Ancient History & Civilisation

4. SOURCES

It may be found useful to provide a list of some of the more important literary sources for this period. To attempt to give a complete list, and still more to add references to the epigraphic, archaeological and numismatic material, would far exceed the scope of this short note. But the following references may help to put those readers, who do not already know the way well, on the track of some of the more important literary sources for the narrative portions of this book. Authors’ names are given in full in the first reference, but are then generally abbreviated (note, L. for Livy, and P. for Polybius).

Chapter I The Land and its Peoples

7 THE ETRUSCANS. Appian, Lib., ix, 66; Dionysius of Halicarnassus, i, 26–30; Herodotus, i, 94; Justin, xx, 5; Pliny, N.H., iii, 50, 51; 112 f., 133; Strabo, v, 2, 1–2; 2, 4; Tacitus, Ann., iv; 55, xi, 14; Thucydides, iv, 109; Livy, v, 33.

Chapter II Regal Rome

2 THE FOUNDATION OF ROME; THE LEGENDS. Dionys., i, 72–4; Festus, s.v. Roma; Cicero, de rep., ii, 3; 5–7; 10, 18; Plutarch, Romul., 12; Velleius Paterculus, i, 8; Solinus, i; Orosius, ii, 1.

3–4 THE EARLY KINGS. THE SIXTH-CENTURY KINGS. L., i, ii, 1–15; Dionys., ii–v, 36; Cic, de rep., ii, 1–30; Plut., Romul.; Numa; Poplicola; App., Basilic., 1–12; Dio Cassius, i–iv; Zonaras, vii, 1–12; Eutropius, i. 1–11; Florus, i, 1–2; 4.

Chapter III The New Republic and the Struggle of the Orders

L. ii–iv (see especially ii, 1; 8; 18; 32–5; 41–2; 52; 54–7; iii, 20, 7; 30, 7; 33–59; iv, 1; 6–8; 12–16; 24; 43–4; 54); v, 12; 7–13; Dionys., v–xi (see esp. v, 19; vi, 89; ix, 41–9;x, 55–61;xi, 1–46); Cic., de rep., ii, 31–7; de leg., iii, 3, 8–9; 7, 16–17; 8, 19; 10, 24; Dio, iv–vi (frgs); Zon., vii, 13–20; Tac, Ann., xi, 22; Asconius, in Cornelianam, p. 76 Cl.; Diodorus, xii, 24–6; Pliny, N.H., xviii, 4.

Chapter IV The Roman Republic and its Neighbours

1 THE TRIPLE ALLIANCE. L., i, 50; ii, 19–20; 22; 25–6; 33; 40, 12–41, 1; Dionys., v, 61; vi, 4–13; 95; viii, 69; Cic. pro Balbo, 23, 53; P., iii, 22.

2 THE SABINES, AEQUI AND VOLSCI. L., ii–iv (see esp. ii, 16; 22; 25–6; 30–1; 33–49; 53; 58–60; 62–5; iii, 1–8; 15–18; 22–30; 42; 60–3; 66; 69–70; iv, 9–11; 26–30; 37; 43; 45–7; 51; 56–7); Dionys., ii, 49; v–xi (passim); Plut., Poplicola, 20–2; Coriolanus; Diod., xi, 40, 5; xii, 30, 6; 34, 5; 64; xiii, 42, 6; xiv, 11, 6; Dio, v (frgs); Zon., vii, 16–18; App., Ital., 5–7 (frgs).

3 THE DUEL WITH VEII L., ii, 42–50; iv, 17–23; 30–34; 57–61; v, 1–8; 13–32; Diod., xi, 53, 6; xii, 80, 6–8; xiv, 16, 5; 43, 5; 93; 98, 5; 102, 4; Plut., Camill., 1–13; Zon., vii, 20–1; Dionys., xiii, 1–2.

4 THE GALLIC CATASTROPHE. L., v, 33–49; P., i, 6, 2–4; ii, 14–18; Diod., xiv, 113–17; Plut., Camill., 14–30; App., Celt., 1–9 (frgs); Dio, vii, 25; Dionys., i, 74; xiii, 6–10; Flor., i, 7.

5 THE RECOVERY OF ROME. L. v, 50–5; vi, 1–10; 22–33; 42; vii, 7–27; P., ii, 18, 6–8; Plut., Camill., 31–43; Zon., vii, 24.

6–7 ROME’S WIDENING HORIZON. THE END OF THE LATIN LEAGUE. L., vii, 27, 2; 29–42; viii, 1–14; P., iii, 22–7; Oros., iii, 7; Diod., xvi, 15; 45, 8; 69, 1; App., Samn., 1–2; Dio, vii, 35; Zon., vii, 26.

Chapter V The Union of the Orders and the Constitution

L., vi, 11; 14–21; 34–42 (see esp. 35, 4–5 (cf. x, 13, 14 and 23, 13), 42, 11–14); vii, 1; 15, 13; 16, 1; 17, 6; 21, 5; 22, 6–10; 27, 3–4; 41; 42, 1–2; viii, 12, 14–16; 15, 9; 23, 12; 28; ix, 20, 5; 29, 5–11; 30, 1–4; 33–4; 42, 1–3; 46; x, 6–9; 22, 9; Epit., xi; xii; Dionys., xiv, 12; Diod., xv, 61, 1; xx, 36; Fest., p. 288L; App., BC, i, 8; Gellius, xv, 27; Gaius, i, 3; Dio, viii, 37, 2–4; Zon., viii, 2; Pliny, N.H., xvi, 10, 37.

Chapter VI Rome’s Conquest and Organization of Italy

1–3 ROME AND THE SAMNITES. THE GREAT SAMNITE WAR. ROME’S TRIUMPHANT ADVANCE. L., viii, 15–17; 19–27; 29–31; 36–40; ix, 1–29; 31–2; 35–45; x, 1–5, 10–21; 25–46; Epit., xi; xii; P., ii. 19–20; App., Samn., 4–6; Dio, viii, 36, 8–24; 28–32; Diod., xix, 10, 1–2; 65, 7; 72, 3–9; 76; 101; xx, 26, 3–4; 35; 44, 8–9; 80; 90, 3–4; 101, 4–5; Dionys., xv–xviii (frgs); Eutrop., ii, 9–10; Flor., i, 11–12; Velleius, i, 14, 3–6; Zon., vii, 26; 8, 1.

4–6 THE GREEKS OF SOUTHERN ITALY. THE ITALIAN ADVENTURE OF PYRRHUS. THE END OF PRE-ROMAN ITALY. App., Samn., 7–12; Dio, ix–x; Diod., xx, 104; Dionys. xix– xx; Flor., i, 13–16; P., iii, 25; Justin (ep. Trog.), xviii, 1–2; L., Epit., xii–xv; Plut., Pyrrhus; Velleius, i, 14, 7–8; Zon., viii, 2–7.

Chapter VII The First Struggle

P., i, 5–64; L., Epit., xvi–xix; App., Sic., 1–2; Lib., i, 1–4; Dio, xi; Diod., xxii–xxiv (frgs); Eutrop., ii, 18–28; Flor., i, 18; Oros., iv, 7–11; Zon., viii, 8–17.

Chapter VIII The Entr’acte

2 CARTHAGE AND THE SARDINIAN QUESTION. P., 1, 65–88; iii, 10; L. Epit., xx; App., Sic., ii, 3; Zon., viii, 18.

3 ROME AND THE GAULS. P., ii, 17–35; L., Epit., xx; Dio, xii, 50; Flor., i, 19–20; Zon., viii, 18; 20.

4 THE ILLYRIAN PIRATES. P., ii, 2–12; iii, 16; 18–19; L., Epit., xx; App., Illyr., 2, 7–8; Dio, xii, 49; 53; Flor., i, 21; Zon., viii, 19–20.

5–6 THE PUNIC EMPIRE IN SPAIN. THE CAUSES OF THE SECOND PUNIC WAR. P., ii, 1; 13; 36; iii, 10–15; 17; 20–30; 33; App., Iber., 1–2; Dio, xii, 48; Diod., xxv, 9; Justin, xliv; Zon, viii, 19; L., xxi, 1–3.

Chapter IX Hannibal’s Offensive and Rome’s Defensive

1, 2, 6 HANNIBAL’S INVASION OF NORTHERN ITALY. HANNIBAL IN CENTRAL ITALY. FABIUS AND ROME’S DEFENSIVE. P., iii, 33–94; 100–18; vii, 1; viii, 26–36; ix, 3–8; 22–6; 44; x, 1; L., xxi, 1–59; 61–2; xxii, 1–18; 23–61; xxiii, 1–25; 30–9; 42–9; xxiv, 1–3; 7–20; 43–9; xxv, 1–22; 40; xxvi, 1–16; 21–4; 26–40; xxvii, 1–16; App., Han., i–viii, 49; Dio, xiii–xv (frgs); Eutrop., iii, 7–23; Flor., i, 22; Nepos, Hannib.; Oros., iv, 14 ff.; Plut., Fab.; Marcell.; Zon., viii, 21–ix, 6.

3 THE SCIPIOS AND SPAIN. P., iii, 76; 95–9; ix, 11; L., xxi, 60–1; xxii, 19–22; xxiii, 26–9; xxiv, 41–2; xxv, 32–9; App., Iber., 3; Zon., ix, 3.

4 THE EXTENSION OF THE WAR TO MACEDON. P., vii, 9; x, 25; 41; L., xxiii, 33; 40–1; xxiv, 40; xxvi; 24–6; xxvii, 29–33; xxviii, 5–8; xxix, 12; Zon., ix, 4.

5 MARCELLUS AND SICILY. P., vii, 2–8; viii, 5–9; 37; ix, 10; 27; L., xxiv, 4–7; 21–39; xxv, 23–31; 40; xxvi, 40; App., Sic., iii–v; Zon., ix, 4–5.

Chapter X Scipio and Rome’s Offensive

1 SCIPIO’S CONQUEST OF SPAIN. P., x, 2–20; 34–40; xi, 20–33; L., xxvi, 17–20; 41–51; xxvii, 17–20; xxviii, 1–4; 12–38; xxix, 1–2; App., Iber., 4–7; Dio, xvi (frgs); Eutrop., iii, 15; Zon., ix, 7–10.

2 THE WAR IN ITALY. P., x, 32–3; xi, 1–3; L., xxvii, 20–9; 33–50; xxviii, 9–12; 38–46; xxix, 5–11; 13–23; 36–8; xxx, 1–2; 18–24; 26–8; 38–45; App., Han., viii, 50–ix, 61; Dio, xvi–xvii (frgs); Plut., Fab.; Marcell.; Zon., ix, 8–9.

3–4. THE ROMAN OFFENSIVE IN AFRICA. VICTORY AND PEACE. P., xiv, 1–10; xv, 1–19; L., xxix, 3–4; 23–36; xxx, 3–17; 24; 29–38; App., Lib., ii, 7–ix, 66; Dio, xvii (frgs); Eutrop., iii, 20–3; Zon., ix, 12–14.

Chapter XI Rome and Greece

P., xv, 20–5; xvi, 1–12; 24–35; xviii, 1–12; 18–39; 42–8; L., xxxi, 1–9; 14–18; 22–47; xxxii, 1–25; 28; 32–40; xxxiii, 1–21; 27–35; xxxiv, 22–41; 48–52; App., Maced., iv–ix, 4; Dio, xviii, 57–60; Flor., i, 23; Plut., Flamininus; Zon., ix, 15–16; 18.

Chapter XIII Rome and Antiochus

1– THE DIPLOMATIC CONFLICT. THE WAR IN GREECE. P., xviii, 49–52; xx, 3; 7–11; xxi, 1–5; L., xxxiii, 38–41; xxxiv, 57; xxxv, 12–13; 15–19; 25–83; 42–51; xxxvi, 1–35; App., Syr., i, 1–iv, 21; Flor., i, 24; Plut., Cato, 13–14; Zon., ix, 18–19.

3–4 THE WAR IN ASIA. THE SETTLEMENT OF THE EAST. P., xxi, 6–48; L., xxxvi, 41–5; xxxvii, 1–45; 52–7; 60; xxxviii, 1–41; App. Syr., v, 22–vii, 44; Flor., i, 27; Zon., ix, 20–1.

Chapter XIII Rome and the Eastern Mediterranean

1 THE GROWING TENSION. P., xxii, 1–4; 6–15; 18–19; xxiii, 1–18; xxiv, 1–3; 6–13; xxv, 2; L., xxxix, 23–9; 33–7; 46–53; xl, 2–16; 20–4; 54–8; xli, 22–5; xlii, 5–6.

2 THE THIRD MACEDONIAN WAR. P., xxvii, 1–11; 14–16; xxviii, 3–15; xxiv, 1–11; 13–21; xxx, 6–15; 22; 29; 32; L., xlii, 25–67; xliii, 7–12; 17–23; xliv, 1–13; 16; 18; 20–46; xlv, 4; 6–9; 17–18; 26–34; App. Mac., xi–xix; Illyr., ii, 9–10; Dio, xx (frgs); Flor., i, 28; Plut.,Aem. Paullus; Zon., ix, 22–4.

3 THE HELLENISTIC EAST. P., xxii, 5; 16–17; xxiv, 1; 5; 14–15; xxv, 1; 4–6; xxvi, 1; xxvii, 3–4; 7; 17–20; xxviii, 1–2; 16–23; xxix, 2; 22–7; xxx, 1–5; 16–21; 23–8; 30–1; xxxi, 1–20; 30–3; xxxii, 1–12; 15–16; xxxiii, 1–7; 11–19; xxxv, 6; xxxvi, 14–15; xxxix, 7; L., xli, 20; xlii, 11–17; 45; xliii, 6; xliv, 14–15; 19; xlv, 3; 10–13; 19–26; 44; Epit., xlvi–liii; Zon., ix, 25.

4 THE END OF GREEK INDEPENDENCE P., xxxvi, 10–11; 17; xxxviii, 9–18; xxxix, 2–6; L., Epit., xlix; lii; Flor., i, 30–2; Pausanias, vii, 11–16; Zon, ix, 28; 31.

Chapter XIV Rome, Italy and the Western Mediterranean

1 THE NORTHERN FRONTIER. P., xxxii, 9; 13; xxxiii, 8–10; L., xxxi, 2; 10; 29; xxxii, 29–31; 36–7; xxxiv, 46–8; xxxv, 3–6; 11; 22; xxxvi, 38–40; xxxix, 1–2; 20; 54–5; xl, 16; 25–8; 38; 41; 53; xli, 1–4; 10–12; 17–19; xlii, 7–9; App., Illyr., ii, 11; Dio, xviii; Flor., i, 26; Zon., ix. 15.

2–4 CATO AND GRACCHUS IN SPAIN. THE CELTIBERIAN AND LUSITANIAN WARS. THE NUMANTINE WAR. P., xxxv, 1–5; L. xxxiii, 21; xxxiv, 8–21; xxxv, 1–2; 22; xxxix, 20–1; 30–1; xl, 16; 30–3; 35–6; 39–40; 47–50; xli, 26; App., Iber., viii, 39– xvi, 98; Dio, xxii–xxiii (frgs); Flor., i, 33–4; Plut., Cato, 10; Zon., ix, 17.

5–7 CARTHAGE AND MASINISSA. DELENDA EST CARTHAGO. THE FALL OF CARTHAGE. P., xxxi, 21; xxxvi, 1–9; 16; xxxviii, 7–8; 19–22; L., xxxi, 11; 19; xxxiii, 45–9; xxxiv, 60–2; xxxv, 14; xxxix, 51; xl, 17; xlii, 23–4; xlv, 13–14; Epit., xlviii–liii; App., Lib., x, 67–xx, 135; Flor., i, 31; Zon., ix, 18; 26–7; 29–30.

Chapter XV Roman Policy and the Government

P., vi, 11–56; L., xxxiii, 27, 6; xxxiv, 1; 45; xxxvii, 57; xxxviii, 42–60; xxxix, 8–19; 40–4; 55; xl, 19; 34; 37; 44; 51–2; xli, 9; xliii, 2–5; xlv, 15; Cic. de rep., ii, 54; de offic., ii, 75; Brut., 106; Cato, Speeches (frgs); Gellius, x, 3, 13.

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