman historian

SAMOS

SAMOTHRACE

SAPPHO Born late 600s B.C. - Greek lyric poet

SATIRE

SATYRS

SCIENCE

SCIPIO AFRICANUS 236-183 B.C. - Roman general

SCULPTURE, GREEK

SCULPTURE, ROMAN

SCYTHIANS

SELEUCID DYNASTY

SENATE, ROMAN

SENECA THE YOUNGER 4 B.C.-A.D. 65 - Roman statesman, philosopher, and writer

SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS, LUCIUS ca. A.D. 145-211 - Roman emperor

SHIPS AND SHIPBUILDING

SICILY

SIRENS

SISYPHUS

SKEPTICISM

SLAVERY

SOCIAL CLUBS AND PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATIONS

SOCIAL LIFE, GREEK

SOCIAL LIFE, ROMAN

SOCRATES 469-399 B.C. - Greek philosopher

SOLON ca. 630-ca. 560 B.C. - Greek statesman and poet

SOPHISTS

SOPHOCLES ca. 496-406 B.C. - Greek tragic dramatist

SPAIN

SPARTA

SPARTACUS Died 71 B.C. - Roman slave and rebel leader

STATIUS ca. A.D. 45-96 - Roman poet

STOICISM

STRABO ca. 64 B.C.- after A.D. 21 - Greek geographer

SUETONIUS ca. A.D. 69-after 122 - Roman biographer

SULLA, LUCIUS CORNELIUS ca. 138-78 B.C. - Roman general and dictator

SYRACUSE

SYRIA

T

TACITUS ca. A.D. 55-ca. 120 - Roman historian

TAXATION

TECHNOLOGY

TEMPLES

TERENCE ca. 185 B.C.-ca. 159 B.C. - Roman playwright

TERTULLIAN ca. A.D. 160-ca. 240 - Latin Christian writer

TEXTILES

THALES OF MILETUS ca. 625-ca. 547 B.C. - Greek philosopher

THEATERS

THEBES

THEMISTOCLES ca. 524-459 B.C. - Athenian statesman and military leader

THEOCRITUS ca. 300-ca. 260 B.C. - Greek poet

THEODOSIUS ca. A.D. 346-395 - Roman emperor

THEOPHRASTUS ca. 371-287 B.C. - Greek philosopher

THERMOPYLAE

THESEUS AND THE MINOTAUR

THESMOPHORIA

THRACE

THUCYDIDES ca. 459-ca. 399 B.C. - Greek historian

TIBER RIVER

TIBERIUS 42 B.C.-a.d. 37 - Roman emperor

TIBULLUS ca. 55-19 B.C. - Roman poet

TITUS A.D. 39-81 - Roman emperor

TRADE, GREEK

TRADE, ROMAN

TRAJAN A.D. 53-117

TRANSPORTATION AND TRAVEL

TREATIES

TRIBUNE

TRIUMVIRATES, ROMAN

TROY

TYRANTS, GREEK

V

VANDALS

VATICAN

VEGETATION, MEDITERRANEAN

VERGIL 70-19 B.C. - Roman poet

VESPASIAN A.D. 9-79 - Roman emperor

VESTA

VESUVIUS, MT.

VISIGOTHS

VITRUVIUS POLLIO ca. first century B.C. - Roman engineer and architect

VOTIVE OFFERINGS

W

WARS AND WARFARE, GREEK

WARS AND WARFARE, ROMAN

WATERWORKS

WEAPONS AND ARMOR

WINE

WOMEN, GREEK

WOMEN, ROMAN

WORKING CLASSES

X

XENOPHON ca. 428-354 B.C. - Greek writer

XERXES Died 465 B.C. - King of Persia

Y

YEAR

Z

ZEUS

Plates - Culture