Ancient History & Civilisation

Notes

  1 So T. D. Barnes, The New Empire of Diocletian and Constantine (Cambridge Mass., 1982), explains the new empire's administrative anatomy.  2 R. M. Errington, Roman Imperial Policy from Julian to Theodosius I (Chapel Hill, 2006), for the period from 360–95; F. Millar, A Greek Roman Empire (Berkeley, 2006), for 408–50.  3 P. Heather, The Fall of the Roman Empire (Oxford, 2005), 385–9, 399–407.  4 D. S. Potter, The Roman Empire at Bay (London, 2004), 581.  5 J. J. O'Donnell, reviewing the books of P. Heather and B. Ward-Perkins in Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2005.07.69.  6 Raymond Van Dam, Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2007.06.13. See now G. Fowden, Before and After Muhammad. The first millennium refocused (Princeton, 2014).  7 See the brilliant essay of Peter Brown, “Mohammed and Charlemagne of Henri Pirenne,” Society and the Holy in Late Antiquity (1982), 63–79.  8 For an important critique of Wickham's work, see Brent Shaw, Rome's Mediterranean World System and its Transformation (April 2008). Princeton/Stanford Working Papers in Classics Paper No. 040801. Available at http://www.princeton.edu/pswpc/pdfs/shaw/040801.pdf (accessed March 13, 2014).  9 C. Wickham, Land and Power. Studies in Italian and European social history, 400–1200 (London, 1994).10 C. Wickham, Framing the Early Middle Ages (Oxford, 2005), 56–150, esp. 58–62.11 R. MacMullen, Corruption and the Decline of Rome (New Haven, 1988), 148–67 and passim; P. Sarris, Economy and Society in the Age of Justinian (Cambridge, 2006), 81–114.12 P. Heather, The Fall of the Roman Empire (Oxford, 2005), 295–8; B. Ward-Perkins, The Fall of Rome and the End of Civilization (Oxford, 2005), 41–2.13 C. Wickham, Framing the Early Middle Ages (Oxford, 2005), 87–93.14 C. Wickham, Framing the Early Middle Ages (Oxford, 2005), 93–115.15 P. Sarris, Economy and Society in the Age of Justinian (Cambridge, 2006), 200–217; Empires of Faith (Oxford, 2011), 129–31, 145–53.16 It is legitimate to draw an analogy with the great Antonine plague between c.165 and 180, which severely impacted on the complex administrative machinery of the early Roman Empire; see R. D. Duncan-Jones, “The impact of the Antonine plague,” Journal of Roman Archaeology 9 (1996), 108–36.17 P. Sarris, Economy and Society in the Age of Justinian (Cambridge, 2006), 219–27.18 Compare the strenuous efforts of Valentinian to maximize tax revenue in the west at precisely the same period; see pp. 182–3.19 S. Mitchell, Anatolia II (Oxford, 1993), 75–7 (Basil); 128 (Theodore).20 C. Foss, “The Persians in the Roman Near East (602–630 AD),” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 13 (2003), 149–170.21 C. Wickham, Framing the Early Middle Ages (Oxford, 2005), 134–44.22 H. M. Cotton, W.E. H. Cockle, and F. G. B. Millar, “The papyrology of the Roman Near East: a survey,” JRS 85 (1995), 214–35, at 233–5.23 P. Heather, The Fall of the Roman Empire (Oxford, 2005), 246–8, following A. H. M. Jones, The Later Roman Empire (Oxford, 1964), 683.24 W. Liebeschuetz, “The end of the Roman army in the western empire,” Decline and Change in Late Antiquity (London, 2006), ch. X.25 Synesius, ep. 78, discussed by F. Millar, A Greek Roman Empire (Berkeley, 2006), 60–62.26 A. H. M. Jones, The Later Roman Empire (Oxford, 1964), 632 and 645–6.27 F. Millar, A Greek Roman Empire (Berkeley, 2006), 39–83.28 A. H. M. Jones, The Later Roman Empire (Oxford, 1964), 665–7, with very full documentation on 1276 notes 137–40.29 A. H. M. Jones, The Later Roman Empire (Oxford, 1964), 679–86 and 1279–80 n. 168.30 Ps-Joshua the Stylite 54, with Procopius, Bell. Pers. I.8.4.31 W. Liebeschuetz, “The Romans demilitarized: the evidence of Procopius,” Decline and Change in Late Antiquity (London, 2006), ch. XI, for more detailed analysis.32 J. Howard-Johnston, War in History 6 (1999), 29–32, argues for higher figures in the range 15–25,000 men, comparable numbers to those of the Justinianic wars. Xenophon had led a force of 10,000 Greeks (depleted) through the western part of this terrain in 400 BC.33 For a full exploration of this theme, see R. MacMullen, Soldier and Civilian in the Later Roman Empire (New Haven, 1964). P. J. Casey, “Justinian, the limitanei, and Arab–Byzantine relations in the 6th c.,” JRA 9 (1996), 214–22, argues on the basis of coin evidence that limitanei garrisons were only given up in Palestine, and that military pay was maintained in other frontier areas.34 Edward N. Luttwak, The Grand Strategy of the Byzantine Empire (Cambridge, Mass./London, 2009).35 Lester K. Little (ed.), Plague and the End of Antiquity. The pandemic of 541–750 (Cambridge, 2007); D. Stathakopoulos, Famine and Pestilence in the Late Roman and Early Byzantine Empire. A systematic survey of subsistence crises and epidemics (London, 2004).36 M. McCormick, “Towards a molecular history of the Justinianic pandemic,” in Lester K. Little (ed.), Plague and the End of Antiquity (Cambridge, 2007), 290–312 at 298–9.37 See M. Kulikowski, “Plague in Spanish late antiquity,” in Lester K. Little (ed.), Plague and the End of Antiquity (Cambridge, 2007), 152–3.38 M. McCormick, “Towards a molecular history of the Justinianic pandemic,” in Lester K. Little (ed.), Plague and the End of Antiquity (Cambridge, 2007), 294–6.39 C. Wickham, Framing the Early Middle Ages (Oxford, 2005), 442–518.40 C. Wickham, Framing the Early Middle Ages (Oxford, 2005), 508.41 W. Liebeschuetz, The Decline and Fall of the Roman City (Oxford, 2001), 102.42 W. Liebeschuetz, The Decline and Fall of the Roman City (Oxford, 2001), 101.43 C. Wickham, Framing the Early Middle Ages (Oxford, 2005), 638; D. J. Mattingly and R. Hitchner, “Roman North Africa,” JRS 85 (1995), 209–13.44 C. Wickham, Framing the Early Middle Ages (Oxford, 2005), 649 and 654.45 W. Liebeschuetz, The Decline and Fall of the Roman City (Oxford, 2001), 84–5.46 C. Wickham, Framing the Early Middle Ages(Oxford, 2005), 666; for Arles see S. T. Loseby, “Marseille: a late antique success story?” JRS 85 (1995), 179.47 S. T. Loseby, “Marseille: a late antique success story?” JRS 85 (1995), 165–83, esp. 170.48 W. Liebeschuetz, The Decline and Fall of the Roman City (Oxford, 2001), 84–5.49 C. Wickham, Framing the Early Middle Ages (Oxford, 2005), 37–41, 488–95; M. Kulikowski, “Plague in Spanish late antiquity,” in Lester K. Little (ed.), Plague and the End of Antiquity (Cambridge, 2007), 150–70.50 J. W. Hayes, Late Roman Pottery. A Catalogue of Roman Fine Wares (London, 1972); S. Kingsley and M. Decker, Economy and Exchange in the Eastern Mediterranean during Late Antiquity (Oxford, 2001) for the amphoras which document interregional trade; J.-P. Sodini, “Productions et échanges dans le monde protobyzantine (IVe–VIIe siècle): le cas de la céramique,” in Byzans als Raum (Vienna, 2000), 181–208, a magisterial overview of both categories of ceramic evidence.51 P. Lemerle, Les plus anciens recueils des miracles de Saint Démétrius (2 vols., Paris, 1979–81); For a graphic account of plague in eighteenth-century Thessalonica, see M. Mazower, Salonica. City of Ghosts. Christians, Muslims and Jews 1430–1950 (2004), 112–9. For settlements see B. Bavant, “Illyricum,” in C. Morrisson (ed.), Le monde byzantin I (Paris, 2004), 303–47; F. Curta, The Making of the Slavs. History and archaeology of the lower Danube region c. 500–700 (Cambridge, 2007), 120–227.52 See pp. 364–6; Aezani, P. Niewöhner, “Phrygian marble and stonemasonry,” in P. Thonemann (ed.), Roman Phrygia (Cambridge, 2013), 215–48 at 221–3.53 C. Foss, “The Lycian coast in the Byzantine age,” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 48 (1994), 1–52; “Cities and villages in the life of St Nicholas of Holy Zion,” Greek Orthodox Theological Review 36 (1991), 305–39; both reprinted in Cities, Fortresses and Villages of Byzantine Asia Minor (Aldershot, 1996).54 C. Foss, “The cities of Pamphylia in the Byzantine age,” Cities, Fortresses and Villages of Byzantine Asia Minor (Aldershot, 1996), IV; L. Vandeput, “Late Antiquity in the Taurus Mountains: Remains in Pednelissos and its Territory,” Colloquium Anatolicum 8, 23–44.55 F. Kolb, Burg – Polis – Bischofsitz. Geschichte der Siedlungskammer von Kyaneai in Südwesttürkei (Mainz, 2008), 394–6, 435–6. J. Coulton, The Balboura Survey I (London, 2012), 169–74, argues that rural settlement numbers in the highlands north of Lycia did not collapse after the sixth century, but the chronological basis for this is insecure as the ceramics for the late Roman to early Byzantine period are generically assigned to the period 400–800; P. Armstrong, The Balboura Survey II (London, 2012), 57–64.56 C. Foss, “The Persians in Asia Minor and the end of antiquity,” English Historical Review 90 (1973), 721–47.57 W. Liebeschuetz, The Decline and Fall of the Roman City(Oxford, 2001), 48; K. Rheidt, “In the shadow of antiquity: Pergamum and the Byzantine millennium,” in H. Koester, Pergamon. Citadel of the Gods (Cambridge, Mass., 1998), 395–413.58 I. Jacobs, “Eine späte Blüte. Aufschwung und Niedergang von Sagalassos in der Spätantike,” Antike Welt 3/11 (2011), 76–80; M. Waelkens, “The late antique city in Southwest Anatolia. A case study: Sagalassos and its territory,” in Die spätantike Stadt – Niedergang oder Wandel? (2006), 199–255.59 I. Jacobs, “The archaeology of late antique Anatolia,” Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology (Springer, 2012, online).60 S. Mitchell, Anatolia II (Oxford, 1993), 122–50, is the fullest evaluation of this source; see also C. Wickham (Oxford, 2005), Framing the Early Middle Ages, 406–11.61 W. Liebeschuetz, The Decline and Fall of the Roman City (Oxford, 2001), 54–74, 295–303; cf. H. Kennedy, “Justinianic plague in Syria: the archaeological evidence,” in Lester K. Little (ed.), Plague and the End of Antiquity (Cambridge, 2007), 87–95.62 C. Wickham, Framing the Early Middle Ages (Oxford, 2005), 443–59, 609–26; cf. C. Foss, “Syria in transition, AD 550–750,” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 51 (1997), 189–270.63See W. Liebeschuetz, “Late late antiquity (6th and 7th centuries) in the cities of the Roman Near East,” Mediterraneo Antico 3 (2000), 43–75.64 See the report of J.-P. Sodini et al., Syria 57 (1980), 1–305, but this contains very little detail on the supposed final period after the sixth century; see discussion in C. Wickham, Framing the Early Middle Ages (Oxford, 2005), 446, 448–9; W. Liebeschuetz, The Decline and Fall of the Roman City (Oxford, 2001), 24, 71–2.65 B. de Vries, “Continuity and change in the urban character of the southern Hauran from the 5th to the 9th century: the archaeological evidence at Umm al-Jimal,” Mediterranean Archaeology 13 (2000), 39–46. See the excellent website www.ummeljimal.org.66 SEG 31, 1425–53; the original publication favors the later dates.67 Y. Tsafrir and G. Foerster, “Urbanism at Scythopolis: Bet Shean in the fourth to seventh centuries,” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 51 (1997), 85–146; W. Liebeschuetz, Mediterraneo Antico 3 (2000), 59–61.68 Pamela Watson, “Pella – die Stadt am Jordangraben,” in A. Hoffmann and S. Kerner (eds.), Gadara – Gerasa und die Dekapolis (Mainz, 2002), 59–71. See discussion on p. 71, which also attributes the late sixth- and seventh-century decline of the city to the plague.69 S. Mitchell, Anatolia II (Oxford, 1993), 125–6 (Galatia); W. Liebeschuetz, Mediterraneo Antico 3 (2000), 56–8.70 For a sophisticated restatement of this viewpoint in relation to late antiquity, see Brent Shaw's critique of C. Wickham, Rome's Mediterranean World System and its Transformation (Princeton, 2008) accessible at http://www.princeton.edu/pswpc/pdfs/shaw/040801.pdf (accessed March 13, 2014), and his essay “War and Violence,” in G. W. Bowersock et al. (eds.), Late Antiquity (Cambridge Mass., 1999), 130–69.71 W. Liebeschuetz, “The rise of the bishop in the Christian Roman Empire and the successor kingdoms,” Electrum(Kraków) 1 (1997), 113–25.72 P. R. L. Brown, The Cult of the Saints (Chicago, 1981); Society and the Holy in Late Antiquity (London, 1982); J. Howard-Johnston and P. A Hayward, The Cult of Saints in Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages (Oxford, 1999).73 P. R. L. Brown, The Rise of Western Christendom (Oxford, 2003), 217–379.74 Averil Cameron's work in elucidating these and other aspects of sixth-century religious change is fundamental, see her collected essays, Continuity and Change in Sixth-century Byzantium (Aldershot, 1981) and Changing Cultures in Early Byzantium (Aldershot, 1996).75 M. Meier, Das andere Zeitalter Justinians (Göttingen, 2003).

If you find an error please notify us in the comments. Thank you!