Timeline of Alexander’s life

A note on dates

The surviving ancient narratives about Alexander do not always give precise chronological information. Events mentioned in Babylonian astronomical diaries can be dated precisely, but for events mentioned by Greek writers, even if they give precise dates, we can only provide approximate equivalences, because Greek and Macedonian calendars did not work with a 365-day year, and thus were often out of alignment with the solar calendar. Therefore most dates here are given by season, but even these must be considered approximate.

356

Summer

Birth of Alexander

338

Summer

Battle of Chaeronea

337

Spring

‘League of Corinth’ created

336

Spring

Macedonian forces under Parmenion cross into Asia

336

 

Assassination of Philip II: Alexander becomes king

335

Spring

Alexander campaigns in Thrace and Illyria

 

Autumn

Sack of Thebes

334

Spring

Alexander crosses the Hellespont into Asia

   

Alexander at Troy

   

Battle of the Granicus

 

Summer

Alexander liberates Greek cities of Asia

 

Autumn

Alexander in Caria

 

Winter

Alexander in Lycia

333

Spring

Alexander at Gordium

 

Summer

Alexander in Cilicia

 

Autumn

Battle of Issus

 

Winter

Siege of Tyre begins

332

Summer

Siege of Tyre ends

 

Autumn

Siege of Gaza

 

Winter

Alexander enters Egypt

331

Spring

Alexander visits the oracle of Amun in Siwa

   

Alexander marches from Egypt to Tyre, then to the Euphrates

 

1 October

Battle of Gaugamela

 

20 October

Alexander enters Babylon

 

Winter

Alexander enters Susa

330

Spring

Alexander enters Persepolis

   

Alexander burns the palace of Persepolis

 

Summer

Death of Darius III; Bessus declares himself king (as Artaxerxes V)

 

Autumn

Trial and execution of Philotas and execution of Parmenion

329

Spring

Alexander enters Bactria and Sogdiana

   

Capture of Bessus

 

Autumn

Alexander crosses the Jaxartes River

328

Autumn

Killing of Cleitus

327

Spring

Alexander captures the Sogdian Rock

   

Alexander marries Rhoxane

   

‘Pages Plot’; arrest of Callisthenes

 

Summer

Alexander enters the Hindu Kush

326

Spring

Alexander captures the Rock of Aornus

   

Alexander crosses the Indus River

   

Alexander defeats Porus on the Hydaspes River

 

Summer

Alexander reaches the Hyphasis River, then returns to the Indus

 

Winter

Alexander is wounded fighting the Malli

325

Summer

Alexander reaches the Indus Delta

 

Autumn

Alexander marches through Gedrosia

 

Winter

Alexander returns to Pasargadae and Persepolis

324

Spring

Alexander reaches Susa and rewards soldiers for the Indian campaign

   

Alexander marries Stateira and Parysatis, as part of a mass wedding

   

Alexander punishes satraps who abused their positions in his absence

 

Summer

Alexander reorganizes his army

   

Alexander decrees the return of Greek exiles to their cities

 

Autumn

Death of Hephaestion

 

Winter

Alexander campaigns against the Cossaeans

323

Spring

Alexander enters Babylon

 

June 11

Death of Alexander

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